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Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal

Coaching: an effective practice for business competitiveness

María Dolores Vidal-Salazar Vera Ferrón-Vílchez Eulogio Cordón-Pozo
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María Dolores Vidal-Salazar Vera Ferrón-Vílchez Eulogio Cordón-Pozo, (2012),"Coaching: an effective
practice for business competitiveness", Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, Vol. 22
Iss 5 pp. 423 - 433
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Coaching for
Coaching: an effective practice for business
business competitiveness competitiveness
Marı́a Dolores Vidal-Salazar, Vera Ferrón-Vı́lchez and
Eulogio Cordón-Pozo 423
Department of Business and Management, University of Granada,
Granada, Spain

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of one of the more widespread
techniques for personnel development and training: coaching. This technique in the business context entails
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boosting of a manager’s capabilities so as to improve business results through a combination of experience,

knowledge, support and the motivation provided by advisers who specialize in business management.
Design/methodology/approach – To analyze the effectiveness of this innovative technique, the
authors examined a sample of 40 small companies located in Ceuta (an autonomous Spanish city in
North Africa) using a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Participants were divided into two groups; in one
group, an individualized audit process was conducted to obtain an actual picture of managerial
practices (focusing on needs and corrective measures). In the other group, an advising process also
complemented a coaching phase that was implemented to facilitate employee adoption of the proposed
measures. Ultimately, differences between these two groups were found.
Findings – Results indicate that coaching substantially increases the level to which processes of
improvement are established within organizations, consequently increasing the competitive capability.
Practical implications – The findings highlight the potential benefits of the use of coaching in the
business context. Coaching facilitates the implementation of a set of improvement measures designed to
increase business competitiveness, suggesting that this type of advising stands to be very beneficial for
Originality/value – Practices that lead to the development of human capital in organizations are
basic tools for managers that are becoming increasingly essential for achieving business efficiency and
strategic change. The paper analyzes the implementation of coaching in the business arena,
specifically in the case of managers, which is a novelty given the dearth of empirical research on
coaching. Thus, the results of the paper provide the wider academic community with empirical
evidence on how coaching is a profitable practice for improving human resource management.
Keywords Coaching, Human resource management, General management, Personnel training,
Competitiveness, Implementation of improvement measures, Managers’ satisfaction,
Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test
Paper type Research paper

1. Introduction
To adapt and obtain competitive advantages in the current business context, companies
must implement processes of efficiency improvement. In doing so, managers are interested
in establishing a clear business advantage over competitors. Thus, the adequate
management of human resources is a determining factor for the decisive role it plays in
implementing the business strategy and for its potential in achieving a sustainable Competitiveness Review: An
source of competitive advantage (Kamoche, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Vidal Salazar, 2009; International Business Journal
Vol. 22 No. 5, 2012
pp. 423-433
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
This research was supported by the Research Project ECO2007-67833 of the Spanish Ministry of 1059-5422
Education. DOI 10.1108/10595421211266302
CR Wright et al., 1994). Currently, techniques for the training and development of personnel are
22,5 encouraged by means of implementing practices that would facilitate organizational
learning and improve efficiency at both the individual and group levels.
Drawing on human resources management practices, this study focuses on coaching.
As a business technique, coaching constitutes an innovative management practice that
directly encourages personal development while indirectly fostering the economic and
424 sustainable growth of firms. In the business context, coaching is defined as an
interactive, direct and confidential process by means of which a trainer and another
employee (or a reduced group of employees) attempt to find the most effective way for
achieving objectives while making significant changes within a company (Launer, 2007)
and drawing upon its resources and capacities.
Little is known either theoretically or empirically about how the implementation of
coaching translates into improved business performance. Consequently, the main
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objective of this work is twofold. First, from a theoretical point of view, this work seeks
to delimit the concept of coaching. We do so by exploring the diverse applications of
coaching in the management context and by analyzing its influence on internal factors
related to a firm’s ability to compete. Second, using a sample of 40 companies located in
Ceuta (an autonomous Spanish city in North Africa), we attempt to empirically
demonstrate the positive relationship between the implementation of coaching and
business improvements. In our empirical research, we analyzed whether firms from our
sample that had invested in coaching saw a boost in their business outcomes.
Understanding the importance of coaching is essential for two main reasons. On the one
hand, despite the acceptance of coaching as an innovative human resources management
practice, scepticism still remains regarding its real efficacy, with some studies questioning
the return on investment. Unlike prior studies that have analyzed the influence of coaching
on the development of personnel capabilities (at an individual level), our work focuses on
evaluating the organizational effects of implementing coaching (at a global level),
assessing the impact of key strategic changes on business development.
On the other hand, at present, coaching enjoys extensive acceptance and is generally
understood to be applicable to companies (Goleman, 2000). Increasing corporate investment
in coaching testifies to its perceived importance. For instance, in the USA, the expense for
executive coaching is estimated at $1 billion per year. Hence, by analyzing results from 40
companies, our study employs empirical data to clarify the coaching concept in the
management context. Our finding supports the notion that the implementation of coaching
improves a firm’s ability to implement key managerial changes.
Consequently, in light of the increasing interest in coaching within the business
context, a greater understanding of this practice seems vital for improving a firm’s

2. Coaching in the business context

From a business management perspective, coaching is in its very early stages. Indeed, it
has only recently begun to be mentioned (Colomo-Palacios and Casado-Lumbreras, 2006).
That said, Gallwey (1974, 1981, 2000) has been one of the pioneers in demonstrating the
opportunities offered by coaching, arguing that it is a simple and effective means of
achieving personal improvement that can be easily implemented not only in sports but
also in other fields such as business, health and education, and with highly satisfactory
results (Whitmore, 1993). Business coaching is a practice inspired by great sports coaches
but transferred to and transformed by the organizational arena in an effort to develop Coaching for
employee competences associated with human resource management, as well as to business
promote the training of managers. Since the 1980s, several business management studies
started to analyze coaching inside organizations, defining the concept as well as its field of competitiveness
application. Coaching is a process in which a coach and a coachee (or a small group of
coachees) collaborate to establish and clarify a set of objectives through an action plan
(Zeus and Skiffington, 2002). The coach manages and coordinates the execution of a 425
program focused on the coachee (or group of coachees), who receives an offer to grow both
personally and professionally, while the coach acts and provides strategies that lead the
coachee to success. To achieve this success, the coachee receives individualized and
practical support throughout the entire coaching process. This support is focused on
improving behaviors, making the most of one’s potential, assuming new responsibilities,
facing different situations within the daily routine and ultimately improving one’s overall
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performance. In a similar vein, for this technique to work, it is essential that the coachee
not play a passive role but be actively involved in the activities that are developed (Alcalá,
2002). Thus, the concepts of choice and responsibility are critical, as the effectiveness of
the process depends on both the coach’s contribution as well as the coachee’s will to
change. This willingness must also entail a capacity to set aside pre-established ways of
thinking that would restrict the implementation of new measures, and it certainly
demands a willingness to modify one’s own behavior. Finally, while the assistance and
advice that coachees receive can help them to make decisions, such assistance and advice
does not exempt coachees from their responsibility for the decisions made (Larez, 2008).
Among human resource practices, this type of professional assistance represents a
modern approach to staff development and training practices and highlights the
importance of personal relationships, direct interaction and “learning by doing” in
manager training. Moreover, it suggests a departure from the contemporary
enthusiasm for information technologies and distance learning (De la Corte, 2002).
In addition, coaching possesses some peculiarities that make it quite different from
traditional staff development and training practices. For instance, coaching attempts to
reinforce the coachees’ existing capabilities, liberating all of their potential so that they
may be able to attain peak performance. Thus, coaching is a method designed to “help to
learn” rather than to “help to teach” (Whitmore, 2003), i.e. to re-learn what one has
already learned through experience. To achieve this, coaches must recognize that
knowledge is not within themselves, but rather within the coachees; consequently,
a coach’s work is a process of support and encouragement achieved through a use of the
Socratic method, which is a systematic and dialectical questioning in which participants
are impelled to seek and find answers for themselves (Ravier, 2005).
In addition, it is interesting to point out that coaching must be adapted and personalized
according to the particularities and needs of the company. Therefore, even though it is a
change-seeking process, coaching remains focused on the current situation (Bou-Pérez,
2007). It is developed within a specific context; thus, it is a process positioned and modelled
with respect to the moment, the place and the circumstances in which it occurs.
Given the specific context, companies can opt to design the coaching process by
means of an internal program, guided and implemented by qualified staff from their own
organization, or they can do so by means of an external program, where the coach will be
an agent (or professional) not belonging to the organization. Such a coach is contracted
CR for providing a service, with the elements of that service or coaching process negotiated
22,5 between the two parties (De la Corte, 2002).
Whether or not to contract external people or to use internal staff for the coaching
process remains an open discussion, especially if we bear in mind the existence of
professional associations that are attempting to regulate this field through the
standardization of a coach’s essential knowledge. This entails the creation of an
426 academic qualification for coaches that can be obtained by achieving several
requirements, such as the fulfilment of specific learning objectives, an actual training
course or through the certification of some pre-determined experience. The emergence of
this academic qualification has both defenders and detractors. That said, there does
exist some agreement about the basic competences that a coach must have (Cook, 1999;
Dotlich and Cairo, 2002; Gautier and Vervish, 2001; Zeus and Skiffington, 2002). For
instance, it is essential that a coach has experience as a manager to be able to act as a
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professional guide for managers; if the expert cannot understand the business world and
has not faced the problems and situations of this field, the work provided will be quite
shallow. Moreover, regardless of whether the coach is external or internal, such work is
only as effective as the coach. When developing the coaching tasks, the coach must
possess a deep knowledge of the business strategy and an awareness of the
organizational objectives.

3. The importance of coaching in SMEs

Coaching is a particularly useful tool in the field of human resources for small and
medium enterprises (SME), as the work of many of these companies depends on the
learning of a job. The context for this tool dates back to the ancient guild system where
experience and knowledge was transmitted, usually verbally, from a master to an
apprentice. Indeed, in these contexts, formal education is not effective, as the conditions
of the job vary depending on the company, the sector and the economic, social and
territorial circumstances within which an organization operates.
However, there is a fundamental difference between coaching and formal education
that involves an adaptability and flexibility to business circumstances and needs, and
thus to the people to be trained. The method moves away from classical training systems
based on homogeneous and predetermined techniques in two principal ways: first, it is
tied to business characteristics and situations; and second, it is adapted to the potential
and to the deficits of the individuals being trained. This adaptation achieves a much
higher level of results by attaining a decidedly more active level of participation and a
more dynamic learning.
In the business context, a coach plays the role of an adviser whose aim is to promote
strategic change through a diagnosis of the business situation and by helping to guide
an individual’s decision-making process, with the purpose of adapting to an
organization in the midst of a changing environment. Essentially, a coach helps
coaches to become aware not only of existing imbalances but also of the potential
to commit managerial errors by guiding a coachee from a situation of unconscious
incompetence to a situation of conscious incompetence, which is itself necessary for
implementation of correction measures. Consequently, this work aims to analyze to what
extent the coaching could encourage an atmosphere of greater understanding and
acceptance concerning specific improvements concerning the strategic change of the
company. For this reason, our first objective entails the following hypothesis:
H1a. Coaching practices facilitate the creation of staff acceptance in the Coaching for
implementation of certain proposed improvements related to strategic change. business
Note also that coaching can result in an increase in profitability, as a coach gives coaches competitiveness
the ability to make cutbacks, as well as the ability to become more self-conscious, to
develop an analysis of the situation, and to make corrective plans that take into account
the effects of past performances (Stratford and Alyssa, 2004). At this point, this work
attempts to analyze whether the implementation of coaching within the company could
encourage not only greater staff acceptance of several improvements concerning
strategic change, but also the correct implementation and application of these
improvements. Consequently, our second research hypothesis is:
H1b. Coaching practices facilitate the correct implementation of certain proposed
improvements related to strategic change.
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Coaching is characterized by the close proximity of the participating agents, by the

strong links created, and by the depth of treatment and the contents analyzed during the
process. To obtain positive results, it is essential that the coach controls the emotional
component (Schlegelmich and Fresco, 2005). Although such control is certainly difficult
within an organization, an adequate management of feelings and emotions helps to
overcome the change resistance that hinders an individual from making actions and
obtaining results (Haneberg, 2006). Thus, a coachee’s willingness is necessary for
completion of the process. In the case of a manager that is being advised, the coach must
be a highly trained and impartial interlocutor with enough confidence to share ideas,
plans, and strategies (Bolch, 2001; Jones and Spooner, 2006). A coach’s efficacy is based
on a control of competences related to emotional intelligence, on the ability to make
detailed observations, and on the quality of the corresponding interactions with the
coachee (Dilts, 2004). In doing so, the coach can alter thinking patterns and foster new
perspectives in the coachee, promoting professional growth as well as the capability of
thinking differently before being faced with new challenges. To do this, a coach must
improve a coachee’s training while decisions are being made (Álvarez and Obiols, 2009),
not only from the perspective of competences (i.e. knowing how to make decisions) but
also along emotional and affective dimensions (e.g. psychological aspects) as well as the
social dimension (e.g. effects produced by decisions in the groups affected by these
decisions). Therefore, our second hypothesis indicates that:
H2. Coaching practices increase the satisfaction of participating managers.

4. Research methodology
4.1 Sample and variables
To empirically contrast our hypotheses, the study was based on data obtained from two
projects belonging the INNOEMPRESA program, which is an initiative financed by
the European Regional Development Fund and the Spanish Ministry of Industry,
Tourism and Trade. Both projects were developed in 2009 and aimed to improve the
competitiveness of all of 40 sampled businesses located in Ceuta. To do this,
individualized strategic diagnoses of the companies were made in an effort to decide for
each business which strategic management models should be implemented; different
models were recommended depending on the deficits detected.
CR The same procedure was followed for both projects, using an auditing process to
22,5 detect areas for improvement and to establish a plan of corrective measures specifically
adapted to the situations of each business. One of the projects was completed by
applying a coaching service to the consulting process itself (the coached group), while
the other was finished by writing a report that included the diagnosis and the measures
proposed (the non-coached group). Consequently, we gathered two samples of
428 20 businesses each: the coached group and the non-coached group.

4.2 How was coaching conducted?

To conduct the coaching technique in the coached group, a business management
expert helped each manager individually, meeting them in their own homes. This
consultation entailed providing a detailed explanation of existing problems, deficits,
a proposed action plan, measures to implement, and how best to do so with the
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resources available. Ultimately, managers were guided and coached in the application
of these measures.
The coach paid particular attention to opportunities for persuading managers that
they needed to modify certain habits that had become obsolete or outdated. Another
important aspect of the process was its emphasis on the emotional dimension, as
emotions are decisive for identifying or modifying attitudes and behaviors. Lastly,
through an intense interaction with their coachees, coaches emphasize the motivation
of a managers’ learning according to a constructivist approach to the psychology of
learning. Thus, coachees are active members in a learning process, where they are
encouraged to participate in all solutions and decisions.
To analyze the effectiveness of coaching (and the implementation of corrective
measures), we compared the results with those from non-coached businesses by sending
questionnaires to managers in businesses from both coached on non-coached groups. By
comparing data from both samples, we endeavoured to determine if implementing a
series of practical tutorials positively influenced three key aspects related to improving
the effectiveness of an auditing process: first, the level of acceptance of the proposed
improvement measures (H1a), second, the level of application of the measures (H1b), and
third the level of satisfaction among participating managers (H2).
To analyze the second aspect, that is, the level of application of the measures, we
recognized that the level of difficulty varied depending on whether the change was
structural, managerial (administrative, financial and commercial), customer-related or
related to adaptation to information technology; thus, we classified the measures
according to type.
Furthermore, in light of the reports provided by the coaches themselves, we also had
qualitative data at our disposal. These reports referred to a coachee’s abilities and
attitudes observed during the coaching sessions, in the context of being given advice
and directives. These reports provide impressions about the effectiveness of the
directives and additional information about the staff and the companies themselves.

4.3 Statistical methods

In light of the non-normality of most of the variables we considered as well as our relatively
small sample, we opted to use the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (WMW) to identify
significant differences in the effectiveness of business improvement plan implementation
between a group that received a coach’s assistance and a group that did not.
The WMW test is similar to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) but is applicable to small Coaching for
sample sizes and to situations where the normality criteria are not met (Stokes et al., 1995; business
Darnall and Edwards, 2006). Thus, the results obtained are statistically equivalent to those
found in an ANOVA procedure (Darnall and Edwards, 2006). competitiveness

5. Results 429
The average size of the participating companies was 6.38 employees (standard
deviation of 9.54), and no statistically significant differences were found between
coached companies and non-coached companies for this parameter. In addition, we
found that 50 percent of the businesses sampled were publicly owned companies while
the other 50 percent were freelance entrepreneurs (these percentages were similar to
those found in coached companies, i.e. 55 vs 45 percent, as well as in non-coached
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companies, i.e. 45 and 55 percent). Table I shows the results of the WMW, in which the
analyzed variable was coached vs non-coached company.
There were statistically significant differences in five of the seven variables
considered, supporting H1a, which indicated that coaching practices help a company’s
staff to more easily accept the implementation of several proposed improvements related
to strategic change because there is a statistically significant difference concerning the
item “level of understanding of proposed measures” (Z ¼ 2 3.577; p , 0.01). The results
also supported H2, which proposed that coaching practices increase the satisfaction of
participating managers because there is a statistically significant difference concerning
the item “participating managers’ level of satisfaction” (Z ¼ 2 2.347; p , 0.05).
However, H1b, which suggested that coaching practices facilitate the correct
implementation of several proposed improvements related to strategic change,
achieved only partial support, as several measures showed higher levels of application
in coached companies (i.e. management measures, measures of customer service and
human resources measures), but there are other areas in which the level of application is
not influenced by participation in a coaching program (i.e. structural change measures
and the use of information technology measures).

Analyzed aspects (variables) Coached n rank Contrast significance

Level of understanding of proposed measures No 20 14.00 Z ¼ 2 3.577

(H1a) Yes 20 27.00 p , 0.01
Level of application of structural changes (H1b) No 20 20.05 Z ¼ 2 0.334
Yes 20 20.95 Non-significant
Level of application of changes related to No 20 16.98 Z ¼ 2 2.114
management measures (H1b) Yes 20 24.03 p , 0.05
Level of application of changes related to No 20 17.43 Z ¼ 2 1.711
customer service measures (H1b) Yes 20 23.58 p , 0.1
Level of application of human resources measures No 20 16.45 Z ¼ 2 2.351
(H1b) Yes 20 24.55 p , 0.05
Level of application of IT use measures (H1b) No 20 18.95 Z ¼ 2 0.94
Yes 20 22.05 Non-significant
Participating managers’ level of satisfaction (H2) No 20 16.18 Z ¼ 2 2.347 Table I.
Yes 20 24.83 p , 0.05 Results of the WMW test
CR 6. Conclusion: discussion, limitations and future research lines
22,5 6.1 Discussion
This work attempts to offer empirical evidence that coaching can increase the
effectiveness of implementing several improvement processes within a company. Our
results show that coaching is a practice related to human resources management with
tremendous potential and applicability, not only in the sports arena but also in the
430 business context.
In our study, coaching was based on a behaviorist approach in which experienced
coaches promoted organizational changes to improve business performance. In
addition, the study provides evidence of coaching’s benefits to participating companies
compared to those that did not implement coaching. Consequently, and according to
our results, coaching achieves the results expected of it.
With respect to the achievement of a firm’s proposed objectives, our results show
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that executive coaching may foster a more intimate and quicker learning. Thus, in our
empirical research, the managerial coaching conducted in one of our two company
groups notably increased the level of understanding of proposed improvement
measures among the coached managers. Thus, coaching may ultimately increase the
probability of a company’s success when such measures are implemented.
Similarly, the level of satisfaction was higher in the coached group than it was in the
non-coached group. This is not surprising, as coaching seeks both behavioral
and personal change to benefit the organization; it is able to reach a higher level
of satisfaction as it depends on the enhancement of motivation. Coaches have been able
to generate confidence among participating managers, instilling in them a sense of
responsibility and commitment, and to develop in their coachees the capacity to innovate
and create. These facts ensure that superior implementation of improvements in the
coached group are superior.
Our results show that the implementation of the proposed measures was higher for
the coached group than for the non-coached group in the management (administrative,
financial and commercial), customer service and human resources fields. A better
understanding of the measures, the advice received when implementing these measures
and the increased motivation are associated with higher levels of implementation for the
coached group compared to the case of managers who only received audit reports. These
managers had to analyze conclusions and results for themselves; they had to implement
tasks related to the proposed improvements without the benefits of any advising service.
However, with respect to the application of measures related to structural changes
and the use of new technologies, the differences were not statistically significant
between our two groups. This finding is consistent with what we expected in light of the
important economic and organizational efforts that structural changes likely imply for
small-sized companies (substantial investments, installation changes, adaptations for
disabled/handicapped people, and alterations in shop windows). In addition, the use of
new technologies might entail minor expenses and/or investments (e.g. internet use, use
of management software, computerized monitoring of stocks, etc.). With respect to both
types of measures, the role of coaches did not significantly influence managerial
attitudes. Moreover, qualitative information provided by coaches showed that (in most
cases) managers understood the importance of the proposed measures, the lack of
resources and that the long term necessary for investment amortization was more
important than the necessity to face the proposed improvements.
In sum, our work contributes both theoretically and empirically to the existing Coaching for
literature. From a theoretical view, this study enriches the otherwise limited state of the business
literature concerning the positive effects of coaching in the business context. Moreover,
we offer empirical results that support the use of coaching in a business context, competitiveness
encouraging the corporate use of this personnel training and development practice.

6.2 Implications for practitioners and regulators 431

In addition to the research implications of our work explained above, our findings have
important implications for practitioners and public regulators. In the case of practitioners,
the statistically significant and positive relationship between coaching and the
implementation of a set of improvement measures designed to increase business
competitiveness suggests that this type of advising stands to be very beneficial for
companies. In the case of SMEs in particular, due to their size and lack of managerial
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resources or time for specialized advising, the superior adaptability of coaching (both to
the company’s circumstances and to the managers’ characteristics) allows for quick and
effective results, efficiently incorporating new business concepts, innovative management
techniques and tools that enhance a manager’s global vision and ultimately the company’s
With respect to regulators, our results support the effectiveness of coaching
for improving business competitiveness. It is essential that regulators and public
agencies develop programs and formative courses on coaching so that managers are able to
benefit from the advantages of this technique concerning human resources management. In
the same way, the civil service must take into account that, frequently, the training offered
free of charge by public organisms is too generic and is barely related to the tasks performed
by those that receive this training, which indicates that managers do not show an interest
towards it because of its low effectiveness. Since coaching is a specific type of training that
could be adapted and personalized according to the particularities and needs of the company
focusing on the current situation (Bou-Pérez, 2007), its development within the company
implies a process positioned and modelled with respect to the moment, the place and the
circumstances in which it occurs. As a consequence, regulators are encouraged to make
efforts via fiscal deductions, subsidies, etc. to support the use of coaching within companies.

6.3 Limitations and future works

There are several limitations to our work that should be considered in future research.
First, our sample is based on a limited group of small-sized companies. This was itself a
consequence of the complexity of conducting the audits, the time required for the coaching
process and the financial resources available for this research. To obtain more
generalizable results, future work should implement a more comprehensive quantitative
study with a larger sample. Second, results were measured only over the short term; the
time between administering of the audits and the implementation of coaching was six
months. It is therefore likely that several improvement measures could be implemented in
future research. Our research is certainly limited in that we are largely incapable of
determining the long- and medium-term effects of coaching. Future research on the effects
of coaching could be analyzed by means of a longitudinal study. Finally, our sample is
formed exclusively by SMEs located in Ceuta, which ultimately impedes a wider
generalization of our results. We expect that other studies will have the opportunity to
sample larger companies located over a wider range of regions and countries.
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About the authors

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Marı́a Dolores Vidal-Salazar is an Assistant Professor in the Business and Management

Department at University of Granada (Spain). She holds a PhD in Management from the
University of Granada and her current research interests include human resources management
and practices related to personnel training and development. She has a wide practical
background in several Spanish regional Chambers of Commerce. Marı́a Dolores Vidal-Salazar is
the corresponding author and can be contacted at:
Vera Ferrón-Vı́lchez is an Assistant Professor in the Business and Management Department
at University of Granada (Spain). She holds a PhD in Management from the University of
Granada. Her current research focuses on advanced environmental strategies, human resources
management, and the achievement of cost leadership strategy.
Eulogio Cordón-Pozo is an Associate Professor in the Business and Management Department
at University of Granada (Spain). He holds a PhD in Management from the University of
Granada and his current research interests include innovation in specific business areas and
human resource management.

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