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DRAFT

MALAYSIAN MTIB14TC2004R1

STANDARD
STAGE: PUBLIC COMMENT (40.20)
DATE: 7 SEPTEMBER 2015 – 6 NOVEMBER 2015

Code of practice for structural timber – Part 2:


permissible stress design of solid timber
(First revision)

ICS: 91.080.20
Descriptors: member, compression member, tension member, built-up beam, spaced column

© Copyright 2015

DEPARTMENT OF STANDARDS MALAYSIA


CONTENTS

Page

Committee representation............................................................................……………… … iv

Foreword……...............................................................................................……………… … v

1 Scope………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

2 Referenced documents……………………………………………………………….......... 1

3 Terms and definition…………………………………………………………………………. 2

4 Timber specification………………………………………………………………………….. 2

5 Species……………………………………………………………………………………….... 2

6 Dimensions and geometrical properties……………………………………………………. 2

7 Grades………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

8 Grade stresses for individual species and strength group …………………………....... 3

9 Permissible stresses…………………………………………………………………………. 20

10 Duration of loading…………………………………………………………………………... 20

11 Load-sharing systems………………………………………………………………………. 21

12 Flexural members…………………………………………………………………………... 22

13 Compression members…………………………………………………………………….. 28

14 Tension members…………………………………………………………………………… 33

2
Table 1 Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm ) moisture content 19 %…………………… 5
2
Table 2 Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm ) moisture content 19 %…………………… 11

Table 3 Strength groups of timber…………………………………………………………………. 17

Table 4 Wet and dry grade stresses for various strength groups of timber
2
(stresses and moduli expressed in N/mm )…………………………………………….. 19

Table 5 Modification factor K1 for duration of loading…………………………………………. 20

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved ii


MTIB14TC2004R1
Table 6 Modification factor K3 for bearing stress……………………………………………….. 23

CONTENTS (continued)

Page

Table 7 Maximum depth to breadth ratios (solid and laminated members)…………….. 26

Table 8 Modification factor K7 used to modify the minimum modulus of elasticity for
trimmer joints and lintels…………………………………………………………….. 27

Table 9 Effective length of compression members……………………………………….. 28

Table 10 Modification factor K8 for compression members………………………………. 30

Table 11 Modification factor K9 for the effective length of spaced columns…………… 32

Table A1 Common commercial timber sizes ………………………………………………... 41

Table A2a Geometrical properties of sawn timber at wet condition……………………… 42

Table A2b Geometrical properties of sawn timber at 19 % moisture content……………. 44

Figure 1 Position of end bearing………………………………………………………………. 22

Figure 2 Notched beams……………………………………………………………………….. 24

Figure 3 Axes in spaced columns……………………………………………………………… 32

Annex A Sizes and geometrical properties of Malaysian structural timbers……………… 41

Annex B Modification factor for compression members…………………………………….. 46

Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………. 47.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved iii


Committee representation

The Industry Standards Committee on Timber, Timber Products and Timber Structures, under whose authority this
Malaysian Standard was developed, comprises representatives from the following organisations:

Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia


Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Department of Standards Malaysia
Institution of Engineers Malaysia
Jabatan Kerajaan Tempatan
Malaysian Furniture Promotion Council
Malaysian Panel-Products Manufacturer’s Association
Malaysian Public Works Department
Malaysian Timber Council
Malaysian Timber Industry Board (Secretariat)
Malaysian Wood Industries Association
Malaysian Wood Moulding and Joinery Council
Malaysian Wood Preserving Association
Sabah Timber Industries Association
Sarawak Timber Association
Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation
Timber Exporters Association of Malaysia
Universiti Putra Malaysia
UniversitiTeknologi MARA

The Technical Committee on Timber Structures which supervised the development of this Malaysian Standard
consists of representatives from the following organisations:

Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia


Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Institute of Engineers Malaysia
Malaysian Institute of Architects
Malaysian Timber Council
Malaysian Timber Industry Board (Secretariat)
Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing & Local Government
Multinail Asia Sdn Bhd
Public Works Department
Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation
Timber Exporters’ Association of Malaysia
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Mara
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Wood Industry Skills Development Centre

The Working Group on Structural Use of Timber Part 11 which developed this Malaysian Standard consists of
representatives from the following organisations:

Forest Research Institute Malaysia


Malaysian Timber Industry Board (Secretariat)
Multinail Asia Sdn Bhd
Public Works Department
Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved iv


MTIB14TC2004R1

FOREWORD

This Malaysian Standard was developed by the Working Group on MS 544 Part 1 under the
authority of the Timber, Timber Products and Timber Structures Industry Standard
Committee.

This Malaysian Standard is the first revision of MS 544 - 2, Code of practice for structural use
of timber – Part 2: Permissible stress design of solid timber.

Major modifications in this revision are as follows:

a) The scope has been modified;

b) Annex A and B has been modified; and

c) The structure of MS has been modified

MS 544 consists of the following parts and sections, under the general title Code of practice
for structural use of timber:

Part 1: General

Part 2: Permissible stress design of solid timber

Part 3: Permissible stress design of glued laminated timber

Part 4: Timber panel products

Part 4 is further divided into a number of sections as follows:

Section 1: Structural plywood

Section 2: Marine plywood

Section 3: Cement bonded particleboard

Section 4: Oriented strand board

Part 5: Timber joints

Part 6: Workmanship, inspection and maintenance

Part 7: Testing

Part 8: Design, fabrication and installation of prefabricated timber for roof trusses

Part 9: Fire resistance of timber structures

Part 9 is further subdivided into a number of sections as follows:

Section 1: Method of calculating fire resistance of timber members

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved v


FOREWORD (Continued)

Part 10: Preservative treatment of structural timbers

Part 11: Recommendation for the calculation basis for span tables

Part 11 is further divided into a number of sections as follows:

Section 1: Domestic floor joists

Section 2: Ceiling joists

Section 3: Ceiling binders

Section 4: Domestic rafters

Part 12: Laminated veneer lumber for structural application

This Malaysian Standard cancels and replaces MS 544-2: 2001.

Compliance with a Malaysian Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal
obligations.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved vi


Code of practice for structural use of timber - Part 2: Permissible stress
design of solid timber (First revision)

1 Scope

This Part gives recommendations for the structural use of the Malaysian hardwood and
softwood timber species in load bearing members. It includes recommendations on quality,
grade stresses and modification factors applicable to these timbers when used as simple
members, or as parts of built-up components, or as parts of structures incorporating other
materials. It does not, and it is not intended to deal comprehensively with all aspects of timber
construction. In particular it does not cover well tried and traditional methods of timber
construction which have been employed successfully over a long period of time.

2 References documents

The following referenced normative references are indispensable for the application of this
standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the
latest edition of the normative reference (including any amendments) applies.

MS 544 – 1, Code of practice for structural use of timber - Part 1: General

MS 544 – 3, Code of practice for structural use of timber - Part 3: Permissible stress design
of glued laminated timber

MS 544 – 5, Code of practice for structural use of timber - Part 5: Timber joints

MS 1714: 2003, Specification for Visual Strength Grading Of Tropical Hardwood Timber

BS 5268-2:1996, Structural use of timber - Part 2: Code of practice for permissible


stress design, materials and workmanship

MS 1553: 2002, Code of Practice on Wind Loading For Building Structure

MS 837: 2006, Solid Timber - Determination of Moisture Content (First Revision)

MS 360: 2006, Treatment of Timber with Copper/Chrome/Arsenic (CCA)


Wood Preservatives – Specification (Third Revision)

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 1


3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this Standard, the terms and definitions given in BS 6100-0:2010 and MS
544-1 apply.

4. Timber specification

Specifiers should consider and, where necessary, specify requirements under each of the
following headings. All relevant standards should be referenced.

a) Strength group, grade and species (see MS 544 Part 1, Clause 5)

b) Sizes and surface condition (see MS 544 Part 1 Sub-clause 6.8, see MS 544 Part 2
Clause 6).

c) Service class or moisture content. (see MS 544 Part 1 Sub-clause 6.4).

d) Durability (see MS 837: 2006: Solid Timber - Determination Of Moisture Content


(First Revision)

e) Preservation and preservatives of timber.(see MS 360:2006)

f) Special requirements. These may include more restrictive grade, requirements for
distortion, wane and marking and preservation treatment (see MS 1714:2003:
Specification for Visual Strength Grading of Tropical Hardwood Timber).

5 Species

Many factors are involved in the choice of species but from the purely structural view, it is the
grade stresses which are of prime importance. These differ for each species and grade. To
provide an alternative method of specification for the designer and specifiers and greater
flexibility of supply, MS 544: Part 2 gives a series of strength groups which for design use can
be considered as being independent of species. Grade stresses for individual species are
given in Tables 1 and 2, and strength groups (SG) are given in Table 4. The list of species
under each strength group is given in Table 3. For some applications it may be necessary to
specify particular species from within a strength group to take into account of particular
characteristics, e.g. natural durability, amenability to preservatives, glues and fasteners.

NOTE. Example for preservatives see MS 360:2006: Treatment of Timber with Copper / Chrome / Arsenic (CCA)
Wood Preservatives – Specification (Third Revision),

6 Dimensions and geometrical properties

Timber structures can be designed using any size of timber. For design purposes, the
effective cross-section and geometrical properties of a structural member should be
calculated using the target size. Some common commercial timber sizes are given in Annex
A, Table A1 and geometrical properties are given in Table A2 and A3.

It is essential to include the required target dimensions of members in specifications and


drawings.

2 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


For timber specified in accordance with Appendix A, the design should be based on its target
size (minimum size). No modifications need to be made to the geometrical properties which
change size with moisture content.

7 Grades

All timbers used for structural work should be stress graded in accordance with MS 1714:
2003.

8 Grade stresses for individual species and strength group


8.1 General

Grade stresses for wet and dry conditions are given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively for
individual species and Table 4 for each strength groups and grades.

As it is difficult to artificially dry timber more than 100 mm thick, the wet stresses and moduli
should normally be used for solid timber members more than 100 mm thick, unless they are
specially dried.

Design may be based either on the grade stresses for the strength group or on those for the
individual species and grades.

8.2 Clear wood stresses in timber

The clear wood stresses applicable to some structural timber are given in Tables 1 and 2.
These are governed by the general characteristics of the particular species, free from all
visible defects and are related to the strength of the timber in wet and dry conditions
respectively.

In the derivation of clear wood stresses, the following factors have been considered:

a) moisture content;

b) variability; and

c) factors of safety (which includes duration of loading, size and shape of member,
accidental overloading, errors in design assumptions, etc.)

8.3 Grade stresses in sawn timber

Grade stresses are related to clear wood stresses of the individual species (see Clause 7.2)
and governed by the effect of visible gross features such as knots, sloping grain etc. (see MS
1714:2003)

The reduction in strength due to a defect is expressed in terms of the strength ratio which
may be defined as the ratio of the strength of a piece of timber with a defect to the strength of
the same piece without a defect. Strength ratios used in reducing the clear wood stresses to
the grade stresses are related to the particular grade and are also governed by the defects
which influence the particular strength property.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 3


It should be noted that the intrinsic material cost rises with the grade, whilst general
availability is reduced. At the design stage, reference should be made to commercial sources
for information on the availability of particular species, grades quantities and dimensions.

The stresses of different grades of timber species are given in Tables 1 and 2.

8.4 Strength groups of timbers

Timbers having similar strength and stiffness properties have been grouped together for
simplicity in design procedure (see Table 4).

The groups thus formed are necessarily based on the weakest species in the particular group.
To overcome possible shortages of certain timber species in different regions of Malaysia it is
recommended that designs be based on strength groups and that designers specify structural
timber requirements in terms of strength groups. Where designers wish to take full advantage
of the strength of particular species, and where commercial supplies are known to exist, a
particular timber species may be specified, and the grade quoted for individual species may
be used.

4 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 %

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain p
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com S
1 Agoho 22.9 18.1 14.3 13.8 10.8 8.6 20.3 16.0 12.7 4.82 4.10 3.86 3.61 1
3)
2 Alan bunga 13.8 10.9 8.6 8.3 6.5 5.2 12.4 9.8 7.7 1.29 1.10 1.03 0.97 1
3)
3 Ara 6.9 5.4 4.3 4.1 3.2 2.6 7.7 6.0 4.8 1.03 0.87 0.82 0.77 1
3) 3)
4 Babai 12.5 9.8 7.8 7.5 5.9 4.7 10.7 8.4 6.7 1.86 1.58 1.49 1.40 1
5 Balau 30.3 23.9 18.9 18.2 14.3 11.3 26.8 21.1 16.8 4.59 3.90 3.67 3.44 2
6 Balau, red 18.1 14.2 11.3 10.9 8.5 6.8 15.3 12.0 9.5 2.38 2.02 1.90 1.78 2
7 Balek angin 10.8 8.5 6.7 6.5 5.1 4.0 14.7 11.6 9.2 2.59 2.20 2.07 1.94 2
bopeng
8 Batai 8.7 6.8 5.4 5.2 4.1 3.2 6.1 4.8 3.8 0.62 0.53 0.50 0.46 0
9 Bayur 12.2 9.6 7.6 7.3 5.8 4.6 8.5 6.7 5.3 1.64 1.39 1.31 1.23 1
3)
10 Bekak 20.8 16.4 13.0 12.5 9.8 7.8 17.2 13.5 10.7 3.20 2.72 2.56 2.40 2
3)
11 Belian 29.0 22.8 18.1 17.4 13.7 10.9 28.6 22.6 17.9 5.43 4.62 4.34 4.07 2
12 Berangan 14.3 11.3 8.9 8.5 6.7 5.4 13.8 10.8 8.6 3.03 2.57 2.42 2.27 1
13 Bintangor 11.7 9.2 7.3 7.0 5.5 4.4 10.6 8.4 6.6 1.52 1.29 1.22 1.14 1
14 Bitis 30.0 23.6 18.8 18.0 14.2 11.3 32.3 25.5 20.2 5.53 4.70 4.42 4.15 2
15 Brazil nut 18.1 14.2 11.3 10.8 8.5 6.8 11.7 9.2 7.3 3.01 2.56 2.41 2.26 2
16 Chengal 31.6 24.9 19.7 19.0 14.9 11.8 30.2 23.8 18.9 5.85 4.97 4.68 4.39 3
3)
17 Damar Minyak 9.6 7.6 6.0 5.8 4.6 3.6 8.2 6.5 5.2 1.08 0.92 0.86 0.81 1

2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to pa
1)
grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com Sel
18 Dedali 14.2 11.2 8.8 8.5 6.7 5.3 12.2 9.6 7.7 2.26 1.92 1.81 1.69 1.53
19 Dedaru 28.6 22.5 17.9 17.2 13.5 10.7 23.7 18.7 14.9 3.50 2.97 2.80 2.62 2.67
20 Delek 21.5 16.9 13.4 12.9 10.1 8.0 16.2 12.7 10.1 3.95 3.36 3.16 2.96 2.10
3)
21 Derum 15.4 12.1 19.6 9.2 7.3 5.8 14.3 11.3 8.9 2.54 2.16 2.03 1.90 2.68
22 Durian 13.1 10.3 8.2 7.9 6.2 4.9 11.4 8.9 7.1 1.41 1.20 1.13 1.06 1.43
23 Geronggang 9.5 7.5 5.9 5.7 4.5 3.5 6.6 5.2 4.1 0.94 0.80 0.75 0.70 1.09
24 Gerutu 16.3 12.9 10.2 9.8 7.7 6.1 15.6 12.3 9.7 1.69 1.44 1.35 1.27 1.33

20 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


25 Giam 26.0 20.5 16.3 15.6 12.3 9.8 21.9 17.3 13.7 5.33 4.53 4.26 4.00 3.26
3)
26 Jelutong 9.4 7.4 5.9 5.6 4.4 3.5 8.0 6.3 5.0 1.02 0.87 0.82 0.76 1.23
27 Jenitri 10.1 7.9 6.2 6.0 4.7 3.8 7.8 6.2 4.9 1.02 0.87 0.82 0.76 1.26
3)
28 Jongkong 11.3 8.9 7.0 6.8 5.3 4.2 9.4 7.4 5.9 1.02 0.87 0.82 0.76 1.44
29 Kapur 19.2 15.1 12.0 11.5 9.1 7.2 17.2 13.5 10.8 2.70 2.30 2.16 2.03 1.71
30 Kasah 10.0 7.9 6.2 6.0 4.7 3.7 9.1 7.2 5.7 1.53 1.30 1.22 1.15 1.71
3) 3)
31 Kasai 14.9 11.7 9.3 8.9 7.0 5.6 12.6 9.9 7.8 2.40 2.04 1.92 1.80 2.00
32 KayuKundur 13.9 11.0 8.7 8.4 6.6 5.2 12.3 9.6 7.7 2.37 2.01 1.90 1.78 1.86
33 Kedondong 13.3 10.5 8.3 8.0 6.3 5.0 11.4 8.9 7.1 1.50 1.28 1.20 1.13 1.38
34 Kekatong 26.4 20.8 16.5 15.8 12.5 9.9 22.3 17.6 13.9 4.46 3.79 3.57 3.34 2.76

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 21


2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to
1)
grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
3) 3)
35 Kelat 20.1 15.8 12.5 12.1 9.5 7.5 19.7 15.5 12.3 2.41 2.05 1.93 1.81
3)
36 Keledang 14.4 11.3 9.0 8.6 6.8 5.4 11.4 8.9 7.1 2.00 1.70 1.60 1.50
3)
37 Kembangsemangkok 20.9 16.5 13.1 12.5 9.9 7.9 17.8 14.0 11.1 2.38 2.02 1.90 1.78
38 Kempas 20.7 16.3 13.0 12.4 9.8 7.8 22.3 17.6 13.9 3.73 3.17 3.00 2.80
3)
39 Keranji 23.5 18.5 14.7 14.1 11.1 8.8 18.6 14.6 11.6 3.60 3.06 2.88 2.70
40 Keruing 12.3 9.7 7.7 7.4 5.8 4.6 10.2 8.0 6.4 1.97 1.67 1.58 1.48
3)
41 Keruntum 17.2 13.5 10.7 10.3 8.1 6.4 16.1 12.7 10.0 2.71 2.30 2.17 2.03
.
42 Ketapang 14.6 11.5 9.1 8.8 6.9 5.5 96 7.6 6.0 1.53 1.30 1.22 1.15
43 Kulim 20.2 15.9 12.6 12.1 9.5 7.6 19.1 15.0 11.9 2.55 2.17 2.04 1.91
3)
44 Kungkur 16.7 13.2 10.5 10.0 7.9 6.3 12.8 10.1 8.0 2.00 1.70 1.60 1.50
3)
45 Laran 8.8 6.9 5.5 5.3 4.1 3.3 7.6 6.0 4.7 0.95 0.81 0.76 0.71
46 Machang 11.0 8.7 6.9 6.6 5.2 4.1 9.3 7.3 5.8 2.24 1.90 1.79 1.68
47 Malabera 17.4 13.7 10.8 10.4 8.2 6.5 13.7 10.8 8.5 3.26 2.77 2.61 2.44
48 Mata ulat 27.9 22.0 17.4 16.7 13.2 10.4 23.6 18.6 14.8 4.58 3.89 3.66 3.43
49 Medang 13.7 10.8 8.6 8.2 6.5 5.2 11.6 9.1 7.2 1.21 1.03 0.97 0.91
50 Melantai/Kawang 10.6 8.4 6.6 6.4 5.0 4.0 8.7 6.9 5.4 1.20 1.02 0.96 0.90
51 Melunak 12.8 10.1 8.0 7.7 6.1 4.8 13.7 10.8 8.6 1.92 1.63 1.54 1.44

22 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to
1)
grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
3)
52 Mempening 16.5 13.0 10.3 9.9 7.8 6.2 14.2 11.2 8.9 3.39 2.88 2.71 2.54
53 Mempisang 13.0 10.2 8.1 7.8 6.1 4.9 10.2 8.1 6.4 1.25 1.06 1.00 0.94
54 Mengkulang 15.5 12.2 9.7 9.3 7.3 5.8 11.3 8.9 7.1 2.03 1.72 1.62 1.52
55 Meransi 21.2 16.7 13.2 12.7 10.0 7.9 17.0 13.3 10.6 3.95 3.36 3.16 2.96
56 Meranti bakau 16.1 12.7 10.0 9.7 7.6 6.0 12.4 9.8 7.7 1.83 1.55 1.46 1.37
57 Meranti, dark red 14.1 11.1 8.8 8.5 6.7 5.3 11.4 9.0 7.1 1.12 0.95 0.90 0.84
58 Meranti, light red 10.8 8.5 6.7 6.5 5.1 4.0 9.6 7.6 6.0 1.10 0.93 0.88 0.82
59 Meranti, white 14.8 11.7 9.2 8.9 7.0 5.5 13.4 10.6 8.4 1.28 1.09 1.02 0.96
60 Meranti, yellow 11.7 9.2 7.3 7.0 5.5 4.4 10.0 7.9 6.2 1.55 1.32 1.24 1.16
61 Merawan 22.9 18.0 14.3 13.7 10.8 8.6 20.3 16.0 12.7 2.72 2.31 2.18 2.04
3)
62 Merbatu 24.2 19.0 15.1 14.5 11.4 9.1 18.8 14.8 11.7 3.50 2.97 2.80 2.62
63 Merbau 21.1 16.6 13.2 12.7 10.0 7.9 15.7 12.3 9.8 3.23 2.74 2.58 2.42
64 Merpauh 15.7 12.4 9.8 9.4 7.4 5.9 14.4 11.3 9.0 2.35 2.00 1.88 1.76
65 Mersawa 12.6 10.0 7.9 7.6 6.0 4.7 10.2 8.0 6.4 2.26 1.92 1.81 1.69
3)
66 Mertas 24.8 19.5 15.5 14.9 11.7 9.3 20.1 15.9 12.5 3.50 2.97 2.80 2.62
67 Nyalin 18.2 14.4 11.4 10.9 8.6 6.8 15.0 11.8 9.4 3.53 3.00 2.82 2.65
68 Nyatoh 13.7 10.8 8.6 8.2 6.5 5.2 11.8 9.3 7.4 1.99 1.69 1.59 1.49

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 23


2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to
1)
grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
3) 3) 3)
69 Pauh kijang 22.2 17.5 13.9 13.3 10.5 8.3 25.1 19.8 15.7 2.60 2.21 2.08 1.95
70 Pelajau 8.2 6.5 5.1 4.9 3.9 3.1 9.3 7.3 5.8 0.68 0.58 0.54 0.51
71 Penaga 29.2 23.0 18.2 17.5 13.8 10.9 28.9 22.8 18.1 6.68 5.68 5.34 5.01
3)
72 Penarahan 12.6 9.9 7.9 7.6 5.9 4.7 11.2 8.8 7.0 2.842 2.41 2.27 1.42
3)
73 Penyau 23.4 18.4 14.6 14.0 11.0 8.8 25.2 19.8 15.7 6.05 5.14 4.84 4.54
3)
74 Perah 19.7 15.5 12.3 11.8 9.3 7.4 24.8 19.5 15.7 2.73 2.32 2.18 2.05
75 Perupok 17.5 13.8 10.9 10.5 8.3 6.5 13.8 10.8 8.6 2.00 1.70 1.60 1.50
76 Petai 11.0 8.7 6.9 6.6 5.2 4.1 9.1 7.2 5.7 1.35 1.15 1.08 1.01
3) 3)
77 Petaling 19.0 15.0 11.9 11.4 9.0 7.1 19.3 15.2 12.0 2.59 2.20 2.07 1.94
3)
78 Pulai 7.2 5.6 4.5 4.3 3.4 2.7 5.3 4.2 3.3 0.83 0.70 0.66 0.62
79 Punah 19.3 15.2 12.1 11.6 9.1 7.3 15.0 11.8 9.4 2.64 2.24 2.11 1.98
3)
80 Ramin 14.2 11.2 8.9 8.5 6.7 5.3 12.4 9.8 7.8 1.87 1.59 1.50 1.40
81 Ranggu 20.8 16.4 13.0 12.5 9.8 7.8 19.4 15.3 12.1 3.34 2.84 2.67 2.50
82 Rengas 18.8 14.8 11.8 11.3 8.9 7.1 12.1 9.5 7.6 2.63 2.23 2.10 1.97
83 Resak 21.1 16.6 13.2 12.7 10.0 7.9 15.0 11.8 9.3 2.92 2.48 2.34 2.19
84 Rubberwood 12.6 9.9 7.9 7.6 5.9 4.7 9.1 7.2 5.7 2.21 1.88 1.77 1.66
3)
85 Sengkuang 17.0 13.4 10.6 10.2 8.0 6.4 15.2 12.0 9.5 2.26 1.92 1.81 1.69

24 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


2
Table 1. Wet grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (concluded)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to
1)
grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
86 Sepetir 11.0 8.6 6.8 6.6 5.2 4.1 9.4 7.4 5.9 1.92 1.63 1.54 1.44
87 Sesendok 10.8 8.6 6.8 6.5 5.2 4.1 9.1 7.2 5.7 0.99 0.84 0.79 0.74
88 Simpoh 16.5 13.0 10.3 9.9 7.8 6.2 18.2 14.3 11.4 2.87 2.44 2.30 2.15
89 Surian batu 21.0 16.5 13.1 12.6 9.9 7.9 16.7 13.2 10.4 5.06 4.30 4.05 3.79
90 Teak 16.2 12.8 10.1 9.7 7.7 6.1 12.8 10.1 8.0 2.99 2.54 2.39 2.24
3)
91 Tembusu 14.2 11.2 8.9 8.5 6.7 5.3 14.8 11.7 9.3 3.20 2.72 2.56 2.40
92 Terap 10.2 8.1 6.4 6.1 4.9 3.8 7.9 6.2 5.0 1.37 1.16 1.10 1.03
93 Terentang 6.6 5.2 4.2 4.0 3.1 2.5 5.3 4.2 3.3 0.62 0.53 0.50 0.46
94 Tualang 22.4 17.6 14.0 13.4 10.6 8.4 18.2 14.3 11.4 3.67 3.12 2.94 2.75

1)
When there is no wane at the bearing area, the basic stress figures may be used for all grades.
2)
Sel, Std and Com stand for select structural, standard structural and common building grades respectively as defined in the MS 1714:2003.
3)
Figures are estimated due to data not fully available but can be safely used in design.

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 %

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain

2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
1 Agoho 27.1 21.4 17.0 16.3 12.8 10.2 23.3 18.3 14.5 6.00 5.10 4.80 4.50
3)
2 Alan bunga 15.4 12.2 9.6 9.2 7.3 5.8 14.2 11.2 8.9 1.42 1.21 1.14 1.06
3) 3)
3 Ara 8.4 6.6 5.2 5.0 4.0 3.1 9.2 7.2 5.7 1.56 1.32 1.25 1.17
4 Babai 14.7 11.6 9.2 8.8 7.0 5.5 13.1 10.3 8.2 2.13 1.81 1.70 1.60
5 Balau 33.6 26.5 21.0 20.2 15.9 12.6 28.5 22.5 17.8 4.67 3.97 3.74 3.50
6 Balau, red 20.2 15.9 12.6 12.1 9.5 7.6 17.8 14.0 11.1 2.82 2.40 2.26 2.11
7 Balek angin 15.8 12.5 9.9 9.5 7.5 5.9 19.1 15.0 11.9 3.82 3.25 3.06 2.86
bopeng

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 25


8 Batai 9.7 7.6 6.0 5.8 4.6 3.6 7.0 5.5 4.4 0.77 0.65 0.62 0.58
9 Bayur 13.7 10.8 8.6 8.2 6.5 5.2 10.2 8.1 6.4 1.64 1.39 1.31 1.23
3)
10 Bekak 26.8 21.1 16.7 16.1 12.7 10.0 22.2 17.5 13.9 3.61 3.07 2.89 2.71
3)
11 Belian 31.1 24.5 19.5 18.7 14.7 11.7 30.0 23.6 18.7 5.83 4.96 4.66 4.37
12 Berangan 16.8 13.2 10.5 10.1 7.9 6.3 16.8 13.2 10.5 3.34 2.84 2.67 2.50
13 Bintangor 15.9 12.5 9.9 9.5 7.5 5.9 14.1 11.2 8.8 1.68 1.43 1.34 1.26
14 Bitis 35.9 28.3 22.5 21.5 17.0 13.5 36.0 28.4 22.5 5.60 4.76 4.48 4.20
15 Brazil nut 19.0 14.9 11.9 11.4 8.9 7.1 12.8 10.1 8.0 3.40 2.89 2.72 2.55
16 Chengal 35.8 28.1 22.3 21.5 16.9 13.4 31.9 25.1 19.9 5.85 4.97 4.68 4.39
17 Damar Minyak 13.1 10.3 8.2 7.9 6.2 4.9 11.4 9.0 7.1 1.35 1.15 1.08 1.01

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain

2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
18 Dedali 17.6 13.9 11.0 10.6 8.3 6.6 14.8 11.7 9.3 2.35 2.00 1.88 1.76
19 Dedaru 32.3 25.5 20.2 19.4 15.3 12.1 26.7 21.0 16.7 3.82 3.25 3.05 2.86
20 Delek 22.8 17.9 14.2 13.7 10.7 8.5 18.1 14.2 11.3 4.15 3.53 3.32 3.11
3)
21 Derum 18.2 14.4 11.4 10.9 8.6 6.8 17.7 13.9 11.0 4.37 3.71 3.50 3.28
22 Durian 15.6 12.3 9.7 9.4 7.4 5.8 13.1 10.3 8.2 1.46 1.24 1.17 1.10
23 Geronggang 11.0 8.6 6.8 6.6 5.2 4.1 7.8 6.1 4.8 1.13 0.96 0.90 0.85
24 Gerutu 18.0 14.2 11.2 10.8 8.5 6.7 17.9 14.1 11.2 1.84 1.56 1.47 1.38
25 Giam 29.7 23.4 18.6 17.8 14.0 11.2 23.3 18.3 14.6 5.89 5.00 4.71 4.42
12

26 Jelutong 11.3 8.9 7.1 6.8 5.3 4.3 9.2 7.2 5.8 1.28 1.09 1.02 0.96
27 Jenitri 12.3 9.7 7.7 7.4 5.8 4.6 10.1 7.9 6.3 1.28 1.09 1.02 0.96
3)
28 Jongkong 15.0 11.8 9.4 9.0 7.1 5.6 12.3 9.7 7.7 1.36 1.16 1.09 1.02
29 Kapur 22.0 17.3 13.7 13.2 10.4 8.2 20.4 16.0 12.7 3.00 2.55 2.40 2.25
30 Kasah 11.3 8.9 7.0 6.8 5.3 4.2 9.6 7.6 6.0 1.68 1.43 1.34 1.27
3) 3)
31 Kasai 17.2 13.5 10.7 10.3 8.1 6.4 15.6 12.3 9.7 2.90 2.46 2.32 2.17
32 Kayu Kundur 14.6 11.5 9.1 8.8 6.9 5.5 13.5 10.6 8.5 2.68 2.27 2.15 2.01
33 Kedondong 15.8 12.4 9.8 9.5 7.4 5.9 14.5 11.4 9.1 1.74 1.48 1.39 1.30
34 Kekatong 33.4 26.3 20.8 20.0 15.8 12.5 26.3 20.7 16.4 4.60 3.91 3.68 3.45

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
Moisture content 19 % (continued)

26 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression
1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain

2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
35 Kelat 23.1 18.2 14.4 13.9 10.9 8.6 24.3 19.2 15.2 2.87 2.44 2.30 2.15
3)
36 Keledang 15.9 12.5 9.9 9.5 7.5 5.9 12.9 10.1 8.0 2.24 1.90 1.79 1.68
3)
37 Kembang 24.1 19.0 15.0 14.5 11.4 9.0 22.2 17.5 13.9 2.73 2.32 2.18 2.05
semangkok
38 Kempas 23.3 18.3 14.6 14.0 11.0 8.8 24.9 19.6 15.6 4.16 3.54 3.33 3.12
3)
39 Keranji 27.4 21.6 17.2 16.4 13.0 10.3 22.9 18.0 14.3 4.13 3.51 3.30 3.10
40 Keruing 17.5 13.8 11.0 10.5 8.3 6.6 15.4 12.1 9.6 2.11 1.79 1.67 1.58
3)
41 Keruntum 20.8 16.4 13.0 12.5 9.8 7.8 19.9 15.7 12.4 3.00 2.55 2.40 2.25
42 Ketapang 17.8 14.0 11.1 10.7 8.4 6.7 13.6 10.7 8.5 1.91 1.62 1.53 1.43
13

43 Kulim 24.7 19.4 15.4 14.8 11.6 9.2 22.5 17.7 14.1 2.77 2.35 2.22 2.08
3)
44 Kungkur 19.1 15.0 11.9 11.5 9.0 7.1 14.5 11.4 9.0 2.66 2.26 2.13 2.00
3)
45 Laran 9.9 7.8 6.2 5.9 4.7 3.7 9.6 7.6 6.0 1.30 1.10 1.04 0.97
46 Machang 13.9 10.9 8.7 8.3 6.5 5.2 11.8 9.3 7.4 2.74 2.33 2.19 2.06
47 Malabera 20.3 16.0 12.7 12.2 9.6 7.6 16.2 12.7 10.1 3.79 3.22 3.03 2.84
48 Mata ulat 31.2 24.6 19.5 18.7 14.8 11.7 25.9 20.4 16.2 4.93 4.19 3.94 3.70
49 Medang 16.0 12.6 10.0 9.6 7.6 6.0 14.4 11.3 9.0 1.44 1.22 1.15 1.08
50 Melantai/Kawang 11.8 9.3 7.4 7.1 5.6 4.4 10.6 8.3 6.6 1.35 1.15 1.08 1.01
51 Melunak 14.7 11.6 9.2 8.8 7.0 5.5 15.7 12.3 9.8 2.15 1.83 1.72 1.61

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain Perpendicular to grain
2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
52 Mempening 21.9 17.3 13.7 13.1 10.3 8.2 18.6 14.6 11.6 3.68 3.13 2.94 2.76
53 Mempisang 16.1 12.7 10.1 9.7 7.6 6.1 14.6 11.5 9.1 1.95 1.66 1.56 1.46
54 Mengkulang 17.8 14.0 11.1 10.7 8.4 6.7 13.4 10.6 8.4 2.47 2.10 1.98 1.85
55 Meransi 24.2 19.0 15.1 14.5 11.4 9.1 19.5 15.4 12.2 4.68 3.98 3.74 3.51
56 Meranti bakau 18.2 14.3 11.4 10.9 8.6 6.8 14.1 11.1 8.8 2.06 1.75 1.65 1.54
57 Meranti, dark red 18.2 14.3 11.4 10.9 8.6 6.8 13.9 11.0 8.7 1.53 1.30 1.22 1.15
58 Meranti, light red 13.3 10.4 8.3 8.0 6.2 5.0 11.4 8.9 7.1 1.23 1.04 0.98 0.92
59 Meranti, white 17.1 13.5 10.7 10.3 8.1 6.4 15.7 12.3 9.8 1.62 1.38 1.30 1.21
60 Meranti, yellow 13.2 10.4 8.2 7.9 6.2 4.9 12.4 9.8 7.7 1.73 1.47 1.38 1.30
14

61 Merawan 25.1 19.8 15.7 15.1 11.9 9.4 23.0 18.1 14.4 2.95 2.51 2.36 2.21

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 27


62 Merbatu 29.0 22.8 18.1 17.4 13.7 10.9 23.8 18.8 14.9 4.07 3.46 3.25 3.05
63 Merbau 24.6 19.4 15.4 14.8 11.6 9.2 17.9 14.1 11.2 4.00 3.40 3.20 3.00
64 Merpauh 19.2 15.1 12.0 11.5 9.1 7.2 17.4 13.7 10.9 3.22 2.74 2.58 2.41
65 Mersawa 14.7 11.6 9.2 8.8 7.0 5.5 11.5 9.1 7.2 2.42 2.06 1.94 1.81
66 Mertas 28.5 22.4 17.8 17.1 13.4 10.7 23.4 18.5 14.7 3.82 3.25 3.05 2.863
67 Nyalin 22.5 17.7 14.1 13.5 10.6 8.5 19.6 15.5 12.3 4.44 3.77 3.55 3.33
68 Nyatoh 16.2 12.3 10.1 9.7 7.7 6.1 14.5 11.4 9.0 2.08 1.77 1.66 1.56

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (continued)

Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression


1)
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain

2)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
3 3) 3)
69 Pauh kijang 25.0 19.7 15.60 15.0 11.8 9.4 27.7 21.8 17.3 4.80 4.08 3.84 3.6
)

70 Pelajau 9.1 7.2 5.7 5.5 4.3 3.4 10.3 8.1 6.4 0.77 0.65 0.62 0.58
71 Penaga 35.3 27.8 22.1 21.2 16.7 13.3 33.9 26.8 21.2 8.55 7.27 6.84 6.41
72 Penarahan 14.3 11.3 8.9 8.6 6.8 5.3 13.0 10.2 8.1 4.30 3.65 3.44 3.22
3)
73 Penyau 26.9 21.2 16.8 16.1 12.7 10.1 27.0 21.3 16.9 6.74 5.73 5.39 5.05
74 Perah 21.8 17.2 13.6 13.1 10.3 8.2 27.0 21.3 16.9 2.99 2.54 2.39 2.24
75 Perupok 20.6 16.2 12.9 12.4 9.7 7.7 17.9 14.1 11.2 2.80 2.38 2.24 2.10
3)
76 Petai 12.1 9.5 7.5 7.3 5.7 4.5 11.0 8.6 6.8 1.55 1.32 1.24 1.16
15

3)
77 Petaling 21.2 16.6 13.2 12.7 10.0 7.9 22.4 17.6 14.0 2.61 2.22 2.09 1.96
3)
78 Pulai 9.0 7.0 5.6 5.4 4.2 3.4 7.7 6.0 4.8 1.02 0.87 0.82 0.76
79 Punah 25.4 20.0 15.8 15.2 12.0 9.5 21.5 16.9 13.4 3.58 3.04 2.86 2.68
3)
80 Ramin 19.8 15.5 12.3 11.9 9.3 7.4 17.0 13.4 10.6 2.15 1.83 1.72 1.61
81 Ranggu 25.2 19.8 15.7 15.1 11.9 9.4 22.9 18.0 14.3 3.65 3.10 2.92 2.74
82 Rengas 23.1 18.2 14.4 13.9 10.2 8.6 15.2 12.0 9.5 3.32 2.82 2.65 2.49
83 Resak 23.4 18.4 14.6 14.0 11.0 8.8 17.0 13.4 10.6 3.27 2.78 2.62 2.45
84 Rubberwood 13.9 11.0 8.7 8.3 6.6 5.2 10.8 8.5 6.7 2.68 2.28 2.14 2.01
3)
85 Sengkuang 19.8 15.6 12.4 11.9 9.4 7.4 18.3 14.4 11.4 2.59 2.20 2.07 1.94

2
Table 2. Dry grade stresses of timber (N/mm )
moisture content 19 % (concluded)

28 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


Timber Bending Tension Compression Compression
parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain Perpendicular to grain1)

Sel Std Com2) Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com
86 Sepetir 13.2 10.3 8.2 7.9 6.2 4.9 11.2 8.8 7.0 2.42 2.06 1.94 1.81

87 Sesendok 12.2 9.6 7.6 7.3 5.8 4.6 10.9 8.5 6.8 1.11 0.94 0.89 0.83

88 Simpoh 18.1 14.2 11.3 10.9 8.5 6.8 20.8 16.4 13.0 3.14 2.67 2.51 2.35

89 Surian batu 23.8 18.7 14.8 14.3 11.2 8.9 21.6 17.0 13.5 6.13 5.20 4.90 4.60

90 Teak 17.9 14.1 11.2 10.7 8.5 6.7 14.9 11.7 9.3 3.12 2.65 2.50 2.34
16

91 Tembusu 17.3 13.6 10.8 10.4 8.2 6.5 16.5 13.0 10.3 3.75 3.19 3.00 2.813)

92 Terap 11.4 8.9 7.1 6.8 5.3 4.3 8.8 6.9 5.5 1.68 1.43 1.34 1.26

93 Terentang 8.2 6.5 5.1 4.9 3.9 3.1 6.9 5.4 4.3 0.95 0.80 0.76 0.71

94 Tualang 25.7 20.2 16.1 15.4 12.1 9.7 20.4 16.1 12.8 4.00 3.40 3.20 3.00

1)
When there is no wane at the bearing area, the basic stress figures may be used for all grades.
2)
Sel, Std and Com stand for select structural, standard structural and common building grades respectively as defined in the MS 1714:2003.
3)
Figures are estimated due to data not fully available but can be safely used in design.

Table 3. Strength groups of timber

S.G. 1 S.G.2 S.G. 3 S.G. 4 S.G. 5 S.G. 6


A) Naturally Durable
Balau Belian Bekak Giam Teak
Bitis Mata ulat Delek Malabera Tembusu
Chengal Kekatong Keranji Merbau
Penaga Resak
B) Requiring Treatment
Dedaru Agoho Berangan Alan bunga Bayur
Kempas Balau, red Dedali Babai Damar Minya
Merbatu Kelat Derum Balek angin bopeng Durian
Mertas Kembang Kapur Bintangor Jelutong
semangkok
Kulim Kasai Brazil nut Jenitri
Pauh kijang Keruntum Gerutu Jongkong
Penyau Mempening Kayu kundur Kasah
Perah Meransi Kedondong Machang
Petaling Meranti bakau Keledang Medang
Ranggu Merawan Keruing Melantai/Kaw
Durian batu Merpauh Ketapang Meranti, light
Tualang Nyalin Kungkur Meranti, yello
Perupok Melunak Mersawa

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 29


Punah Mempisang Terap
Rengas Mengkulang
Simpoh Meranti, dark red
Meranti, white
Nyatoh
Penarahan
Petai
Ramin
Rubberwood
Sengkuang
Sepetir

NOTES:

1. For naturally durable timbers, sapwood should be excluded. If sapwood is included, preservative treatment is necess
360:2006.

2. For timber requiring treatment, they should be amenable to preservative treatment.

30 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


Table 4. Wet and dry grade stresses for various strength groups of timber
2
(Stresses and moduli expressed in N/mm )

Strength Condition Bending Tension Compression Compression Shear


1) 2)
groups parallel to grain parallel to grain parallel to grain perpendicular to grain
3)
Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Sel Std Com Basic Sel Std Com Sel

SG 1 Wet 29.2 23.0 18.2 17.5 13.8 10.9 26.8 21.1 16.8 4.59 3.90 3.67 3.44 2.54
Dry 33.6 26.5 21.0 20.2 15.9 12.6 28.5 22.5 17.8 4.67 3.97 3.74 3.50 2.94

SG 2 Wet 20.7 16.3 13.0 12.4 9.8 7.8 18.8 14.8 11.7 3.50 2.97 2.80 2.62 2.24
Dry 23.3 18.3 14.6 14.0 11.0 8.8 23.4 18.5 14.7 3.82 3.25 3.05 2.86 2.51

SG 3 Wet 18.1 14.2 11.3 10.9 8.5 6.8 15.3 12.0 9.5 2.38 2.02 1.90 1.78 1.84
Dry 20.2 15.9 12.6 12.1 9.5 7.6 17.8 14.1 11.1 2.61 2.22 2.09 1.96 2.07

SG 4 Wet 14.2 11.2 8.8 8.5 6.7 5.3 12.1 9.5 7.6 1.83 1.55 1.46 1.37 1.53
Dry 16.8 13.2 10.5 10.1 7.9 6.3 14.1 11.1 8.8 2.06 1.75 1.65 1.54 1.58

SG 5 Wet 11.0 8.6 6.8 6.6 5.2 4.1 9.1 7.2 5.7 1.12 0.95 0.90 0.84 1.21
Dry 12.1 9.5 7.5 7.3 5.7 4.5 10.8 8.5 6.7 1.42 1.21 1.14 1.06 1.37

SG 6 Wet 9.4 7.4 5.9 5.6 4.4 3.5 7.9 6.2 5.0 1.02 0.87 0.82 0.76 1.05
Dry 11.3 8.9 7.1 6.8 5.3 4.3 8.8 6.9 5.5 1.28 1.09 1.02 0.96 1.11

SG 7 Wet 6.6 5.2 4.2 4.0 3.1 2.5 5.3 4.2 3.3 0.62 0.53 0.50 0.46 0.91
Dry 8.2 6.5 5.1 4.9 3.9 3.1 6.9 5.4 4.3 0.77 0.65 0.62 0.58 0.98
1)
Moisture content for Wet 19 %, for dry 19 %.
2)
When there is no wane at the bearing area, the basic stress figures may be used for all grades.
3)
Sel, Std and Com stand for select structural, standard structural and common building grades respectively as defin

9. Permissible stresses

9.1 General

Permissible stresses in timber are governed by the particular conditions of service and loading.

9.2 Load inclined to grain

Where the direction of the load is inclined to the grain by an angle , the permissible compression
stress for the inclined surface is given by the equation:

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 31


where c,adm,ll and c,adm, are the grade compression stresses parallel and perpendicular to the grain
respectively, modified as appropriate, for moisture content (Tables 1 and 2) and / or duration of load
(see Clause 10).

9.3 Additional properties

In the absence of specific test data, values which are one-third of those for shear parallel to the grain
(see Table 1 and 2) should be use for tension perpendicular to the grain, torsional shear and rolling
shear.

For modulus of elasticity perpendicular to grain, a value of one-twentieth (i.e. 0.05) of permissible
modulus of elasticity (see Table 1 and 2) should be used.

For shear modulus, a value of one-sixteenth (i.e. 0.0625) of permissible modulus of elasticity (see
Table 1 and 2) should be used.

10. Duration of loading

The stresses given in Tables 1, 2 and 4 apply to long term loading. Table 5 gives the modification
factor K1 by which these should be multiplied for various duration of loading. When advantage is taken
of this clause to use a modification factor K1, greater than unity, the design should be checked to
ensure that the permissible stresses are not exceeded for any other condition of loading that might be
relevant. This modification factor is applicable to all strength properties but is not applicable to moduli
of elasticity or to shear moduli.

NOTE. For domestic floors, the possible concentrated loading condition is given in MS 544, Part 11, Section1: Domestic Floor
Joists may be superimposed on the dead load and both treated as of medium term duration.

Table 5. Modification factor K1 for duration of loading

Duration of loading Value of K1


1)
Long term (e.g. dead + permanent imposed ) 1.00

Medium term (dead + temporary imposed) 1.25


2)
Short term (e.g. dead + imposed + wind ) 1.50

NOTES:

1) For uniformly distributed imposed floor loads K1 = 1 except for type 2 and
type 3 buildings. Refer UBBL: 1984 where, for corridors, hallways, landings and
stairways only, K1 may be assumed to be 1.5.

32 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


2) For wind, short term category applies to 3s gust as defined in MS
1553:2002.

11. Load-sharing systems

In a load-sharing system which consists of four or more members such as rafters, joists, trusses or
wall studs, spaced a maximum of 610 mm centre to centre, and which has adequate provision for the
lateral distribution of loads by means of purlins, binders, boarding, battens, etc., the following
permissible stresses and moduli of elasticity appropriate to the strength class or species and grade
should apply.

a) The appropriate grade stresses should be multiplied by the load sharing modification factor K2
which has a value of 1.1.

b) The mean modulus of elasticity should be used to calculate deflections and displacements
under both dead and imposed load unless the imposed load is for an area intended for
mechanical plant and equipment, or for storage, or for floors subject to vibrations, e.g.
gymnasia and ballrooms, in which case the minimum modulus of elasticity should be used.

Special provisions for built-up beams, trimmer joists and lintels, and laminated beams, are given in
12.10, 12.11 and MS 544-3:2001 respectively.

The provisions of this clause do not extend to the calculation of modification factor K8 given in Table
10 and Annex B for load-sharing columns.

12 Flexural members

12.1 General

Permissible stresses for timber flexural members are governed by the particular conditions of loading
as given in Clauses 10 and by the additional factors given in this clause. They should be taken as the
product of the grade stress given in Clause 8 and the appropriate modification factors.

12.2 Length and position of bearing

The grade stresses for compression perpendicular to the grain apply to bearings of any length at the
ends of a member, and bearings 150 mm or more in length at any position.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 33


For bearings less than 150 mm long located 75 mm or more from the end of a member, as shown in
Figure 1 the grade stress should be multiplied by the modification factor K3 given in Table 6.

NOTES:

1. At any bearing on the side grain of timber, the permissible stress in compression perpendicular to the grain is
dependent on the length and position of the bearing.

2. No allowance need be made for the difference in intensity of the bearing stress due to rotation of a beam at
the supports.

75 mm or Bearing less than


more 150 mm

Figure 1. Position of end bearing

34 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


Table 6. Modification factor K3 for bearing stress

Length of
1)
bearing 10 15 25 40 50 75 100 150 or
(mm) more

Value of K3
1.74 1.67 1.53 1.33 1.20 1.14 1.10 1.00

1) Interpolation is permitted

12.3 Effective span

The span of flexural members should be taken as the distance between the centres of bearings.
Where members extend over bearings which are longer than is necessary, the spans may be
measured between the centres of bearings of a length which could be adequate according to this part
of MS 544: Part 2. Where advantage is taken of this clause, due attention should be paid to the
eccentricity of the load on the supporting structure.

12.4 Shear at notched ends

Square cornered notches at the ends of a flexural member cause a stress concentration, which
should be allowed for as follows.

The shear strength should be calculated by using the effective depth, he (see Figure 2) and a
permissible stress equal to the grade stresses multiplied by the factor K4

where,

a) for a notch on the top edge (see Figure 2(a))

for a ≤

for a

b) for a notch on the underside (see Figure 2 (b)),

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 35


The effective depth, he should be not less than 0.6 h. (0.5 in BS5268 2002)

where,

h is the total depth of the beam (mm);

a is as shown in Figure 2 (mm).

h
he

a) Beam with notch on the top edge

he
h

b) Beam with notch on the underside.

Figure 2. Notched beams

12.5 Form factor

Grade bending stresses apply to solid timber members of rectangular cross section. For other shapes
of cross section, the grade bending stresses should be multiplied by the modification factor K5

where,

K5 = 1.18 for solid circular sections; and

K5 = 1.41 for solid square sections loaded on a diagonal.

36 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


12.6 Depth factor

The grade bending stresses given in Tables 1, 2 and 4, apply to material having a depth, h, up to 300
mm.

For depths of beams greater than 300 mm, the grade bending stresses should be multiplied by the
depth modification factor K6 where:
2
(h + 92300)
K6 = 0.81 for solid and glued laminated beams.
2
(h + 56800)

12.7 Deflection and stiffness

The dimensions of flexural member should be such as to restrict deflection within limits appropriate to
the type of structure, having regard to the possibility of damage to surfacing materials, ceilings,
partitions and finishing, and to the functional needs as well as aesthetic requirements.

In addition to the deflection due to bending, the shear deflection may be significant and should be
taken into account.

For most general purposes, this recommendation may be assumed to be satisfied if the deflection of
the member when fully loaded does not exceed 0.003 of the span. For domestic floor joists, the
deflection under full load should not exceed the lesser of 0.003 times the span or 14 mm, whichever is
lesser.

NOTE. The 14 mm deflection limitation is to avoid undue vibration under moving or impact loading.

Subject to consideration being given to the effect of excessive deformation, members may be
precambered to account for the deflection under full dead or permanent load, and in this case the
deflection under live or intermittent load should not exceed 0.003 of the span.

The deflection of solid timber members acting alone should be calculated using the minimum modulus
of elasticity for the strength group or species and grade.

The deflections of load-sharing systems, built-up beams, trimmer joists and lintels should be
calculated using the provisions of Clauses 11, 12.10 and 12.11 respectively.

12.8 Lateral support

The depth to breadth ratio of solid and laminated beams of rectangular section should be checked to
ensure that there is no risk of buckling under design load. Alternatively, the recommendations of Table
7 should be followed.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 37


Table 7. Maximum depth to breadth ratios (solid and laminated members)

Degree of lateral support Maximum depth


to breadth ratio
No lateral support 2
Ends held in position 3
Ends held in position and member held in line as by purlins or tie rods 4
at centres not more than 30 times breadth of the member
Ends held in position and compression edge held in line, as by direct 5
connection of sheathing, deck or joists
Ends held in position and compression edge held in line, as by direct 6
connection of sheathing, deck or joists, together with adequate bridging
or blocking spaced at intervals not exceeding 6 times the depth.
Ends held in position and both edges held firmly in line 7

12.9 Notched or drilled beams

In calculating the strength of notched or drilled beams, allowance should be made for the notches or
holes, the effective depth being taken as the minimum depth of the net section.

The effect of notches and holes need not be calculated in simply supported floor and roof-joist not
more than 250 mm deep where:

a) notches not exceeding 0.125 of the depth of a joist are located between 0.07 and 0.25 of the
span from the support; and

b) holes drilled at the neutral axis with diameter not exceeding 0.25 of the depth of a joist and
not less than three diameters (centre to centre) apart are located between 0.25 and 0.4 of the
span from the support.

12.10 Built - up beams

Built-up beams should be checked to ensure that there is no risk of buckling under design load.

In built-up members with thin webs, web stiffeners should be provided to ensure the strength and
stability of the member at all points of concentrated load, or elsewhere as may be necessary.

The lateral stability should be determined by calculation, or by consideration of the compression


flange as a column which tends to deflect sideways between points of lateral support, or in
accordance with one of the following:

a) if the ratio of the second moments of area of the cross section about the neutral axis to the
second moment of area about the axis perpendicular to the neutral axis does not exceed 5 :
1, no lateral support is required;

b) if the ratio of the second moments of area is between 5 : 1 and 10 : 1, the ends of the beam
should be held in position at the bottom flange at the supports;

38 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


c) if the ratio of the second moments of area is between 10 : 1 and 20 : 1, the beam should be
held in line at the ends;

d) if the ratio of the second moments of area is between 20 : 1 and 30 : 1, one edge should be
held in line;

e) if the ratio of the second moments of area is between 30 : 1 and 40 : 1, the beam should be
restrained by bridging or other bracing at intervals of not more than 2.4 m; and

f) if the ratio of the second moments of area is greater than 40 : 1, the compression flanges
should be fully restrained.

The modification factors K17, K18 and K19 given in Table 7 of MS 544 : Part 3: 2001: Code Of Practice
For Structural Use Of Timber: Part 3 : Permissible Stress Design Of Glued Laminated Timber may be
used for the flanges of glued built-up beams such as box and I-beams. The number of pieces of
timber in each flange should be taken as the number of laminations, irrespective of their orientation, to
determine the value of the stress modification factor K17, K18, and K19 for that flange.

The total number of pieces of timber in both flanges should be taken as the number of laminations to
determine the value of K18 that is to be applied to the minimum modulus of elasticity for deflection
calculations.

In addition to the deflection of a built-up beam due to bending, the shear deflection may be significant
and should be taken into account.

12.11 Trimmer joists and lintels

For trimmer joists and lintels comprising two or more pieces connected together in parallel and acting
together to support the loads, the grade stresses in bending and shear parallel to the grain, and in
compression perpendicular to the grain should be multiplied by the load-sharing stress modification
factor K2, which has a value of 1.1.

The minimum modulus of elasticity modified by the factor K7 given in Table 8 should be used for the
calculation of deflection.

Table 8. Modification factor K7 used to modify the minimum


modulus of elasticity for trimmer joists and lintels

Number of pieces Values of K7 Valu


1 1.00
2 1.06
3 1.08
4 or more 1.10

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 39


13 Compression members

13.1 General

The limitations on bow in most stress grading rules are inadequate for the selection of material for
columns. Particular attention should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by limiting
bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.

Permissible stresses for timber members subjected to compression in the direction of the grain are
governed by the particular conditions of loading given in Clauses 10 and 11 and by the additional
factors given in this clause.

13.2 Size factors

The grade compression stresses given in Tables 1, 2 and 4 apply to all solid timber members graded
in accordance with MS 1714: 2003.

13.3 Effective length

The effective length of a compression member should be derived from either:

a) Table 9 for the particular end conditions; or

b) the deflected form of the compression member as affected by any restraint and/or fixing
moment(s), the effective length being the distance between adjacent points of zero bending
between which the member is in single curvature.

Table 9. Effective length of compression members

End conditions Effective length


Actual length L
Restrained at both ends in position and in direction 0.7

Restrained at both ends in position and one end in 0.85


direction
Restrained at both ends in position but not in 1.0
direction
Restrained at one end in position and at the other 1.5
end in direction but not in position
Restrained at one end in position and in direction 2.0
and free at the other end

40 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


13.4 Slenderness ratio

The slenderness ratio, of compression members should be calculated as the effective length, Le
divided by the radius of gyration, i.

The slenderness ratio should not exceed 180 for:

a) any compression member carrying dead and imposed loads other than loads resulting from
wind; and

b) any compression member, however loaded, which by its deformation will adversely affect the
stress in another member carrying dead and imposed loads other than wind.

The slenderness ratio should not exceed 250 for:

a) any member normally subject to tension or combined tension and bending arising from dead
and imposed loads, but subject to a reversal of axial stress solely from the effect of wind; and

b) any compression member carrying self weight and wind loads only (e.g. wind bracing).

13.5 Members subject to axial compression (without bending)

For compression members with slenderness ratios of less than 5, without undue eccentricity of
loading, the permissible stress should be taken as the grade compression parallel to the grain stress
modified as appropriate for duration of load and load sharing (Clauses 10 and 11).

For compression members with slenderness ratios equal to or greater than 5, the permissible stress
should be calculated as the product of the grade compression parallel to the grain stress, modified as
appropriate for size, moisture content, duration of load and load sharing, and the modification factor,
K8 given in Table 10 or calculated using the equation in Annex B.

The value of modulus of elasticity used to enter Table 10 or the equation in Annex B for both
compression members acting alone and compression members in load-sharing systems should be
the minimum modulus of elasticity. For members comprising two or more pieces connected together
in parallel and acting together to support the loads, the minimum modulus of elasticity should be
modified by K7 ( see Table 8 ) or K18 (see Table 7 of MS 544: Part 3: 2001) for horizontally laminated
members, the modified mean modulus of elasticity should be used (see Clauses 4 and 8 of MS 544 :
Part 3: 2001). The compression parallel to the grain stress c used to enter Table 10 or the equation in
Appendix B should be the grade stress modified only for duration of loading, and size where
applicable.

When checking that the permissible stresses of a compression member are not exceeded,
consideration should be given to all relevant loading conditions, since in the expression E/ c,ll , used to
enter Table 10 or the equation in Annex B, the modulus of elasticity is constant for all load duration,
whereas the compression stress should be modified for duration of loading (Clause 10).

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 41


Table 10. Modification factor K8 for compression members

ue of K8
ues of slenderness ratio (= Le/i )
5 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 24
ivalent Le/b (for rectangular sections)
1.4 1.4 2.9 5.8 8.7 11.6 14.5 17.3 20.2 23.1 26 28.9 34.7 40.5 46.2 52 57.8 63.6 69
000 0.975 0.951 0.896 0.827 0.735 0.621 0.506 0.408 0.330 0.271 0.225 0.162 0.121 0.094 0.075 0.061 0.051 0.0
000 0.975 0.951 0.899 0.837 0.759 0.664 0.562 0.466 0.385 0.320 0.269 0.195 0.148 0.115 0.092 0.076 0.063 0.0
000 0.975 0.951 0.901 0.843 0.774 0.692 0.601 0.511 0.430 0.363 0.307 0.226 0.172 0.135 0.109 0.089 0.074 0.0
000 0.975 0.951 0.902 0.848 0.784 0.711 0.629 0.545 0.467 0.399 0.341 0.254 0.195 0.154 0.124 0.102 0.085 0.0
000 0.975 0.952 0.903 0.851 0.792 0.724 0.649 0.572 0.497 0.430 0.371 0.280 0.217 0.172 0.139 0.115 0.096 0.0
000 0.976 0.952 0.904 0.853 0.797 0.734 0.665 0.593 0.522 0.456 0.397 0.304 0.237 0.188 0.153 0.127 0.106 0.0
000 0.976 0.952 0.904 0.855 0.801 0.742 0.677 0.609 0.542 0.478 0.420 0.325 0.255 0.204 0.167 0.138 0.116 0.0
000 0.976 0.952 0.905 0.856 0.804 0.748 0.687 0.623 0.599 0.497 0.440 0.344 0.272 0.219 0.179 0.149 0.126 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.905 0.857 0.807 0.753 0.695 0.634 0.573 0.513 0.457 0.362 0.288 0.233 0.192 0.160 0.135 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.905 0.858 0.809 0.757 0.757 0.643 0.584 0.527 0.472 0.378 0.303 0.247 0.203 0.170 0.144 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.906 0.859 0.811 0.760 0.760 0.651 0.595 0.539 0.486 0.392 0.317 0.259 0.214 0.180 0.153 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.906 0.860 0.813 0.763 0.763 0.658 0.603 0.550 0.498 0.405 0.330 0.271 0.225 0.189 0.161 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.906 0.861 0.814 0.766 0.766 0.664 0.611 0.559 0.508 0.417 0.342 0.282 0.235 0.198 0.169 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.906 0.861 0.815 0.768 0.768 0.669 0.618 0.567 0.518 0.428 0.353 0.292 0.245 0.207 0.177 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.906 0.862 0.816 0.770 0.770 0.673 0.624 0.574 0.526 0.438 0.363 0.302 0.254 0.215 0.184 0.1
000 0.975 0.952 0.907 0.862 0.817 0.772 0.772 0.677 0.629 0.581 0.534 0.447 0.373 0.312 0.262 0.223 0.191 0.1
000 0.976 0.952 0.907 0.863 0.818 0.773 0.773 0.681 0.634 0.587 0.541 0.455 0.382 0.320 0.271 0.230 0.198 0.1

30 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


13.6 Members subject to axial compression and bending

A member restrained at both ends, in position but not in direction, and subject to bending and axial
compression should be so proportioned that:

where,

is the applied bending stress;


is the permissible bending stress;
is the applied compression stress
is the permissible compression stress (including ; and
is the Euler critical stress

where E is the modulus of elasticity given in 13.5.

The effective length of a member subject to axial compression and bending should be that given in
13.3b.

For members in load-sharing systems (see Clause 10), the permissible bending stress, m,adm,II and
the permissible compression stress c,adm,II, should be multiplied by the load-sharing stress
modification factor K2, which has a value of 1.1, or K17 or K18 ,of MS 544 : Part 3: 2001: 2001 as
applicable.

The dimensions of compression members subject to bending should be such as to restrict deflection
within limits appropriate to the type of structure.

13.7 Notching and drilling

When it is necessary to notch or drill a compression member, allowance for the notches or holes
should be made in the design.

NOTE. The effect of holes need not be calculated where circular holes with diameters not exceeding 25 % of the
width of the member are positioned on the neutral axis at between 25 % and 40 % of the actual length from the
end or from a support.

13.8 Spaced columns

A spaced column is composed of two or more equal shafts, spaced apart by end and intermediate
packing blocks, which are glued, bolted, screwed, nailed or connectored in position in accordance
with Clause 13.9 and MS 544 - 5: 2001.

The clear space between individual shafts (in which packings are inserted), should not be greater than
three times the thickness of the shaft, measured in the same plane.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 31


13.9 Packs for spaced columns

13.9.1 End packs

13.9.1.1 Mechanical connections

End packings should be of a length sufficient to accommodate the nails, screws or connectors
required to transmit, between the abutting face of the packing and one adjacent shaft, a shear force
equal to:

where,

A is the total section area of the column;

b is the thickness of the shaft;

c,a,II is the applied compression stress;

n is the number of shafts; and

a is the distance between the centres of adjacent shafts.

In addition, the length of the packing measured along the axis of the column should be not less than
six times the thickness of the individual shafts.

13.9.1.2 Glued connections

End packings should be of a length sufficient to provide the glue area required to transmit a shear
force between the abutting face of the packing and one adjacent shaft, calculated as given for end
packings mechanically connected. In addition, the length of the packing measured along the axis of
the column should be not less than six times the thickness of the individual shaft.

Shop fabrication of spaced columns employing glued packings may be carried out using suitable
clamps, or clamping pressure may be obtained by screwing or bolting between column shafts and the
packings. In the latter case, at least four screws or bolts should be provided per packing and these
should be so spaced as to obtain an even pressure over the area of the packing.

13.9.2 Intermediate packs

Intermediate packings should be not less than 230 mm long, measured along the axis of column, and
should be designed to transmit, between the abutting face of the packing and one adjacent shaft, a
shear force of not less than one half of the corresponding shear force for the end packing (see
13.9.1.1).

Where the length of the column does not exceed 30 times the thickness of the shaft, only one
intermediate packing need be provided. In any event, sufficient packings should be provided to ensure
that the greater slenderness ratio ( Le/i ) of the local portion of an individual shaft between packings is
limited to either 70, or to 0.7 times the slenderness ratio of the whole column, whichever is the lesser.
For the purpose of calculating the slenderness ratio of the local portion of an individual shaft, the

32 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


effective length (Le ) should be taken as the length between the centroids of the groups of mechanical
connectors or glue areas in adjacent packings.

13.10 Permissible stresses for spaced columns

For the purpose of calculating the permissible stress on a spaced column, the radii of gyration should
be calculated about the axes X-X and Y-Y as indicated in Figure 3.

The effective length of the column, for buckling about the axes X-X and Y-Y, should be assessed in
accordance with the requirement of Table 9.

X X

b Y b

Figure 3. Axes in spaced columns

The permissible load should then be taken as the least of the following:

a) that for a solid column (whose area is that of the area of timber) bending about axis X-X;

b) that for a solid column whose area is that of one member of the built-up column, and whose
effective length is equal to the spacing of the packing pieces, multiplied by the number of
shafts; and

c) that for a column bending about the Y-Y axis whose geometrical properties of cross-section
are those of the built-up column, but whose effective length is multiplied by the modification
factor K9 given in Table 11 .

Table 11. Modification factor K9 for the effective length of spaced columns

Value of K9
Method of connection Ratio of space to thickness of the thinner member
0 1 2 3
Nailed 1.8 2.6 3.1 3.5
Screwed or bolted 1.7 2.4 2.8 3.1
Connectored 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.4
Glued 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 33


13.11 Compression members in triangulated frameworks

Compression members in triangulated frameworks such as trusses and girders (but excluding trussed
rafters designed in accordance with MS 544-11:XXXX,Section 4) should be designed in accordance
with the previous clauses subject to the following.

a) With continuous compression members, the effective length for the purpose of determining
the slenderness ratio may be taken as between 0.85 and 1.0 (depending upon the degree of
fixity and the distribution of load between node points) times the distance between the node
points of the framework for buckling in the plane of the framework and times the actual
distance between effective lateral restraints for buckling perpendicular to the plane of the
framework. With roof trusses, purlins or tiling battens may be taken as providing effective
lateral restraints provided they are adequately fastened to the top chord and are carried back
to effective bracing or other support.

With roofs employing rafters adequately fastened to a continuous restraint, e.g. a boarded
covering, it can be taken that effective lateral restraint is provided along the whole length of
the rafter.

b) With non-continuous compression members, such as web members in a framework, the


effective length for buckling depends on the type of connection at the ends of the members
and may be calculated using the appropriate end fixity (see Table 9).

Where a single bolt or connector at the end of a compression member permits rotation of the
member, its effective length should be taken as the actual distance between bolts or
connectors.

Where a web member fastened by glued gusset plates is partially restrained at both ends in
position and direction, the effective lengths for buckling in and out of the plane of the truss
should be taken as 0.9 times the actual distance between the points of intersection of the
lines passing through the centroids of the members connected.

c) The recommendations in the first sentences of 13.9.1.1 and 13.9.2 do not apply to spaced
compression members in triangulated frameworks. Intermediate packings should be not less
than 200 mm long and should be fixed in such a manner as to transmit a tensile force parallel
to axis X-X, between the individual members, of not less than 2.5 % of the total axial force in
the spaced compression member.

14 Tension members

14.1 General

Permissible stresses for timber tension members are governed by the particular conditions of loading
as given in Clauses 10 and 11 and by the additional factors given in this clause. They should be
determined as the product of the grade stress and the appropriate modification factors.

34 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


14.2 Width factor

The grade tension stresses given in Tables 1 and 2 apply to solid timber having a width (i.e. the
greater transverse dimension), h, of 300 mm. For other widths of members, the grade tension
stresses should be multiplied by the width modification factor, K10,

where:

K10 = 1.17 for solid timber members having a width of 72 mm or less; and
0.11
K10 = (300/h) for solid and glued laminated members having a width greater than 72 mm

13.3 Members subject to axial tension and bending

Members subject to both bending and axial tension should be so proportioned that :

where,

is the applied bending stress;


is the permissible bending stress;
is the applied tension stress; and
is the permissible tension stress

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 35


Annex A
(normative)

Sizes and geometrical properties of Malaysian structural timbers

Table A1. Common Commercial Timber Sizes

1
Minimum timber sizes (mm)
Shape Nominal Size (mm x mm) Fullsawn Baresawn Dressed Timber
Square 25 x 25 (1” x 1”) 28 x 28 25 x 25 20 x 20
50 x 50 (2” x 2”) 55 x 56 50 x 50 45 x 45
75 x 75 (3” x 3”) 80 x 81 75 x 75 70 x 70
100 x 100 (4” x 4”) 106 x 106 100 x 100 90 x 90
125 x 125 (5” x 5”) 131 x 131 125 x 125 115 x 115
150 x 150 (6” x 6”) 159 x 159 150 x 150 140 x 140
Rectangle 25 x 50 (1” x 2”) 28 x 56 25 x 50 20 x 45
25 x 75 (1” x 3”) 28 x 81 25 x 75 20 x 70
25 x 100 (1” x 4”) 28 x 106 25 x 100 20 x 90
25 x 125 (1” x 5”) 28 x 131 25 x 125 20 x 115
25 x 150 (1” x 6”) 28 x 159 25 x 150 20 x 140
25 x 175 (1” x 7”) 28 x 184 25 x 175 20 x 165
25 x 200 (1” x 8”) 28 x 212 25 x 200 20 x 190
38 x 50 (1½” x 2”) 41 x 56 38 x 50 33 x 45
38 x 75 (1½” x 3”) 41 x 81 38 x 75 33 x 70
38 x 100 (1½” x 4”) 41 x 106 38 x 100 33 x 90
38 x 125 (1½” x 5”) 41 x 131 38 x 125 33 x 115
38 x 150 (1½” x 6”) 41 x 159 38 x 150 33 x 140
38 x 175 (1½” x 7”) 41 x 184 38 x 175 33 x 165
38 x 200 (1½” x 8”) 41 x 212 38 x 200 33 x 190
50 x 75 (2” x 3”) 55 x 81 50 x 75 45 x 70
50 x 100 (2” x 4”) 55 x 106 50 x 100 45 x 90
50 x 125 (2” x 5”) 55 x 131 50 x 125 45 x 115
50 x 150 (2” x 6”) 55 x 159 50 x 150 45 x 140
50 x 175 (2” x 7”) 55 x 184 50 x 175 45 x 165
50 x 200 (2” x 8”) 55 x 212 50 x 200 45 x 190
63 x 100 (2½” x 4”) 68 x 106 63 x 100 58 x 90
63 x 125 (2½” x 5”) 68 x 131 63 x 125 58 x 115
63 x 150 (2½” x 6”) 68 x 159 63 x 163 58 x 140
63 x 175 (2½” x 7”) 68 x 184 63 x 175 58 x 165
63 x 200 (2½” x 8”) 68 x 212 63 x 200 58 x 190
75 x 100 (3” x 4”) 80 x 106 75 x 100 70 x 90
75 x 125 (3” x 5”) 80 x 131 75 x 125 70 x 115
75 x 150 (3” x 6”) 80 x 159 75 x 175 70 x 140

NOTE. Any size of above 150 mm shall be checked for availability

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 41


y

x x

Table A2. Geometrical properties of sawn timber at wet condition

Nominal Area Second moment of area Section modulus Radius of gyration


size
X-X Y-Y X-X Y-Y X-X Y-Y
2 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3
mm x mm mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm mm mm

25 x 25 625 3.2552 3.2552 0.2604 0.2604 7.22 7.22


25 x 38 950 11.4317 4.9479 0.6016 0.3958 10.97 7.22
25 x 50 1250 26.0417 6.5104 1.0417 0.5208 14.43 7.22
25 x 63 1575 52.0931 8.2031 1.6538 0.6563 18.19 7.22
25 x 75 1875 87.8906 9.7656 2.3438 0.7813 21.65 7.22
25 x 100 2500 208.3333 13.0208 4.1667 1.0417 28.87 7.22
25 x 125 3125 406.9010 16.2760 6.5104 1.3021 36.08 7.22
25 x 150 3750 703.1250 19.5313 9.375 1.5625 43.30 7.22
25 x 175 4375 1116.5365 22.7865 12.7604 1.8229 50.52 7.22
25 x 200 5000 1666.6667 26.0417 16.6667 2.0833 57.74 7.22
38 x 38 1444 17.3761 17.3761 0.9145 0.9145 10.97 10.97
38 x 50 1900 39.5833 22.8633 1.5833 1.2033 14.43 10.97
38 x 63 2394 79.1816 28.8078 2.5137 1.5162 18.19 10.97
38 x 75 2850 133.5938 34.2950 3.5625 1.8050 21.65 10.97
38 x 100 3800 316.6667 45.7267 6.3333 2.4067 28.87 10.97
38 x 125 4750 618.4896 57.1583 9.8958 3.0083 36.08 10.97
38 x 150 5700 1068.7500 68.5900 14.2500 3.6100 43.30 10.97
38 x 175 6650 1697.1354 80.0217 19.3958 4.2117 50.52 10.97
38 x 200 7600 2533.3333 91.4533 25.3333 4.8133 57.74 10.97
50 x 50 2500 52.0833 52.0833 2.0833 2.0833 14.43 14.43
50 x 63 3150 104.1863 65.6250 3.3075 2.6250 18.19 14.43
50 x 75 3750 175.7813 78.1250 4.6875 3.1250 21.65 14.43
50 x 100 5000 416.6667 104.1667 8.3333 4.1667 28.87 14.43
50 x 125 6250 813.8021 130.2083 13.0208 5.2083 36.08 14.43
50 x 150 7500 1406.2500 156.2500 18.7500 6.2500 43.30 14.43
50 x 175 8750 2233.0729 182.2917 25.5208 7.2917 50.52 14.43
50 x 200 10000 3333.3333 208.3333 33.3333 8.3333 57.74 14.43
63 x 63 3969 131.2747 131.2747 4.1675 4.1675 18.19 18.19
63 x 75 4725 221.4844 156.2794 5.9063 4.9613 21.65 18.19
63 x 100 6300 525.0000 208.3725 10.5000 6.6150 28.87 18.19
63 x 125 7875 1025.3906 260.4656 16.4063 8.2688 36.08 18.19
63 x 150 9450 1771.8750 312.5586 23.6250 9.9225 43.30 18.19

42 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


63 x 175 11025 2813.6719 364.6519 32.1563 11.5765 50.52 18.19
63 x 200 12600 4200.0000 416.7450 42.0000 13.2300 57.74 18.19
75 x 75 5625 263.6719 263.6719 7.0313 7.0313 21.65 21.65
75 x 100 7500 625.0000 351.5625 12.5000 9.3750 28.87 21.65
75 x 125 9375 1220.7031 439.4531 19.5313 11.7188 36.08 21.65
75 x 150 11250 2109.3750 527.3438 28.1250 14.0625 43.30 21.65
75 x 175 13125 3349.6094 615.2344 38.2813 16.4063 50.52 21.65
75 x 200 15000 5000.0000 703.1250 50.0000 18.7500 57.74 21.65
100 x 100 10000 833.3333 833.3333 16.6667 16.6667 28.87 28.87
100 x 125 12500 1627.6042 1041.6667 26.0417 20.8333 36.08 28.87
100 x 150 15000 2812.5000 1250.0000 37.5000 25.0000 43.30 28.87
100 x 175 17500 4466.1458 1458.3333 51.0417 29.1667 50.52 28.87
100 x 200 20000 6666.6667 1666.6667 66.6667 33.3333 57.74 28.87
125 x 125 15625 2034.5052 2034.5052 32.5521 32.5521 36.08 36.08
125 x 150 18750 3515.6250 2441.4063 46.8750 39.0625 43.30 36.08
125 x 175 21875 5582.6823 2848.3073 63.8021 45.5729 50.52 36.08
125 x 200 25000 8333.3333 3255.2083 83.3333 52.0833 57.74 36.08
150 x 150 22500 4218.7500 4218.7500 56.2500 56.2500 43.30 43.30
150 x 175 26250 6699.2188 4921.8750 76.5625 65.6250 50.52 43.30
150 x 200 30000 10000.0000 5625.0000 100.0000 75.0000 57.74 43.30
175 x 175 30625 7815.7552 7815.7552 89.3229 89.3229 50.52 50.52
175 x 200 35000 11666.6667 8932.2917 116.6667 102.0833 57.74 50.52
200 x 200 40000 13333.3333 13333.3333 133.3333 13.33333 57.74 57.74

NOTE. Any size above 150 mm shall be checked for availability.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 43


y

x x

Table A3.Geometrical properties of sawn timber at 19% moisture content

Radius of
Nominal Area Second moment of area Section modulus gyration
size X-X Y-Y X-X Y-Y X-X Y-Y
2 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3
mm x mm Mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm (x10 )mm mm mm
25 x 25 625 3.2552 3.2552 0.2604 0.2604 7.22 7.22
25 x 38 950 11.4317 4.9479 0.6016 0.3958 10.97 7.22
25 x 50 1250 26.0417 6.5104 1.0417 0.5208 14.43 7.22
25 x 63 1575 52.0931 8.2031 1.6538 0.6563 18.19 7.22
25 x 75 1875 87.8906 9.7656 2.3438 0.7813 21.65 7.22
25 x 100 2500 208.3333 13.0208 4.1667 1.0417 28.87 7.22
25 x 125 3125 406.9010 16.2760 6.5104 1.3021 36.08 7.22
25 x 150 3750 703.1250 19.5313 9.375 1.5625 43.30 7.22
25 x 175 4375 1116.5365 22.7865 12.7604 1.8229 50.52 7.22
25 x 200 5000 1666.6667 26.0417 16.6667 2.0833 57.74 7.22
38 x 38 1444 17.3761 17.3761 0.9145 0.9145 10.97 10.97
38 x 50 1900 39.5833 22.8633 1.5833 1.2033 14.43 10.97
38 x 63 2394 79.1816 28.8078 2.5137 1.5162 18.19 10.97
38 x 75 2850 133.5938 34.2950 3.5625 1.8050 21.65 10.97
38 x 100 3800 316.6667 45.7267 6.3333 2.4067 28.87 10.97
38 x 125 4750 618.4896 57.1583 9.8958 3.0083 36.08 10.97
38 x 150 5700 1068.7500 68.5900 14.2500 3.6100 43.30 10.97
38 x 175 6650 1697.1354 80.0217 19.3958 4.2117 50.52 10.97
38 x 200 7600 2533.3333 91.4533 25.3333 4.8133 57.74 10.97
50 x 50 2500 52.0833 52.0833 2.0833 2.0833 14.43 14.43
50 x 63 3150 104.1863 65.6250 3.3075 2.6250 18.19 14.43
50 x 75 3750 175.7813 78.1250 4.6875 3.1250 21.65 14.43
50 x 100 5000 416.6667 104.1667 8.3333 4.1667 28.87 14.43
50 x 125 6250 813.8021 130.2083 13.0208 5.2083 36.08 14.43
50 x 150 7500 1406.2500 156.2500 18.7500 6.2500 43.30 14.43
50 x 175 8750 2233.0729 182.2917 25.5208 7.2917 50.52 14.43
50 x 200 10000 3333.3333 208.3333 33.3333 8.3333 57.74 14.43
63 x 63 3969 131.2747 131.2747 4.1675 4.1675 18.19 18.19
63 x 75 4725 221.4844 156.2794 5.9063 4.9613 21.65 18.19
63 x 100 6300 525.0000 208.3725 10.5000 6.6150 28.87 18.19
63 x 125 7875 1025.3906 260.4656 16.4063 8.2688 36.08 18.19
63 x 150 9450 1771.8750 312.5586 23.6250 9.9225 43.30 18.19
63 x 175 11025 2813.6719 364.6519 32.1563 11.5765 50.52 18.19
44 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved
63 x 200 12600 4200.0000 416.7450 42.0000 13.2300 57.74 18.19
75 x 75 5625 263.6719 263.6719 7.0313 7.0313 21.65 21.65
75 x 100 7500 625.0000 351.5625 12.5000 9.3750 28.87 21.65
75 x 125 9375 1220.7031 439.4531 19.5313 11.7188 36.08 21.65
75 x 150 11250 2109.3750 527.3438 28.1250 14.0625 43.30 21.65
75 x 175 13125 3349.6094 615.2344 38.2813 16.4063 50.52 21.65
75 x 200 15000 5000.0000 703.1250 50.0000 18.7500 57.74 21.65
100 x 100 10000 833.3333 833.3333 16.6667 16.6667 28.87 28.87
100 x 125 12500 1627.6042 1041.6667 26.0417 20.8333 36.08 28.87
100 x 150 15000 2812.5000 1250.0000 37.5000 25.0000 43.30 28.87
100 x 175 17500 4466.1458 1458.3333 51.0417 29.1667 50.52 28.87
100 x 200 20000 6666.6667 1666.6667 66.6667 33.3333 57.74 28.87
125 x 125 15625 2034.5052 2034.5052 32.5521 32.5521 36.08 36.08
125 x 150 18750 3515.6250 2441.4063 46.8750 39.0625 43.30 36.08
125 x 175 21875 5582.6823 2848.3073 63.8021 45.5729 50.52 36.08
125 x 200 25000 8333.3333 3255.2083 83.3333 52.0833 57.74 36.08
150 x 150 22500 4218.7500 4218.7500 56.2500 56.2500 43.30 43.30
150 x 175 26250 6699.2188 4921.8750 76.5625 65.6250 50.52 43.30
150 x 200 30000 10000.0000 5625.0000 100.0000 75.0000 57.74 43.30
175 x 175 30625 7815.7552 7815.7552 89.3229 89.3229 50.52 50.52
175 x 200 35000 11666.6667 8932.2917 116.6667 102.0833 57.74 50.52
200 x 200 40000 13333.3333 13333.3333 133.3333 13.33333 57.74 57.74

NOTE. Any size above 150 mm shall be checked for availability.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 45


Annex B
(Normative)

Modification factor for compression members

The value of the modification factor K8 for compression members with slenderness ratios
equal to or greater than 5 is given by the equation :
2 2 2 2 1/2
1 (1+ ) E 1 (1+ ) E E
K8 = + - + -
2 2 2
2 2N c 2 2N c N c

where,

c is the compression parallel to the grain stress for the particular conditions of loading
(see 12.5);

E is the appropriate modulus of elasticity for the particular exposure condition (see
12.5);

is the slenderness ratio , i.e. the effective column length divided by the radius of
gyration (Le/i);

is the eccentricity factor (taken as 0.005 in deriving the values given in Table 10);
and

N is the reduction factor used to derive grade compression stresses and moduli of
elasticity and, in this case, has the value 1.5.

For the specific purposes of calculating K8, the minimum value of E (modified if applicable by
K7 or K18 of MS 544 : Part 3, see 8.5) should be used and c should not include any
allowance, for load sharing.

For compression members acting alone, the permissible stress is :

c, adm = K8 c

For compression members in load-sharing systems (see Clause 10), the permissible stress is:

c, adm = 1.1K8 c

46 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved


Bibliography

[1] BS EN 384: 1995, Structural Timber – Determination of characteristic values of


mechanical properties and density

[2] BS 6100, Glossary of building and civil engineering terms

[3] AS 1720.1-1998, Timber structures code - Part 1: Design methods

[4] AS 1720-1975, Timber engineering code

[5] Malaysian Grading Rules for Sawn Hardwood Timber 1984 (Ed), MTIB.

[6] Timber Design Handbook. Malayan Forest Records No. 42. 1997, FRIM.

© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved 47


Acknowledgements

Members of Technical Committee on Timber structures

Prof Dr Zakiah Ahmad (Chairman) University Teknologi Mara


Ms Syafinaz Abd Rashad (Secretary) Malaysian Timber Industry Board
Mr Mohd Idrus Din Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia
Dr Tan Yu Eng Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Ir Lai Sze Ching Institute of Engineers Malaysia
Ar. Chris Yap Seng Chye Malaysian Institute of Architects
Ms Hamidah Abdullah Malaysian Timber Council
Mr Muhammad Shaiful Nordin Malaysian Timber Industry Board
Ir. Ahmad Redza bin Ghulam Rasool Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing & Local
Government
Mr Ng Wun Pin Multinail Asia Sdn Bhd
Ir Azman Jamrus Public Works Department
Mr Nicholas Andrew Lissem Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation
Mr Lee Leh Yew Timber Exporters’ Association of Malaysia
Assoc Prof Dr H’ng Paik San Universiti Putra Malaysia
Assoc Prof Dr Badorul Hisham Abu Bakar Universiti Sains Malaysia
Assoc Prof Dr Abd Latif Saleh Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Assoc Prof Dr Mohd Ariff Jamaluddin Universiti Teknologi Mara
Assoc Prof Dr David Yeoh Eng Chuan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Mr Mohd Nor Zamri Mat Amin Wood Industry Skills Development Centre

Members of Working Groups on MS 544 Part 1

Assoc. Prof. Dr Zakiah Ahmad (Chairman) Universiti Teknologi MARA


Ms Syafinaz Abd Rashad (Secretary) Malaysian Timber Industry Board
Dr. Mohd Omar Mohd Khaidzir Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Mohammad Shaiful Nordin Malaysian Timber Industry Board
Mr Ng Wun Pin Multinail Asia Sdn Bhd
Ir Azman Jamrus/ Public Works Department
Ms Mimi Suriyani Ismail
Mr Nicholas Andrew Lissem Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation
Prof Dr. Badorul Hisham Abu Bakar Universiti Sains Malaysia
Assoc. Prof. Dr Abd Latif Saleh Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Assoc. Prof. Dr Mohd Ariff Jamaludin Universiti Teknologi MARA
Dr David Yeoh Eng Chuan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

48 © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2015 - All rights reserved