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Statistics

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MPPU1034 @ MPU1034

Application of

Statistic in Educational

Research

VARIETIES AVERAGE CATS USING

OF SCONES GROWTH BIG DATA

38%

OF PEOPLE AGREE

SECURITY

IS A MAJOR FACTOR

made up and not super real.

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gred A+, A, A-

B+,B, B- hantar Tugasan.

Introduction to Statistics

Students should be familiar with the terminology and

special notation of statistical analysis :-

Research Terms

Terms

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Introduction to Statistics

Students should be familiar with the terminology

and special notation of statistical analysis :-

• Research Terms

• correlational method

• experimental method

• independent variable

• dependent variable

• Non experimental method

• quasi-independent

• variable

Introduction to Statistics

Students should be familiar with the terminology

and special notation of statistical analysis :-

• operational definition

• Nominal

• ordinal

• Interval

• Ratio

• discrete variable

• continuous variable

• real limits

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Students should be familiar with the terminology and special

notation of statistical analysis :-

• Statistical Terms

• Population

• sample

• parameter

• statistic

• descriptive statistics

• inferential statistics

• sampling error

Data

study are called the data.

• The goal of statistics is to help researchers

organize and interpret the data.

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Population

population.

For example, a researcher may be interested in the

relation between class size (variable 1) and academic

performance (variable 2) for the population of third-

grade children.

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Sample

that a researcher cannot

examine the entire group.

Therefore, a sample is

selected to represent the

population in a research

study. The goal is to use the

results obtained from the

sample to help answer

questions about the population.

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persons

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13

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Real Limits

• To define the units for a continuous variable, a researcher

must use real limits which are boundaries located

exactly half-way between adjacent categories.

• Contoh

Selang 11 - 20, 21 - 30 ,31 - 40.

nilai real limits adalah 20.5 (lower limit),

30.5 (upper limit)

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15

Real Limits

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Variables

can change or take on different values.

• Most research begins with a general question about

the relationship between two variables for a specific

group of individuals. (eg: Male and Female, x&y)

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Types of Variables

Variables can be classified as discrete or

continuous.

CONTINUOUS

DISCRETE

continuous variables

Discrete variables (such as time or

(such as class size) weight) are infinitely

consist of indivisible divisible into

categories whatever units a

researcher may

choose. For example,

time can be

measured to the

nearest minute,

second, half-second,

etc.

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Types of Variables

• Discrete variable: no value can exist between two

neighboring categories.

possible values that fall between any two observed

value

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Measuring Variables

researchers must observe the variables and record

their observations. This requires that the variables

be measured.

of categories called a scale of measurement

and a process that classifies each individual into

one category.

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categories identified only by name. Nominal

measurements only permit you to determine

whether two individuals are the same or different.

2. An ordinal scale is an ordered set of categories.

Ordinal measurements tell you the direction of

difference between two individuals.

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classification of characteristics with no specific order.

1 for Blue 2 for Brown 3 for Green

Eg. 3*: Numbers representing a list of rate of death for each category (e.g.

state)

Nos. of Deaths for Three States

45 34 20

Note: In general, the true order of magnitudes can be applied to these numbers,

i.e. 20 < 34 < 45 (so that 45, 34 and 20 are ordinal!)

However, the ‘comparative ordering’ cannot be applied in this particular

case, as the rate of 45 deaths in State 1 perhaps is lower (in terms of

percentage of the population) as compared to 20 deaths in State 3!

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of some characteristic, with the order having unspecified intervals.

1 very much

2 a little

3 not very much

4 not at all

samples, namely Traditional Class, Hands-on Class and Prealgebra Class.

Each of these classes comprises of 7 students. The scores obtained by

each student are shown below:

84,… can be ordered. Bearing in mind

the nature of interval scale, these

numbers may be regarded as

INTERVAL

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categories. Interval measurements identify the direction

and magnitude of a difference. The zero point is located

arbitrarily on an interval scale.

4. A ratio scale is an interval scale where a value of zero

indicates none of the variable. Ratio measurements

identify the direction and magnitude of differences and

allow ratio comparisons of measurements.

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Interval Scale

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25

Ratio Scale

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1

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Correlational Studies

whether there is a relationship between two

variables and to describe the relationship.

• A correlational study simply observes the two

variables as they exist naturally.

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29

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Experiments

cause-and-effect relationship between two

variables; that is, to show that changing the value of

one variable causes changes to occur in a second

variable.

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Experiments (cont.)

treatment conditions. A second variable is observed and

measured to obtain scores for a group of individuals in

each of the treatment conditions. The measurements are

then compared to see if there are differences between

treatment conditions. All other variables are controlled to

prevent them from influencing the results.

• In an experiment, the manipulated variable is called the

independent variable and the observed variable is the

dependent variable.

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33

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experimental or quasi-experimental, are similar to

experiments because they also compare groups of

scores.

• These studies do not use a manipulated variable to

differentiate the groups. Instead, the variable that

differentiates the groups is usually a pre-existing

participant variable (such as male/female) or a time

variable (such as before/after).

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35

and control of true experiments, they cannot

demonstrate cause and effect relationships. As a

result, they are similar to correlational research

because they simply demonstrate and describe

relationships.

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and summarizing data.

• Inferential statistics are methods for using sample

data to make general conclusions (inferences)

about populations

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Descriptive Statistics

and summarizing data.

• For example, tables or graphs are used to organize

data, and descriptive values such as the average

score are used to summarize data.

• A descriptive value for a population is called a

parameter and a descriptive value for a sample is

called a statistic.

40

Inferential Statistics

make general conclusions (inferences) about populations.

• Because a sample is typically only a part of the whole

population, sample data provide only limited information

about the population. As a result, sample statistics are

generally imperfect representatives of the corresponding

population parameters.

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41

Parameter Statistics

Number of cases N n

Mean µ x

Variance σ2 s2

Standard division σ s

Correlation coefficient ρ r

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Sampling Error

sample statistic and its

population parameter is

called sampling error.

• Defining and measuring

sampling error is a large

part of inferential statistics.

44

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Notation

obtained for a research participant will be

identified by the letter X (or X and Y if there are

multiple scores for each individual).

• The number of scores in a data set will be

identified by N for a population or n for a

sample.

• Summing a set of values is a common

operation in statistics and has its own notation.

The Greek letter sigma, Σ, will be used to

stand for "the sum of." For example, ΣX

identifies the sum of the scores.

www.utm.my innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global

46

X

72 5184

68

67

67

68

70

66

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X

72 5184

68

67

67

68

70

66

478 32666

48

X Y XY

72 5184 165 27225 11880

68 151

67 160

67 160

68 146

70 160

66 133

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X Y XY

72 5184 165 27225 11880

68 151

67 160

67 160

68 146

70 160

66 133

478 32666 1075 165831 73494

50

X Y XY

93 98

90 94

95 96

92 91

95 97

91 97

92 95

93 95

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NO 18 #33

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