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# Digital Communications Questions and Answers – Modulation

Techniques

## 1. Average energy per bit is given by

2. a) average energy symbol/log2 M 6. Every frequency has ____ orthogonal functions.
b) average energy symbol * log2 M a) One
c) log2 M/ Average energy symbol b) Two
d) none of the mentioned c) Four
d) Six
Explanation: Average energy per bit is given by average
energy symbol divided by log2 M.
Explanation: Every frequency has two orthogonal functions – sine
2. Which FSK has no phase discontinuity? and cosine.
a) Continuous FSK
7. If we correlate the received signal with any one of the two
b) Discrete FSK
orthogonal function, the obtained inner product will be
c) Uniform FSK
a) In phase
d) None of the mentioned
c) Zero
Explanation: Continuous frequency shift keying has no phase d) Cannot be determined
discontinuity between symbols.

3. FSK reception is Explanation: If we correlate the received signal with only one of
the orthogonal function for example sine, the inner product
obtained will be zero.
a) Phase Coherent
b) Phase non coherent 8. If we correlate the received signal with both orthogonal function
c) Phase Coherent & non coherent the inner product will be
d) None of the mentioned a) In phase
c) Both of the mentioned
Explanation: Reception of FSK can be either phase coherent d) Unity

## or phase non coherent.

Explanation: If we correlate the received signal with both the
4. FSK reception uses orthogonal function, the two inner products obtained will be in
b) PLL 9. Simulation is used to determine
c) Correlation receiver & PLL a) Bit error rate
d) None of the mentioned b) Symbol error rate
c) Bit error
d) Symbol error
Explanation: Frequency shift keying uses correlation receiver and
phase locked loop.
Explanation: A simulation of digital communication system is used
5. In non coherent reception _____ is measured.
to estimate bit error rate.
a) Phase
b) Energy 10. Matched filter is a _____ technique.
c) Power a) Modulation
d) None of the mentioned b) Demodulation
c) Modulation & Demodulation
d) None of the mentioned
Explanation: In non coherent reception of FSK, energy in each
frequency is measured.
Explanation: Matched filter is a demodulation technique with LTI.
11. Which is called as on-off keying?
a) Amplitude shift keying
b) Uni-polar PAM
c) Both of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

## Explanation: Amplitude shift keying and uni-polar PAM both

schemes are called as on off keying.

## 12. QAM uses ______ as the dimensions.

a) In phase
c) In phase & Quadrature
d) None of the mentioned

## Explanation: QAM uses in phase and quadrature which is cosine

and sine respectively as the dimensions.

a) BPSK and QPSK
b) BPSK and ASK
c) BPSK and PAM
d) BPSK and QAM

## Explanation: BPSK is similar to bipolar PAM and both has same

probability of error.

## 14. Which system uses QAM?

a) Digital microwave relay
b) Dial up modem
c) Digital microwave relay & Dial up modem
d) None of the mentioned

## Explanation: Digital microwave relay, dial up modem and etc uses

QAM modulation technique