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Robert Reid, Jeffrey Bullock and David Fleer

This essay surveys and explores the implications of the New Homiletic,
the emerging Protestant paradigm for preaching, with particular atten-
tion to theorists Craddock, Buttrick, Mitchell, andLowry. It is the argument
of this essay that the creation of an experience in which both speaker and
audience are co-participants in an event of understanding that marks the
productive unity of this paradigm shift in homiletic method. This produc-
tive unity is considered in light of Paul Ricoeur's call for the recovery of
a signifying language for preaching.
The loss of the question of origin and meaning must be treated prior to the
question of preaching, because it is the restoration of this ground and this
kind of humus of meaning which appears to me to be one of the tasks of
Christian preaching. Christian preaching not only has to continue the
language of scripture, but to restore a signifying language, a language of
being and existence, in order to find a cultural expression.... Here I will
say: to preach is not to capitulate before the believable and the unbeliev-
able of modem man, but to struggle with the presuppositions of his culture,
in order to restore this interval of interrogation in which the question can
have meaning.
Paul Ricoeur

During the last quarter century, theorists of what is coming to be known as the New
Homiletic have been engaged in a radical re-appraisal of preaching. As Richard Eslinger
suggests in A New Hearing, the work of these homileticians represents a move away
from rationalistic presuppositions that give rise to the propositional model of preaching
to a new kind of homiletical model (13-14). To this we would add that the New Homi-
letic appears more interested in what the sermon may do and even undo in the experience
of the receiving audience, than pointedly conveying content. We believe that the most
productive aspect of this emerging paradigm shift in homiletic method is its focus on
the creation of an experience as opposed to a propositional privileging of content. And
it is with regard to this interest, perhaps even more than in its turning away from the
propositional model of preaching, that we believe the New Homiletic represents, in
Ricoeur's words, a serious attempt "to struggle with the presuppositions of... culture"
which seeks to "restore a signifying language" while still continuing "the language of
scripture." How it effects a signifying language, "a language of being and existence,"
relevant to the emerging cultural ethos is the subject of this essay. In summarizing the
leading approaches of the New Homiletic, the argument of this essay is that their pro-
ductive unity resides primarily in their concern with affective stylistics, with the
interpretive experience of listeners.
In our use of the phrase "interpretive experience" and "experience" in what follows,
we mean something akin to Gadamer's sense of Erfahrung as opposed to Erlebnis.
Throughout Truth and Method, Gadamer makes much of the distinction between these
two German words for "experience." Erlebnis is something you have; something which
is embedded with a subject/object dichotomy. In this context, it is an aesthetic experi-
ence that a preacher imparts or provides for a congregation. Erfahrung, on the other
hand, is something you undergo; the subjectivity of the subject/object dichotomy is
overcome by an event. In this context it implicates an integrative event in which preacher
and congregation participate in a coming to understanding of text together (xiii-xiv).


Most contemporary homileticians trace the birth of the New Homiletic to the publi-
cation in 1971 of Fred Craddock's As One Without Authority: Essays on Inductive
Preaching. In this formative work, Craddock initiated a move away from the deduc-
tively propositional and pedagogical approach of sermon preparation to a more inductive
conception of the task. The purpose of preaching from this perspective "is to engage
the hearer in the pursuit of an issue or an idea so that he [or she] will think his [or her]
own thoughts and experience his [or her] own feeling in the presence of Christ and in
the light of the gospel" (157). The goal of such a sermon is to create an experience of
"the word of God" in the listeners in order to effect a hearing of the Gospel.
Craddock's orientation toward listeners is further delineated in Preaching where he
describes the sermon as a communication event in which listeners are co-creators of the
sermonic experience (84-98). Sermons are to be designed to allow the congregation to
experience the preacher's own process of hermeneutical insight and appropriation. More
than imparting knowledge, this kind of sermon seeks to affect an experience by culti-
vating the surprise of the gospel through the preacher's ability to embed that experience
in the "local soil" of the world of the congregation.
Overhearing the Gospel functions as Craddock's apologetic for this his homiletic
approach. Citing Soren Kierkegaard's conception of communication by indirection,
Craddock turns away from both pedagogy and congregational approbation as the goals
of preaching. Instead, he calls the preacher to be a kind of Socratic maieut, one who,
like Socrates himself, was willing to midwife the possibilities of understanding and
appropriation by means of which the listener can enter the hermeneutical circle of the
text (91). Craddock's method is based on the Kierkegaardian premise that "[t]here is
no lack of information in a Christian land; something else is lacking, and this is a
something which the one man cannot directly communicate to the other" (9). The
essence of what is new is the hermeneutical concern for the audience as listeners and
for what they can experience. Instead of arriving at pre-determined truths, Craddock
proposes a model in which the preacher's own act of coming to insight provides a
pattern for a process rather than the blueprint for an answer. This shift toward coming
to understanding as an event, implicit in Craddock's concern for process and the expe-
rience of the listener, is made explicit in Buttrick's homiletics.


This move away from argument to what the audience affectively experiences is clearly
at the center of David Buttrick's homiletics, as well. Buttrick's Homiletic: Moves and
Structures shifts the discussion of thesis and argument style to ask: 1) how ideas form
in communal consciousness of an audience, and 2) what difference considering a ques-
tion like this should make in the structuring of sermons (28 and 276-79). He identifies
his approach as concerned with how language forms in human consciousness and how
individuals relate what they hear with lived experience. Instead of developing argu-
ments, Buttrick wants the preacher to focus on whether she or he has shaped the sermon
in a way that can bring about communal convictional understanding. Because people
interpret the world in consciousness metaphorically and the self in consciousness meta-
phorically, Buttrick concludes that a sermon should be characterized by this same
rhetorical process of imaging. After all, metaphor is itself an act of consciousness. He
maintains that because "faith (convictional understanding) is formed in the nexus of
image, symbol, metaphor, and ritual. . . therefore, the language of preaching [should]
essentially [be] metaphorical" as well" (125). In this sense, Buttrick wants to remove
the persuasive sermon from the traditional argument mode without denying that an
argument is being made.
The tradition of the topical sermon is not lost in this approach because "naming" is
as much the "stuff' of Christian preaching as "story"( 16-20). What makes his ap-
proach particularly interesting in the context of this discussion is his effort to reconceive
this role of what he calls symbolical reflective preaching without its traditional ratio-
nalist baggage. None of this should detract, however, from the recognition that Buttrick's
primary interest is in designing sermon strategies that affect an experience for an audi-
ence. His particular approach to this is the challenge he makes that preachers need to
create an experience of communal consciousness and thereby affectively assist a con-
gregation in the movement of its own convictional understanding.
This rhetorical concern for what happens with listeners and the question of how it is
that the audience participates in the event of preaching is central to that which is new in
the New Homiletic of Craddock and Buttrick. Craddock's "inductive approach" firmly
locates the authorizing impetus for the moment of insight in the preacher's hermeneutical
experience with the biblical text. That which is inductively experienced by the preacher
is to be so shaped that it may be dialogically re-experienced as an "event" by the audi-
ence. Buttrick, on the other hand, tends to shift the ground of his approach to a
phenomenology of the preaching "event," itself. He wants to liberate the "event" from
what he perceives to be the tyranny of a textual historicism without denying the impor-
tance of the text and the tradition of its interpretive heritage in and for the church. Thus,
for Buttrick, "Preaching is the Word of God" because it functions within God's liberat-
ing purpose and not necessarilybecause it is per se biblical (1994,31).
Tom Long has challenged what he calls Buttrick's theoretical move "to a rarefied
notion of how language forms in consciousness generally— in everybody, everywhere,
always" (1993, 183). He questions whether actual (rather than phenomenologically
idealized) audiences "experience" preaching with Buttrick's notion of unified commu-
nal consciousness. For his part. Long connects homiletics to experience rhetorically,
but, contra Buttrick, views preaching as an act of speech in the midst of the life of the
church in which listeners are not essentially alike (183-84). Buttrick wants to release
God's Word from both textual and profane captivity by defining Word of God, whether
as text or in preaching, according to the redemptive purpose or use to which its lan-
guage is put (1994, 29-32). But Long disagrees, arguing that the biblical text "alone
embodies the primary way in which the church discerns the will of God for its life"
(1989,49-50). Long's preacher is one who "becomes a witness to what has been seen
and heard through the scripture, and the preacher's authority grows out of this seeing
and hearing" (44). Here, the preacher's task is not to replicate the text for a listening
congregation, but to "regenerate the impact" of a biblical text such that it becomes the
Word of God once again in a new setting (1989b, 33-34). Yet like Buttrick (as opposed
to most other New Homileticians), Long is also still willing to entertain the possibilities
of topical preaching, arguing that it is one among a variety of faithful forms that grow
out of the particularities of preaching a truthful word (1989, 105).
Whatever reservations Long has with Buttrick's appropriation of a phenomenologi-
cal rhetoric, he does not question the shift that has occurred in homiletic theory, one
which began with Craddock and has been pursued by Buttrick. Where a former genera-
tion of ministers felt obliged to clarify meaning propositionally. Long notes that
contemporary preachers have begun to grasp that it is audience and preacher together
who create an affective experience of meaning (1993, 170-72).
This productive attention to the affective experience of the audience represents that
which we find to be new in the New Homiletics. Craddock's perspective may be the
most explicitly dialogical, but as noted here, Buttrick is equally concerned about view-
ing preaching as an event where meaning must be co-constructed. Of course, this
awareness of the dialogical nature of preaching though often attributed to Craddock,
did not originate with him. He notes this as well, pointing to the way in which this style
of preaching has long been operative in black preaching (1985,27). With black preach-
ing, far from being just the expression of the minister, sermons are often the message of
the entire congregation where ministers speak in and for the community rather than to it.


According to Henry Mitchell, part of the uniqueness of the black style of preaching
is the dialogue that occurs between the preacher and the audience. This dialogue in
which parishioners cry out such phrases as "Tell it," "That's right," Uh-huh," and "So
true" is, according to Mitchell, the "epitome of creative worship"(1969,127). The call
and response pattern invites the congregation's sustained involvement in the affirma-
tion of the preacher's ability to improvise on a proven theme, building to a
well-anticipated resolution. At the same time it is a means by which the minister is able
to call forth an abiding reaffirmationof the deeply held convictions of the congregation.
Black preaching is also distinguished by its complete avoidance of the rigid logic of the
traditional expository preaching style. Preachers are more inclined to "prove the depths"
than to make an argument (179). Hence, the Bible is more likely to be used as a homi-
letical sourcebook than the basis of doctrinal or ethical authority. In this context, black
preaching becomes the "transgenerational transmittal" of an originally oral biblical
tradition and authority emerges, not from the written text, but from the "imaginative
tradition" by which the preacher elaborates the phrases and stories of that heritage.
Thus, the central challenge for a black preacher is to learn the art of telling a Bible story
in a way that relates that narrative to the reality of the lived experience of the parishio-
ners. The re-appropriation of such stories and sagas permits the kind of acceptance and
belief that, according to Mitchell, sophisticated argumentation can never achieve.
In Celebration and Experience in Preaching Mitchell argues that the totality of hu-
man beings is best affected by offering vicarious encounters with experiences of biblical
narrative in which the preacher attempts to reach the intuitive consciousness df hearers.
Mitchell writes, "The term experiential encounter is used to denote a homiletical plan
in which the aim is to offer direct or vicarious encounters with experiences of truths
already certified as biblical, coherent, and relevant. Sermons are reasonable and rel-
evant sequences of Biblical affirmations planted in or offered to the intuitive
consciousness of hearers, by way of what may be called homiletical coworkers with the
Spirit." He argues that in order seriously to engage a narrative approach to preaching,
the speaker needs to actually "study in the mode of presence" (1990,36). In this mode
of preaching, the goal is not simply to substitute story (or stories) for points. Instead,
the preacher attempts to provide a vicarious reinterpretation of the biblical story instan-
tiated in the lived experience of the parishioners and to fashion that re-emplotted story
in such a way as to arrive at a final celebrative denouement of hope and possibility.


For some time, this role of narrative and story has been privileged in the New Homi-
letic. For many it was a necessary first step to wean oneself away from a dependence
on the rationalistic approaches to preaching. Mention of narrative preaching in the
trickle-down model of homiletic theory generally gets translated as doing a "first per-
son" sermon where the preacher dons the garb of the shepherd or the handmaiden and
tells the Biblical story from that individual's perspective. Implicit in even this design is
something about which narrativists would agree: persuasion that would move people to
act needs to be expressed as action, by a theory of mimetic emplotment as opposed to
the propositional presentation of an argument. Rather than look to the ordering of
ideas, what is too often referred to as the rhetorical approach, narrative preachers choose
to embrace poetics with its theory of ordering experience.
Since narrativity is a quality implicit or at least fundamental to human experience,
homileticians such as Eugene Lowry have argued that preachers would do well to struc-
ture sermons more by the theory of arrangement in Aristotle's Poetics than the theory of
argument in the Rhetoric. Like good jazz, sermons should trade in the resolution of
disequilibriums and the pursuit of complicating riffs rather than the linear logic of argu-
ment (1990, 67-77). Lowry is interested in how to emplot an experience instead of how
to make an argument, how to trade in temporal experience rather than spatial catego-
ries. In the Homiletical Plot Lowry conceptualizes a sermon as an ordered form of time
that moves from opening disequilibrium, through the complication of escalating con-
flict, to a crisis/revelation of reversal, and fmally to the concluding denouement. He
models this approach on the narrative style of Jesus, whose manner of communicating
invariably seemed to upset comfortable notions of religious responsibility and produc-
tivity only to reset the table according to a surprising gospel pattern (1980,58-61). In
Doing Time in the Pulpit Lowry argues that propositional Truth is reductionist by de-
sign, while narrative truth, like a poem, is never reducible to just one thing, but can be
filled with ambiguity and complexity. Propositional sermons order ideas spatially, while
imaging a sermon orders experience temporally. "Ideas," Lowry maintains, "seldom
have the power to supplant time; a story seldom fails"(1985,13). For Lx)wry, there is a
loss of human meaning when the predicaments of existence are organized in space
rather than in time. By turning events into "matters," it provides the illusion that they
may be "handled." By spatializing what we have to say into ideas that can be converted
into separate, distinct, measurable quantities we try to order them into a logic, "like
points in space or marks on a chronometer" (1985, 36). Time, however, like events, is
more elusive, and reflects the complexity of human existence. The only way to com-
municate meaning, he maintains is to do time in the pulpit.
In her essay "The Parameters of Narrative Preaching," Lucy Rose locates approaches
to the process of sermon invention on a continuum of logics/strategies; rational logics
at one end and narrative strategies on the other (1990, 24-47). Sermons completely
controlled by rational logic focus on a logical exposition of propositional Truth. Ser-
mons controlled by narrative strategies are plotted as story qua story—"truth" emerging
out of shared experience. The distinguishing feature of narrative preaching is found in
the inventional strategy that controls the approach to the task and whether that strategy
draws people into an experience, into a process of thinking their own thoughts, or in
one way or another supplies the answers/ propositions to which they should subscribe.

In the summation of his extensive reflection in the third volume of Time and Narra-
tive, Paul Ricoeur concludes that personal identity is only intelligible in the temporal
dimension of human existence, that our human conception of personal identity is pri-
marily a narrative identity, that narrative provides the primary set of signs and symbols
by means of which meaning is mediated and appropriated in human existence (1988,
249). He develops this notion again in his recent study in Oneself as Another, this time
seeking to devise a theory of narrative, "no longer considered from the perspective of
its relation to the constitution of human time, as I did in Time and Narrative, but from
that of its contribution to the constitution of the self." (1992, 114). This relationship
between time, narrative and personal identity represents the essential triadic tension of
the structure of human experience we believe is implicated in the New Homiletic's
interest in "the creation of an experience." They are the structures of Erfahrung experi-
ence that make possible the event of understanding in which preacher and congreation
participate. With Ricoeur we recognize limits to narrativity, that it does not exhaust the
question of the self-constancy of listeners. In this sense, the event of understanding in
which the listeners participate in the creation of meaning provides an experience by
which "narrative exercises the imagination more than the will, even though it [still]
remains a category of action" (1988, 249; cf. 1992, 162-63).
Therefore, whether by 'doing time' in the pulpit or by 'dialogically creating the
sermon experience,' we believe that the New Homileticians are actually trying to reach
the will through the imagination instead of through reason. This privileging of the
individual's experience of narrative and imagination over rational argument has the
effect of reversing Bacon's classic reformulation of the function of rhetoric in The Ad-
vancement of Learning: "The duty and office of Rhetoric is to apply Imagination to
Reason for the better moving of the will" (1990, 629). Our intention in reversing the
key words in this definition is not to reinstate Bacon's faculty psychology in a new
form. Rather, our intention is heuristically to suggest the dramatic difference between
the New Homiletics' approach to the communicative task and those approaches still
rooted in Enlightenment reasoning. This privileging of the individual's experience of
narrative and imagination over rational argument is conceptually the essence of what
we believe is the emerging paradigm shift in homiletic theory.
Like Ricoeur, the New Homiletics has not wholly rejected the rational as much as it
has subordinated its propositional, ideational orientation to the experience of temporal-
ity and personal identity. The functional result is to move away from questions of Truth
to raise questions of meaning and to relocate the authority of the sermon in its capacity
to transform, or refigure the hearer. It is here, at this point of refiguring encounter that
a fusion of horizons occurs and a "humus of meaning" implicated in the headpiece of
this essay can be recovered in preaching. For this reason, we believe that the productive
aspect of the New Homiletic— its concern with the affective creation of an experience
for listeners— may well be a significant and "signifying" means of finding a "cultural
expression" for the language of faith for the postmodern era of the late twentieth cen-
tury, a culture that will undoubtedly continue to question the assumptions of rationalism
even as it stands ready to enter a new century.
All three authors are ordained ministers in different Protestant denominations. Jeffrey
Bullock and David Fleer are currently completing doctoral studies at the University of
Washington Department ofSpeech-Communication. Robert Reid has been awarded the
doctorate from the University of Washington and is currently an adjunct professor at
Seattle Pacific University.

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