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Unit 7: Electronically Controlled Fuel Systems

UNIT 7
Electronically Controlled Fuel Systems

Unit Objectives:

The student will be able to identify the following Caterpillar


electronically controlled fuel systems:
Programmable Electronic Engine Control (PEEC)
Electronic Unit Injector (EUI)
Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI)

The student will remove and install the following components on a


3406E engine using the proper tooling and reference literature:
camshaft
injector
injector sleeve

Unit References:

Caterpillar EUI Fuel System CD-ROM RENR1391


Cat 3406E Operation and Maintenance Video LEVP3828
Caterpillar 3126B Engine CD-ROM RENR1390
3406E Service Manual RENR1275
3406E Service Manual SENR5580
Unit 7 Quiz Copy

Tooling:

8T0461 Serviceman's Tool Set or equivalent


9U7530 Service Tools for 3406E
Lesson 1: Review Caterpillar Elecctronic Systems
Lesson 1: Review Caterpillar Electronic
Systems

Objectives:

The student will be able to explain the operation of the


Programmable Electronic Engine Control (PEEC), Electronic Unit
Injector (EUI), and Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) fuel
systems.
References:

Caterpillar EUI Fuel System CD-ROM RENR1391


Cat 3406E Operation and Maintenance Video LEVN3828
Caterpillar 3126B Engine CD-ROM RENR1390

Introduction:

In 1987, Caterpillar introduced the Programmable Electronic Engine


Control (PEEC) fuel system on the 3406 on-highway truck engine to
allow these engines to meet exhaust emission regulations. The
PEEC fuel system retained the mechanical fuel injection portion of
the fuel system but added electronic components for governor and
timing control.
In an on-going effort to provide optimum performance and fuel
economy while meeting emission regulations, Caterpillar has applied
the Electronic Unit Injector fuel system to the following engines:
3176 (Introduced in 1988)
3406E and 3176B (Introduced in 1993)
C-10 (3176C) (Introduced in 1995)
C-12 (3196) (Introduced in 1995)
3500B (Introduced in 1995)
Unit 7 7-1-3 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

The Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector (HEUI) fuel system was


introduced in the 3126 Caterpillar engine in 1995, and later into the
3408, and 3412 Caterpillar engines to provide even more flexibility
in controlling fuel delivery.

CATERPILLAR PEEC FUEL SYSTEM

(PEEC) System Overview

The 3406B PEEC Diesel Truck Engine is an electronically-controlled


3406B. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) for the engine
controls fuel rate and timing electronically instead of using the
flyweights and linkages of a mechanical governor. The electronics
also replace the mechanical fuel-air ratio control, torque control
group, and various adjustment screws.

The PEEC fuel system uses several sensors as inputs to control two
basic functions: fuel rack position and fuel injection timing. The
operation of each of these are similar. The ECM decides where it
wants to position the rack or the timing advance. The ECM then
varies the voltage to the appropriate Brushless Torque Motor (BTM)
to move the rack or the timing toward the desired position. The rack
and the timing have two separate BTMs. Position sensors tell the
ECM when rack or timing is at the desired position.
Unit 7 7-1-4 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

1 2 3

5
4

Fig. 7.1.1 PEEC System Components

Descriptions of System Components

• Electronic Control Module (ECM) (3): This is the control


computer for the engine. The ECM receives information from
various input sensors, stores operating data, processes input, and
controls the various output devices. The ECM has the ability to
perform self diagnostics on the engine, and log any faults that
may occur.

• Personality module: The personality module is a component of


the ECM that contains the rating information for the engine. This
is what determines the fuel settings and consequently how much
power an engine will have.

• Wiring Harness: Provides the electrical connections between the


various components of the system.

• Service tool connector: Used for the technician to communicate


with the engine electronics using an electronic service tool such
as Electronic Technician (ET). Early Caterpillar electronic
engines, including PEEC engines, used the Electronic Control
Analyzer and Programmer (ECAP) to communicate with the
electronics of the engine. ET is the current electronic service tool
of choice for Caterpillar engines.

• Rack actuator (2): The solenoid is a Brushless Torque Motor


(BTM) that is controlled by the ECM. The rack BTM is mounted
on the side of the governor housing that is on the rear of the
injection pump. The rack BTM operates the fuel control rack in
the fuel injection pump.

• Rack position sensor: Provides feedback information to the ECM


about the position of the fuel control rack.
Unit 7 7-1-5 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

• Timing advance unit (4): The timing advance unit contains the
timing advance solenoid, the timing position sensor, and the
helical advance years that control the timing of the fuel injection
pump. This solenoid is a Brushless Torque Motor (BTM) that
controls the valve that regulates the hydraulic pressure which in
turn changes injection pump timing. This is often referred to as
the timing BTM.

• Timing position sensor: Provides feedback information to the


ECM about the position of the timing advance unit.

• Transducer module (5): Contains the engine oil pressure sensor,


the boost pressure sensor, and the inlet air pressure sensor. This
component is mounted on the rear of the injection pump.

• Throttle position sensor: Produces a Pulse Width Modulated


(PWM) signal to the ECM. The throttle position sensor is
connected to the throttle linkage or accelerator pedal.

• Engine speed sensor: This sensor magnetically senses the speed


of the engine from the grooves in a chopper wheel that is
mounted on the rear of the injection pump camshaft. The sensor
sends a signal to the ECM.

• Vehicle speed sensor: This sensor magnetically senses the speed


of the vehicle from a toothed (chopper) wheel on the output of the
transmission. The sensor sends a signal to the ECM.

• Vehicle speed buffer: This conditions the signal from the vehicle
speed sensor and provides a signal to the ECM and in some
applications, the speedometer of the vehicle as well.

• Diagnostic lamp: Sometimes referred to as the “check engine


light”. This light flashes in five second intervals and displays any
active codes that may be present.

• Cruise control switches: Used to set the cruise control and to


retrieve any logged fault codes that may be present.

• Fuel injection pump (1): A high pressure pump that delivers


variable quantities of fuel to a nozzle.
Unit 7 7-1-6 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

4
2

Fig. 7.1.2 Rack Actuator and Timing Advance Unit

Operation of the Fuel Rack Position Mechanism

The rack mechanism on a PEEC engine is very similar to a


mechanical 3406B engine. The fuel injection pump is nearly
identical; the rack is moved by a servo valve which receives oil
pressure from the fuel injection pump. However, the servo spool is
moved by the rack actuator (2), sometimes called therack BTM rather
than by a linkage controlled by flyweights and springs.

The ECM determines a "desired rpm" based on the throttle position,


vehicle speed, Customer Specified Parameters, and certain diagnostic
codes. The ECM attempts to maintain the desired rpm by sensing
actual engine rpm using the engine speed sensor, then controlling the
rack to achieve the desired rpm.

In order to move the rack, the ECM adjusts the voltage to the rack
BTM to increase or decrease rack. More voltage results in more
rack. The ECM knows how far the rack actually went by feedback
information from the rack position sensor. The ECM increases or
decreases the voltage to the rack BTM until it senses that the rack is
in the desired position.
Unit 7 7-1-7 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

Operation of the Timing Advance Unit

Timing advance unit (4) contains the timing advance solenoid, the
timing position sensor, and the helical advance gears for the timing of
the fuel injection pump. The timing advance mechanism is the same
as the 3406B mechanical engine, except the timing BTM controls
amount of timing advance instead of flyweights. The ECM adjusts
voltage to the timing solenoid to change timing advance. More
voltage results in more timing advance. The ECM knows how much
advance was actually achieved by feedback information from the
timing position sensor. The ECM simply increases or decreases
voltage to the timing solenoid until it senses that the timing advance
is in the desired position.

Desired timing advance is controlled by software in the Personality


Module, and is dependent on engine rpm, load, and other operation
factors. Because of this, the performance specifications do not call
out the amount of advance at a specific rpm. The best indication of
timing advance specification is displayed on the status screens of the
electronic service tool as "Des Timing Adv."

Programmable Parameters

Certain parameters that affect PEEC engine operation may be


changed through the use of electronic service tools. The parameters
are stored in the ECM, and are protected from unauthorized changes
by passwords.

As an example, Vehicle Speed Limit (VSL) is programmable to allow


the customer to electronically limit vehicle speed. When the
programmed limit is reached, the ECM limits rpm so that VSL will
not be exceeded. Also, Progressive Shift parameters (such as Low
Gear limits and High Gear limits) will cause the ECM to limit engine
speed at a programmed engine rpm to encourage more fuel-efficient
driving practices.
Unit 7 7-1-8 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 1

Passwords

"System Configuration Parameters" are protected by factory


passwords. System Parameters are those that affect horsepower
family or emissions. Factory passwords are calculated on a computer
system available only to Caterpillar dealers. Since factory passwords
contain alphabetic characters, only ECAP or ET may change System
Parameters.

"Customer Specified Parameters" are protected by customer


passwords. Customer Parameters are those that affect cruise control,
vehicle speed limits, progressive shifting, horsepower rating within a
family, and PTO operation. The customer passwords are
programmed by the customer. Either ECAP or ET may normally
change Customer Parameters.

Self-Diagnostics

The PEEC fuel system has some ability to diagnose itself. When a
problem is detected, a diagnostic code is generated and the diagnostic
lamp is turned on. On newer engines (those equipped with
personality modules built since April 1989), the code may also be
stored in permanent memory in the personality module.

Diagnostic Codes that represent current faults are called ACTIVE.


They indicate that a problem of some kind currently exists. They
should always be serviced first.

Diagnostic Codes stored in memory are called LOGGED. The


problem may have been temporary or may have been repaired since
the time it was LOGGED. Therefore, LOGGED diagnostic codes
don't necessarily mean something needs to be repaired. They are
meant to be an indicator for when intermittent problems exist. In
addition, some logged diagnostic codes record "events," rather than
failures.
Lesson 2: Remove and Install 3406E Components
Lesson 2: Remove and Install 3406E
Components

Objectives:

Using the appropriate 3406E Service Manual, the student will


demonstrate the ability to correctly remove and install the camshaft,
fuel injectors and injector sleeves.

References:

3406E Service Manual RENR1275


3406E Service Manual SENR5580

Introduction:

The cylinder head, valve train, and fuel system of the Caterpillar
3406E are significantly different compared to the 3406B or 3906C.
To effectively service the 3406E, it is necessary to be able to remove
and install these components correctly.

Tooling:

8T0461 Serviceman's Tool Set or equivalent


9U7530 Service Tools for 3406E
Unit 7 7-2-2 Engine Fundamentals
Lesson 2

Lab Exercises:

Using the 3406E Service Manual as a guide, remove the camshaft,


injectors, and injector sleeves.

Inspect components using the Specifications section of the service


manual as a guide.

Using the 3406E Service Manual as a guide, completely reassemble


the 3406E engine.