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10 Dry double clutch

10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

Success with efficiency
and comfort
The dry double clutch has become established
on the automatic transmission market
Karl-Ludwig Kimmig
Peter Bührle
Klaus Henneberger
Matthias Ehrlich
Götz Rathke
Jens Martin

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10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

Introduction Description of Electro-hydraulic


Since VW launched the first automatic transmis- dry double clutch “Power pack” “Lever actuator”

sion with a dry double clutch in the Golf class at

the beginning of 2008, a large number of drivers transmissions
and automotive experts have experience with this
technology. The system is earning high ratings in At the beginning of every development of a new Clutch 1 Clutch 2
various publications and comparative analyses. It dry double clutch application, answers to crucial
Normally open Normally open System A
meets and even exceeds the expectations in questions about system design are determined by
terms of driving characteristics and fuel consump- means of suitable system simulations. Simula- degressive sloping
tion. tions include the number of gears and the gear upward
ratios of the transmission, the size and weight of
As the issues of fuel consumption and environmen-
the double clutch for matching the system’s ther- Travel Travel
tal protection are gaining more importance world-
mal robustness and operating life, and the charac- Normally closed Normally open System B
wide, the dry double clutch transmission (DCT) has
teristics of the required vibration damping ele- degressive sloping
established itself in the strongly growing automatic
transmission market along with wet DCTs, CVTs
and advanced torque converter transmissions. Giv-
ments such as dual mass flywheel dampers and/
or clutch disk dampers. Analyzing these factors in
upward 10
conjunction with the relevant control strategy
en the current intensive development activities of Travel Travel
must not only include the clutch controls but also
vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, significant in- System C
the engine and transmission controls as an overall Normally open Normally open
creases in the number of dry double clutch applica-
system. Previous publications [5], [6] describe im- sloping sloping
tions in the next few years is expected, especially in
portant elements of such system simulations. De- upward upward
the mass market for lower mid-size and compact
scriptions of the parameters and requirements of
class vehicles. After VW, transmission manufac-
the systems are continuously refined based on Travel Travel
tures Getrag and Fiat Powertrain Technologies
the experiences of different production automo-
(FPT) have developed DCTs for production, and in Torque
tive applications.
the last few months introduced them to the mar- Force
ket in collaboration with automotive manufactur- Using the term “dry double clutch system” today,
ers Renault, Ford and Fiat. gives no uniform concept as to the specific double Figure 2 Combinations of dry double clutches and actuators
clutch, double clutch actuator and transmission ac-
Shown in Figure 1, are the predicted production
tuator used. Various concept studies and produc-
quantities of different automatic transmissions, es-
tion development activities during the last few This transmission uses a double clutch with two External actuation plungers of the electro-hydrau-
pecially of the dry DCT.
years have shown that there are several practical normally open clutches with independent wear lic power pack transfers the actuation force to the
combinations of a dry double clutch with an associ- adjustment systems. The two clutches require lever spring fingers of the double clutch by means
ated clutch and gear actuation system. These com- minimal space due to the use of wear adjust- of a nested lever system with a specially matched
40 ? binations can vary according to the system as ment systems with force sensors, which is simi- flexible connection and compensation function [4].
Transmission production

1.4 shown in Figure 2. lar to many manual clutches [1], [6]. A special The actuation system requires a flexible connec-
30 feature of this double clutch is that the two tion in order to prevent interferences caused by
A practical and proven variation is the combination
clutches have different force-travel characteris- static and dynamic errors from exceeding a thresh-
in millions

of a dry double clutch with an electro-hydraulic
20 tic curves. The force curve of clutch 1 for odd- old value. Control of the Clutch is via the hydraulic
clutch and transmission actuation system. VW is
numbered gears has a downward slope. In con- plungers that use a travel control system with trav-
the pioneer of this technology with the seven-
trast, the characteristic curve of clutch 2 for el sensors on each plunger.
10 speed DCT DQ200, which has been on the market
even-numbered gears permanently slopes up-
since the beginning of 2008.
ward (Figure 2, System A). The differences in the A special feature of the system is a support bear-
0 characteristic curves are due to the type of wear ing which retains the double clutch axially and
2009 2012 2018
Year Dry double clutch for DCT adjustment system and the geometrical clutch radially on the hollow shaft. This allows the crank-
arrangement. In general, downward force-travel shaft to be free from the actuation forces and the
with electro-hydraulic characteristic curves as those of clutch 1 are op- mass of the double clutch since the clutch con-
AMT actuation system timal as this leads to a higher inherent efficiency nects non-rigidly with the crankshaft via a fly-
Figure 1 Expected development of the quantities of of the clutch. However, actuation for such sys- wheel. The most significant advantages are reduc-
dry double clutch applications and Figure 3 shows the basic design and the system tems can only perform by means of an actuator tions in the axial and bending vibrations applied
automatic transmissions components of the VW seven-speed DCT DQ200. with travel control. on the crankshaft.

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10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

Double clutch
Arc spring damper Engagement system
Arc spring
damper Hydraulic
cylinder for clutch 1

Pull rod

Release bearing
for clutch 1
Clutch 1

Clutch 2
(normally open without
Figure 3 Double clutch system of the VW seven-gear DCT DQ200 wear adjustment)
Hydraulic cylinder CSC
for clutch 2
Another advantage of this design is that the com- sion housing using a flanged bearing, which in Figure 4 Double clutch system of the FPT (Fiat Powertrain Technologies) six-speed DCT C635
plete double clutch system can be assembled return leads to space advantages. A new feature
ready-for-use and tested as an overall system at of this double clutch is that both clutches are not
the transmission plant. In the DQ200 DCT and normally open. Clutch 1 is normally closed as tion. The first production transmission with this sion torque capacity of 280 Nm with this a
with many other dry DCTs, the double clutch on this is the case for a standard clutch, which al- technology is the 6DCT250 from Getrag. This highly-efficient and compact actuator, a double
the transmission side connects the flywheel arc lows the use of a clutch with wear adjustment DCT uses a newly developed LuK lever actuator clutch with high-precision wear adjustment
spring damper on the engine side by means of (SAC) for minimizing the characteristic curve for actuating the double clutch. The lever based on travel sensors was specially developed
preloaded spline teeth. The preload completely variation and the actuation forces [9]. Clutch 2 is actuator contributes to the extremely high for the application (Figure 8).
prevents gear noise caused by the alternating normally open and has no wear adjustment, total efficiency due
torques of the engine. The floating damper flange which leads to an increased total actuation trav- to low losses in the
of the grease-filled arc spring damper easily com- el but significantly reduces system complexity electromechanical Transmission actuator
pensates for the axis offset between engine and (Figure 2, System B). system and can be in- “Active Interlock”
transmission. tegrated in the clutch
This clutch design requires a matched safety
housing with nearly Lever actuator
Another DCT with a dry double clutch and electro- and monitoring concept for preventing undesir- for clutch 1
no effect on the de-
hydraulic clutch and transmission actuation is the able stresses on the transmission in every driv-
sign envelope due to
C635 from FPT. This transmission is a six-speed DCT ing situation. This double clutch system also
its compact design Arc spring
with a torque capacity of up to 350 Nm. uses an external arc spring damper with pre- damper
(Figure 5).
loaded spline engagement teeth for dampening
The clutch housing of this type of transmission Clutch
torsional vibrations in both gasoline and diesel The system safety re-
has only very limited space available for the dou- engagement
engines. quirements specifica-
ble clutch. The double clutch is therefore de- bearing
tion demands two
signed so that clutch 1, on the engine side, is
actuated by means of a pull rod in the transmis- Dry double clutch for DCT normally open clutch- Semi-locating
es. A lever actuator
sion input shaft and a small hydraulic cylinder on with electromechanical and a matched clutch
the transmission side. Activation of clutch 2 on
the transmission side is by means of a concentric actuation system characteristic curve
Double clutch
(continuously sloping
slave cylinder (CSC, Figure 4) in a similar manner Lever actuator
Established in the market during the last few upward) meet this re-
to many manual transmissions. for clutch 2
months are systems with electromechanical quirement (Figure 2,
This specific actuation concept allows the dou- clutch and transmission actuation along with System C). To achieve Figure 5 Double clutch system with electromechanical clutch and transmission
ble clutch to be firmly located on the transmis- the DCTs with electro-hydraulic clutch actua- the desired transmis- actuation

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10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

wear occurs and the

lever spring is forced
Electric further in the direc-
motor Lever actuator
for clutch 1 tion of the engine to
generate a specific
clamping force. The
Disc damper Lever actuator additional travel of
for clutch 2 the lever spring lifts
Semi-locating the clamping spring,
Spring-energy which holds the sen-
store sor ring in position.
Ball screw Plain bearing
This causes the spring-
nut (compensation preloaded sensor ring
of axis offset) to rotate by an incre-
ment or as far as the
Leaf spring arrangement clamping spring al-

Actuator lever
(connection with
axial elasticity)
lows. When the clutch
is again completely 10
open due to a gear-
Figure 7 Double clutch system with clutch disk dampers, Getrag 6DCT250 shift operation, the
lever spring is moved
specially developed dry-running axial plain bear- to a new position by the rotation of the sensor
ing enables radial movement of the semi-locat- ring. This also enables rotation of the spring-
Figure 6 Electromechanical lever actuator for clutch actuation ing bearing support towards the double clutch. preloaded adjustment ring by another incre-
This is necessary for preventing excessive stress- ment and completion of the adjustment process.
es due to the axis offset between engine and Since this travel adjustment system rotates the
The newly developed lever actuator (Figure 6) specially developed support rollers, which must
transmission. adjustment ring when the clutch is open, nearly
generates the force required for closing the run very smoothly under loads of up to 7000 N
every mounting tolerance can be compensated
clutches mechanically by means of a spring-ener- [2], [7]. The main components of the wear adjustment
by rotating the adjustment rings of both clutch-
gy store [2]. This force acts on the outer end of system with travel sensors in the Getrag 6DCT250
The double clutch system for the Getrag es. This is particularly advantageous in simplify-
the rocker-shaped actuator lever. An electric mo- double clutch are a clutch cover with adjustment
6DCT250 transmission has a modular design al- ing mounting the double clutch in the transmis-
tor that is screw mounted to the transmission and sensor ring ramps, as well as one adjust-
lowing use of engines with torques between sion.
housing operates a ball screw drive that moves ment ramp ring, one sensor ramp ring, clamping
150 and 280 Nm and combined with different
the support rollers. The support rollers are locat- springs and adjustment springs for each sub- When a DCT has an electromechanical clutch ac-
damping systems depending on the vibration
ed between the lever and the transmission hous- clutch (Figure 8). The clutch adjusts when lining tuation system, it is becomes practical to also use
excitation. In the standard system, the double
ing and support the lever at the center. The lever
clutch has a support bearing on the hollow
supporting point and the effective lever ratio can
shaft that retains it axially and radially. Damp-
therefore change via the electric motor. The spe-
ing of vibrations is by means of an external arc
cial lever geometry enables a variable transmis-
spring damper with a floating flange and pre-
sion ratio between electric motor and clutch so
loaded, clearance-free spline teeth. This design
that the electric motor can operate with a con-
is suitable for diesel and gasoline engines with
stantly low force. Significant reduction of the re-
high vibration excitation.
quired motor size is therefore possible for the
clutch actuator. Another variation of the system, designed for
engines with low excitation, is a solution with a
Since the existing elements for transferring the rigid flywheel and two clutch disk dampers in
rotary motion of the motor to the linear motion conjunction with partial micro-slippage control.
of the actuator did not sufficiently meet the re- Here, the double clutch is screw mounted to the
scroll spring
quirements in terms of power density and effi- rigid flywheel with axial elasticity and radially
Clutch cover Adjustment tension spring
ciency, a new ball screw drive has been developed supported connection (Figure 7). However, a ra-
Clamping spring Adjustment ramp ring
in cooperation with INA. The ball screw drive has dially floating support bearing on the hollow Sensor ramp ring
four rows with an internal ball return system due shaft of the transmission accommodates the ax-
to reasons of space. Another unique feature is the ial forces resulting from the clutch actuation. A Figure 8 Wear adjustment with travel sensors for double clutches

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10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

Gearshift kinematics engagement elements, interfaces with the inter- there are also other advantages worth mention- Sclutch

Coupling through torque

nal selection system of the transmission. The ing. For example, a dry double clutch system

gradient in Nm/mm
gears engage by means of the shift finger in a with electromechanical actuation is mainte- Time
similar manner to the actuation of manual trans- nance-free and very robust with regard to con-
Gear missions. The sophisticated Active Interlock sys- tamination and environmental influences. In ad-
selection tem ensures by means of the interlock and dis- dition, mounting of the dry double clutch is easy
kinematics engagement elements that all gears of the same at the transmission and engine plant. Advanced
sub-transmission are disengaged before a an- system components such as wear adjustment
other gear engagement. Elimination of addition- systems, actuation systems with suitable clutch
al sensors for gear detection and the associated release and engagement bearings, and damping Coupling through helical teeth in N/Nm
EC motors
monitoring and emergency running strategies technologies are also available for many applica-
are possible due to this simple mechanism. This tions. Figure 11 Parameter study for the system behavior of
Shift finger unit
and the cost-effective design of the mechanical
system make the transmission actuator a high- Production development must include the com-
The main components of such software are
performance product. In combination with the plex interactions between all drive train compo-
Figure 9 Electromechanical transmission actuator above described lever actuator, it completes the nents. Newly developed 2D and 3D system sim- • the clutch control system,
with Active Interlock electromechanical clutch and gear actuation sys-
tem of a DCT.
ulation tools meet this requirement. Examples
of particular interest are calculation models for
• the transmission control system, 10
an electromechanical transmission actuation sys- describing every possible coupling mechanism • the coordination module (which controls the
tem. Control and system in the overall system and calculating every con- interactions between the clutch and the
ceivable operating condition in advance by transmission), and
An example of such a transmission actuation sys- characteristics of dry DCT means of simulations. Figure 10 shows an ex-
tem is the LuK Active Interlock actuator (Fig- • the gear selection system (definition of the
ample of this.
ure 9) [8]. The shift fingers are specially designed The dry double clutch system is of great interest gearshift points).
so that the gears of both sub-transmissions can to the automotive manufacturers because of its Production development projects for DCTs reveal
be pre-selected and engaged in any combina- main advantages, namely very high efficiency that optimizing the vibration and noise behavior Combining these basic components in the soft-
tion. The shift finger unit, with interlock and dis- and excellent driving characteristics. However, is an important prerequisite for success. This in- ware with a diagnostic module for detecting de-
volves not only classic torsional damping systems fects in the system and a safety concept for pre-
2D mass-spring model 3D system simulation model but also vibration modes that feed back due to venting safety-critical situations in the software
complex interactions between the two clutches is required. The requirement for the safety con-
x and the transmission structure. Making adjust- cept derives from the functional and technical
Coupling thr
ough ttor
que gr
adientt y ments are possible using a wide range of system safety concept based on a hazard and risk analy-

al ttee

z parameters. sis. An example is the stress detection system for

preventing undesired stresses on the transmis-

For example, the helical teeth of the transmis-

ough helic

Vehicle sion.
i sion gears generates an axial motion on the

transmission input shafts that and the result in

An important prerequisite for implementing
“actuation” of the clutch. This actuation in turn
Coupling thr

optimum control, is detailed knowledge about

creates a modulation of the clutch torque. This
i the clutch and actuator characteristics, their
creates a resonance between axial motion and
Coupling thr
ough changes depending on the operating conditions
torsional vibration that can cause additional
helical ttee
th and the operating life, and their limits is soft-
noise. Mapping the system structure in a suit-
ware. For example, important characteristic
able simulation model for this vibration phe-
curve parameters such as contact point, friction
nomenon allows adjustments to the system pa-
value and hysteresis are permanently adapted
rameters to create stability in the system. A
Clutch online in current volume production projects.
stable system has high system damping, which
Configuring the software to account for other
generates no additional noise. Figure 11 shows
known influencing factors such as temperature,
the results of a parameter study for this vibra-
Shaft 1 Shaft 2 power and speed as well as interactions be-
Axial tion phenomenon.
tween the two clutches is required. However, to
Clutch Optimum function of the DCT depends not only on achieve optimum overall efficiency and driving
Transmission shaft 1 the hardware components but also on suitable comfort, the control software must function
Transmission shaft 2 control software that takes the special characteris- properly in conjunction with the engine control
Figure 10 Simulation models for DCTs (coupling of axial and torsional vibration modes) tics of a dry system into account. software.

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10 Dry double clutch Dry double clutch 10

Summary and Literature

outlook [1] Kimmig, K.-L.; Agner, I.: Double clutch –
Wet or dry, that is the question, 8th LuK
After successful volume production startups for
Symposium, 2006
various compact class vehicles, the dry DCT estab-
lishes itself in the market as a competent auto- [2] Wagner, U.; Berger, R.; Ehrlich, M.; Homm,
matic transmission. It has also made a significant M.: Electromotoric actuators for double
contribution to reducing CO2 emissions due to its clutch transmissions, 8th LuK Symposium,
excellent system efficiency. Developments of dif- 2006
ferent dry double clutch designs are required due
[3] Reik, W.: The clutch, the heart of the dou-
to space constraints and the decision for a special
ble clutch transmission – A look into the
actuator concept for controlling the clutch and
future; 5th International CTI Symposium,
the transmission. This shows that modern clutch
technologies enable engineers to find a suitable
solution for nearly every possible application for a
torque range from 150 to 350 Nm. Paying particu-
[4] Schäfer, M.: The control unit of Volkswa-
gen’s new dual-clutch transmission; 6th In- 10
lar attention to the description and simulation of ternational CTI Symposium, 2007
the system behavior from the beginning of the
[5] Jäggle, G.; Berger, R.; Boeuf, J.: System-
development of a double clutch system is re-
auslegung von Doppelkupplung und Betäti-
quired to achieve optimum efficiency, comfort
gung, VDI Conference, 2007
and durability.
[6] Kimmig, K.-L.; Wagner, U.; Berger, R.; Büh-
Two trends in the further development of the sys-
rle, P.; Zink, M.: Clutch systems for the
tem will be likely in the next few years. The first is
highly-efficient double clutch transmission;
that small vehicles with torques between 120 and
VDI Conference, 2008
180 Nm will require a compact dry double clutch
system. Secondly, these dry double clutch systems [7] Wagner, U.; Bührle, P.; Müller, B.; Kneissler,
will have to operate with even higher torques in M.; Kimmig, K.-L.; Dry double clutch sys-
design envelopes similar to those of current sys- tems – Innovative components for highly-
tems. With its comprehensive system expertise, effcient vehicle transmissions; ATZ Novem-
LuK is able to offer solutions for the increasing re- ber 2009
quirements for comfort and implement the dry
[8] Pollak, B.; Kneißler, M.; Esly, N; Norum, V;
double clutch in a growing number of applications
Hirt, G.: Electro-Mechanical Actuators –
in mid-size vehicles. The dry DCT with electrome-
Shifting Transmissions Into Gear, 7th LuK
chanical actuation is an ideal basis for expanding
Symposium, 2002
the drive train to include hybrid functions such as
stop/start, electric driving and regeneration in con- [9] Kimmig, K.-L.: The Self-Adjusting Clutch
junction with additional electric motors and appro- SAC of the 2nd Generation, 6th LuK Sympo-
priate batteries. sium, 1998

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