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Serbia (/'s??rbi?/ (About this sound listen), Serbian: ?????? / Srbija, IPA: [sr?

bija]), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: ????????? ?????? / Republika


Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central[6] and
Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.[7] It
borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the
south; Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the west and claims a border
with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia numbers around 7
million residents.[8] Its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the oldest[9][7] and
largest cities in Southeastern Europe.

Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans postdating the 6th century, Serbs
established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained
recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, reaching its peak in 1346 as
a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entire
modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, at times interrupted by the Habsburg
Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th
century, while maintaining a foothold in modern-day Vojvodina. In the early 19th
century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first
constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[10] Following
disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former
Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina (and other territories) with Serbia, the country
co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various
political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of
Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, which dissolved peacefully in
2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared
independence, with mixed responses from the international community.

Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA and it is acceding to the
WTO.[11] Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with
perspective of joining the European union by 2025[12] and is the only country in
the current enlargement agenda which is designated as "free".[13] Since 2007,
Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. Serbia is an upper-
middle income economy[14] with a dominant service sector, followed by the
industrial sector and agriculture. The country ranks high by the Human Development
Index (66th),[15] Social Progress Index (45th)[16] as well as the Global Peace
Index (56th).[17