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-University of Colombo-

(2016)

Coefficient of Friction for a

Lapped String

Index Number :- S12527

Group Number :- 29B

Date of Practical :- 24th of October, 2016

Lab Partner :- D. M. D. L. R. Pramodya

Abstract

Determination of the friction coefficient for a string running over a wooden rod

Determination of the friction coefficient for a string running over a nylon rod

with different surface areas.

Four experiments were performed in order to determine them.

This report contains a detailed analysis of the results obtained.

Finally conclusions were made taking into account the observations and results.

Final Results

Coefficient of Friction for Wood and Nylon String = 0.0771 ± (7.7288*10-6)

Coefficient of Friction for Nylon and Nylon String = 0.0899 ± (7.6531*10-6)

Coefficient of Friction for Wood and Nylon String = 0.0744 ± (7.4995*10-6)

(with a greater surface area)

Coefficient of Friction for Nylon and Nylon String = 0.0876 ± (0.0876*10-6)

(with a greater surface area)

1

Contents

1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4

2 Theory ................................................................................................................................ 5

3 Apparatus and Accessories ................................................................................................ 8

3.1 Part A........................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Part B ........................................................................................................................... 8

4 Procedure ........................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Part A........................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Part B ........................................................................................................................... 9

5 Experimental Data ........................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Part A......................................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Part B ......................................................................................................................... 10

6 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................... 11

6.1 Part A......................................................................................................................... 11

7 Error Analysis .................................................................................................................. 14

7.1 Errors of T0 and T1 .................................................................................................... 14

7.2 Error of ln(T1/T0) ....................................................................................................... 14

8 Final Results..................................................................................................................... 16

8.1 Part A......................................................................................................................... 16

8.2 Part B ......................................................................................................................... 16

9 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 17

10 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 18

11 References ........................................................................................................................ 19

12 Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 20

12.1 Matlab codes for Part A ......................................................................................... 20

12.2 Matlab codes for Part B ......................................................................................... 21

Figure 2-1 Apparatus used for the experiment .......................................................................... 5

Figure 2-2 Different ways of lapping the string around the rod ................................................ 5

Figure 2-3 Forces applying on a string segment ........................................................................ 6

Figure 3-2 Apparatus for Part B................................................................................................. 8

Figure 6-1 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Wooden Rod - Part A ................................... 11

Figure 6-2 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Nylon Rod - Part A ..................................... 12

Figure 6-3 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Wooden Rod - Part B .................................. 12

Figure 6-4 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Nylon Rod - Part B...................................... 13

2

-------------------------------- List of Tables --------------------------------

Table 4-2 Table for measuring values for m2 of Part B ............................................................. 9

Table 5-1 Measured values for m2 of Part A ........................................................................... 10

Table 5-2 Measured values for m2 of Part B............................................................................ 10

3

1 Introduction

When two surfaces are firmly in contact with each other, there are several forces that act upon

each other. These several forces can be separated into two components as the component

perpendicular to the interface and the component along the interface. The component that is

perpendicular to the interface is known as the “Reaction Force”. It prevents one surface from

getting into the other surface. The component along the interface is known as the “Frictional

Force”. It prevents the two surfaces moving with respect to each other, until a force that is

greater than this frictional force is applied.

Frictional force is a combined result of electromagnetic interactions between the atoms of the

two surfaces as well as the condition of the two surfaces. For example, although a certain

surface may seem smooth at macroscopic level, at microscopic level it may not be smooth.

Frictional force is directly proportional to the reaction force between the two surfaces and the

roughness of the two surfaces. That is greater the reaction force, the greater the frictional force

and rougher the two surfaces, the greater the frictional force. It also depends on the material of

which the two surfaces are made of, due to electromagnetic interactions.

It is easier to make a model that describes the behaviour of the frictional force than to

understand the concepts behind phenomena that occur at microscopic level, which is why the

coefficient of friction has been introduced.

This report extensively discusses the determination of the friction of coefficient of a string

running over a wooden and nylon rod.

4

2 Theory

The following apparatus is used to experiment with the frictional force against the movement

of a string lapped around a rod.

The string can be lapped around the rod in either of the following manners, both of which are

considered in this experiment.

Figure 2-2 Different ways of lapping the string around the rod

Here,

T0 = Backward tension

T1 = Tension applied at the moment the string merely starts to slip over the rod

5

m1 = Mass placed in the scale pan A

m2 = Mass placed in the scale pan B

mA = Mass of the scale pan A

mB = Mass of the scale pan B

The backward tension (T0) and the applied tension (T1) can be expressed in terms of m1, m2,

mA and mB as follows.

= +

= +

Now let’s consider a small segment of the string going over the rod. The forces present on the

string can be schematically shown as follows.

− T θ=0

Thus,

=T θ

6

Since,

=μ

= μ

By substituting for and R;

= μT θ

dT

μ θ=

By integrating;

dT

=μ θ

= μθ

By obtaining values for m1, m2, mA and mB the graph of versus θ can be plotted.

7

3 Apparatus and Accessories

The practical was performed in two parts based on the method in which the string is lapped

around the rod.

3.1 Part A

Apparatus shown in Figure 2-1 Apparatus used for the experimentwas used for part A. Both

the frictionless pulley and the rod were held using a stands which were firmly clamped to the

table. The segment of the string between the pulley and the rod was made horizontal, by

measuring the distance from the surface of the table to the string near the pulley and near the

rod and making necessary adjustments for the height of the stand holding the rod.

3.2 Part B

Apparatus used for part A was modified as shown in Figure 3-1 Apparatus for Part Bto perform

part B. The stand holding the rod was raised in order to make the string segment between the

pulley and the rod horizontal.

8

4 Procedure

4.1 Part A

a) First, the apparatus was set up as shown in Figure 2-1with a wooden rod.

b) Thereafter the masses of pan A and pan B were measured using the electronic balance.

c) Then a 10.0g mass was measured using electronic balance and placed in pan A.

d) Subsequently masses were added to pan B until the string merely started to slip over the

rod.

e) At that point, the corresponding masses that were in pan B (m2) were taken out and

measured (i.e. the mass corresponding to θ= π/2) and entered in Table 4-1.

f) While leaving the same 10.0g mass in pan A, steps d) and e) were repeated for θ values

5π/2, 9π/2, 13π/2 and 17π/2 (i.e. for string lapped twice, thrice, four times and five times

around the rod, respectively)

g) After that, steps b) to f) were repeated for the nylon rod.

θ m2 (wooden rod)(g) m2 (nylon rod)(g)

π/2

5π/2

9π/2

13π/2

17π/2

Table 4-1 Table for measuring values for m2 of Part A

4.2 Part B

a) First, the apparatus was set up as shown in Figure 3-1 with a wooden rod.

b) Thereafter the masses of pan A and pan B were measured using the electronic balance.

c) Then a 10.0g mass was measured using electronic balance and placed in pan A.

d) Subsequently masses were added to pan B until the string merely started to slip over the

rod.

e) At that point, the corresponding masses that were in pan B (m2) were taken out and

measured (i.e. the mass corresponding to θ= 3π/2) and entered in Table 4-2.

f) While leaving the same 10.0g mass in pan A, steps d) and e) were repeated for θ values

7π/2, 11π/2, 15π/2 and 19π/2 (i.e. for string lapped twice, thrice, four times and five times

around the rod, respectively)

g) After that, steps b) to f) were repeated for the nylon rod.

θ m2 (wooden rod)(g) m2 (nylon rod)(g)

3π/2

7π/2

11π/2

15π/2

19π/2

Table 4-2 Table for measuring values for m2 of Part B

9

5 Experimental Data

For both Part A and Part B;

Mass of scale pan A while empty (mA) = (90.32 ± 0.01) g

Mass of scale pan B while empty (mB) = (107.06 ± 0.01) g

Measured value for the mass of 10.0g mass (m1) = (10.24 ± 0.01) g

5.1 Part A

Mass of pan B = (107.06 ± 0.01)g

(± 0.01g) (± 0.01g)

π/2 40.11 40.67

5π/2 130.33 300.31

9π/2 290.37 500.57

13π/2 596.01 890.24

17π/2 863.57 1597.81

Table 5-1 Measured values for m2 of Part A

5.2 Part B

Mass of pan B = (107.06 ± 0.01)g

(± 0.01g) (± 0.01g)

3π/2 80.14 80.08

7π/2 200.24 550.64

11π/2 400.42 1000.20

15π/2 697.94 1598.18

19π/2 1098.45 1897.21

Table 5-2 Measured values for m2 of Part B

10

6 Data Analysis

g = 9.8 ms-2

All the necessary calculations were done using Matlab.

Relevant codes are included in the appendix.

6.1 Part A

Figure 6-1 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Wooden Rod - Part A

11

Figure 6-2 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Nylon Rod - Part A

Figure 6-3 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Wooden Rod - Part B

12

Figure 6-4 Graph of ln(T1/T0) versus Theta for Nylon Rod - Part B

13

7 Error Analysis

7.1 Errors of T0 and T1

= +

= +

= = 9.8

= = ±0.01 ∗ 10

= 2 ∗ 9.8 ∗ (0.01 ∗ 10 )

= ±1.3859 ∗ 10

= +

Since,

= = ±0.01 ∗ 10

similarly,

= ±1.3859 ∗ 10

= ln( )

= ln( ) − ln( )

= +

1

=

1

=

= = ±1.3859 ∗ 10

Therefore,

14

1 1

= 1.3859 ∗ 10 ∗ +

Relevant codes are included in the appendix.

15

8 Final Results

8.1 Part A

Coefficient of Friction for Nylon and Nylon String = 0.0899 ± (7.6531*10-6)

8.2 Part B

Coefficient of Friction for Nylon and Nylon String = 0.0876 ± (0.0876*10-6)

16

9 Discussion

When performing the experiment, the smallest available mass was 10.0g. That is the mass on

pan B could be increased only in steps of 10.0g which means an error of ± 5.0g. It was not

taken into account when performing the calculations, although it may have affected the final

results. As it can be seen from final results, the errors for each friction coefficient are in the

region of 10-6. This fact combined with the fact that the use of 10.0g masses cause an error of

± 5.0g, it is fair to presume that the actual error in this practical is much greater than what is

obtained.

It was observed during the practical that at the critical point, in order for the string to merely

start moving, the addition of a single 10.0g mass was sufficient. However the motion did not

stop when that mass was taken out. In order to stop the motion so many masses had to be taken

out. This phenomenon is due to the difference between static friction and kinetic friction. Static

friction is the frictional force that prevents an object at rest from moving. Suppose a small force

is applied to an object at rest. Then the frictional force caused by the static friction has the same

magnitude as that applied force, but it is opposite in direction to that applied force. Kinetic

friction is the frictional force that acts against the motion of an object that is moving. In this

case, the magnitude of the frictional force caused by kinetic friction is smaller than the force

applied to the object causing it to move. Also, for a given interface, the kinetic frictional force

is always smaller than the static frictional force. That is why the motion of the string did not

stop after the lastly added mass was taken out.

In both Part A and Part B of the experiment, the values obtained for the coefficient of friction

for wooden rod are nearly the same. In Part B, the theta angle of the thread is greater meaning

that the area of the string which is in contact with the rod is greater. But since more or less the

same values have been obtained for the coefficient of friction, it is fair to presume that the

coefficient of friction does not depend on the area of contact between the two surfaces. It is

further confirmed by the fact that in both Part A and Part B, the values obtained for the

coefficient of friction for nylon rod too are nearly the same.

Thus the three key factors that affect the friction are the normal reaction between the surfaces,

the material(s) of which the two surfaces are made of and the condition of the texture of the

two surfaces.

It can be seen from the equation = μθ that the gravitation acceleration terms which

are in T1 and T0 get cancelled out. Thus the ratio will remain unchanged if the experiment

was performed under a different gravitation acceleration. However, if it was performed on the

moon, the values obtained for T1 and T0 would have been different since the gravity on moon

is less than the gravity on earth. But that will not affect the ratio thus the coefficient of friction

will remain unchanged.

17

10 Conclusion

Finally, the following conclusions were drawn.

Friction does not depend on the area of contact.

Friction does not depend on the gravitation acceleration.

Friction does depend on the material type, normal reaction force and condition of the

surface.

18

11 References

hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu

GPL 206X – Lab sheet

19

12 Appendix

12.1 Matlab codes for Part A

clc;

clear;

mA=0.09032;

mB=0.10706;

g=9.8;

m1=0.01024;

T0=m1*g+mA*g;

X=[pi/2:2*pi:17*pi/2];

m2=[0.04011,0.13033,0.29037,0.59601,0.86357];

for (i=1:5)

T1(i)=m2(i)*g+mB*g;

Y(i)=log(T1(i)/T0);

E(i)=1.3859*10^(-4)*sqrt((1/T1(i))^2+(1/T0)^2);

end

errorbar(X,Y,E,'kx');

title('Graph of ln(T_1/T_0) versus \theta(rads) for Wooden Rod - Part A'),

hold on

xlabel('\theta(rads)');

ylabel('ln(T_1/T_0)');

s=0;

sx=0;

sy=0;

sxx=0;

sxy=0;

n=5;

for i=1:n

s=s+1/E(i)^2;

sx=sx+X(i)/E(i)^2;

sy=sy+Y(i)/E(i)^2;

sxx=sxx+X(i)^2/E(i)^2;

sxy=sxy+X(i)*Y(i)/E(i)^2;

end

D=s*sxx-sx^2;

M=(s*sxy-sx*sy)/D

C=(sxx*sy-sx*sxy)/D;

dM=sqrt(s/D)%?m;

for i=1:n

Y2(i)=C+M*X(i);

end

plot(X,Y2,'k'), hold off

clc;

clear;

mA=0.09032;

mB=0.10706;

g=9.8;

m1=0.01024;

T0=m1*g+mA*g;

X=[pi/2:2*pi:17*pi/2];

m2=[0.04067,0.30031,0.50057,0.89024,1.59781];

for (i=1:5)

20

T1(i)=m2(i)*g+mB*g;

Y(i)=log(T1(i)/T0);

E(i)=1.3859*10^(-4)*sqrt((1/T1(i))^2+(1/T0)^2);

end

errorbar(X,Y,E,'kx');

title('Graph of ln(T_1/T_0) versus \theta(rads) for Nylon Rod - Part A'),

hold on

xlabel('\theta(rads)');

ylabel('ln(T_1/T_0)');

s=0;

sx=0;

sy=0;

sxx=0;

sxy=0;

n=5;

for i=1:n

s=s+1/E(i)^2;

sx=sx+X(i)/E(i)^2;

sy=sy+Y(i)/E(i)^2;

sxx=sxx+X(i)^2/E(i)^2;

sxy=sxy+X(i)*Y(i)/E(i)^2;

end

D=s*sxx-sx^2;

M=(s*sxy-sx*sy)/D

C=(sxx*sy-sx*sxy)/D;

dM=sqrt(s/D)%?m;

for i=1:n

Y2(i)=C+M*X(i);

end

plot(X,Y2,'k'), hold off

clc;

clear;

mA=0.09032;

mB=0.10706;

g=9.8;

m1=0.01024;

T0=m1*g+mA*g;

X=[3*pi/2:2*pi:19*pi/2];

m2=[0.08014,0.20024,0.40042,0.69794,1.09845];

for (i=1:5)

T1(i)=m2(i)*g+mB*g;

Y(i)=log(T1(i)/T0);

E(i)=1.3859*10^(-4)*sqrt((1/T1(i))^2+(1/T0)^2);

end

errorbar(X,Y,E,'kx');

title('Graph of ln(T_1/T_0) versus \theta(rads) for Wooden Rod - Part B'),

hold on

xlabel('\theta(rads)');

ylabel('ln(T_1/T_0)');

s=0;

sx=0;

sy=0;

sxx=0;

sxy=0;

21

n=5;

for i=1:n

s=s+1/E(i)^2;

sx=sx+X(i)/E(i)^2;

sy=sy+Y(i)/E(i)^2;

sxx=sxx+X(i)^2/E(i)^2;

sxy=sxy+X(i)*Y(i)/E(i)^2;

end

D=s*sxx-sx^2;

M=(s*sxy-sx*sy)/D

C=(sxx*sy-sx*sxy)/D;

dM=sqrt(s/D)%?m;

for i=1:n

Y2(i)=C+M*X(i);

end

plot(X,Y2,'k'), hold off

clc;

clear;

mA=0.09032;

mB=0.10706;

g=9.8;

m1=0.01024;

T0=m1*g+mA*g;

X=[3*pi/2:2*pi:19*pi/2];

m2=[0.08008,0.55064,1.00020,1.59818,1.89721];

for (i=1:5)

T1(i)=m2(i)*g+mB*g;

Y(i)=log(T1(i)/T0);

E(i)=1.3859*10^(-4)*sqrt((1/T1(i))^2+(1/T0)^2);

end

errorbar(X,Y,E,'kx');

title('Graph of ln(T_1/T_0) versus \theta(rads) for Nylon Rod - Part B'),

hold on

xlabel('\theta(rads)');

ylabel('ln(T_1/T_0)');

s=0;

sx=0;

sy=0;

sxx=0;

sxy=0;

n=5;

for i=1:n

s=s+1/E(i)^2;

sx=sx+X(i)/E(i)^2;

sy=sy+Y(i)/E(i)^2;

sxx=sxx+X(i)^2/E(i)^2;

sxy=sxy+X(i)*Y(i)/E(i)^2;

end

D=s*sxx-sx^2;

M=(s*sxy-sx*sy)/D

C=(sxx*sy-sx*sxy)/D;

dM=sqrt(s/D)%?m;

for i=1:n

Y2(i)=C+M*X(i);

end

plot(X,Y2,'k'), hold off

22

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