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Department Of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

Question Bank-Code: EC 203 (Electronics Measurement & Instrumentations)
3rd Semester, Electronics and Communication Engg

CHAPTER 1
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS

Q1. What are the advantages of TVM’s over conventional meters?

Q2. Why is an electronic voltmeter more accurate than an ordinary voltmeter? Draw its
block diagram and explain its principle of operation.

Q3. Discuss in detail the principle of operation of electronic voltmeter with the help of a
circuit diagram.

Q4. Describe the construction and working of an electronic voltmeter.

Q5. Draw the block diagram of an electronic voltmeter and explain its working.

Q6. Compare the merits and demerits of TVMs over VTMs. Explain the principle of
operation of VTVM using triode.
Q7 Draw the circuit diagram of a vacuum tube voltmeter (VTVM) using differential
amplifiers in the common cathode mode and permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)
instrument as the output meter. Show that the instrument can give a linear scale.

Q8. Explain the working of Q-meter.

Q9. Describe how power is measured at audio frequencies?

Q10. Write short notes on the following:
(i). Electronic voltmeters.
(ii). VTVM.
(iii). Q-meter.

Q11. Why are electronic instruments becoming more and more popular inspite of the fact that
these instruments are costlier in comparison to electrical instruments?

Q12. Why are TVMs preferred over VTVMs?

Q13. How do we get scale of average reading voltmeter using vacuum tube diode uniform
and independent of variations of tube plate resistance?

Q14. Why is dc amplifier associated with diode rectifier in peak reading ac voltmeters
provided with stabilizing means?

Q15. What is Q-factor of the coil and why a coil of high Q is preferred over a coil of low Q?

Q16. What is Q-meter and on what principle does it operate?

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Q17. How does the distributed capacitance affect the effective value of Q of a coil?

Q18. What is the difference between a CRT and CRO? Draw a neat block diagram of a
general purpose CRO and explain functions of each block.

Q19. Draw block diagram of a CRO and explain the function of each block.

Q20. Draw and explain the construction of CRT.

Q21. With the help of a neat sketch describe the construction and working of various parts of
a cathode ray tube.

Q22. Derive an expression for the vertical deflection on the screen of a cathode ray tube in
terms of length of plates, separation distance, accelerating voltage, deflecting voltage
and distance of screen from the origin.

Q23. Describe the functions of the essential components of a CRO with the help of block
diagram. How the sensitivity of a CR tube is rated? How would you use CRO to
measure phase difference of two sinusoidal signals?

Q24. Explain with block diagram the various parts of a CRT. What extra components are
needed to make it a CRO? Explain how would you measure frequency using a CRO.

Q25. Discuss the various applications of oscilloscope for the measurement of voltage,
current, phase angle and frequency.

Q26. Explain how the following are determined from the trace on a CRT.
(i). the rms value of a sine wave and
(ii). the phase difference between two voltages of the same frequency.

Q27. Explain how the applied voltage wave is displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube.
Sketch the same.

Q28. What are the various applications of a cathode ray oscilloscope?

Q29. With the help of a sketch, describe the principle of operation of a cathode ray
oscilloscope. Give the applications in the field of measurements.

Q30. Write short notes on the following:
(i). Cathode ray oscilloscope.
(ii). Cathode ray tube.
(iii). Basic controls of a CRO.

31. Write short notes on the following:
(i). Measurement of phase difference and frequency of sinusoidal voltage signals with
CRO.
(ii). Measurement of voltage and current with CRO.
(iii). Measurement of dielectric loss with CRO.

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Describe the resonance method for measurement of inductance at high frequencies. inductance and capacitance at high frequencies. Q48. Resistance variation method (ii). Discuss the problems associated with measurement of resistance. For what vertical and horizontal plates are provided in a CRO? Q35. How is iron losses measured with a CRO? Q47. Why is the focusing system of a CRO named as an electrostatic lens? Q39. How is phase difference between two voltages of same frequency measured with a CRO? Q44. Reactance variation method 3 . For what a triggering circuit is provided in a CRO? Q36. Why a CRT is considered the heart of the oscilloscope? Q34. Why is the screen of a CRT coated with phosphor? Q42. Describe the method of measurement of capacitance at high frequencies using resonance method. How is an ac voltage measured with CRO? Q46. Discuss the following two methods of measurement of effective resistance of a coil at high frequencies (i). What is meant by the deflection sensitivity of a CRO? Q40.Q32. Why a CRO is considered one of the most important tools in the design and development of modern electronic circuits? Q33. Why are the inner walls of a CRT between neck and screen coated with conducting material? Q43. Why is the grid in a CRO provided with a hole in it? Q38. Discuss the assumptions made. How is frequency of a voltage signal measured with a CRO? Q45. Q50. How is the effect of additional capacitances in the tuning capacitor taken care of? Q49. What is meant by the deflection factor of a CRO? Q41. For what electron gun assembly is provided in a CRT? Q37.

Inductance.Q51. Q-factor. (iii). Q56. one being below and the other above the capacitance C0 needed to produce maximum current. 4 . Determine values of L and R. (v). Q55. C2= 184pF and Q2=50. Neglect the effect of voltmeter capacitance and also other stray capacitances. The frequency is 165 kHz. Q52. Capacitance. In this circuit the current falls to 70. With a suitable standard coil connected to a Q-meter resonance is obtained with a frequency f1 with resonating capacitor set at C1. Q58.0 dc output. Q53. A coil of inductance L is tuned by a capacitance C to resonate at 1 MHz. and a thermo junction all in series. calculate the values of L and C. Q59. Effective resistance. (iv). the indicated Q-factor is Q1. (ii). Discuss how you can incorporate 10 V and 100V multi-range facilities in the instrument. Calculate the Q-factor and effective resistance of a circuit tuned to a frequency of 1. (ii). Describe its applications. Variation of frequency. The uncalibrated ammeter is found to show the same scale reading I for the two values of C- namely 37 and 45 pF. Unknown impedance is connected in series with the standard coil and resonance is re-established by re-setting the resonance capacitor at C2. The input impedance is specified as 1MΩ. Calculate: (a) the self-capacitance. Describe the measurement of following using a Q-meter: - (i). while at the second harmonic of this frequency resonance is produced by a capacitance of 50 pF. Determine (i) the resistive and (ii) reactive components of the unknown impedance when C1=208 pF Q1=80. If the resonance is indicated by a VTVM of capacitance 8 pF in parallel with the circuit. Band width. and an added series resistance of 75Ω is found to reduce the current to previous value of I. A capacitance of 250 pF produces resonance with a coil at a frequency of (2/π)×106 Hz. The vacuum tube volt meter (VTVM) has been designed for 1. Variation of capacitance.5 MHz and having an effective resistance of 150 pF. Self-capacitance.7% of its resonant value when the frequency of an emf of constant magnitude injected in series with the circuit deviates from the resonant frequency by 5 KHz. Q54. The capacitor is now adjusted to a value C0. a calibrated variable capacitor C. A constant rms voltage of frequency 3 MHz is applied to a coil of inductance L and resistance R. and (b) the inductance of the coil. A standard capacitor of 230 pF is tuned to resonate with the same coil at 2 MHz. Describe the following methods of measuring effective resistance of a coil using resonance method: - (i). Q57. Describe the circuit and working of a Q-meter. (vi). the corresponding Q-factor being Q2.

A circuit consisting of an unknown coil.5 MHz and this condition was not changed when the radio coil was connected in parallel with the standard inductor. Two sets of measurements were carried out for measuring Q of a coil connected across the test terminals of the Q. Tests using a Q-meter. Q64. At 250 kHz the resonance is obtained with a resonating capacitance of 160 µµF.1×10-31 kg. Assume that electrons to leave the cathode with 0 velocity. A coil of resistance 5ΩI is connected in the circuit shown in fig. Q67. resonance was obtained with the resonating capacitance of 380 pF at a frequency of 1 MHZ. at a frequency of 9. At 2 MHz the resonance is obtained with a resonating capacitance of 120 pF. Determine the percentage error introduced in the calculated value of Q if a resistance of 0. Determine the self-capacitance of the radio coil. (ii) With the standard coil connected to the inductor terminals. Q68. (i) F1=2Hz. gave the following results. resonance was obtained at 2.75Ω. A coil is tuned to resonance at 500 KHz with a resonating capacitance of 36 µµF. on a radio-tuning coil to establish the self-capacitance.6×10-19 C and mass of electron=9. Determine the self-capacitance and inductance of the coil. Charge of electron = 1.Q60. Determine the distributed capacitance of the coil under test. 5 .6 MHz connecting the test coil parallel with the standard coil did not change resonance. (ii) With a standard inductor connected in place of radio coil. Determine the percentage error in Q. (i) With the radio coil connected normally resonance was obtained at 800 kHz with the tuning capacitor of the Q-meter set at 95 pF. A coil is tuned to resonance at 1 MHz with a resonating capacitance of 480pF.02Ω is used across the oscillatory circuit. C1=450pF (ii) F2= 4Hz. Calculate the maximum velocity of a beam of electrons in a CRT having a anode voltage of 800 volt. The resistance of the coil is 10Ω. determine the effective inductance and resistance of unknown coil. Q65. Q63. a resistance and a variable capacitor connected in series is tuned to resonance using a Q-meter. C2=90 pF Determine the distributed capacitance of the coil. The Q-meter indicates 105 and the resistance is 0. Q62.measurement introduced by 0.02Ω insertion resistances. If th3e frequency is 450 kHz and the resonating capacitor is set at 250pF. Determine (i) the self-capacitance of the coil (ii) true and indicated values of Q when R=10Ω for both the measurements. The resonating capacitor is 135pF and oscillator frequency at resonance is 3MHz. it was found that.1 and resonance occurs when oscillator frequency is500 kHz and the resonating capacitor is set at 120 pF. Q61.meter. The following observations were made while testing a high Q-factor coil by means of a circuit magnification meter: (i) With the test coil connected to the inductor terminals. Q66.

Determine the frequency of vertical input. Find input voltage required to deflect the beam through 3 cm. The center of the plate is 0.25m from the screen. Q71. ----------------------------------------------- 6 . If the screen is 50cm from the center of deflecting plates. An electrically deflected CRT has a final anode voltage of 2000V and parallel deflecting plates 1. The deflection sensitivity of cathode ray tube is 0. Q78. Also calculate the cut off frequency if the maximum transit time is ¼ of a cycle. Calculate the velocity of the electron beam in an oscilloscope if the voltage applied to its vertical deflection plates is 2000V. deflecting plates if the length of the trace obtained on the screen id 10 cm. deflecting plates in a cathode ray tube are 5mm apart and 25mm long. Determine the deflection sensitivity and deflection factor of the cathode ray tube. find (a) beam speed. The X. Q70.05mm/V and unknown voltage applied to the horizontal Deflection plates shifts the spot by 5mm towards the right in the horizontal direction. The X. If the vertical amplifier of an oscilloscope has a bandwidth of 15 MHZ. Determine the deflection sensitivity and deflection factor of the CRT.06mm/Vand unknown voltage applied to the deflection plates shifts the spot by 4mmtowards the left in the horizontal direction. The frequency of the horizontal input is 1200 Hz. (b) the deflection sensitivity of the tube and (c) the deflection factor of the tube. The length of horizontal plates is 50mm. The accelerating voltage is 3000V. Q74. The screen is 30 cm from the center of the plates. what is the fastest rise time that an input may have to be displayed without distortion? Q73. The input voltage is applied to the deflecting plates through amplifiers having an overall gain of 100. Q79. A CRT has an anode voltage of 2000V and parallel deflecting plates 2 cm long and 5mm apart. The deflection sensitivity of a CRT is 0. Determine the velocity of the electron beam in an oscilloscope when the voltage applied to its accelerating anode is 2000V.Q69. Find the rms value of the sinusoidal voltage applied to X. Q75. The center of the plates is 20 cm from the screen.5 cm long and 5mm apart. The center of the plates is 20 cm from the screen. deflecting plates in a cathode ray tube are 15 mm long and 6mm apart. The lissajous pattern of an oscilloscope is stationary and has 5 vertical maximum values and 4 horizontal maximum values. The accelerating voltage is 2500 V. Q77. deflecting plates in a CRT are 20mm long and 5mm apart. The accelerating voltage is 3000V. Find also the electrostatic deflection sensitivity of the above CRT. Determine the unknown applied voltage. Q72. The X. Q76. Determine the unknown applied voltage.

Describe the circuits and working of wave analyzers used for audio frequency and megahertz ranges. (ii). Why is temperature-compensating devices used in signal generators? Q6. Describe the engineering applications of wave analyzers. A Signal generator using envelope feedback for amplitude modulation. What is meant by harmonics? Q8. Pulse modulated signals. With the help of block diagram explain the working of a function generator. Q13. A heterodyne oscillator. Continuous wave signals. Describe the working of sweep frequency generator. (iii). Describe the functioning of a total harmonic distortion meter. What is meant by harmonic distortion? Q11. What is frequency spectrum? Q9. How does wave analyzer differ from a harmonic distortion analyzer? Q12. Q15. Amplitude modulated signals. Explain the term “total harmonic distortion”. (iii). Q14. Why is the signal distorted after amplification? Q10. (ii). (iv). Give its applications. Describe the basic circuit of a spectrum analyzer. Q16. -------------------------------------------------------- 7 . CHAPTER 2 INSTRUMENTS FOR GENERATION AND ANALYSIS OF WAVEFORM Q1. What are signal sources? What are the desirable characteristics of a signal? Give an overview of different signal sources used. Explain how the spectrum of the following is displayed: (i). What are the sweeper errors? Q3. Why use of regulator power supply is necessary for signal generators? Q4. Why are buffer amplifiers used in signal generators? Q5. Describe the following: - (i). Frequency modulated signals. Q7. Q2. Explain the different types of distortions caused by amplifiers.

Supply voltage. Draw the equivalent circuit and phasor diagram of a current transformer. Explain how instrument transformers are a better substitute for shunts and multipliers especially for high range values. Q8. 8 . Terms Ratio. Frequency. (iii). (iv) Ratio correction factor. Q7. Q6. (iii). Q4. Explain the effect of secondary burden on the ratio and phase errors of a current transformer. (ii). Describe the constructional details of wound and bar type current transformers for reduction of the ratio and phase angle errors. Describe the effect of the following on the characteristics of a potential transformer: (i). Define the following terms as used for instrument transformers: - (i). Power factor of secondary winding circuit. (iii). Derive the expressions for its ratio and phase angle errors. Change of primary winding current. Explain the disadvantages of shunts and amplifiers when used for extension of range. Q9. Draw diagrams to illustrate your answer.The secondary winding supplies a current of 5A to a non-inductive burden of 1Ω resistance. Change of frequency. (ii). Describe how high currents and voltages are measured with the help of instrument transformers.c. A current transformer has a single turn primary and a 200 turns secondary winding . Explain the effect of the following on the performance of current transformers: (i). Describe the advantages of instrument transformers as regards extension of range of current and voltage on high voltage a. (iv). Burden (VA) of secondary winding circuit. (v). CHAPTER 3 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS Q1. Transformation ratio. systems. Derive the expressions for ratio and phase angle errors. Q2. Q3. Nominal Ratio. Q5. Discuss the major sources of errors in current transformers. Change of secondary circuit burden and (iii). Q10. Draw the equivalent circuit and phasor diagram of a potential transformer. Q11. Describe the design and constructional features used in current transformers to reduce the errors. Burden. Describe the features incorporated in the windings to reduce the leakage reactance. Use specific examples to illustrate your answer.

lagging 40. 25VA. Calculate the ratio and phase angle of the transformer. the magnetizing mmf is 100A and the iron loss is 1. With 5A flowing in the secondary winding. Calculate (i) the phase displacement between primary and secondary winding currents. Neglect leakage reactance and assume the iron loss in the core to be 1. Q12. A 1000/5 A. 50 Hz current transformer has a secondary burden comprising a non- inductive impedance of 1. With 1A flowing in the secondary winding. assuming that there has been no compensation. Neglect the resistance and leakage reactance of secondary winding. A current transformer with a bar primary has 300 turns in its secondary winding. the secondary winding has a resistance 0. the in phase and quadrature 9 . The core requires the equivalent of an mmf of 100A for magnetization and 50 A for core losses. calculate (i) the actual ratio of primary winding current to secondary winding current.5Ω and 1. is 1. The secondary winding has 196 turns and a leakage inductance of 0. Determine the ratio and phase angle errors. Q13. Find the ratio and phase angle error. The magnetizing mmf is 100A. A current transformer having a one-turn primary is rated 500/5A. 50 Hz current transformer has a bar primary and a rated secondary burden of 12.6Ω. Q19.96mH.2Ω and reactance 0. Q17. The exciting current of a ring core current transformer of ratio 1000/5 A when operating at full primary current and with a secondary burden of non-inductive resistance of 1Ω is 1A at a power factor of 0. the secondary winding resistance being 0. (ii) the ratio error at full load.3Ω. Also find the flux density in the core.2Ω and reactance 0. (ii) How many turns could be reduced in the secondary winding in order that the ratio error be zero for this condition.0Ω respectively including the transformer winding. Q15.8pF lagging and 0. Q18.5W at full load.8pF leading. The primary winding exciting current of a current transformer with a bar primary. A current transformer has a bar r primary and 200 secondary winding turns.2Ω. At rated load with non-inductive burden. Calculate the flux in the core and ratio error at full load. iron losses and I2R losses.4. (ii) the phase angle between them in minutes. 50 Hz with an output of 15VA. operating on an external burden of 1. The requisite flux is set up in the core by an mmf of 80A.6° to the secondary voltage reversed there being 100 secondary turns. The core loss and magnetizing component of the primary current are 4 and 7A under rated conditions.5 VA. Q14. The frequency is 50 Hz and net cross section of the core is 1000mm2. The secondary winding burden is an ammeter of resistance 1. Neglect the effects of magnetic leakage. With a purely resistive burden at rated full load.5Ω. Determine the phase angle and ratio error for the rated burden and rated secondary current at 0. A 100/5A.6Ω non-inductive. The primary winding has one turn. Q16.2W. (i) Find the primary winding current and ratio error when the ammeter in the secondary winding circuit indicates 5A. nominal ratio 100/1.9A. A current transformer of turns ratio 1:199 is rated as 1000/5A. The resistance and reactance of the secondary circuit are 1. the magnetization mmf is 16A and the loss excitation requires 12A.

2W and a magnetizing current of 1.7Ω (i) Find the secondary current and terminal voltage.8Ω. The permeability remains constant. (ii) Find the actual transformation ratio and also the phase angle. Estimate the current ratio and phase angle error when the instrument load resistance is 0.4 power factor.5A and the iron loss current is 0.5Ω and negligible secondary reactance. Calculate: (i) phase angle error at no load (ii) burden in VA at unity power factor at which the phase angle will be zero.4Ω. and the resistance and leakage reactance of the secondary winding are 0. Calculate the current and phase angle error. Calculate the true ratio and the phase angle error of transformer on full load.12Ω. using the applied primary voltage Vp= 6900+j0 as reference. Find the load burden also. Q21.2Ω. A current transformer with 5 primary turns has a secondary burden consisting of a resistance of 0. Q22.005A lagging the voltage by 73.7°.35Ω and 0. When the primary current 200A.3 Ω. Calculate also the total flux in the core assuming a frequency of 50 Hz.4A. total equivalent reactance=110Ω.4Ω and inductance is 0.16Ω and an inductive resistance of 0. The 10 . Q24. Determine any expressions used. ratio 1000/100 volts. With a particular burden connected to the secondary. The resultant of magnetizing and iron loss components of the primary current associated with a full load secondary current of 5A in a burden of 1. At rated current the component of the primary current associated with the core magnetizing and core loss effects are respectively 6A and 1. lagging the voltage by 53. secondary winding reactance=0.5A. secondary resistance= 0. Q20.7mH. the primary winding current is 0. secondary winding resistance=0.3Ω. has the following constant: Primary resistance=94. components (referred to the flux) of the exciting mmf are 8 and 10 A respectively.1°.0125A. the primary winding current is 0.0Ω(non-inductive) is 3A at a power factor of 0. A ring core current transformer with a nominal ratio of 500/5 and a bar primary has a secondary resistance of 0.5Ω and the frequency is 50Hz.5Ω. Q25.02A at 0. With 6900V applied to the primary and the secondary circuit open circuited.5A. the number of secondary turns needed to make the current ratio 100. no load current = 0. A current transformer of nominal ratio 1000A is operating with total secondary impedance 0.4+j0. primary winding reactance=2000Ω. The number of turns in the secondary is 98. a 100/5 A current transformer has an iron loss of 0. has 22500 turns in the primary winding and 375 turns in the secondary winding. A potential transformer.1 and also the phase angle under these conditions. primary reactance=66. the magnetizing current is 1. Primary winding resistance=1200Ω. what change should be made in the primary turns? Q23. Assume no iron loss and magnetizing current equal to 1% of primary current. The inductance of secondary is 60mH and its resistance is 0. At its rated load of 25VA. Q26. Calculate its ratio error and phase angle when supplying rated output to a meter having a ratio of resistance to reactance of 5. A potential transformer rated 6900/115 V. (iii) If the actual ratio=the nominal ratio under above conditions. An 8/1 current transformer has an accurate current ratio when the secondary is short- circuited.4.

and the resistance of secondary winding is 0. The nominal ratio is 1000/5A.5Ω. no load primary current =0. A single-phase potential transformer has a turn’s ratio of 3810/63. A bar type current transformer of toroidal construction requires 400a to magnetize it. State the assumptions made. and it is required to minimize both ratio and phase errors.1A at 0. A 500/100V potential transformer has the following constants: Primary winding resistance=47. Calculate the ratio and phase angle errors when the transformer is supplying a burden of 100+j200Ω. Calculate the ratio error and phase angle at rated primary current if the secondary winding has (a) 800 turns (b) 795 turns. secondary winding resistance=0. Calculate (a) the no load angle between primary winding and reversed secondary winding voltages. Secondary winding reactance is negligible.25Ω. Q28. ------------------------------------------------ 11 .1Ω. primary winding has four turns. and 300 A to supply the iron loss for each volt per turn induced in the secondary winding and rated frequency. primary winding reactance=33. Across the secondary terminal is connected an impedance of 2Ω with a phase angle φ. (b) the value of secondary winding current at unity pF when the phase angle is zero. Q29.43Ω. The nominal secondary voltage is 63V and the total equivalent resistance and leakage reactance referred to the secondary side are 2Ω and 1Ω respectively. Determine the necessary value of secondary winding turns and phase angleφ. Q27.6pF.

Q12. Q14. theory and working of thermocouples. CHAPTER 4 TRANSDUCERS Q1. geometric configuration and permeability. What is the need of a transducer? Q2. Define a transducer. Describe the different types of compensations used and also the methods of measurements of their output voltage. Why strain gauges are called the piezo-resistive strain gauges? Q8. List five physical quantities that transducer measures. Describe the construction. Give an overview of the inductive transducers explaining their principle of operation like variation of number of terms. Explain the different principles of working of capacitive transducers. Q6. 12 . Analog and digital transducers? (iv). Explain how the magnitude and direction of the displacement of core of an LVDT detected? Why is the frequency of excitation of primary winding kept very high as compared to the frequency of the signal being detected? Q15. Q13. What are the functions of the transducer? Q3. List the different types of transducers. Q11. Explain with diagrams. Explain the construction semi conductor strain gauges and explain their advantages and disadvantage. Define a strain gauge. Describe the construction of foil type strain gauges and explain their advantages over wire wound strain gauges. Transducer and inverse transducer? Q7. Derive expressions for voltage and charge sensitivities. For bonded strain gauges. What is the difference between: - (i). Q9. Primary and secondary transducers? (iii). Describe the properties of materials used for piezo-electric transducers. Q10. Q16. Explain the construction and principle of working of a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT). Active and passive transducers? (ii). Explain the construction wire wound strain gauges and derive the expression for the gauge factor. Q5. the bonded and unbonded types of strain gauges. describe the materials used for base and adhesive materials and also the materials used for leads.

Q19.Q17.21Ω.1mm and resistance increases by 0. Q23. Q26. Q24. Explain why it is useful for space applications. Explain the term gauge factor with respect to resistance strain gauge. the wire length increases by 0.8. construction details and applications of phototransistors. Describe the different modes of operation of piezo-electric transducers. Why piezo-electric transducers cannot be used for static displacement measurements? Q31.20Ω. Explain the applications of piezo-electric transducers. Determine the Poisson’s ratio of the soft iron. Obtain an expression for the gauge factor in terms of Poisson’s ratioµ. Explain the principle of working and constructional details of a photovoltaic cell. Why is it necessary to make strain gauges of very high resistance? Q27. What is meant by dummy strain gauge? What for it is used? Q28. Prove that for medium and high frequencies. construction details and applications of photo-diodes. Q18. Q25. 13 . Explain the principle of working. Show that for a wire wound resistance strain gauge the gauge factor. Explain the principle of working. Derive the expressions for frequency response characteristics of piezo-electric transducers.1 m long and has an initial resistance of 1. Draw the equivalent circuit of piezo-electric transducers. Q20. Determine the gauge factor of the device. A thin circular wire of soft iron has a gauge factor of 3. Discuss the merits and demerits of the various materials used for the strain gauge. What is piezo-electric effect and why is this effect possible only in crystals having asymmetrical charge distribution? Q29. Derive the expression for magnitude of voltage across the load by making simplifying assumptions. The wire in a strain gauge is 0. On application of a force. Write short note on piezo-electric transducers. Q22. Q21. the magnitude of the voltage across the load is independent of frequencies. Draw the characteristics. Why is natural quartz considered most suitable material for piezo-electric transducers? Q30. Gf is given by the expression Gf = 1+2µ {δρ/ρρl/l }where the symbols used have their usual meanings. Q32.

When a load is applied. The strain is 5 micro-strains.5Ω. Q38. Calculate the value of the resistance of the gauges after they are strained. A resistance wire strain gauge with a gauge factor of 2 is bonded to a steel structural member subjected to a stress of 100MN/m2. calculate the Poisson’s ratio. Calculate the percentage change of resistance of a strain gauge assuming gauge factor equal to 2. one is a nickel wire strain gauge having a gauge factor of –12. A compressive force is applied to a structural member. Q39.7mm of the free end.5 is connected in series with a blast resistance of 400Ω across a 24V. A resistance strain gauge is used to measure stress on steel. A resistance wire strain gauge uses a soft iron wire of small diameter. Calculate the percentage change in resistance of the strain gauge.Q33. The beam is 0.1 and the other is nichrome wire strain gauge having a gauge factor of two.15m from the free end.2. Assume Young’s modulus of steel 2.152Ω. Calculate the percentage change in the value of gauge resistance due to the applied stress. The steel is stressed to a 1400kgf/cm2.1m long and has a cross sectional area 4cm2. A strain gauge having a resistance of 500Ω and a gauge factor 3. Young’s modulus for steel is 207GN/m2.1×106kgf/cm2. Q37. Calculate the gauge factor. The Young’s modulus for steel is 200 GN/m2. Two separate strain gauges are attached to the structural member. The change in gauge resistance is found to be 0. A strain gauge is bounded to a beam 0. Neglect the piezoresistive effects.2. Q34. Q40. The gauge factor is +4. The resistance of strain gauges before being strained is 120Ω. Q41. The modulus of elasticity of steel is 200GN/m2. The modulus of elasticity is 200GN/m2. A single strain gauge having resistance of 120Ω is mounted on a steel cantilever been at a distance of 0. the resistance of gauge 14 . A strain gauge with gauge factor of 2 is fastened to a metallic member subjected to a stress of 1000 kg/cm2. An unknown Force applied at the free end produces a deflection of 12. The modulus of elasticity of the metal is 2×106 kg/cm2. The strain gauge has an unstrained resistance of 240Ω and a gauge factor of 2. What is the value of Poisson’s ratio? Q36. Determine the change in output voltage when a stress of 140MN/m2is applied. Determine the percentage strain suffered by the member if the change in the resistance of the gauge is accurately measured as 1.25m long with a width of 20mm and a depth of 3mm. A strain gauge having a resistance of 200Ω and gauge factor 2.0 is bonded on to a member of structure under tensile stress. Q35.

Q42. Q47. Coefficient of coil is 0. The output voltage of a LVDT is 1. error due to a rise of 10°C in the copper coil of the meter. of 800°C with reference temp. The milli. Estimate the maximum output voltage of a 100°C temp. An LVDT with a sensitivity of 0.1mA gives full-scale deflection. displacement. and max. Re is 12Ω. A thermocouple circuit uses a chromel-alumel thermocouple.4×10-3mm.00426/°C. Calculate the min. The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5V voltmeter through an amplifier whose amplification factor 250.voltmeter scale has 100 divisions. And is ±0. (c). The voltage is read on a 10V voltmeter having 100 divisions. Value of force that can be measured with this arrangement. An output of 2mV appears across the terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance of 0. which gives an emf of 33. Determine the resolution of the voltmeter. A steel cantilever is 0. Calculate the change in length of the steel beam and the amount of force applied to the beam. The resistance of the meter coil. Rm is 50Ω and a current of 0. At a load of 0.of 800°C is to give full-scale deflection. The sensitivity of bismuth is –72 µV/°C and that of tellurium is 500 µV/°C. The scale can be read to 1/5 of a division.5V at max. 0°C. Q45. calculate the sensitivity of the LVDT and that of the whole setup. difference at room temp. Calculate the thermo-electric sensitivity of a device using Bismuth and tellurium as the dissimilar metals. the deviation from linearity is max. Q46. Q43. Calculate the resolution of the instrument in mm. An LVDT has an output of 6V rms when the displacement is 0.013Ω.3V when measuring a temp.003V from a straight line through origin.25m long. The resistance temp.(a) calculate the value of deflection at the free end for the cantilever when a force of 25N is applied at this end. (b). Find the linearity at the given load. error due to rise of 1Ω in Re.5 mm. 20mm wide and 4mm thick. Calculate (a) resistance of the series resistance if a temp.5V/mm is used. The modulus of elasticity for steel is 200 GN/m2. 15 . Q44. using one junction. Determine the sensitivity of this instrument in V/mm. A 10 V voltmeter is used to read the output. Two- tenths of a division can be read with certainty. Two-tenths of a division can be estimated with ease. (b) The approx.5MΩ. The resistance of junctions and leads. (c) the approx. changes by 0.

75 mm for the center. In a piezo-electric transducer a flat freq. (b). (a).Q48. The resistance of transducer is 106MΩ and the impedance of the measuring system consists of a capacitance of 500pF in parallel with a resistance of 1MΩ. what is the value of an external shunt capacitance? Q55. If the permittivity of quartz is 40. Prove that in order to keep the under shoot to a value within 5%. Find the value of voltage just before and just after the impulse is terminated. freq. Q56. Find the output voltage when the core is –18. The force acting on it is 5N. An LVDT with a secondary voltage of 5V has a range of ±25 mm. Find the value of min. In terms of time constant for which it can be used. Also find the voltage after 10ms of application of the pulse. Q52. (a) What is the sensitivity (V/m) of the transducer alone? (b) What is the high freq. Response within 5% is required. calculate the strain. 16 .75 mm to –10 mm. value of time constant should be approx. The connecting cable has a capacitance of 300pF while the oscilloscope used for read out has a read out input resistance of 1MΩ with a parallel capacitance of 50pF. (a) Find the core movement from center if the output voltage is –3V. freq. A barium titanate pick up has the dimensions of 5mm×5mm×1. Plot the core positions vs output voltages varying from +3V to –4. Also calculate the charge and the capacitance. Sensitivity (V/m) of the entire measuring system? (c) What is the lowest freq. A piezo-electric crystal having dimensions of 5mm×5mm×1. Calculate the force if the voltage developed is 100V. The charge sensitivity of barium titanate is 150pC/N and its permittivity is 12. Q53.055 V –m/N is subjected to a pressure of 1. Find the response if the applied force is: F=0.5mm and a voltage sensitivity of0. A pulse is applied to a piezo-electric transducer for a time T. (b) Plot the output voltage vs core position for a core movement going from +18. A quartz piezo-electric crystal having a thickness of 2mm and voltage sensitivity of 0. Q49. Q50. calculate its charge sensitivity.6×10-12 F/m. Calculate the voltage output. Find phase shift at this freq. and F=0N for 2ms<t<∞. find the value of min.m/N is used for force measurement.5 ms.? (d). 20 T. An LVDT with a secondary voltage of 5V has a range of ±25 mm.25mm. If the time constant of the transducer is 1. A piezo-electric transducer has a capacitance of 1000pF and a charge sensitivity of 40×10-3 C/m.055V. If the modulus of elasticity of barium titanate is 12×106 N/m2.5V. A piezo-electric transducer has a capacitance of 2000pF and a charge sensitivity of 100×10-12C/N. Q51. Q54.1N for 0<t<2ms.5 MN/m2.5×10-9 F/m.

CHAPTER 5 DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM Q1. Q20. Describe its applications. The chart speed of a recording instrument is 10mm/sec. what chart speed must be used to record one complete cycle on 5mm of recording paper? Q16. List minimum five applications that should be considered while selecting a recording instrument. Q18. Describe the working of a galvanometric type of strip chart recorder. the suitable circuit diagram. Distinguish between single point and multi point recorders. the working of a null type recorder. Explain. Q5. What are the recording requirements? Q8. What are the different types of tracing systems used in it? Explain with the help of suitable diagrams. What is the difference between strip chart recorder and an X-Y recorder? Q10. Q15. Explain the different types of marking mechanisms used in it. What is an X-Y recorder? How do you distinguish it from a X-t or Y-t recorder? Explain. If the time base of the recorded signal is 20mm. 17 . What is the purpose of the error detector in a recorder? Q12. Draw and explain the block diagram of DAS. List the typical frequency responses of a strip chart recorder. If the frequency of a signal to be recorded with a strip chart recorder is 15 Hz. Explain the functioning of a basic type of strip chart recorder. What are the three major systems of a strip chart recorder? Q11. the working of an X-Y recorder. Q13. Q14. Q6. What is a recorder? Give the classification of recorders. What is a data acquisition system? Q2. What is the difference between an indicator and recorder? Q9. What are the important factors that decide the configuration and sub system of a DAS? Q3. Q19. with the help of diagram. What are the various configurations used in the DAS? Q4. What is the necessity of recorders? Q7. what if the frequency of the recorded signal? Q17. List the three functions that a recorder may simultaneously serve in industrial applications.

The gap of a tape recorder is 6. ------------------------------------------------- 18 . The tape speed is 1. Explain the F. Describe the basic components of a magnetic tape recorder for instrumentation applications using direct recording techniques. Assume that recorded wavelength must be greater than 2. Q27. A tape receives 12000 numbers per second.5 times the gap of the recorder.5 times the gap length. Q25. The gap of a reproducing head in a tape recorder is 6.4 µm. determine the speed of the tape so has to have a satisfactory response at 50000 Hz. Q22. Q29. Explain its advantages and disadvantages.M. Assume the wavelength on tape is greater than 2. Q23. Q24. Q26. Describe how equalization is carried out in a magnetic tape recorder using direct recording techniques. Distinguish between RZ and NRZ techniques of digital tape recording. speed of the tape for satisfactory response at 50 kHz. method of magnetic tape recording and explain its advantages and disadvantages.25 µm. Explain its advantages and disadvantages. Describe the different methods used for digital tape recording. determine the min. Explain the randomized NRZ technique of digital tape recording. determine the number density of the tape.5m/s. Describe its advantages and disadvantages.Q21. Describe the method of pulse duration modulation (PDM) as used in magnetic tape recorders. Q30. Q28.

Q8. Q4. Q2. Q5. Explain the functioning of a 5×7 LED matrix display. Q6. Explain the theory and working of LCDs. Describe the functioning of a diode matrix for conversion of BCD system to decimal read out. Draw with the help of necessary diagrams the seven-segment display. Explain an overview of different digital display devices. Draw and explain LED seven segment display driver. Explain the advantages of digital indicating instruments over their analog counterparts. Describe the difference between light scattering and field effect types of LCDs. Q7. Q10. CHAPTER 6 DISPLAY DEVICES Q1. ----------------------------------------------- 19 . Also explain the advantages of LCDs. Draw with the help of necessary diagram the fourteen-segment display. Explain the theory and working of an LED. Q3. Describe the principle and working of Nixie tube. Q9. with the help of necessary diagrams. Describe the advantages of LEDs. Q11.

c. Q10. and d. Why is scope of hydraulic and pneumatic methods of data transmission limited? Explain. What is difference between a. Q4. Why is it necessary to protect transmission channel from sources of interferences in voltage telemetering system? Q16. What is current telemetering system? Describe motion and force balance. Q7. Explain the landline telemetering systems. Which one of two systems is commonly used? Q9. Describe the Pulse Code Modulation telemetry system. Describe the Frequency Modulation (FM) telemetry system. What is voltage-telemetering system? Explain basic voltage telemetering system used for measurement of water level. current telemetering systems with the help of neat sketches. Describe it with some relevant examples. CHAPTER 7 TELEMETRY Q1. Telemetering systems? Q12. Q2. Why is microwave channel most widely used? Q11. Explain the block diagram of a general telemetry system. Describe position telemetering bridge type system and position telemetering using synchros with circuit diagrams. Q17. Define the term telemetry and explain why it is necessary to use it in an instrumentation system. Describe the torque balance telemetering system.c. What are the different types of telemetering systems? Explain the landline telemetering system and describe its advantages. Q18. Describe in details the Pulse Amplitude Modulation system as used for telemetry. why? Q15. 20 . Q6. What do you understand by multiplexing? Q14. Q13. Explain the landline telemetering system using a synchro transmitter-receiver pair used in torque transmission mode. Describe the different methods of data transmission. What are the main drawbacks of such a telemetering system? Q8. Give the merits and demerits of current telemetering systems. Q3. What is position-telemetering system? Explain. Explain why it is essential to use Radio Frequency (RF) telemetry. Q5. Is modulation required in telemetry? If so.

Q19. PAM and PCM telemetering systems. --------------------------------------------------------- 21 . Describe the comparison between FM.