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‘The second law of thermodynamics leads tothe definition of
‘new propery called entropy, which is « quantitative mea-
sure of miewoscopie disorder for a system. Any quantity
‘whose cyclic imepral is zero is a propery, and enttopy is
sefined as
2
Sor
‘The inequality part of the Clusius inequality combined with
the definition of entropy yields an inequality known as the
increase of entropy principle, expressed as
Ss 20
‘whore Sigg iS the entropy generated during the process.
Entropy change fs caused by heat transfer, mass flow, and
lmoveribliios. Heat transfer to a system increases the
entropy, and heat transfer from a system decreases it. The
cllect of ireversibilties is always to increase the entropy
‘The entropy-change and isentropic relations fora process
can be summarized as follows:
1. Pure substances:
‘Any process: Asma—5
senropic process: om
Any process:
Tsentropie process:
3 Meat gases:
‘a. Constant specific heats (appronimate teatmen):
Any process:
in Zaria
Bon Om
2, Variable specific heats (exact treatment):
‘Any process
Soh Rinentropic press:
where P, isthe relaive pressure and v, i the relative spe-
cfc volume. The fanetion ° depends on temperature onl.
‘The steady-flow work for a reversible process can be
‘expressed in ters ofthe fig propestios as
san =[ var eae
For incompressible substances (v = constant) it simplifies to
Way = “UP: = Py) ~ Ake — Ape
‘The work done during a steady-flow process is proportional
to the specific volume. Therefore, v should be kep¢ as sll
1s possible during a compression process 10 minimize the
work input and as large as possible during an expansion
Process fo manimize the work pa.
“The reversible work inputs to a compressor compressing an
ideal gas from 7, P, to Py in an isentropic (PU* = constant)
polytopic (Pv* ~ Constan), of isothermal (Py = constant)
‘manner, ae determined by integration for each case with the
toe ae AF
un) ”~"]
heaps sn 1)
Polytropic: Wana
‘The work iaput Yo-a compressor ea be reduced By Using
‘multistage compression with inercooling, For maximum sav-
‘ngs from the work input, the pressure rato across each stage
‘of the compressor must he the same.
Most steady-low devices operate under adiabatic condi-
tions. and the ideal process for these devices is the isentropic
process. The parameter that doscrines how fficionly a
device approximates a coresponding isentropic deviee is
called isentropic or adlabarc efciency. 1 i expressed for
turbines, compressors, and nores a follows:
___Acival urine work __ Wy
7 Frenuopic rine work ~
Isenopic compressor work
~~ Retual compressor work
(__Aciual KE atmorae exit V8, fh — hay
iKenwopis KE at aousleexit Vi, ~ hs — hy
Inthe telations above, fy, and fh, ar the enthalpy values at
the exit state fractal and ineniropc processes, respect
‘The entropy balance for any system undewoing any
process canbe express i he general frm
oy = ag
w
Se~Su + Sua > ASyen
[SS
in the rte form, 33
Sa Sa + Sun - nual