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Briefly then, an impeachment proceeding is not a single act.

It is a comlpexus of acts consisting of a beginning,

a middle and an end. The end is the transmittal of the articles of impeachment to the Senate.

The middle consists of those deliberative moments leading to the formulation of the articles of impeachment.

The beginning or the initiation is the filing of the complaint and its referral to the Committee on Justice.

Section 3 (5) says,

No impeachment proceeding shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one year,

it means that no second verified complaint may be accepted and referred to the Committee on Justice for action.

By his explanation, this interpretation is founded on the common understanding of the meaning of "to initiate" which
means to begin

Having concluded that the initiation takes place by the act of filing of the impeachment complaint and referral to the
House Committee on Justice,

the initial action taken thereon, the meaning of Section 3 (5) of Article XI becomes clear.

Once an impeachment complaint has been initiated in the foregoing manner,

another may not be filed against the same official within a one year period following Article XI, Section 3(5) of the

constituent and legislative power

The grant to Congress as a Constituent Assembly of such plenary authority to call a constitutional convention includes,

by virtue of the doctrine of necessary implication, all other powers essential to the effective exercise of the principal
power granted,

Whether the Lambino Group's initiative petition complies with Section 2, Article XVII of the Constitution on amendments
to the Constitution

through a people's initiative;

1. The Initiative Petition Does Not Comply with Section 2, Article XVII of the Constitution on Direct Proposal by the

These essential elements are present only if the full text of the proposed amendments is first shown to the people who
express their assent by signing

such complete proposal in a petition. Thus, an amendment is "directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a
petition" only if the people sign

on a petition that contains the full text of the proposed amendments.

The full text of the proposed amendments may be either written on the face of the petition, or attached to it.

If so attached, the petition must state the fact of such attachment.

In contrast, Section 2 of Article XVII, referring to the third mode, applies only to "Amendments to this Constitution."

ripeness north cotabato v. grp

For a case to be considered ripe for adjudication, it is a prerequisite that something had then been accomplished or
performed by either branch before a court

may come into the picture, and the petitioner must allege the existence of an immediate or threatened injury to itself as
a result of the challenged action.

He must show that he has sustained or is immediately in danger of sustaining some direct injury as a result of the act
complained of.


When the issue concerns a public right, it is sufficient that the petitioner is a citizen and has an interest in the execution
of the laws


For a taxpayer, one is allowed to sue where there is an assertion that public funds are illegally disbursed or deflected to
an illegal purpose,

or that there is a wastage of public funds through the enforcement of an invalid or unconstitutional law


A member of the House of Representatives has standing to maintain inviolate the prerogatives, powers and privileges
vested by the Constitution in his office


An organization may be granted standing to assert the rights of its members


local government unit (LGU), it can seek relief in order to protect or vindicate an interest of its own, and of the other

Intervenors, meanwhile, may be given legal standing upon showing of facts that satisfy the requirements of the law
authorizing intervention,

such as a legal interest in the matter in litigation, or in the success of either of the parties

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