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Sequence of the Project Work

Collection of the soil sample from the field

Testing of the soil sample to find out engineering properties

Calculation of bearing capacity as per IS 6403:1981

Making a plan for the structure and analysis of it

Design of the structure to be constructed as per IS 456:2000


Laboratory Works involved in the project

• Light compaction test.


• Direct Shear Test.
• Determination of moisture content
Light compaction test

The maximum dry density of the


specimen is 1.79g/cc and its
corresponding water content
(which is also known as Optimum
Moisture Content or OMC) is
12.49%
Test 3: Direct Shear Test

Normal load is 0.1 Kg Normal load is 0.3 Kg.

Normal load is 0.2 Kg. Normal load is 0.4 Kg.


Normal load is 0.45 Kg Shear Stress and Normal Stress
Foundation Design Principles
Foundations

Shallow foundations Deep foundations

Df / B is less or equals to 1 Df / B is greater than 1

Where breadth of the foundation is B


depth of the foundation is Df
Bearing Capacity
• Safe bearing capacity, qs is the maximum gross intensity of loading
that the soil can carry safely without failing in shear. Thus,

• Safe bearing pressure, qns is the maximum net intensity of loading


that can be allowed on the soil without the settlement exceeding
the permissible value.
• Allowable bearing pressure, qu-net is the maximum net intensity of
loading that can be imposed on the soil with no possibility of
shear or the possibility of excessive settlement.
Modes of Shear Failure
Identification of type of failures

General Shear Failure (in fig a)


Punching Shear Failure (in fig b)
Local Shear Failure (in fig c)
Calculation of Bearing Capacity by IS Code Method
The calculation of the ultimate net bearing capacity is dependent on the type of failure of the soil.
As angle of internal friction(φ) is less that 29, the LOCAL SHEAR FAILURE will occur.

Bearing Capacity factors

Shape factors

Acording to IS 6403 : 1981


Plan of the structure
Plan of the beam and slab type raft foundation
Total Imposed Load < Safe Bearing Capacity(SBC)

Load carried by the exterior columns =500KN


Load carried by interior columns =700KN.
The size of the columns is considered to be
400mm × 400mm
Analysis of the Beams

As per IS 456:2000
Analysis of the beam type 1
Analysis of the beam type 2
Analysis of the beam type 3

Analysis of the beam type 4


BMD & SFD of Beam type 1

BMD

SFD
BMD & SFD of Beam type 2

BMD

SFD
BMD & SFD of Beam type 3

BMD

SFD
BMD & SFD of Beam type 4

BMD

SFD
DESIGN OF THE BEAMS
Design of the Beam Type 1
Drawing of the Designed Beam type1
Drawing of the Designed Beam type2

Design Method is same as beam type 1


Drawing of the Designed Beam type3

Design Method is same as beam type 1


Drawing of the Designed Beam type4

Design Method is same as beam type 1


As per IS 456: 2000

30 Slabs
TWO-WAY RESTRAINES SLAB

SHORT SPAN

LONG SPAN
Design of interior slab
Torsion reinforcement:
Size of torsional mesh = lx / 5 = 1060 mm from the edge of the slab
Area of torsion reinforcement = 3 / 4 (Ast)x = 341.4 mm2
Spacing = 100 mm c/c
Drawing of the Designed Slab interior slab

Top
Bottom reinforcement
reinforcement
Short span

Long span
Drawing of the corner slab

Bottom reinforcement Top reinforcement

Short span

Long span
Drawing of the end slab

Bottom reinforcement Top reinforcement

Short span

Long span
Foundation is one of the most essential elements of any structure. For a sound and stable
structure, the functional requirements of a foundation are studied and analysed, so that; a
safe, reasonable and economically viable design can be provided. At the very outset of this
project, a study and observations of the soil which undergoes a local shear failure are made.
As per the Indian Standards, safety requirements were provided while making the design of
the foundation corresponding to this type of soil. The design of various members were also
done corresponding to our presumed concept, which generally taken into the consideration
by the engineers in this field. With this project, the basics of the design of the raft
foundation along with its reference to various geotechnical aspects are studied and
implemented in the design required to be completed. Thus, this report entitled “Design of
Raft Foundation Based on Geotechnical Analysis” can be said as the blueprint of all the
thoughts, understanding and implementation of those Civil Engineering concepts in the field
of Foundation Design.