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Conceptual idea is attributed to David Williamson in the 1960’s, but it took development of CNC and programmable controllers to make the concept truly viable.
w Current world & business environment w Manufacturing system basics w Types of flexibility w Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) w Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) w System trade-offs
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 2
What's Happening Today?
w Capital costs are increasing
Change Change Change Change Change
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 3
w Multi-national marketplace
w Value of $$ is changing
w Incredible market dynamics
w "Virtual" technology explosion
part. or set of parts.Manufacturing Systems w Definition w Manufacturing system components w Computer control system functions w Human resources w Classification of manufacturing systems Computer Integrated Manufacturing 4 Definition: Manufacturing System A manufacturing system is a collection of integrated equipment and human resources. whose function is to perform one or more processing and/or assembly operations on a starting raw material. Computer Integrated Manufacturing 5 Manufacturing System Components w What are they? w How are they combined? w How are they organized? w Production machines w Material handling system w Computer control system w Human resources Computer Integrated Manufacturing 6 2 .
types of flexibility) Computer Integrated Manufacturing 7 Types of Manufacturing Systems w Mass production (transfer line) w Special systems w Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) w Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) w Stand-alone CNC systems Computer Integrated Manufacturing 8 Why FMS?? w Increased Productivity w Cost-effective Investment w Flexibility High Quality Lower Cost Shorter Lead Time Respond to Change Computer Integrated Manufacturing 9 3 .Classification of Manufacturing Systems w Types of operations w Number of workstations & layout w Level of automation w Part or product variety (how to handle.
and under the direction of a (central) control system. Computer Integrated Manufacturing 12 4 . to produce a variety of parts. integrated with material handling equipment.FMS is Business Driven w Improved profitability n n n n Reduced lead times Reduced inventory levels Rapid response to market changes Lower staffing levels Increased operational flexibility Increased predictability Increased control Computer Integrated Manufacturing 10 w Improved manufacturing effectiveness n n n FMS: Impact on Manufacturing w Need for managing change w More complex products w Need for greater flexibility w Need for faster time-to-market Computer Integrated Manufacturing 11 Definition: FMS Group of machines or processes. batch sizes & quantities. at non-uniform production rates.
1991. stems from recent advances in manufacturing controls that allow design details to reside in a machine software rather than the mechanics of its physical structure * Fischer.Part Design Flexibility vs. "Computer Software for Flexible Manufacturing Systems. G." Handbook of Flexible Manufacturing Systems. characterized by capability to make up lost production (achieved in past through large WIP inventory) w System — Makes it possible to add or change existing manufacturing processes to increase productivity.. including new products and modified designs. Operating Flexibility Part Design Flexibility Operating Flexibility Computer Integrated Manufacturing 13 Types of FMS Flexibility* w Product design — Makes it possible to accommodate a variety of product designs. pp. 1993 Computer Integrated Manufacturing 15 5 . such as production schedules and model mix. Inc. Rembold et al. Academic Press.W.61-87 Computer Integrated Manufacturing 14 Types of FMS Flexibility (cont'd) w Operating — Makes it possible to reduce manufacturing costs while responding to changes in manufacturing conditions..
g. e. forming.. assembly Computer Integrated Manufacturing 17 Invest or Not Invest?? w Type of equipment available vs. heat treat.FMS: Important Technologies w w w w w w w w Microprocessor Digital system simulation Design optimization tools Computer aided process planning Process controlled quality More software control Advanced industrial controls Industrial robots Computer Integrated Manufacturing 16 FMS: Other Significant Technologies w w w w w w w Advanced sensors Improved diagnosis Higher speed On-line/in-process inspection Quick-change tooling Tool wear monitor Development with other processes. operations needed w Types of parts & number of part #'s w Part tolerances & material requirements w Design change expected w Operational/schedule change expected Computer Integrated Manufacturing 18 6 .
Invest or Not Invest?? (cont'd) w Production volumes w Product life & lead time requirements w Direct labor available w Dollars available to invest w Other investment alternatives for company Computer Integrated Manufacturing 19 Part Manufacturing Target for FMS w Mid-volume w Mid-variety Computer Integrated Manufacturing 20 Production Volume vs. of part nos. Product Flexibility Production Volume (parts/yr) Transfer Line Computer Integrated Manufacturing System (CIMS) Stand-alone CNC Product Flexibility (no.) Computer Integrated Manufacturing 21 7 .
System Trade-offs w Transfer lines n Large volume production/high output rate (~ 15. sometimes only one part n Changeover difficult/requires shutdown of line & machine retooling n Need to replace machines for major design changes Computer Integrated Manufacturing 22 Transfer Line Computer Integrated Manufacturing 23 System Trade-offs (cont'd) w Stand-alone CNC n Efficiently accommodates part design change n Reprogram for design changeover/design change n Low production quantities (~up to 800 parts/yr) w CIMS n Between high production rates & high flexibility (mid-volume) n Fills in gap between transfer lines & low volume CNC machines Computer Integrated Manufacturing 24 8 .000+ parts/yr) n Parts are virtually identical.
000 Similar to transfer line in flow Most flexible of CIMS.g.. but lowest production rate (40-800 different parts @ 15-500/yr) Mixed CNC machine tools..Machining Center Computer Integrated Manufacturing 25 System Trade-offs (cont'd) w Special system n n n n n Least flexible CIMS Limited number of different parts (e. 4-100 different part #'s with 40-2000/yr Lot sizes may vary between less than 50 to 500 or more Central load/unload & palletized fixtures Routing varies with part loading & FMS type Typically central computer (monitor.h.000) Includes special purpose machine tools Lot sizes: 200 -10. maybe w/o automated m. e. schedule & control) Computer Integrated Manufacturing 27 9 . 2 -8) in same family (volume: ~1500-15.g. Computer Integrated Manufacturing 26 w Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) n n System Trade-offs (cont'd) w FMS n n n n n Several part families.
FMS Concepts w Single station routing part flow w Sequential routing part flow w Random routing part flow Computer Integrated Manufacturing 28 FMS Concepts w Single station n n n Tailor to design or operational change need Attributes of both random & sequential flow Problem areas: overall accuracy & required head investment Computer Integrated Manufacturing 29 Single Station FMS Computer Integrated Manufacturing 30 10 .
higher throughput capacity Similar operation sequences Simpler material handling Potential problems: over & under utilization.Head Changer Computer Integrated Manufacturing 31 FMS Concepts (cont'd) w Sequential flow n n n n Accommodates operational part mix change. machines repeated for repeated operations Computer Integrated Manufacturing 32 Sequential FMS Computer Integrated Manufacturing 33 11 .
reduced capacity with over & under utilized machine tools Computer Integrated Manufacturing 35 Random FMS Computer Integrated Manufacturing 36 12 .Sequential FMS Examples Computer Integrated Manufacturing 34 FMS Concepts (cont'd) w Random flow n n n High degree of design flexibility & limited operating flexibility Complex material handling system Potential problems: availability of machine tools.
Head Indexer Computer Integrated Manufacturing 37 John Deere Tractor Computer Integrated Manufacturing 38 FMS at John Deere Computer Integrated Manufacturing 39 13 .
Rate moderate highest lowest Computer Integrated Manufacturing 40 Computer Functions for FMS w w w w w w w w Control of each workstation Distribution of control instructions to workstations Production control Traffic control Shuttle control Workhandling system monitoring Tool control System performance monitoring & reporting Computer Integrated Manufacturing 41 Personnel Requirements for FMS w w w w w w w w System manager Electrical technician Mechanical/hydraulic technician Tool setter Fixture setup & lead man Load/unload man Rover operator Other: NC programmer. computer programmers.FMS: Machine Tool Trade-offs Head Changer Head Indexer Machining Center Tooling multiple tool multiple tool single point (spindle) Flexibility moderate lowest highest Prod. other support staff Computer Integrated Manufacturing 42 14 .
Benefits to Business Elements w Manufacturing n n n n Combine low part volumes to get economies of scale Single system manager benefits Adaptable to several product life cycles Simplified new product introduction on existing equipment Facilitates design update & refinement Encourages design innovation Facilitates use of existing designs for new applications Computer Integrated Manufacturing 43 w Product Engineering (Design) n n n Benefits to Business Elements (cont'd) w Marketing n n n n Lower cost basis for mid-volume production Shorter lead times/adapt to market dynamics Expand capacity to growth needs Respond to schedule/model mix Better use of capital investment dollars Better tailor capacity & volume Produce old & new designs on the same production equipment Lower new product introduction cost Computer Integrated Manufacturing 44 w Finance n n n n Manufacturing Cells w Single station manned cells w Single station automated cells w Applications of single station cells w Analysis of single station cells Computer Integrated Manufacturing 45 15 .
Single Station Manned Cells w Requires shortest amount of time to implement w Requires least capital investment w Technologically. each producing different part w Plastic injection molding machine with mechanical arm to remove part w Automated electronic assembly machine w Robotic assembly cell w Stamping press that punches & forms small sheet metal parts Computer Integrated Manufacturing 48 16 . easiest to install & operate w Often results in lowest cost per unit produced w Most flexible manufacturing system Computer Integrated Manufacturing 46 Single Station Automated Cells w Reduced labor requirement/cost w Easiest & least expensive among automated systems to implement w Higher production rates possible w First step in implementing integrated multistation automated system Computer Integrated Manufacturing 47 Applications of Single Station Cells w CNC machining center with parts carousel & automatic pallet changer w CNC turning center with parts storage tray & robot (same or different parts) w Cluster of CNC turning centers.
minuses w Pluses vs.Analysis of Single Station Cells w Determine number of required workstations n n n n Include setup time Consider availability & machine utilization Consider worker efficiency Consider defect rate w Determine number of machines for single worker (cluster of machines) Computer Integrated Manufacturing 49 System Trade-offs w Advantages vs. other pluses w Cost vs. benefits w Optimization strategies Computer Integrated Manufacturing 50 17 . disadvantages w Pluses vs.