ThalamusIt is large mass of grey matter, which integrates all sensory information & act as a great sensory relay station

Situation - in the lateral wall of third ventricle & floor of central part of lateral ventricle Disposition - it lies obliquely with its long axis directed backward & laterally The small anterior end is nearer to median plane & posterior end related with pineal body, superior colliculus, and habenular nucleus Gross anatomy ± Length ± 4cm anteroposteroly Ends ± two Anterior- it is narrow Posterior (pulvinar)-it is expanded connected with LGB & MGB 3. Surfaces- four a) Superior ± forms the floor of central part of lateral ventricle it is limited laterally by caudate nucleus & medially by habenular striae 1. 2. a) b)

b) Inferior - it rests upon subthalamus & hypothalamus c) Medial - forms lateral wall of third ventricle d) Lateral - forms medial boundary of internal capsule it si covered by external medullary lamina Structure ±outer is white matter & centrally grey matter A) White matter 1. Stratum zonale a band of white substance covering the superior surface 2. External medullary lamina on the lateral surface 3. Internal medullary lamina ( a vertical sheet of white matter which bifurcates antero-superiorly to divide the grey matter of thalamus in to three large parts it is Y shaped it divides grey matter into a) Anterior b) Medial c) Lateral B) Grey matter ±it consists of two groups it consists of groups of thalamic nuclei Paleothalamus - again divides in to two

1. Anterior part - consists of anterior nucleus 2. Medial part consists of medial nucleus it is part of thalamus lying bet internal medullary lamina & medial surface of thalamus Anterior & medial part represents the paleothalamus Neothalamus - it is mainly lateral part it is largest & lies bet internal & external medullary laminae it consists of several parts 1. Lateral 2. Ventral Ventral part further divided into 1. Ventroanterior 2. Ventrointermediate 3. Ventroposterior - it is further divided into posteriolateral & posteriomedial groups Other groups of nuclei 1. Reticular nucleus - on the lateral surface adjacent to internal capsule 2. Intralaminar nuclei - in the internal medullary lamina 3. Pulvinar - at the posterior end 4. Mid line nuclei - on the medial surface

Blood supply - thalamo-perforating branches thalamo-geniculate branches of posterior cerebral & middle cerebral artery Thalamic radiation - these are two-way fibre connections bet thalamus & cortex Four groups known as peduncles 1. Anterior - anterior & medial thalamic nuclei to frontal lobe 2. Superior ± ventral group to motor & sensory areas of frontal & parietal lobes 3. Posterior - posterior thalamus ,pulvinar to occipital & posterior parietal cortex 4. Inferior - interconnects ±connection with temporal lobe & auditory radiation from MGB Connections & functions 1. Anterior nucleus Afferent Efferent Function Mammillothalmic Cingulate gyrus Relay station tract i.e. from for hippocampal hypothalamus impulses & form important link in the limbic system & concerned for

emotional, visceral & autonomic activity 2. Medial nucleus Afferent From hypothalamus Efferent Same as afferent Functions Integration of visceral somatic & olfactory activities

Prefrontal areas of frontal lobe i.e. areas in front of area 6 Other thalamic nuclei in 3. Lateral nucleus Afferent Efferent Precuneus Precuneus superior superior parietal lobule parietal lobule ,& other thalamic nuclei ,ventral & medial 4. Ventroanterior Afferent Efferent Functions Integration of various impulses

Functions

Globus pallidus Area 6 & 8 of cortex 5. Ventrointermediate

Relay station for striatal impulses

Efferent Functions Motor area 4 & Relay station 6 for cerebellar impulses 6. Ventroposterio- lateral Afferent Cerebellum & red nucleus Efferen Functions t Spinal & Area 3 Relay station for touch medullar 1 2 pain,temperature,propriocepti y ve from body except face leminsci 7.ventroposterromedial Afferent Functions Relay station for impulses from face 8. Intralaminar midline reticular Afferent Trigeminal leminsci Afferent Diffuse thalmocortical fibres from reticular Efferent Functions All areas of In sleep cerebral cortex arousal reaction Efferent Area312

formation of brain stem 9. Pulvinar Afferent Other thalamic nuclei Functions 1. Appreciates the crude sensation like pain & touch 2. Great sensory relay station for all sensory impulses except smell, visual, & auditory 3. Participates in maintenance of alertness & wakefulness 4. Integration bet sensory system, cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, cerebellum by profuse intrathalamic connections 5. concerned with emotions, subjective feeling etc Applied anatomy 1. Its lesions may leads to loss of many types of sensations ±joint sense ,position sense ,& touch discrimination & personality changes Efferent Temporal lobe parietal lobe area 18 19 Functions Visual & auditory functions

all these leads to disturbed gait if LGB is involved then homonymous hemianopia 2. Thalamic syndrome ± due to thrombosis thalamogeniculate branch of posterior cerebral artery The signs & symptoms are a) Diminished pain temperature. touch on opposite side of body b) Impairment of emotional expressions c) Hemiplegia

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