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# 2/11/2018

MPPU1034 @ MPU1034
Application of
Statistic in Educational
Research

## 425 32x 47%

VARIETIES AVERAGE CATS USING
OF SCONES GROWTH BIG DATA

## 90% OF PEOPLE THINK

38%
OF PEOPLE AGREE
SECURITY
IS A MAJOR FACTOR

## > > > > Over 50% of statistics are 100%

made up and not super real.

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gred A+, A, A-

## Memproleh gred Gagal kerana tidak

B+,B, B- hantar Tugasan.

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Introduction to Statistics
Students should be familiar with the terminology and
special notation of statistical analysis :-

Research Terms
Terms

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Introduction to Statistics
Students should be familiar with the terminology
and special notation of statistical analysis :-

• Research Terms
• correlational method
• experimental method
• independent variable
• dependent variable
• Non experimental method
• quasi-independent
• variable

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Introduction to Statistics
Students should be familiar with the terminology
and special notation of statistical analysis :-

• operational definition
• Nominal
• ordinal
• Interval
• Ratio
• discrete variable
• continuous variable
• real limits

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Introduction to Statistics
Students should be familiar with the terminology and special
notation of statistical analysis :-

• Statistical Terms
• Population
• sample
• parameter
• statistic
• descriptive statistics
• inferential statistics
• sampling error

Data

## • The measurements obtained in a research

study are called the data.
• The goal of statistics is to help researchers
organize and interpret the data.

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Population

## The entire group of individuals is called the

population.
For example, a researcher may be interested in the
relation between class size (variable 1) and academic
performance (variable 2) for the population of third-

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Sample

## Usually populations are so large

that a researcher cannot
examine the entire group.
Therefore, a sample is
selected to represent the
population in a research
study. The goal is to use the
results obtained from the

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persons

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Real Limits
• To define the units for a continuous variable, a researcher
must use real limits which are boundaries located

• Contoh
Selang 11 - 20, 21 - 30 ,31 - 40.
nilai real limits adalah 20.5 (lower limit),
30.5 (upper limit)

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Real Limits

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Variables

## • A variable is a characteristic or condition that

can change or take on different values.
• Most research begins with a general question about
the relationship between two variables for a specific
group of individuals. (eg: Male and Female, x&y)

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Types of Variables
Variables can be classified as discrete or
continuous.
CONTINUOUS
DISCRETE
continuous variables
Discrete variables (such as time or
(such as class size) weight) are infinitely
consist of indivisible divisible into
categories whatever units a
researcher may
choose. For example,
time can be
measured to the
nearest minute,
second, half-second,
etc.

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Types of Variables
• Discrete variable: no value can exist between two
neighboring categories.

## • Continues variable: there are infinite number of

possible values that fall between any two observed
value

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Measuring Variables

## • To establish relationships between variables,

researchers must observe the variables and record
their observations. This requires that the variables
be measured.

## • The process of measuring a variable requires a set

of categories called a scale of measurement
and a process that classifies each individual into
one category.

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## 1. A nominal scale is an unordered set of

categories identified only by name. Nominal
measurements only permit you to determine
whether two individuals are the same or different.
2. An ordinal scale is an ordered set of categories.
Ordinal measurements tell you the direction of
difference between two individuals.

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## Numbers are regarded as NOMINAL when they represent categories for

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classification of characteristics with no specific order.

## Eg.2 Numbers assigned to specific categories of colours:

1 for Blue 2 for Brown 3 for Green

Eg. 3*: Numbers representing a list of rate of death for each category (e.g.
state)
Nos. of Deaths for Three States

## State 1 State 2 State 3

45 34 20

Note: In general, the true order of magnitudes can be applied to these numbers,
i.e. 20 < 34 < 45 (so that 45, 34 and 20 are ordinal!)
However, the ‘comparative ordering’ cannot be applied in this particular
case, as the rate of 45 deaths in State 1 perhaps is lower (in terms of
percentage of the population) as compared to 20 deaths in State 3!

## Numbers are regarded as ORDINAL when they represent ordered relations

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of some characteristic, with the order having unspecified intervals.

1 very much
2 a little
3 not very much
4 not at all

## Eg. 3 Suppose you conduct an Algebra Readiness Test to 3 different groups of

samples, namely Traditional Class, Hands-on Class and Prealgebra Class.
Each of these classes comprises of 7 students. The scores obtained by
each student are shown below:

## Note: In this case, the numbers 95, 94, 89,

84,… can be ordered. Bearing in mind
the nature of interval scale, these
numbers may be regarded as
INTERVAL

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## 3. An interval scale is an ordered series of equal-sized

categories. Interval measurements identify the direction
and magnitude of a difference. The zero point is located
arbitrarily on an interval scale.
4. A ratio scale is an interval scale where a value of zero
indicates none of the variable. Ratio measurements
identify the direction and magnitude of differences and
allow ratio comparisons of measurements.

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Interval Scale

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Ratio Scale

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1

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Correlational Studies

## • The goal of a correlational study is to determine

whether there is a relationship between two
variables and to describe the relationship.
• A correlational study simply observes the two
variables as they exist naturally.

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Experiments

## • The goal of an experiment is to demonstrate a

cause-and-effect relationship between two
variables; that is, to show that changing the value of
one variable causes changes to occur in a second
variable.

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Experiments (cont.)

## • In an experiment, one variable is manipulated to create

treatment conditions. A second variable is observed and
measured to obtain scores for a group of individuals in
each of the treatment conditions. The measurements are
then compared to see if there are differences between
treatment conditions. All other variables are controlled to
prevent them from influencing the results.
• In an experiment, the manipulated variable is called the
independent variable and the observed variable is the
dependent variable.

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## • Other types of research studies, know as non-

experimental or quasi-experimental, are similar to
experiments because they also compare groups of
scores.
• These studies do not use a manipulated variable to
differentiate the groups. Instead, the variable that
differentiates the groups is usually a pre-existing
participant variable (such as male/female) or a time
variable (such as before/after).

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## • Because these studies do not use the manipulation

and control of true experiments, they cannot
demonstrate cause and effect relationships. As a
result, they are similar to correlational research
because they simply demonstrate and describe
relationships.

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## • Descriptive statistics are methods for organizing

and summarizing data.
• Inferential statistics are methods for using sample
data to make general conclusions (inferences)

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Descriptive Statistics

## • Descriptive statistics are methods for organizing

and summarizing data.
• For example, tables or graphs are used to organize
data, and descriptive values such as the average
score are used to summarize data.
• A descriptive value for a population is called a
parameter and a descriptive value for a sample is
called a statistic.

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Inferential Statistics

## • Inferential statistics are methods for using sample data to

make general conclusions (inferences) about populations.
• Because a sample is typically only a part of the whole
population, sample data provide only limited information
about the population. As a result, sample statistics are
generally imperfect representatives of the corresponding
population parameters.

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## Parameter & Statistics

Parameter Statistics
Number of cases N n
Mean µ x
Variance σ2 s2
Standard division σ s
Correlation coefficient ρ r

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Sampling Error

## • The discrepancy between a

sample statistic and its
population parameter is
called sampling error.
• Defining and measuring
sampling error is a large
part of inferential statistics.

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Notation

## • The individual measurements or scores

obtained for a research participant will be
identified by the letter X (or X and Y if there are
multiple scores for each individual).
• The number of scores in a data set will be
identified by N for a population or n for a
sample.
• Summing a set of values is a common
operation in statistics and has its own notation.
The Greek letter sigma, Σ, will be used to
stand for "the sum of." For example, ΣX
identifies the sum of the scores.
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X
72 5184
68
67
67
68
70
66

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X
72 5184
68
67
67
68
70
66
478 32666

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X Y XY
72 5184 165 27225 11880
68 151
67 160
67 160
68 146
70 160
66 133

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X Y XY
72 5184 165 27225 11880
68 151
67 160
67 160
68 146
70 160
66 133
478 32666 1075 165831 73494

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X Y XY
93 98
90 94
95 96
92 91
95 97
91 97
92 95
93 95

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NO 18 #33

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