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Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău

Different Types of Systems in a Car


General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

2015-2016
Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Index

Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 2
Mechanical systems ...................................................................................................................... 2
Motor system ( Engine ) ............................................................................................................ 2
Transmission system ( Gearbox, propeller shaft, differential ) ................................................. 3
Brake system ............................................................................................................................. 4
Fuel system................................................................................................................................ 5
Electrical system ............................................................................................................................ 6
Battery ....................................................................................................................................... 6
Alternator .................................................................................................................................. 6
Starter........................................................................................................................................ 7
Electronic systems ......................................................................................................................... 8
ABS ( Anti-lock Braking System ) ............................................................................................... 8
Other systems ............................................................................................................................... 9
Heating system .......................................................................................................................... 9
Suspension system and steering system ................................................................................... 9
All the systems together ............................................................................................................. 10
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 11

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Introduction

In my case, I have chosen the car as a machine to study their different systems and point out
the parts of each one of them.

First of all, note that the car is an element of transportation we use more daily (along with
buses, trucks... with those who share all types of systems of which we'll talk about later).

It is the mode of transport most used around the world, there are 1,200 million cars in the
world.

More used cars over the past years are the powered by gasoline and diesel, but today there is
another type of cars powered by electricity, hydrogen and other fuel types.

As I mentioned earlier, at work I'll develop different systems that make up a car, such as:

- Mechanical systems ( Engine, transmission, gear box, brakes… )

- Electrical system ( Battery, alternator… )

- Electronic systems ( On-board computer, ABS… )

Now we will pass to identify the different parts of each system.

Mechanical systems

In this part we will discuss and identify each part of all mechanical systems that make up a car

Motor system ( Engine )


This system is responsible for generating
the movement through the combustion of
a flammable liquid, and also is in charge of
transforming the linear motion of the
pistons into the circular motion and thus
to transmit it to the wheels by means of
other systems which we will discuss later.

In the image that we have on the right side


we can see the different parts and
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components having a conventional internal
combustion engine.

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Transmission system ( Gearbox, propeller shaft, differential )

This system is coupled to the


engine of the car and is which
is responsible for managing
the power of this when it comes
to transmit it to the wheels
through gears, which can be
geared manually by the pilot,
or also, nowadays can be geared
automatically by the own
gearbox.

At the same time, the


transmission system can be
connected to a propeller shaft if
it’s necessary that the
movement is transmitted to the
rear wheels, as for example in a sports car or like in all-terrain in which all wheels are drive.
In the case of having a propeller shaft, this consists of the following parts:

Once transmitted to the propeller shaft, the last part is to transmit motion and power to the
wheels, but to do it, we put a differential between the front and rear axles, because to 3
cornering, the wheel on the inside of the curve and the wheel on the outside of the curve
rotate at different speeds and if they were not this element wheels skid and would be unsafe
for the car.

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Brake system
The braking system is responsible for stopping the car using the friction of materials in the
interior of the wheel, normally have a liquid that it transmits pressure from the brake pedal to
the brake piston, and we have two types of brakes ( more common ) for cars:

- Drum brake

- Disc brake

The only difference between these two is the form in which there is friction on the braking
system, being more effective disc brakes.

Formerly, cars carried disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the rear, and that was due to
the fact that disc brakes were more effective and as braking weight tends to go to the front of
the car need to have disc brakes in the front because the front brakes are more forced than
rear brakes. The distribution of braking is typically 40-60 ( 40 front – 60 rear ).

Today the cars carry four disc brakes, since today they have security systems installed as the 4
ABS that can only be applied on disc brakes and therefore used this type of brakes.

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Fuel system
This system is responsible for storing the fuel in the car and bring it from the tank where this
stored up to the engine.

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Electrical system

Electrical system is essential so that all the above mentioned components work. In fact, today
there are cars that run only on electricity, which makes that you don't depend on a
conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel).

Now we are going to see the parts that make up the electrical system:

Battery
The battery is a box filled with plates
and liquids ( like lead-acid ) that produce
electricity.

Lead-acid batteries are made up of


plates of lead and separate plates
of lead dioxide, which are submerged
into an electrolyte solution of about
38% sulfuric acid and 62% water.
This causes a chemical reaction that
releases electrons, allowing them to
flow through conductors to produce
electricity.

Alternator
Batteries do not have an unlimited life
and go low, so, an alternator is coupled
to the engine of the car which is
attached with a belt and while the
motor turns the alternator also and
thus we get that battery go charging
while the car travels.

An alternator is an electrical
generator that converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy in the form
of alternating current. For reasons of
cost and simplicity, most alternators use
a rotating magnetic field with a
stationary armature. 6

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Starter
When the main engine of a car is off, needs to move the pistons before injecting gasoline on
them to start and for this was invented the starter motor, which thanks to the battery, when
we put the ignition key, the starter motor turn and that make moving the crankshaft,
preparing the motor to inject the gasoline and begins to operate without help, only with fuel.

If we put everything together we will see more clearly how it is arranged in a system-wide car:

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Electronic systems

Today a car has almost more electronics devices than electric devices and that is because every
time they come with more security and technology systems that need electronic systems for
their control.

ABS ( Anti-lock Braking System )


This system which makes is that the brakes are not blocking a car wheel when braking, and
thanks to this not lose adhesion at any time and thus greater security in situations of rain and
snow.

The system of ABS is formed by the following parts:

As we can see in the diagram of the system, the rear brakes are disc, as we have mentioned
above that it is obligatory to install such systems. 8

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Other systems

Apart from the previously mentioned systems, we also find the following in a car:

Heating system
With this system you get is put the right temperature in the interior of the car through the use
of the following devices that can be seen in the following diagram:

Apart from producing heat, as we can see, the system also serves to produce cold, what we
commonly call air conditioning system (AC).

Suspension system and steering system


The suspension system is that absorb the bumps that the car can be found on the road and the
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steering system is that is responsible for directing the front wheels towards where we want
the car to circulate.

In the next image we can see the parts that make up the two systems:

Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

All the systems together

In this last image we can see all the systems on the car and how would a car without
bodywork:

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Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău


Different Types of Systems in a Car
General Mechanical Technology
Juan Cárdenas Acha

Bibliography

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_de_combusti%C3%B3n_interna

http://bibliotecadigital.ilce.edu.mx/sites/ciencia/volumen1/ciencia2/39/html/sec_10.html

http://www.banrepcultural.org/node/92121

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJTWJO3vdBk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pM0ZFbmlgw

http://www.monografias.com/trabajos94/motor-combustion-interna/motor-combustion-
interna.shtml

http://www.academia.edu/8103611/PRINCIPIOS_B%C3%81SICOS_MOTOR_DE_COMBUSTION
_INTERNA

http://www.ecured.cu/Motor_de_combusti%C3%B3n_interna

http://automedicsafrica.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/2.gif

https://www.google.es/search?q=transmision+coche&biw=1366&bih=623&source=lnms&tbm
=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj83bXRoazKAhVHfxoKHarqDIoQ_AUIBigB#imgrc=tS-
xFigOLmsDXM%3A

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Universitatea "Vasile Alecsandri" din Bacău | Calea Mărășești 158, Bacău