You are on page 1of 15

Review Article

Multidimensional Uses of Medicinal Plant

Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata Linn.)
Kanchan Lata Singh, D. K. Singh and Vinay Kumar Singh*
Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273 009
UP, India

Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Kachnar) (Fabaceae- Leguminosae) is
popular ornamental plants, commonly known as Cow’s paw.
Bauhinia variegata is a widely used as medicinal plant distributed in
the tropical regions. According to WHO third world countries
depends mainly native medicinal plants for their health purpose.
various part i.e. flowers, buds, stem, roots, bark, seeds, leaves have
been used since ancient times for the treatment of a wide range of
diseases. It is used traditionally in dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhoids,
piles, edema, laxative, anti-helmintic, astringent, anti-leprotic, wound
healing, anti-goitrogenic, anti-tumor, antidote for snake poisoning,
dyspepsia and carminative disease. It have numerous chemical values
and is rich phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannin, kaempferol,
terpenoids, saponins, reducing sugars steroids, cardiac glycosides and
quercetin. Studies on the medicinal and biological importance of B.
Address for
variegata have been reported. In modern studies and scientific
Correspondence knowledge on the biological/ medicinal properties is demonstrate that
B. variegata used as a anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-arthritic,
Laboratory, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, hepato-
Department of protective, anti-oxidant, trypsin inhibitor and anti-carcinogenic
Zoology, DDU activity. B. variegata can be used as molluscicidal agent against
Gorakhpur University, harmful vectors/pests. The present review highlights the current
Gorakhpur-273 009 status of researches on the advancement of pharmacological/
UP, India biological aspect of B. variegata and their multidimensional use in
various diseases.
vinaygkpuniv@ Keywords: Bauhinia variegata, Anti-microbial, Anti-oxidant, Anti- diabetic, Anti-carcinogenic, Molluscicidal.

For the last four decades, number of chemically diverse plants have
ethnobiology has emerged as alternative been isolated today. The knowledge and
discipline that can play prominent role. A advancement of plant properties and its uses

American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics

Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

over synthetic have ecofriendly, I. An aerial part contains Kaempferol,

biodegradable and hence are less likely to Ombuin, Kaempferol 7, 4-dimethyl
accumulate in the environment. Plant ether- 3-o- β-D-2 glycopyranoside,
Bauhinia variegata (Fabaceae) is called triterpene, Kaempferol-3-o-β-D-
Kachnar in Hindi, commonly known as glycopyranoside, isorhamenetin-3-o-
Rakta Kanchan in Sanskrit and Mountain β-D-glycopyranoside and hesperidin8
Ebony in English. It was planted in garden, .
park and roadsides as ornamental plant in II. Stem bark of B. variegata has
many warm temperate and subtropical contain quercitroside, Kaempferol-3-
regions. It was native to Southeast Asia and glucoside, lupeol and betasitosterol
grows in tropical and subtropical climate1, 2. isoquercitroside, rutoside myricetol
Bauhinia variegata is distributed in sub- glycoside and Kaempferol
10, 11, 12, 13 & 14
himalayan and outer himalaya of the Punjab glycosides . Zhao et al.,
and Sikkim state, India. It is also found in isolated a new phenanthraquinone,
Burma and China. It is also distributed in 2,7-dimethoxy-3-methyl-9,10
most tropical countries, including Africa and dihydrophenanthrene-1-4, dione
South America3,4. Bauhinia variegata (Bauhinione) from B. variegata stem
consist about 300 species is medium sized, extract.
deciduous tree which remain leafless in the III. Leaves contain lupeol, alkaloids, oil,
month of January-April and in that period fat, glycoside, phenolics, lignin,
flowering of the tree starts4. The genus saponins, terpenoids, β-sitisterol,
includes trees, vines and shrubs that are tannins, kaempferol-3- glucoside,
frequently planted for their showy flower rutin, quercitin, apigenin, apigenin-7-
and ornamental foliage. Leaves are bifoliate. o-glucoside amides, carbohydrates,
B. variegata is known to restore fertility to reducing sugar, protein, vitamin C,
acid and degraded soils because of its ability fiber, calcium and phosphorus11, 16 &
to fix nitrogen5. The various parts of the 17
plant viz., flower buds, flowers, stem, stem IV. Seeds contain protein, fatty oil-
bark, leaves, seeds and roots are practiced in containing oleic acid, linoleic acid,
various indigenous systems of medicine and palmitic acid, and stearic acid18.
popular among the various ethnic groups in Reddy et al. 19 noted a new flavones
India for the cure of variety of ailments6 & 7. in root extract of B. variegata is (2s)-
Taxonomic hierarchy methyleneflavone.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Tracheophyta
Class: Magnoliposida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Bauhinia
Species: variegata
Phytochemical constituent
The main constituent of B. variegata
parts are-

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

Lupeol β- sitosterol

Kaemferol- 7, 4- dimethylether-3-O-β-D-

Source of Literature
Literature search on multi-
dimensional uses of medicinal plant
Bauhinia variegata from different sources of
electronic and print scientific journals.
Kaemferol Materials searched from PubMed resources,
e-libraries such as NIH, CDC and book
wealth of India. Ayurved, Unani and Charak
samhita contains beautiful literature of
plants and their role in biological system of
Indian traditional system has been cited.

Medicinal, Biological and therapeutic value

Nature has been source of medicinal
agent since time immemorial and man has
Kaemferol-3-O-6-O-acetyl-glucoside-7-O- been dependent on plant products for his
rhamnoside needs. The importance of herbs in the cure
of human ailment cannot be neglected.
Phytomedicines used to cure several
diseases is well acknowledged in indigenous
tradition system Ayurved, Unani and Charak
samhita with growing awareness for the last
3 decades; it was needed to explore the

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

potentiality of plant derived products against paw edema method37,57. These activities may
several diseases17. be due to their content of tannins, steroids,
Modern medicine based on flavonoids and carbohydrates. Sosa et al. 58
traditional system only after chemical and/ carried out a bioassay using the inhibition of
or clinical test. Synthetic drugs cause’s side croton oil-induced ear edema in mice and
effects as a result, people are more interest identified a 2:1 mixture of ursolic and
to use natural products obtained from oleanolic acids as the strongest
plants20. It has been estimated that 56% of antiphlogistic effects, with potency similar
the active compounds for medicines in the to that of indomethacin. Triterpenic acids
British National Formulary are natural have long been noted as anti-inflammatory
products21. Standardization and formulation activity38 & 59. Boonfong et al.60 isolated
of the plant product is necessary to several new secondary metabolites from the
describing the isolation, identification and root of B. variegata especially bibenzyls and
qualification of active ingredient in plant dihydrodibenzoxepins. It has significant
materials. These plants are an important anti-inflammatory activity. A new
source of producing medicinal valuable triterpene- saponin 23-hydroxy-3alpha-[O-
bioactive secondary metabolites which are alpha-L-1C4-rhamnopyranosyl-(1’4')-O-
great importance for the health purpose of alpha-L-4C1-arabinopyranosyl-oxy]olean-
human beings22, 23 & 24. 12-en-28-oicacid and O-alpha-L-1C4-
Indigenous traditional system of rhamno pyranosyl-(1’4’)-O-beta-D-4C1-
medicine various parts of the plant B. glucopyranosyl-(1’6’)-O-beta-D-
variegata are used as anti-helmintic, 4Cglucopyranosylester, were isolated from
astringent, anti-leprotic, anti-microbial, liver the leaves of B. variegata. It was found
tonic and in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. nontoxic (LD50) and to have significant anti-
Plant is also useful for treatment of skin inflammatory activity61. It also showed anti-
diseases, wounds, edema, dysentery, ulcers, nociceptive effects which are more potent
eye disease, piles, hemorrhoids and an than the reference drugs (REF). Anti-
antidote against snake bite 25. The Ayurvedic inflammatory agents isolated from B.
has documented the use of the stem bark in variegata plant were six flavanoids namely,
treating lymphadenitis and goiter 26. kaempferol, ombuin, kaempferol 7,4’-
Bauhinia leaves and bark have been used dimethylether 3-0-ß-D-glucopyranoside,
frequently in folk medicine as a remedy for kaempferol 3-0-ß-D-glucopyranoside,
different kinds of the pathologies, isorhamnetin 3-0-ß-D-glucopyranoside and
particularly, infections and diabetes27,1, 2. hesperidin together with one triterpene.
Caffeate, 3ß-trans-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoy-
Biological Effects loxy) olean-12-en-28-oic acid were isolated
from the non-woody aerial parts of B.
Anti-inflammatory activity variegata. These compounds were evaluated
Non woody aerial part of B. as inhibitors of some macrophage functions
variegata shows the anti-inflammatory involved in the inflammatory process,
activity against inhibiting the significantly dose-dependent inhibition of
lipopolysaccharides, with interferon λ lipo polysaccharide (LPS) and interferon
induce nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines37. (IFN)-g induced nitric oxide (NO), and
Ethanol extract of B. variegata root shows cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a-
the anti-inflammatory activity by non- and interleukin (IL)-1237. Bairagi et al. 35
immunological carrageenan induced hind screened out the methanol and aqueous

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

fraction of the B. variegata bark contained Antioxidant activity was directly correlated
flavones glycosides and flavonoids. It shows with the amount of total phenolic contents in
acute anti-inflammatory activity at the extracts. B. variegata in L-dopa extract
200mg/kg and 250 mg/kg orally in rats. has shown the highest FRAP values63.
Shaha et al. 39 reported that the anti- Sharma et al.49 studied that both ethanolic
inflammatory activity of leaf extract of B. and aqueous extracts of root of B. variegata
variegata in in vitro. possesses significant antioxidant activity by
scavenging of various free radicals such as
Anti-oxidant activity 1,2- di phenyl 1-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),
A different part of B. variegata has superoxide, nitric oxide. Its observed the
been reported to contain quercetin, rutin, various extract of the plant product
apigenin and epigenin 7-O-glucoside16. significant DPPH (1,2- di phenyl 1-2
Flavonoid and quercetin are potent picrylhydrazyl) is a lipophilic free radical
antioxidants and known to modulate the from a stable diamagnetic form with
activities of various enzyme systems due to electron or hydrogen radical. Pandey et al. 51
their interaction with biomolecules62. observed antioxidant activity by inhibiting
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B. of TBARs. Methanolic extract of B.
variegata root produced significant variegata possesses significant free radical
antioxidant activity carried out by in-vitro scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging
scavenging of free radicals using 1, 2- and antioxidant activity in in vitro. They
diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric confirm the presence of phenolic compound
oxide and superoxide53. It may be the flavonoids, tannin etc.
flavonoids and other phyto chemicals
present in the plant extracts49. Ethanolic Anti-diabetic activity
extract produced significantly greater Presence of insulin like protein in
antioxidant activity than other extracts49. In leaf, stem bark of B. variegata is widely
vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging utilized in popular medicine, as an anti-
potential are of methanolic extracts of B. diabetic agent27. The leaves and stem-bark
variegata 50. Different parts of B. variegata of Bauhinia used in different phyto
like leaf, bark and flowers have free radical preparation to lower blood glucose levels64 &
scavenging activity by hydroxyl radical . Pandey et al.51 and Kumar and Yadav66
scavenging method. All extracts have noted the antidiabetic potential of the plant
different level of antioxidant activity. Bauhinia in mammal. Ethanol extract
Amongst all extracts methanol was found to leaves of B. variegata show the
be good solvent for extraction and having hypoglycemic activity as well as antidiabetic
good antioxidant activity50 & 51. IC50 value of activity67. Lino et al. 41 showed aqueous and
B. variegata leaf, stem bark and floral buds organic solvent ethanol and hexane extract
are 17.9, 19.5 and 17.2 μg/ml, respectively. of Bauhinia in a model of alloxan-induced
The Reducing power of extracts was carried diabetes in rats caused reduced glucose,
out with ascorbic acid as a standard reducing triglycerides, total cholesterol and high
agent51. The percent free radical scavenging density lipid (HDL) cholesterol levels.
activity gradually increases with increasing Morikawa68 also found in his observation
concentrations of B. variegata extracts in that aqueous extract of Bauhinia leaves
DPPH radical scavenging assay. Dose exhibited hypoglycemic activity in
dependent antioxidant activity pattern was normoglycemic mice, he suggested that this
also observed in phosphomolybdate assay63. action may be related to the presence of

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

glycosyl flavonoids and several natural extract of B. variegata stem bark act as
flavonoids exhibit an antidiabetic activity. antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, S.
The presence of insulin-like molecule was typhy, S. dysenterial, S. aureus, P.
demonstrated in the leaves, where a aeruginosa and Vibrio cholera34,71.
‘chloroplast protein’ was found that has a Achenbach et al.72 showed that several
partial amino acid sequence identical to that metabolites particularly the flavonoids (2s)-
of Bovine insulin. This protein found to act 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavan and (2s)-
as hypoglycemic activity when it is injected 7,4-dihydroxyflavan caused significant
in alloxan induced diabetic mice27. Frankish inhibition of pathogenic fungi such as
et al. 69 antidiabetic activity was noticed a Botrytis cinerea, Claviceps viridis, Coprinus
major metabolite of the ethanolic extract of cinereus, Rhizoctoria saloni and
leaves; roseoside, demonstrates Saprolegnia asterophora. Maillord et al. 73
insulinotropic activity toward pancreatic ß- confirmed that the dichloromethane extract
cells of the INS-1 cell line and may act in of B. rufences caused antifungal activity
conjunction with the chloroplast protein to against Cladosporium cucumerium. Ali74
contribute to the overall antidiabetic and Kumar et al. 75 have reported that the
properties. Dewangan et al. 42 isolated and broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity of
identified a bioactive carbohydrate D-pinitol plant Bauhinia due to the presence of phenol
(3-o-methyl D-chlroinositol) from the metabolites. Filho4 and his research group
ethanolic extract of B. variegata leaves. The has evaluated antimicrobial potential of
compound pinitol is belonging to group of plant Bauhinia against pathogenic fungi and
cyclic polyol. It is natural product of cyclic bacteria. Evaluation of anti-fungal potential
polyol group was responsible for of this plant is active against dematophytes
hypoglycemic activities70. such as Microsporium camis, Trychophyton
metagrophytes, T. rubrum and
Anti-microbial activity Epidermophyton flaccosum.
B. variegata plant could be utilized
as an alternative source of antimicrobial Anti-tumour / Cytotoxic activity
drugs. Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous Rajkapoor et al. 36 and Gupta et al. 76
extracts of B. variegata fractions shows anti- noted anti-tumour activity of ethanolic
bacterial activity against both gram positive extract B. variegata against dalton‘s ascetic
and gram negative bacteria namely- Bacillus lymphoma (DAL) on Swiss albino mice.
cereus, Staphyllococcus aureus, Klebsiella Ethanolic extract of stem bark of B.
pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and variegata shows the chemoprevention and
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes . Anti- cytotoxic effect against N-
bacterial activity in methanol extract is more nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumour in
potent than aqueous extract32.The alcoholic rats and human cancer cell lines at a dose of
extract of leaves of B. variegata showed 200 mg/kg44. Oral administration of
maximum antimicrobial activity compared ethanolic extract of B. variegata effectively
with other organic solvent extracts13. The suppressed liver tumour induced by N-
methanol extract from both in vivo and in nitrosodiethylamine induced elevated level
vitro generated plants of B. variegata were of serum glutamate pyruvate transminase
tested against a number of microbes, only (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate
Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas transminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase
aeruginosa were found to be resistant at a (ALP), total bilirubin, gama glutamate
concentration of 50 μg/ml2. Ethanolic transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

(LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), with the same degree of inhibition for the
glutathione-s-transferase (GST)44. Ethanolic ethanol extract, derived from both in vivo
extract of bark, seed and leaf has been noted and in vitro sources2.
to be cytotoxic against human epithelial
larynx cancer and breast cancer77. Pandey Anti-arthritic
and Agarwal44 observed anticarcinogenic Rajkapoor et al.78 investigated the
and antimutagenic potential of B. variegata anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of
methanolic extract on Swiss albino mice B. variegata by the oral administration of
using a skin carcinogenesis and melanoma ethanolic extract at the tested dose level of
tumour model, along with micronucleus and 250 mg/kg on complete Freund’s adjuvant
chromosomal aberration tests. He found that (CFA) induced arthritis in rat for 15 days. At
the significant prevention of skin papilloma the end of 15 days, the rats were sacrificed,
model, with delayed appearance and their blood was collected and then serum
reduction in the cumulative number of was separated. After that various parameters
papillomas in the DMBA + B. variegata + such as alanine amino transferase (ALT),
croton oil treated group as compared to the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total
DMBA + Croton Oil group. C57 Bl mice cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated.
which received a 50% methanolic extract of In the level of various antioxidant enzymes
B. variegata extract at the doses of 500 and were also evaluated in liver and kidney of
1,000 mg/ kg body weight for 30 days normal, arthritic control and extract treated
showed increase in life span and reduced the rats such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase
tumour size significantly44. Pandey and (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
Agarwal, 44 noted in antimutagenicity lipid peroxidase (LPO). The result of these
studies, a single application of B. variegata studies shows that administration of this
extract at doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg significantly Paw Edema volume in rat and
dry weight, 24 hours prior the administration altered the biochemical parameters and also
of cyclophosphamide (at 50 mg/kg) level of various antioxidant enzymes which
significantly prevented micronucleus got affected in arthritic rats. From this study,
formation and chromosomal aberrations in it was concluded that the ethanolic extracts
bone marrow cells of mice, in a dose of this plant showed significant antiarthritic
dependent manner. Tewari et al.77 effect in rats47.
investigated the traditional use of B.
variegata against anti tumour activity. The Anti-Obesity
anti tumour potential of B. variegata was Balamurugan and Muralidharan79
studied by 3-(4,5 dimethyl thiozole-2-yl)- investigated the anti-obesity effect of
2.5- diphenyl trtrazodium bromide (MTT) methanolic extracts of stem and root bark of
and sulpherhodamine B (SRB) the two B. variegata by oral administration of
cancer cell line (Hep-2, HeLa) and one methanolic extracts at the tested dose level
normal cell line (BRL3A). The result of of 200 and 400 mg/kg in female rats fed
MTT and SRB showed seven extract of with hyper caloric diet for 40 days. At the
cytotoxic to the cancer cell line and less end of 40 days, various parameters was
toxic towards normal cell lines. The evaluated such as body weight (BW), feed
preliminary Phytochemical screened out intake, high density lipoproteins (HDLP),
flavonoids asantitumour activity. In vitro low density lipoproteins (LDLP),
cytotoxicity on Ehlrich Ascitic Carcinoma triglycerides, total cholesterol, brain
(EAC) mouse cell lines responses almost serotonin level. The results of these studies

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

showed that administration of this extract Molluscicidal activity

significantly brought down the increased Singh et al. 28 & 29 reported that
level of was total cholesterol, triglycerides, Bauhinia variegata leaf is a potential source
LDLP and there was increased in the level of molluscicides against snail Lymnaea
of HDLP, brain serotonin level79. This was acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus. These
attributed to the presence of β-sitosterol in snails are the intermediate host of liver fluke
the stem and tendency to release the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica,
serotonin level in the brain. Thus this which causes 94% fascioliasis in the
finding showed a significant anti-obesity buffalo’s population of Eastern Uttar
activity79. Pradesh in India82 & 83. The active
molluscicidal component of Bauhinia
Pesticidal Properties: variegata leaf is soluble in organic solvent
such as acetone, carbon tetra chloride,
Anti-helmintic activity chloroform, ether and ethanol. The toxicity
Aqueous and Chloroform extract of of ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata
bark of B. variegata were investigated for leaf powder is higher than other organic
their anti-helmintic activity against solvents. Singh et al. 28 characterized that
Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. All quercetin is the active component present in
extracts exhibited a dose dependent (25, 50 Bauhinia variegata leaf by column
and 100 mg/ml) inhibition of spontaneous chromatography and thin layer
motility (paralysis) and time of death of the chromatography. Toxicity of 96h exposure
worms35. Extract obtained from bark not period of column purified fraction of B.
only killed the Pheretima posthuma but also variegata leaf (LC50 -5.98 mg/l) against L.
killed the Ascardia galli. The observations acuminata is lower than the values of
were comparable with standard drug synthetic molluscicides- carbaryl (14.40
piperazine citrate at a concentration of 20 mg/l) 84, phorate (15.0 mg/l) 84, formothion
mg/ml and distilled water as control. (8.56 mg/l) 84 and aldicarb (11.50 mg/l) 84.
Maximum vermicide activity was shown by Plant molluscicides of Thuja orientalis fruit
both extract at the concentration of 100 powder (255.12 mg/l), Areca catechu
mg/ml. From the experiment performed, it powder (36.59 mg/l), Termanalia chebula
can be said that the aqueous and chloroform fruit powder (93.59 mg/l), Morus nigra fruit
extract of bark of B. variegata bearing a powder (166.92 mg/l) M. oleifera leaf
potential anthelmintic activity35. powder (602.75 mg/l), 85, 86 & 87, respectively.
Further, treatment of sublethal concentration
Insecticidal activity (40% and 80% of 96h LC50) in vivo of
Plant extract act as an effective column-purified fraction of B. variegata leaf
measure for controlling insect pest like and their active component quercetin inhibit
Plutella xylostella. B. variegata var. candida the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and
is a promising source of edible wild alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP)
vegetable flowers with plenty of nutrients. activities in the nervous tissue of L.
This plant may serve as a potential source acuminata. AChE activity was more
for low cost proteins. The tree is susceptible inhibited than ACP and ALP in snail
to ‘Brown Root Rot’ caused by Phellinus exposed to column purified fraction of B.
noxius80. The abundance of phytophagous variegata leaf and their active component
mites is higher, being Lorryia formosa quercetin31.
Cooreman the dominant species81.

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

Other therapeutic value: hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetra

chloride induced hepato toxicity in Sprague
Antihyperlipidemic activity Dawbey rats at the dose of 100 and 200
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the mg/kg. Oral administration of ethanolic
stem bark and root of B. variegata shows extract decreases the level of allenin-s-
antihyperlipidemic activity against albino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP),
rat. It showed significant (p> 0.05) reduction gamma glutamate transferase, total lipids
in cholesterol and triglyceride level. The and increase the level of total protein which
very low density lipids (VLDL) level was increases during the hepato toxicity and
also significantly reduced, with a significant decrease the level of total protein47.
increase in high density lipid (HDL)53. Ethanolic extract of stem bark of B.
variegata exhibit highly significant
Immunomodulatory activity reduction (p> 0.001) in aspartate
Ethanolic extract of stem bark of B. aminotransferase (AST), alanine
variegata shows the Immunomodulatory aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline
activity on the primary and secondary phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The
antibody responses by humoral antibody ethanolic extract has decreasing the extent of
response for specific immune response. centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes and
Phagocytic activity test and neutrophil congestion of sinusoids when compared to
activation test were evaluated by the carbon CCl448.
clearance and neutrophil adhesion test for a
nonspecific immune response respectively. Proteinase Inhibitor
Increase in phagocytic index and percentage Different species of Bauhinia seeds
neutrophil adhesion at the doses of 250 and inhibit blood clotting enzymes, as well as
500 mg/kg has been noted45. The acetone- other serine and cysteine proteinases88. Two
water, aqueous extracts and isolated varieties B. variegata seeds, shown to
compound (tannin) of B. variegata stem possess through B. variegata trypsin
bark were screened for their possible inhibitors, viz. Bauhinia variegata Candida
immuno-modulatory activity by assessing trypsin inhibitor (Bvc TI) and B. variegata
nitro blue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of lilac trypsin inhibitor (BvlTI) are proteins
killed Candida albicans, candidacidal assay, about 20,000, with four cysteine residues
neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis46. All forming two disulphide bridges in one
the extracts were tested at concentrations polypeptide chain88.The complete sequences
viz. 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 have been determined by automated Edman
μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml. The acetone:water degradation of the reduced and
and isolated compound of B. variegata stem carboxymethylated proteins of the peptides
bark showed predominantly significant resulting from Staphylococcus aureus
activity on in vitro human neutrophils46. protease and trypsin digestion88.

Hepatoprotective activity and anti- Nephroprotective

asthematic activity The nephroprotective activity of the
The some experimental studies have ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata
revealed that B. variegata showing (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced
antiasthematic and hepatoprotective effect. nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo
Ethanolic extract of stem bark of B. method in rats52. Treatment with the ethanol
variegata exhibited significant extract of Bauhinia variegata at the dose

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

level of 400 mg/kg body weight for 14 days variegata and active ingredients has well
significantly minimized the serum level of documented in recent years. Considering the
creatinine and urea, decreased urine overall benefits of the plant it can be
creatinine and albumin with a significant advocated as an important medicinal plant
weight gain, and increased urine output for mankind. Now more explore is required
when compared with the toxic group. The to establish the active ingredient which is
histological damages in the Bauhinia responsible for the mode of action.
variegata extract-treated group were
minimal in contrast to the toxic rats52. Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no
Anti-ulcer activity conflict of interests.
Ethanolic extract of stem bark of B.
variegata shows the anti-ulcer activity REFERENCES
against gastric ulcer induced by pyloric
ligation and aspirin induced ulcer model in 1. Hocking, D. (1993). Trees for dry lands.
Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
rats. Ethanolic extract the volume of gastric
2. Sinha, K. and Verma, A.K. (2012).
secretion, total, free acidity and ulcer index Evaluation of antimicrobial and anticancer
with respect to control which increase activities of methanol extract of in vivo and in
during ulcer36. vitro grown Bauhinia variegata L. Int. Res. J.
of Biological Sci., 1(6): 26-30.
Antigoitrogenic 3. Anonymous (1995). The Wealth of India,
Ethanolic extracts of B. variegata Raw Materials, Vol. IV Publication and
shows antigoitrogenic activity against information directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.
neomercazole induced goiter54. From these 4. Filho, C.V. (2009). Chemical composition
studies, it was concluded that ethanolic and biological potential of plants from the
extract of B. variegata showed significant genus Bauhinia. Phytotherapy Research, 23:
antigoitrogenic activity at the dose of 200
5. Acharya, A. and Kafle, N. (2009). Land
mg/day55. degradation issues in Nepal and its
management through agro forestry. J. Agric.
Wound healing activity Envir., 10(1): 115-123.
The ethanolic and aqueous extracts 6. Ananymous (2001). The Ayurvedic
of root of B. variegata shows wound healing pharmacopeia of India. Vol-1, The Controller
activity against Albino Wister rats at dose of of publications, New Delhi, 321-322.
200 and 400 mg/kg body weight56. Both 7. Arvind, N., Sharma, N. and Singh, M. F.
aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root B. (2012). Spectrum of Pharmacological
variegata at both doses produced significant Activities from Bauhinia variegata: A
wound healing by excision and incision Review. J. of Pharmacy Research, 5(2): 792-
wound models, which was comparable to
8. Ayyanar, M. and Iganacimuthu, S. (2005).
that of standard in excision wound model56. Traditional knowledge of kani tribals in
Kouthalai of Tirunilveli hills, Tamil Nadu
CONCLUSION India. J. Enthopharmacology, 102: 246-255.
9. Koteswara, R.Y., Shih-Hua, F. and Yew-Min,
On the basis of above literature B. T. (2008). Anti-inflammatory activity of
variegata are noted in folk medicine against flavonoids and atriterpene caffeate isolated
a variety of ailments such as cancer, from Bauhinia variegata. Phytotherapy
diabetes, inflammation and infections. Its Research, 22: 957-962.
biological/pharmacological properties of B.

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

10. Sharma, D.D., Gill, R.S., Chander, S. and aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides L. in
Negi, S.S. (1966). Chemical composition of different solvents. Asian Journal of
some fodder tree leaves in the Kangra district. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(2): 82-88.
J. Res., 3: 438-442. 22. Uddin, G., Rauf, A., Siddiqui, B. and Shah,
11. Gupta, A. K., Vidyapati, T.J. and Chauhan, S.Q. (2011). Preliminary comparative
J.S. (1980). Chemical examination of the stem phytochemical screening of Diospyros Lotus
of Bauhinia variegata. Planta Medica, 38: Stewart. Middle–East J. Scientific Research,
174-176. 10(1): 78-81.
12. Anonymous (1998). The wealth of India, a 23. Rauf, A., Khan, A., Rasool, S., Ali, S. and
dictionary of Indian raw materials and Saleem, M. (2012). In vitro antifungal activity
industrial products, vol. 2B, New Delhi, of three selected Pakistani medicinal plants.
CSIR, pp48-52. Middle-East J. of Medicinal plants Research,
13. Dhale, D.A. (2011). Phytochemical screening 1(2): 41-43.
and antimicrobial activity of Bauhinia 24. Qaisar, M., Gilani, S.N., Farooq, S., Rauf, A.,
variegata Linn. J. of Ecobiotechnology, 3(9): Naz, R., Shaista, and Perveez, S. (2012).
4-9. Preliminary comparative phytochemical
14. Josh, S.K., Roy, R. and Gorai, D. (2014). screening of Euphorbia species, American-
Bioactive constituents from Bauhinia Eurasian J. of Agricultural and
variegata Linn. International J of Environmental Sciences, 12(8): 1056-1060.
Pharmaceutical and biomedical research, 25. Asima, C. and Satyesh, C.P. (1992). In the
5(2): 51-54. treatise of Indian medicinal plants. Vol. 2.
15. Zhao, Y.Y., Cui, C.B., Cai, B., Han, B. and New Delhi: Publicantion and Information
Sun, Q.S. (2005). A new phenanthraquinone directorate CSIR, 24-26.
from the stem of Bauhinia variegata L. 26. Khare, C.P. (2007). Bauhinia variegata
Journal of Asian Natural Product Research, Indian medicinal plants. An Illustrated
7(6): 835-838. Dictionary, Springer, 86-87.
16. Spilkova, J. and Hubik, J. (1992). 27. Azevedo, C.R., Maciel, F.M., Silva, L.B.,
Biologischewirkungen von flavonoiden II. Ferreira, A.T., da Cunha, M., Machado, O.L.,
Pharmazie in unsererzeit, 21(4): 174-182. Fernandes, K.V., Oliveira A.E. and Xavier-
17. Shariff, Z.U. (2001). Modern herbal therapy Filho J. (2006). Isolation and intracellular
for common ailments. Nature Pharmacy localization of insulin-like proteins from
Series Vol.1, Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, leaves of Bauhinia variegata. Braz J Med Biol
Nigeria in Association with safari Books Res., 39(11), 1435-1444.
(Export) Ltd, UK, pp 9-84. 28. Singh, K.L., Singh, D.K. and Singh, V.K.
18. Yadava, R.N. and Reddy, V.M. (2001). A (2012). Characterization of the molluscicidal
new flavones glycoside, 5-hydroxy 7,3’ 4’ 5’ activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops
tetra methoxy flavones 5-O-β-D- elengi plant extract against the Fasciola
xylopyranosyl-(1->2)–α-L- vector Lymnaea acuminata. Rev. Inst. Med.
rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia variegata Trap. Sao Paulo 54 (3): 135-140.
Linn. J. Asian Nat Prod Res, 3:341-336. 29. Singh, K.L., Singh, D.K. and Singh, V.K.
19. Reddy, M.V.B., Reddy, M.K., Gunasekar, D., (2013). Molluscicidal activity of Mimusops
Caux, C. and Bodo, B., (2003). A flavones elengi and Bauhinia variegata against the
and a dihydrdibenzoxepin from Bauhinia fresh water snail Indoplanorbis exustus. The
variegata. Phytochemistry, 64: 879-882. Ecoscan, Special Issue 4: 89-95.
20. Gunalan, G., Saraswarthy, A. and 30. Singh, K.L. Singh, D.K., and Singh, V.K.
Vijayalakshi, K. (2012). HPTLC fingerprint (2014). Binary combinations of Mimusops
profile of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Leaves. elengi and Bauhinia variegata with other
Asian Pascific Journal of Tropical Disease, plant derived molluscicides against
S21-S25. Indoplanorbis exustus. International J. of
21. Anjoo, K. and Saluja A.K. (2011). HPTLC Traditional and Natural Medicines, 4(1): 6-
finger print profile of extracts from dried 13.

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

31. Singh, K.L., Singh, D.K. and Singh, V.K. 41. Lino, C.S., Diogenes, J.P. and Pereira, B.A.
(2015). Enzyme inhibition by molluscicidal (2004). Antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia
agents of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops forficata extracts in alloxan-diabetic rats. Biol.
elengi in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea Pharm. Bull., 27: 125-127.
acuminata. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 42. Dewanagan, P. Verma, A. and Kesharwani,
3(10): 805-808. D. (2014). Isolation of D- Pinitol: A bioactive
32. Parekh, J., Karathia, N. and Chanda, S. carbohydrate from the leaves of Bauhinia
(2006). Evaluation of antibacterial activity variegata L. Int. J. Pharm Sci Rev Res, 24(1):
and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia 43-45.
variegata L. bark. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 98: 43. Rajkapoor, B., Jayakar, B., Murugesh, N. and
213-216. Sakthisekaran, D. (2006). Chemoprevention
33. Uddin, G., Sattar, S. and Rauf, A. (2012). and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata
Preliminary phytochemical, in vitro against N- nitrosodiethylamine induced liver
pharmacological study of Bauhinia alba and tumours and human cancer cell lines. J.
Bauhinia variegata flowers. Middle–East Ethanopharmacol., 104: 407-409.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1(4): 44. Pandey, S. and Agarwal, R.C. (2009). Effects
75-79. of Bauhinia variegata bark extract on DMBA
34. Sahu, G. and Gupta, P.K. (2012). A review on induced mouse skin carcinogenesis: A
Bauhinia variegata Linn. International preliminary study. Global J. of
Research J. Pharmacy, 3(1): 48-51. Pharmacology, 3(3): 158-162.
35. Bairagi, S.M., Aher, A.A. and Nimase, P.K. 45. Kritikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D. (1991). Indian
(2012). In vitro anthehelmintic activity of medical plants 3rd ed. 898-900.
Bauhinia variegata bark (Leguminosae). 46. Patil, J.K., Jalalpure, S.S., Hamid, S. and
International J of Pharmacy and Ahirrao, R.A. (2010). In vitro
Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(3): 672-674. immunomodulatory activity of extracts of
36. Rajkapoor, B., Jayakar, B. and Murugesh, N. Bauhinia variegata Linn. stem bark on human
(2003). Antitumour activity of Bauhinia neutrophils. Iranian J. of Pharmacology and
variegata on Dalton’s ascetic lymphoma. J. Therapeutics, 9: 41-46.
Ethanopharmacology, 89: 107-109. 47. Bodake, S.H. and Ram, A. (2007).
37. Rao, Y.K., Fang, S.H. and Tzeng, Y.M. Hepatoprotective properties of Bauhinia
(2008). Anti-inflammatory activity of variegata bark extract. The Pharmaceutical
flavonoids and a triterpene caffeate isolated Society of Japan, 127(9): 1503-1507.
from Bauhinia variegata. Phytotheraphy 48. Manoj, A., Kumara, F. and Yunus, S.M.
Research, 22:957-962. (2013). Screening of hepatoprotectivity of
38. Cipak, L., Grausova, L., Miadokova, E., ethanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia
Novotny, L. and Rauko, P. (2006). Dual variegata in rats. Int. J. of Pharm. Pharm.
activity of triterpenoids: Apoptotic versus Sci., 5(2): 624-628.
antidifferentiation effects. Arch. Toxicol., 80: 49. Sharma, R.K., Rajani, G.P., Mandal, S. and
429-435. Gupta, N. (2011). In-vitro antioxidant and
39. Shaha, S., Subrahmanyam, E.V.S., protective effect of Bauhinia variegata Linn
Kodangala, C., and Shastry, C.S. (2011). on gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
Isolation and characterization of triterpenoids Int. J. of Res. in Ayurveda and Pharmacy,
and fatty acid ester of triterpenoid from leaves 2(1): 312-318.
of Bauhinia variegata. Der Pharma Chemica, 50. Mishra, A., Kumar, S., Bhargava, A., Sharma,
3 (4): 28-37. B., and Pandey, A.K. (2011). Studies on in
40. Bairagi, S.M., Aher, A.A., Nema, N. and vitro antioxidant and antistaphylococcal
Nimase, P.K. (2012). Anti-inflammatory activities of some important medicinal plants,
evaluation of methanol extract aqueous Cellular and Molecular Biology, 57(1): 16-
fraction of the bark of Bauhinia variegata 25.
(Leguminosae). International J. Research in 51. Pandey, S., Agarwal, R.C. and Maheshwari,
Pharmacy and Chemistry, 2(1): 77-82. S. (2012). In-vitro antioxidant and free radical

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

scavenging activity of Bauhinia variegata 62. Maldonadu, P.D., Barrera, D., Rivero, I.,
Linn. Int. J. of Scientific and Research Mata, R., Copos, O.N. and Pando, R.H.
Publications, 2(2): 1-5. (2003). Antioxidant S-aIIIcystein prevents
52. Panda, P.K., Pani, S.R., Mishra, S. and Sahoo, gentamicin- induced oxidative stress and renal
S. (2011). Nephroprotective effect of damage. Bio. Med., 35: 317-324.
Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract 63. Gautam, B., Vadivel, V., Stuetz, W., and
against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats. Biesalski, H.K. (2011). Bioactive compounds
Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(2): 200- extracted from Indian wild legume seeds:
202. antioxidant and type II diabetes related
53. Rajani, P.G. and Ashok, P. (2009). In vitro enzyme inhibition properties, International
antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 1-4.
of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Indian J. 64. Da Silva, K.L., and Filho, C. (2002). Plantas
Pharmacol, 41(5): 227-232. do genero Bauhinia: Composicao quimica e
54. Veena, G., Prasad, C., Singh, K.P. and Udupa, potential farmacologico. Quim. Nova, 25:
K.N. (1975). Preventive effect of some 449-454.
indigenous drugs on experimental goiter on 65. Mali, R.G., Mahajan, S.G. and Mehta, A.A.
rats. J Res Ind Med, 10: 2-18 (2007). Rakta Kanchan (Bauhinia variegata):
55. Srivastava, U.S., Jaiswal, A.K. and Abidi, R. chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses a
(1985). Juvenoid activity in extracts of certain review. Pharmacognosy Review, 1: 314-319.
plants. Current Sciences, 12: 576-78. 66. Kumar, V., and Yadav, S.K. (2011). Synthesis
56. Sharma, R. K. (2010). Pharmacological of variable shaped gold nanoparticls in one
evaluation of Bauhinia variegata Linn. For solution using leaf extract of Bauhinia
wound healing and nephroprotective activity. variegata L. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials
M. Sc. thesis, Rajiv Gandhi University of and Biostructures, 6(4), 1685-1693.
Health Sciences, Karnataka. 67. Wahab, A.E., Wassel, S.M., Ammar, G.M.
57. Yadava, R.N. and Reddy, M. (2002). Anti- and Hanna, N.M. (1987). Flavonoids
inflammatory activity of novel flavonol constituents in different organs of selected
glycosides from Bauhinia variegata Linn. Bauhinia species and their effect on blood
Natural Product Research, 17(3): 165-169. glucose. Herba Hungarica, 26(1): 27-39.
58. Sosa, S., Braca, A., Altinier G., Della L.R., 68. Morikawa, T. (2007). Search for bioactive
Morelli, I. and Tubaro, A. (2002). Tropical constituent from several medicinal foods:
anti-inflammatory activity of Bauhinia hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and anti-allergic
tarapotensis leaves. Phytomedicine, 9: 646- activities. J. Nat. Med, 61: 112-126.
653. 69. Frankish, N., de Souza-Menezes, F., Mills, C.
59. Deepak, M. and Handa, S.S. (2000). Anti- and Sheridan, H. (2010). Enhancement of
inflammatory activity and chemical Insulin Release from the ß-Cell Line INS-1 by
composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis. an Ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata
Phytotherapy Research, 14: 463-465. and its major constituent roseoside. Planta
60. Boonfong, S., Puangsombat, P., Baramee, A., Med, 76, 995-997.
Mahidol, C., Ruchirawat, S., and Kittakoop, 70. Mishra, L.N. and Siddiqi, S.A. (2004).
P. (2007). Bioactive compound from Dhaincha (Sesbania bispinosa) leaves: A
Bauhinia purpurea possessing antimalarial, good source of antidiabetic (+)- pinitol.
antimicobacterial, antifungal, anti- Current Science, 87: 1507.
inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. J. of 71. Jigna, P., Nehal, K. and Sumitra, C. (2006).
Nat. Prod.70: 795-801. Screening of some traditionally used
61. Mohamed, M.A., Mammoud, M.R., and medicinal plants for potential antibacterial
Hayen, H., (2009). Evaluation of activity. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical
antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory Science, 68(6); 832-834.
activities of a new triterpene saponin from 72. Achenbach, H., Stocker, M. and Constenla,
Bauhinia variegata leaves. Journal of M. A. (1988). Flavonoid and others
Biosciences, 64(11-12): 798-808.

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

constituents of Bauhinia manca. associated with Bauhinia variegata L.

Phytochemistry, 27: 1835-1841. (Leguminosae) in Northeast of state of Sao
73. Maillard, M.P., Recio-Iglesias, M. C., Saadou, Paulo. Neotropical Entomology, 36(2): 322-
M., Stoeckli, E.H. and Hostettmann, K. 325.
(1991). Novel antifungal tetracyclic 82. Singh, O. and Agarwal, R A. (1981). Toxicity
compounds from Bauhinia rufescens LAM. of certain pesticides to two economic species
Helv. Chim. Acta, 74: 791-799. of snails in northern India. J. Econ. Entomol,
74. Ali, M.S., Azhar, I., Amtul, Z., Ahmad, V.U. 74: 568-571.
and Usmanghani, K. (1995). Antimicrobial 83. Singh, D.K., Singh, V.K. and Kumar, P.
screening of some Caesalpiniaceae. (2012). Pestiferous Gastropods and Their
Fitoterapia, 70: 299-304. Control. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
75. Kumar, R.S., Sivakumar, T., Sunderram, R.S., GmbH and Co., Germany, pp: 1-153.
Gupta, M., Mazumdar, U.K., Gomathi, P., et 84. Singh, D. K. and Agarwal, R.A. (1983).
al. (2005). Antioxidant and antimicrobial Inhibition kinetics of certain
activities of Bauhinia racemose L. stem bark. organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides
Brazilian J. of medical and biological on the acetylcholinesterase from the snail
research, 38: 1015-1024. Lymnaea acuminata. Toxicology Letters, 19:
76. Gupta, R., Paarakh, P.M. and Gavani, U. 313-319.
(2009). Pharmacognostical and 85. Singh, A. and Singh, V.K. (2009).
phytochemical screening of Bauhinia Molluscicidal activity of Saraca asoca and
variegata Linn. Leaves. J. of Pharmacy Thuja orientalis against the fresh water snail
Research, 2(7): 1196-1198. Lymnaea acuminata. Vet Parasitol., 164:206-
77. Tewari, R.C., Chaubey, S., Dash, S., Kour, 10.
G.D., and Gautam, R.K. (2015). Kanchnara 86. Hanif, F. and Singh D.K. (2012).
(Bauhinia variegata Linn.):A Critical Review. Molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra against
International J of Ayurveda and Pharma the fresh water snail Lymnaea acuminata. J.
Research, 3(7)-39-46. of Biology and Earth Science, 2(2):B54-B62.
78. Rajkapoor, B., Raichandran, V., Gobinath, 87. Upadhyay, A., Singh, V.K. and Singh, D.K.
M., Anbu J. and Harikrishnan, N. (2007). (2013). Characterization of molluscicidal
Effect of Bauhinia variegata on complete component of Moringa oleifera leaf and
freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. J. Momordica charentia fruits and their modes
Pharmacol Toxicol, 2: 465-72. of action in snail Lymnaea acuminata. Rev.
79. Balamurugan, G. and Muralidharan, P. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 55(4): 251-259.
(2010). Anti-obesity effect of Bauhinia 88. Oliva, M.L.V., Mendes, C.R., Santomauro-
variegata bark extract on female rats fed on Vaz, E.M., Juliano, M.A., Fritz. H., Sampaio,
hypercaloric diet. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol, M.U. and Sampaio, C.A.M. (2001). Bauhinia
5: 8-12. bauhinioides plasma kallikrein inhibitor:
80. Chang, T.T. (1995). Decline of nine tree Interaction with synthetic peptides and
species with brown root rot caused by fluorogenic peptide substrates related to the
Phellinus noxius in Taiwan. Plant Diseases, reactive site sequence. Medical Chemistry, 8:
79(9), 962-965. 977–984.
81. Ragrigo, D.D., Reinaldo, J.F.F. and Renato,
B. (2007). Mites (Acari: Arachnida)

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072
Singh et al_________________________________________________ ISSN 2321 – 2748

Table 1. Multidimensional properties of Bauhinia variegata plant.

Bauhinia variegata
Parts used Medium Reference
Leaf, stem Aqueous/
Molluscicidal Singh et al.28- 31.
bark, Organic
Leaf, Stem Aqueous/ Dhale,13; Parekh et al.32; Uddin et al.33;
bark Organic Shahu and Gupta,34.
Anthelmintic Bark Bairagi et al.35.
Antiulcer Stem bark Organic Rajkapoor et al.36.
Leaf, stem Aqueous/ Rao et al.37; Cipek et al.38; Shaha et
bark, root Organic al.39;Bairagi et al.40.
Leaf, stem Aqueous/ Azevedo et al.27; Lino et al.41;
bark Organic Dewangan et al.42.
Anti-tumour/ Sinha and Verma,2; Rajkapoor et al.,43;
Stem, bark Organic
cytotoxic Pandey et al.44;
Immuno- Aqueous/
Stem, bark Kritikar and Basu, 45; Patil et al., 46.
modulatory Organic
Hepatoprotective Stem, bark Bodake and Ram,47; Manoj et al.,48.
Leaf, bark, Aqueous/ Sharma et al.49; Mishra et al.50; Pandey
root Organic et al.,51.
Nephroprotective Stem bark Organic Panda et al., 52.
Stem bark Aqueous/
Antihyperlipidemic Rajani and Ashoke, 53.
and root Organic
Antigoitrogenic Stem bark Organic Veena et al.54; Srivastava et al.55.
Wound healing Root, Seed Sharma,56.

AJPCT[4][02][2016] 058-072