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L;TRCDUCTIJ~'J TO DIELECTRIC & r·l.4.GI'~ETIC DISGIARGSS n: ELECTRIC1~_L ';':IFLEJGS
by Eric Do Ll.acd , @ 1.982
1. CAPACITANCE
2. CAPACITANCE INADEQUATELY EXPLAINED
3. LINES OF FORCE AS REPRESEl;TbTION OF DIELECTRICITY
4. THE LAWS OF LINES OF FORCE
5. FARADAY'S LINES OF FORCE THEORY
6. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LINES OF FORCE
7. MASS ASSOCIATED WITH LINES OF FORCE IN MOTION
8. INDUCTANCE AS AN ANALOGY :'0 CAPACITANCE
9. MECHANISM OF STORING ENERGY 1>U\GNETICALLY
10. THE LIMITS ZERO AND INFINITY
11. INSTANT ENERGY RELEASE AS INFINITY
12. ANOTHER FORM OF ENERGY AP?El~.RS
13. ENERGY STORAGE SPATIALLY DI?FERENT THAN ~L~GNETIC ENERGY STORAG
14. VOLTAGE IS TO DIELECTRICITY AS CURRENT IS TO MAGNETISM
15. AGAIN THE LIMITS ZERO AND I~ITINITY
16. INSTANT ENERGY RELEASE AS I~'l'FINITY
17. ENERGY RETURNS TO MAGNETIC ?ORM
18. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE ~S A REPRESENTATION OF PULSATION OF ENERGY
19. ENERGY INTO MATTER
20. MISCONCEPTION OF PRESENT ?r30RY OF CAPACITANCE
21. FREE SPACE INDUCTANCE IS I~?INITE
22. WORK OF TESLA, STEINMETZ, ;'_SD FARADAY
23. QUESTION AS TO THE VELOCI?Y OF DIELECTRIC FLUX
0) Table of Un i, ts, Symbo ls & Dimens ions
1) Table of "Hagnetic & Dielectric Relations
2) Table o f "Hagnetic, Dielectric & Electronic Re La t i.oris
PART II
ELECTRICAL OSCILLATIONS IN Af;TEf~NAE & INDUCTION COILS
J .n. tli l Le r
Proceedings, Institute of Radio Engineers, 1919
P.O. BOX 429 * GARBERVILLE, CA 954400429 * U.S.A.
1. CAPACITANCE
The phenomena of capacitance is a type of electrical energy storage in the form of a field in an enclosed space. This space is typically bounded by two parallel metallic plates or two metallic foils on an interviening insulator or dielectric. A nearly infinite variety of more complex structures can exhibit capacity, as long as a difference in electric potential exists between various areas of the~structure. The oscillating coil represents one possibility as to a capacitor of more complex form, and will be presented here.
2. CAPACITANCE INADEQUATELY EXPLAINED
The perception of capacitance as used today is wholly inadequate for the proper understanding of this effect. Steinmetz mentions this in his introductory book "Electirc Discharges, Waves and Impulses". To quote, "Unfortunately, to a large extent in dealing with dielectric fields the prehistoric conception of the electrostatic charge (electron) on the conductor still exists, and by its use destroys the analogy between the two components of the electric field, the magnetic and the dielectric, and makes the consideration of dielectric fields unnecessarily complicated."
3. LINES OF FORCE AS REPRESENTATION OF DIELECTRICITY
Steinmetz continues, "There is obviously no more sense in thinking of the capacity current as current which charges the conductor with a quantity of electricity, than there is of speaking of the inductance voltage as charging the conductor with a quantity
of magnetism. But the latter conception, together with the notion of a quantity of magnetism, etc., has vanished since Faraday's representation of the magn~t{c field by lines of force."
4. THE LAWS OF LINES OF FORCE
All the lines of magnetic force are closed upon themselves, all dielectric lines of force terminate on conductors, but may form closed loops in electromagnetic radiation.
These represent the basic laws of lines of force. It can be seen from these laws that any line of force cannot just end in space.
5. FARADAY AND LINES OF FORCE THEORY
Farady felt strongly that action at a distance is not possible thru empty space, or in other words, "matter cannot act where it is not." He considered space pervaided with lines of force.
Almost everyone is familiar with the patterns formed by iron filings around a magnet. These filings act as numerous tiny compasses
and orientate themselves along the lines of force existing around the poles of the magnet. Experiment has indicated that a magnetic field does possess a fiberous construct. By passing a coil of wire thru a strong magnetic field and listening to the coil output in headphones, the experimenter will notice a scraping noise. J. J. Thompson performed further experiments involving the ionization of gases that indicate the field is not continuous but fiberous (electricity and matter, 1906).
6. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LINES OF FORCE
Consider the space between poles of a magnet or capacitor
as full of lines of electric force. See. Fig. ~. These lines of force act as a quantity of stretched and mutually repellent
springs. Anyone who has pushed together the like poles of two
magnets has felt this springy mass. Observe Fig. 2. Notice the lines of force are more dense along A B in between poles, and that more lines on A are facing B than are projecting outwards to
infinity. Consider the effect of the lines of force on A.
These lines are in a state of tension and pull on A. Because more

are pulling on A towards B than those pulling on A away from B,
we have the phenomena of physical attraction. Now observe Fig. 3.
Notice now that the poles are like rather than unlike, more
or all lines pull A away from B; the phenomena of physical
repulsion.
7. MASS ASSOCIATED 'i'lITH LINES OF FORCE IN MOTION
The line of force can be more clearly understood by representing
it as a tube of force or a long thin cylinder. Maxwell presented
the idea that the tension of a tube of force is representative of
electric force (volts/inch), and in addition to this tension,
there is a medium through which these tubes pass. There exists
a hydrostatic pressure against this media or ether. The value of
this pressure is one half the product of dielectric and magnetic
density. Then there is a pressure at right angles to an electric
tube of force. If through the growth of a field the tubes
of force spread sideways or in width, the broadside drag through
the medium represents the magnetic reaction to growth in intensity of an electric current. However, if a tube of force is caused
to move endwise, it will glide through the medium. with little or no drag as little surface is offered. This possibly explains why no magnetic field is associated with certain experiments performed by Tesla involving the movement of energy with no accompanying magnetic field.
8. INDUCTANCE AS AN ANALOGY TO CAPACITY'
Much of the mystery surrounding the workings of capacity
can be cleared by close examination of inductance and how it
can give rise to dielectric phenomena. Inductance represents energy storage in space as a magnetic field. The lines of force orientate themselves in closed loops surrounding the axis of current flow that has given rise to th~~. The larger the space between this current and its images or reflections, the more energy that can be stored in the resulting field.
9. MECHANISM OF STORING ENERGY MAGNETICALLY
The process of pushing these lines or loops outward, causing them to stretch, represents storing energy as in a rubber band.
A given current strength will hold a loop of force at a given distance from conductor passing current hence no energy movement.
If the flow of current increases, energy is absorbed by the field as the loops are then pushed outward at a corresponding velocity.
Because energy is in motion an E.M.F. must accompany the current
flow in order for it to represent powe r , The magnitude of this EMF exactly corresponds to the velocity of the field. Then if the current
FIG. :;:.
Fig.'1l  Electric Field of Circuit.
FJO. 3.
, ,
! /
Fig.!!_,  Electric Field of Conductor.
ceases changing in magnitude thereby becoming constant, no EMF accompanys it, as no power is being absorbed. However, if the current decreases and represents then a negative velocity of field as
the loops contract. Because the EMF corresponds exactly to velocity it reverses polarity and thereby reverses power so it now moves out of the field and into the current. Since no power is required
to maintain a field, only current, the static or stationary field, represents stored energy.
10. THE LIMITS OF ZERO AND INFINITY
Many interesting features of inductance manifest themselves in the two limiting cases of trapping the energy or releasing
it instantly. Since the power supply driving the current has resistance, when it is switched off the inductance drains its energy into this resistance that converts it into the form of heat. We will assume a perfect inductor that has no self resistance. If we remove the current supply by shorting the terminals
of the inductor we have isolated'it without interrupting any current. Since the collapse of field produces EMF this EMF will tend to manifest. However, a short circuit will not allow an EMF to
develop across it as it is zero resistance by definition. No EMF can combine with current to form power, therefore, the energy will remain in the field. Any attempt to collapse forces increased current which pushes it right back out. This is one form of storage of energy.
11. INSTANT ENERGY RELEASE AS INFINITY
Very interesting (and dangerous) phenoma manifest themselves
when the current path is interrupted, thereby causing infinite
resistance to appear. In this case resistance is best represented
by its inverse, conductance. The conductance is then zero. Because
the current vanished instantly the field collapses at a velocity
approaching that of light. As EMF is directly releated to velocity
of flux, it tends towards infinity. Very powerful effects are produced
because the field is attempting to maintain current by producing
whatever EMF required. If a considerable amount of energy exists, *
say several kilowatt hours (250 KWH for lightning stroke), the ensuing
discharge can produce most profound effects and can completely
destroy inaaequately protected apparatus.
12. ANOTHER FORM OF ENERGY APPEARS
Through the rapid discharge of inductance a new force field appears
that reduces the rate of inductive EMF formation. This field
is also represented by lines of force but these are of a different
nature than those of magnetism. These lines of force are not a
manifestation of current flow but of an electric compression
or tension. This tension is termed voltage or potential difference.
* The energy uti1ized by an average household in the course of one day.
13. DIELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE SPATIALLY DIFFERENT THAN MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE
Unlike magnetism the energy is forced or compressed inwards
rather than outwards. Dielectric
lines of force push inward into
internal space and along axis, rather than pushed outward broadside
to axisas in the magnetic field. Because the lines are mutually
repellent certain amounts of broadside or transverse motion can be
expected but the phenomena is basically longitudinal. This gives rise
to an interesting paradox that will be noticed with capacity. This
is that the smaller the space bounded by the conducting structure
the more energy that can be stored.
This is the exact opposite of
magnetism. With magnetism, the units volumes of energy can be
thought of as working in parallel but the unit volumes of energy
in association with dielectricity can be thought of as working
in series.
14. VOLTAGE IS TO DIELECTRICITY AS CURRENT IS TO MAGNETISM.
With inductance the reaction to change of field is the production
of voltage. The current is proportionate to the field strength only
and not velocity of field. With capacity the field is produced
not by current but voltage. This voltage must be accompanied by current in order for power to exist. The reaction of capacitance
to change of applied force is the production of current. The current
is directly proportional to the velocity of field strength. When
voltage increases a reaction current flows into capacitance and
thereby energy accumulates. If voltage does riot change no current
flows and the capacitance stores the energy which produced the field.
If the voltage decreases then the reaction current reverses and energy
flows out of the dielectric field.
As the voltage is withdrawn the compression within the bounded space is relieved. When the energy is fully dissipated the lines of force vanish.
15. AGAIN THE LIMITS ZERO AND INFINITY
Because the power supply which provides charging voltage has internal conductance, after it is switched off the current leaking through conductancedrains the dielectric energy and converts it to heat.
We will assume a perfect capacitance having no leak conductance. If we completely disconnect the voltage supply by open circuiting the terminals of the capacitor, no path for current flow exists by definition of an open circuit. If the field tends to expand it will tend towards the production of current. However, an open circuit will not allow the flow of current as it has zero conductance. Then any
attempt towards, field expansion raises the voltage which pushes the field back inwards. Therefore, energy will remain stored in the field.
This energy can be drawn for use at any time. This is ano~,er form
of energy storage.
16. INSTANT ENERGY RELEASE AS. INFINITY
Phenomena of enormous magnitude manifest themselves when the criteria for voltage or potential difference ~s instantly disrupted,
as with a short circuit. The effect is analogous with the open circuit of inductive current. Because the forcing voltage is instantly withdrawn the field explodes against the bounding conductors with a velocity
that may exceed light. Because the current is directly related to the velocity of field it jumps to infinity in its attempt to produce
finite voltage across zero resistance. If considerable energy had resided in the dielectric force field, again let us say several K.W.H. the resulting explosion has almost inconceivable violence and can vaporize a conductor of substantial thickness instantly. Dielectric discharges of great speed and energy represent one of the most unpleasant experiences the electrical engineer encounters in practice.
17. ENERGY RETURNS TO MAGNETIC FORM
The powerful currents produced by the sudden expansion of a dielectI field naturally give rise to magnetic energy. The inertia of the magnetic field limits the rise of current to a realistic value. The capacitance dumps all its energy back into the magnetic field __ and
the whole process starts over again. The inverse of the product of magnetic storage capacity and dielectric storage capacity represents:
the frequency or pitch at which this energy interchange occurs. This pitch mayor may not contain, overtones depending on the extent of conductors bounding the energies.
18. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE AS REPRESENTATION OF PULSATION OF ENERGY FIELD
The ratio of magnetic storage agility to that of the dielectric
is called the characteristic impedance. This gives the ratio of maximum
voltage to maximum current in the oscillitory structure
However,
as the magnetic energy storage is outward and the dielectric storage is inward the total or double energy field pulsates in shape or size. The axis of this pulsation of force is the impedance of the system displaying oscillations and pulsation occurs at the frequency of oscillation.
19.ENERGY INTO MATTER
As the voltage or impedance is increased the emphasis is on the inward flux. If the impedance is high and rate of change is fast
enough (perfect overtone series), it would seem possible the compression of the energy would transform it into matter and the reconversion of this matter into energy mayor may not synchronize with the cycle of oscillation. This is what may be considered supercapacitance,
that is, stable longterm conversion into matter.
20. MISCONCEPTIONS OF PRESENT THEORY OF CAPACITANCE
The misconception that capacitance is the result of accumulating electrons has seriously distorted our view of dielectric phenomena. Also the theory of the velocity of light as a limit of energy flow, while adequate for magnetic force and material velocity, limits our ability to visualize or understand certain possibilities in electric phenomena. The true workings of free space capacitance can be
best illustrated by the following example. It has been previously stated that dielectric lines of force must terminate on conductors. No line of force can end in space. If we take any conductor
and remove it to the most remote portion of the universe, no lines of force can extend from this electrode to other conductors. It can have no free space capacity, regardless of the size of the electrode, therefore it can store no energy. This indicates that
the free space capacitance of an object is the sum mutual capacity aT i~ to' all the conducting objects of the universe.
21. FREE SPACE INDUCTANCE IS INFINITE
Steinmetiz in his book on the general or unified behavior' of electricity "The Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric Phenomena and Oscillation," points out that the inductance of any unit length of an isolated filimentary conductor must be infinite. Because no image currents exist to contain the magnetic field
it can grow to infinite size. This large quantity of energy cannot be quickly retrieved due to the finite velocity of propagation of the magnetic field. This gives a non reactive or energy component to the
inductance which is called electromagnetic radiation.
22. WORK OF TESLA,STEINMETZ AND FARADAY
In the aforementioned books of Steinmetz he develops some rather unique equations for capacity. Tesla devoted an enormous portion of
his efforts to dielectric phenomena and made numerous remarkable discoveri in this area. Much of this work is yet to be fully uncovered. It is
my contention that the phenomena of dielectricity is wide open for
profound discovery.
It is ironic that we have abandoned the lines
of force concept associated with a phenomena measured in the units called farads after Farady, whose insight into forces and fields has led
to the possibility of visualization of the electrical phenomena.
IMPORTANT REFEP£NCE MATERIAL
1. "Electricity and Matter," J. J. Thompson
New York, 1906, Scribner's Sons, and I904, Yale University
2. "Elementary Lectures on Electric Discharges, Waves, and Impulses and other Transients." C. P. Steinmetz, second edition, 1914, McGrawHill
3. "Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric Phenomena
and Oscillations," C. P.Steinmetz, third edition, 1920, McGrawHill. Section III Transients in Space, Chapter VIII, Velocity of Propagation of Electric Field.
23. QUESTION AS TO THE VELOCITY OF DIELECTRIC FLUX
It has been stated that all magnetic lines of force must
be closed upon themselves, and that all dielectric lines of force must terminate upon a conducting surface. It can be infered
from these two basic laws that no line of force can terminate
in free space. This creates an interesting question as to the state of dielectric flux lines before the field has had time to propagate to the neutral conductor. During this time it would seem that the lines of force, not having reached the distant neutral conductor would end in space at their advancing wave front. It
could be concluded that either the lines of force propagate instantly or always exist and are modified by the electric force, or voltage. It is possible that additional or conjugate space exists within
the same boundaries as ordinary space. The properties of lines
of force within this conjugate space may not obey the laws of normally conceived space.
TABLE r.
)I""netic Field.
r·
Dielect rie Field.
 
\I:l~n('t ic flux:
'1> = Li 108 lines of magnetic force.
Illlluetance voltage:
1' = n ~ I(}s = L t!! volts
dt a :"::;
.\1 agnet ie energy:
Li' .
II" =2' Joules.
. \Ialtnetomotive force:
F = ni ampere turns.
I \Iagnetizing force:
F
f = T ampere turns per ern.
\I agnet icfield intensity:
,1C = ·llr/l(}' lines of magnetic Iorce per em'.
_\!allll .. t it' density:
(B = J.IJC lines of magnetic force per em'.
Permeuhilit y: I'
\lagnetic flux:
'I> = Ad? lines of magnetic force.
,
t.
Dielect r ic Hux:
'" = C" lines of dielectric force, or coulombs.
Capac it v l'lIrrent:
.• d: ,de
I = ;ii = ( dt amperes.
Dielectric energy:
C,'.
U' = T Joules .
Elect romot ive force: ( = volts,
Elect r ifving force or voltage gradient:
~ C I
(, = 1\'0 t s per em.
Dielert ricfield intensity:
KG. Ii f
= 4 "l~ 1 0 ues a dielectric
forte per Clll'. or coulombs per cm.
Dielect ric densit v :
D = .K lines of dielectric force per ern", or coulombs per cm.
Permit t ivity or specific capacity: "
Dielectric flux:
'" = AD lines of dielectric foroe, or coulombs.
TABLE II.
)(acaetic Cinluit.
Dielectric Cireait. i
iDielectrrc flux (dielectric Electric current: current):
i' = lines of dielectric force.
Electromot.ive force: e ... volts.
Electric Circuit.
Magnetic fl.ux (magnetic current) :
<I> = lines of magnetic force,
:\£agnetomotive force:
F = ni ampere turns, Permeance:
U = _!_. . A."F
Inductance:
n"l> n<l>
L= F l(}' = rIO'
henry.
Reluctance:
R =!..
<I>
Magnetic energy:
Li: F<I> •
w=T=T10S Joules.
Magnetic density:
i = electric current.
Voltage:
'e = volts.
Perruittance or capacity: Conductance:
C = ! farads. g = ! mhos.
e e
Resistance:
r = ~ ohms.
I
(Elastance) :
1 e
C =~.
Dielectric energy:
Ceo (Y. I
lL" = T = '2 JOU es.
Dielectric density:
Electric power:
p :a ri' = ge' = ei watts.
Electriccurrent density:
i
[:a A: ",y(iam
pereaper cmt.
Electric gradient: e
G .. l volts per em,
<1>" .
<B=A=I'.1C inesper cmt.
D;( = .. Kline1!percm'.
Magnetizing force: i Dielectric gradient:
F ! e
I" T ampere turns peri G = l volts per cm.
em. I
Magneticfield intensity:' Dielectricfield in ten sity:
G
JC = .hI. K = 4,..,s10".
. Permeability:
Permittivity or specific Conductivity: capacity:
D
I
"Y  G mhoem.
I' = @.
JC
Reluctivity:
p = L.
<B
Specific magnetic energy:·I! ·4rl'r I<B
Wo" 2:a zlQl .
.Kg <B 107 joules per cm','
." .
I
= « (Elastivity 1): 1 K
; = 75'
Resistivity:
1 G P::Y""7°1uncm·
Specific power:
7>t .. pJl ,. (]I  GI watts JMr cmI,
Specific dielectric energy:
..(]I GD
We = 4 nlH)" 2" 10'
2 rv'KD joule!l per em',
I
Quantity
j ,!
I! L~~~~!th
i ;; ,;, ~, ic r.; t ;!)11 i s: F! . .HCC
, "I Ene rz y
III) Power
t I' C:'loirgc
121 Dieic.ctrt.'c constant of free space
11.11 Dielectric conatant I
l,t reln rr ve
Chaflole de!1~~ty
115 volume
'I:~I ii~1~'3CC I
,18! Elcct:ic intensity
II~I Elect~.'c tlux density
~u Electric flux !
121 Electric potential I
1111 E~!F
! 23 Capacir.ance I
124 Current
!'!5i CUrft!n.,t denci.ty I
\2bl Resistance
l!i Resis t i vit y
t231 Conductance
~29 Conductivitv . ',JO Elect rtc p'Il:,riz:.ation I ,11 Elect ric susceptibility 1321 Elect ric dipole mO1
p I ment
'.3.H E~f':,::ri< encr~y density\
r;'~.
! i
1 I ':"antil),
, I
Sym
001
mJcs Uni\.
R:J.tioluEzed
..
r IV p
Q. Q
newton joule wu t t coulvmb
riPPENDIX I
T.\J'LE OF UNITS, SY~.IB()LS, AND DI~IEN~IONS
No. of
'!A1ILE OF UNITS. SY~BOLS, _"ND DDIENSIONS
I
___ , 1
. !
:;C~ :
1 p.o
"
i
!_.
:",,1 P •. rmea biri rv ('Ii Space
:.l~I' Perru ce b.ti: 'J
in reL·.ti ve .
I_; i: Mag uc nc pule
i.lsl vlug ne uc moment i
;,"'i ~!.,gllellC inl.".ity 1
i40! ~.fagnetic 'lux ;!ensity I !':I! \f..Hlnetic flux
l·1l.! ~1..L<!netic ;"ltent.ial
~II \1 :,; F . 1 .. 4! l nt ensi tv oi magnetil
I j eanon •
. I I nducta.nce I
: 45 self
1·16 mutual I
!47j Reluctance
I·~!il !tcluctivlty I
:.\')1 Permeance
!501 Perrnit.ti vit y
1511 EMF I
.52 Poynting's vector
!5.11 MQ.~n.etic energy den
. I "ty
~~d ~taRl·_~tic sc scc n ri i
, bihty I
"
far::..d/m {;.\laJ:"!H
,0£0  4«"/0)1 "  /~([[
p.t'  ~/JH
P lill  LJ.i
'" .... tIL
JI C,Ii ... orF/p
IJ.{[  ~/A"
.,. JL\  ;'::1'
(j  '3  ilL
J J
,">4 /J
L ,,/I J£  ,.);/ Ol  51. .... 1/"
is'  I/ill "  1/.
v.  d<l>/dl
II'  EH
I
100c II
100, 100,
1/(100,)
100, "
lOOe
I! (100" li(lOOc) (100<)'
l!i~)·1
1/(tOOc)'
(t00c1' I (t 00c)'
roo,
1
numertc
p. '" P.
D >iII v, C t, j J
R p G
coulornb z m! coulcmb/ m! coulomb/m
voltv m coulombv'm>
coulomb ""II \'011 farad
IV/I'
 IIB/2 14/H
 po(}' •
8tatcoubmb/cml etutcoulcmh/ema statcoulomb/(:m
atatvr,lt/cm
ampere ampere/mJ ohm"
~
p
x'
o hrnrn mho mhoim coulomh/ms r"rad/m
,,/10' c/IO' ClIO 1(1'/,
be/IO'
4ooiOc
~t:t.tvolt lO'/e
:o!:atvolt 10'/,
statfarad c'/IO'
statampere 10,
.tat"mpere/cm' c/IO'
statohm 10'/c'
statohmcrn 1101/ c
statmho ,II to'
statmhoicm cJ/IO'
sta tcoulornb , cm' ,/10'
IWC./IO.
sratco ... lorn bcm tOlt'
ergfcm' 10
... ,
coulombm i'Jll\c/m"
No. of
;'0. c( ~mu
satvolt ltatwRtt/cm'
Sv rn\,,·1
u ks Gl:it
, Rat.ll'malized
10"1e' lOll,·
I
! 1/(100<)' 11/(100c)'
!
henrr,011
hc nr v . III
p,p
weber
10"/, I ()I
10
1/(100<) I
"'
:'i
13
A·~~':~.1l\ aruperc , rn 'J( newton "weber vebc r,' r.~!
» ,  h/IO' henr)'1l/meter. l,'"r,  1.998>< 101 rueten/ see, II  :/II4C' 10'/(400,.)  8.854 X 1011 farad/met<'!r
Por , ;;: J X I()I _ten/sec •••. ;;; 1/(J6~l()1) iarad/meter
. c'  8.988 X 10";;: 9 X 10"
WCIJ"~l' ampe rc ampere
we be rz m!
~~ I'
'
J .It
L .tl (Jl
.
il'
" V.
j>
henry henry
ampere/ .... eber meter /henry weber/amp henry/meter
volt watts/m:
joult:/''lll henry/m
I. I= TI (I) Il LTTl (l:>l
In t he following paper are out lined SOIlIl' results of t he application of the theory of circuits having uniformlv distributed electrical characteristics to the elcct rical oscillnt ions in auteunns and inductance coils. Expcrimcut al mcthods are also given for determining thc coustunts of antennas and cxporimcnt al results showing the cffect of imperfect dielectrics upon antenna resistance.
The theory of circuits having; uniformly distributed chuructcristics such as cables, telephone lines, and t r.uismissiou lines has been applied to antennas hy a number of authors. The results of the theory do not seem to have been dearly brought out, and in fact erroneous results have at times been derived and given prominence in the literature. As an illustration, in one article the conclusion has been drawn that the familiar method of determining the capacity and inductance of .mtonnns by the insertion of t wo known loading; coils k:lds to n>\tIt:' which are ill vcrv f!:l'I.·at error. In the folItI\\'ing; t rcu t nunt it i." ."h(l\I·1I that this is not t rue and that t hc nut I \(Ill i" vcrv v.rlun hlr.
Auot lur puiu t ('I'II!'('rllill~ whi.h t hcrc ""('111:' to 1)(' "oll."itil'raide uur'crtn int y is t luit of t hc dTl'ctiH' \':11\1('." of the c:tp:lt'it~·, inductance .uu! rcsist auco of :1 11 t I'll 11:1:". III tlti.; pn por ex prcssions arc obt aincd for these qu.uit it ies ~i\'illg the values which would he suitable for an art ificiul untcnnn to represent t he actual antenna ut :1 given frequency.
The 111('01'), is applied :11"0 to t hc C:l:,e of induct nucc roils with distributed capacity in wliirh (':1:"l' :111 ox pl.t na t iun of :1 wellknown cxperimou t :11 result is ohr n i 11('(1.
Experimental methods arr~~i\'('11 fur (Ittl'rillillilig ,11\' ,'1)11 st.ants (If antennas. the firt of whirh i r h. Ltlllili:ll' 111('IIt'HI prC\'iult:,:y mcn t ion.d. It. i:" .1111\\11 111:lt r l.i l1111ii .. d III I,,;tlil\' gin:,; values vf C:tP:ll·ity :111<1 iud':d:lilt".' I,r i l« :::tl(·JI:::! ,,1,,(· til the lull' frequellcy or t at ic \·:illl!.' :Illd n i.i v 1.\, !:<>IT,·,·II"!(, ;1:' to ;!:ivc t hvsc values n'r." :1(:I:lIl·:III·I\·. Till' ,T.Hid IIII'! h"d ('011 ('l'rns the dctcrminnt iou (If till' 1·'T,I,!i\·" \':dll(':, "f t h. ":IP:l('ity, induct ancc, ami rcsit a nco of Ill!' ::11(1'1111:1.
In the portion which dcal.; wit h tilt' n'~i:"t:lll(,(' of :(111':111::1:'. a <cries of cxpcritucut al result .irc gi\'('n whuh ('xpl:lil1 the limu r ri"l' in rl':,i"t:tll('(' of :lIlt('llll:I" :1" till: \\':1\'" k:l~l!t i:, ill<:)'(':1:'('(1. It. is shown t h.it t hi !'it:ll':I('I!'I'i.tic: Ic.u ur.: "f .uit cuu.. rcsir.. nco curve i:i (';[11';1'(1 hy tlw pn'''!'llce of iIl11',·n·"I't did(','t ric such :1'; t rcc, i>llildil1g;,;. :tlldu "II, ill t lu field of t!ll: nnt cnnu, which <::111:'('" it to 1l\'1::I\·I' :!." :lll :t1'''<irl.,illp; C(!1lticll:;er.
I
J I
\
I
\
II. Cmcurr WITH U~IFOmILY DISTltlBUTED INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITY
The theory, generally applicable to all circuits with uniformly distributed inductance and capacity, will be developed for t.hc case of two parallel wires. The wires (Figure 1) arc of length l and of low resistance. The inductance per unit length
A B
"
"'10
~.c FIGUnI;;
L, is defined by r he flux of magnetic force between the wires per unit of length that there would be if u steady current of one ampere were Hawing in opposite direct ions in the two wires. The capacity IWI" unit length Cl is defined by the charge that there would be on :1 unit length of one of the wires if a constant emf. of one volt were impressed between the wires. Further the quantity Lo=1 L, would he the total inductnuce of the circuit if the current flow were the same at, all parts. This would be the case if a constant or slowly alternat ing voltage were applied at x = 0 and the far end (z = I) shortcircuited. The quantity C. = lei would represent t he total en pacitv bet ween the wires if a constant or slowly alternating voltage were applied at z =0 and the far end were open.
Let us assume, without defining the condition of the circuit n t x=«l, t hn t n sinusoidal (,1lIf.of Iwriotiicity ",="2 ~(i,.; imprcsc.I at ;r = 0 gi\'!ll(! ri . .;(· TI) :l curnnt of ill"t:ll~t:llll")ll.'; v.ilu« i nt .1 alld
a volt ag« lwt\\"('('I\.1 alld f) ("Iilal tu 1'_ At. H t hv C\lITl'nt will l«.
, ai, a I'
l+a!lI :llld the' volt.icc Irom 8 to C \\'\111)(, ,+ ~:. II.r,
I . dx
The voltage around the l'('ct:IIHd., .113 CD \\'ill be equal tu the rate of decrease of the induction thru the rcc t anglc : hence
('1'+ aZ'\)'tl.r_l'=  i!.. I'Ll i dI)
al' a I
"
,j
I,
:1
;1 'I I
II
1 I:
,
(1)
Further the rate of iucrcae vI" the ('h:lr~C' IJ 1)11 the clcmcut ary length of wire 0,18 will be equal to till' ('X('C'"" in the current flowing in at A OWl' r hnt flowing out n t B,
301
IT 1'1l1't'
afJ a, )' (. ili )
 =  (( I /' rI ,r = /  I +  d x
a tat a .r /
_~_i c a I'
aJ.' 1 at
(2)
These equut iUII:; (l) and (2), determine 1 hI' propagar.ion of the current and \"olta~(' waves along the wirr«. In the case of sinusoidal waves, the oxprrssions
i = sill til t \/CI (..1 sill (!) "/('1 t.,» 11 (Us (I) V'(' II=~ .1')
'L.
arc solutions of the above cquut ions as Ilia,\" Ite verified I>y :;lIl>stit ut ion. The quant it ies A and U .m ('I)II"I:lnt,.; depelldin~ upon thr terminal condit iun. The vclocit v uf prnp.um t ion uf the waves at high frequencies. I';
I. HE,\I'T,\:;CI:: OF Tilt: :\E1lt,\J.( ;I!tlt':;J) P"HTIII:\
Tho .rcriuluround porr ion of the :lnt('I1II:1 II'!) ill Figllrt, :?I will be treated a" a line with uniformly di"tril'lItc,d induct.uu«, capacity arul J'('"i"tallt'(', :\" i" ('01111111)11 ill tilt, t rcat mcut of
"""",:11", .••• ,:.,1"",'1,'"." I 1"".
'J " ." J " V II II V ! v v \J V r v II .. ' ,J Y '01 "
C /,
Flfa'Ht: '2 \!lfl'~1iI:t Hf'l,n·"·lI!,·d :: .. :, !.ir," \\ irll ["nlfllrltl J)i~:rd;'llj'lll "i 'Illdlll'I;~I!II' :lIi.j (';'[':If'il.\"
~dio "irl'!lIt,.:, till' )'1',1,1:1111'" will I", ,""1;.1, ",·01 ;" I", ,I) III\\' .iIllIt to atf.Tt t hr fn'qll('III'\' (If t l« ""iil:tti'>ll "I 'I", di~l,.i"llti"lI (If "lIlT"111 :11111 \'cdl:I!!". '1'1 n ' II·:,,}i'l H t l'i.~IJ"'· 2: will 1,(·
l'lIl1~id('('('d to 1)(' fl'(,!~ Iroiu in.luct.uu« Ill' ('aflatily ('X('('pl illg: :1" iuductuucc ('viI,.; Ill' t'lIl1dclI"lT~ :11'(' insrrt cd (at .4) to Illodif~' the oscillat ions.
Applying cquut ions l:{) :lilt! (,r) tu the aerial of the aut cnnn and assuming t hat. z = 0 i,.; t.hc lendin cud while z = I is the far end which is (1)('11, we Illay introduce the condition that tho (,IIITI'II! is ZI'I'O for ,I' = I. From f t)
l 
~J = col (I) v/(., L,t
!\o\\' t lu 1'1':11'1:111('(' of IIII' .nriul. whicl: illdll(l('~ all of t lu :111 t cnnn hilt t lu lrudiu. I~ g:1\'('1I l iv t lu ('111'1'('111 alit! vul t run: at .r = O. '1' I lI'",(' an', Iroiu (;3). \1). .uu l Li),
(.') )
r., = .1. cos If) I = II cui (I' vic, f" I cos lIJ I
i;
ie " '
/ II 8111 IU I \<L,
Th« (,IIIT('lIt it:llb tilt' \'ollag:(' wlun (1)(' l'fltallg:('lIt i" p""ili\'t', :llId b~~ when 1111' ('''Iallg('nl i..; Il('~ali\'(', TIll' 1'1':11'1:111('(' "I' t.lH' .urin l. g:i\'('11 I.y I III' 1':11 ill of I hI' tu.iximuu: \':r1II('''; of ", t o i" I"
, if.,
,\ =  \'!:; ('01 (I) \' '( , , L, I
01' 111 (1'1'111"; "t' t: = I (', alld f." = I l.,
\' /' J." t '(;f
. =  \ .' co «) V . " '"
( "
I
,
~ I
IJI' 1111'(' r =
_y =  I.! I' col (OJ \ o( '! 1" I
:1"; gl\'('11 1.\, ,I. :" :'("11(',1
_\t lll\\" :"1·'·<jilt·Jll·11; .... llll' !'I·:~I·i.i1I1·t·
,\ I IIII' 1'I'I'qlll'I\('\'
1=
I \ '..I..
"I' iu.lurt iv« Ill' ,e, t h. 1'1'1''1111'11('\' :11 whirh IIJ(' 1'1'
.'2v',L.
:\("(:111('1, \)('('011"'" i nfin it r. Tlli..; \':tl'i:lliOIl (If rh.. :iI'l'i:t! ;,,:,"t:IIII,T wit h tilt' l'rt;'IIII'II('Y I..; .h"II'11 1,\, t lu (·"r;IIIt!,·nt I'ill"\'( ill fil!llI'(' :{_
2>00
2.~
1$#0
I." i
~
'0. .
\.~
0
5 ••
I DOD
ISOO
2000
2.$110 L. 50,.uJo..
C •• C.oooal1
Fll;UIl; 3\·"ri"tioll d the Hcuctuuce of the Aerial of :1II Antenna with the Frequency
'J :\,I.Tl'H.\L fIlEtJL·E:\~'IES OF ()';CILL.\T!O:;
Those frcquoncics at which the rcnctuncc uf the aerial, :1:' given by equation (0), hee'onw" cqunl to zero are the natural frequencies of oscillation of the nntonna (01' frequencies of 1'('sonance) when the leadin is of zero reactance, They are given in Figure 3 by t he points of intersection of the cotangent curves with the nxi of ordinates nud by the cquat ion
r 41
/ =. = /
. f [>; (''Of", III
i, v.. 4 1. 4 ;L ·l ,'J,t I, \'fr, tilil\'''; tlli' !r'IIl,nh of t he .urinl. If, lill\\~·\"(.'r, the leadIll Ii:!" :1 rC:ll'iaIlC(, XI' the n.u ur.il fn'qlll·n('ie . , of oscill.it ion arc d('t,"llllill!'d by t hc cou.lit ion that the t ot al reuct.mce (If le.ulin pili" .urial hnl] II .. , zuro, t h..t is:
s.+x=o
proyjrli,d t ht: !,(':ld:lll~"'" :lI"I' ill "erie" with the driviug emf.
'(a i IJ',\Dl:\(; ("UIL 1:\ 1.1:.\nI:\, The l1l()"t iruport a nt pructi,':d ,'a"'~.' i," r h.rt ill which n n iuduct.urct coil i" inserted ill t he
leadin. 1ft he coil li;t.~ :t11 inductn ncc L its n·act.:lll(·(· .\1. = co L. This is a posit ivc rc:u·t,:lIU·(· increasing linc.uly with the frequency and represented ill Figure 4 by a solid linc. Those Irequcncies at which thc reactance of the coil is equal numerically but opposite in sign to the reactance of the aerial, arc the natural frequencies of oscillation of thc loaded antenna. since the total reactance XL + X = O. Graphically these frequencies arc deter
L •• so ..... "
c •. ggoolJ}J.[. l· I •• ~
FIGt:nE 4Curws of Aerial .. nd Loading Coil HC:H:t:tIlCCS
mined hy the intcrscctiou of the st rnight lino « .\/, =  OJ L ,,,!JO\\'II 1\\· :1 d:l,llI'd lilli' ill Fi~lln' l) with the ('()t:111~('llt curves r<'l)l"('';,'111 :!I;! .'C. It i" "I'I(I('llt t Iiai. till' freqllt·IIC.I· i,,,; IU\\"T"i 1,.1' the intrt iou (If t hc luadill)2: ('uil :l.'ld that the higlur u.u ur»! frl'qucncios uf ",;('illat ion :In' 110 1<)I1~C'r int('~r:d iuult ipl,'" <A the I, ,I\·(,;;t fn 'q IH·lIey.
Thl' «ondit ion .\[.+.\=0 wh ich dd('nnilll" the n.rt ur.r] frl'qllCIlCIC:" of ();<cillatiull I(':td" to the equation
L, <rr::
<0 L  \ .. col o) '\./ ( (, La = 0 ,( "
or

ol,\/('"L" L"
:iCj
Tlli,. I'qllal ion lia,. 1>1'('11 ~i\"('11 ),~. (;II,\'all~ :11111 L. ('011l'1I.' It d('ll'l"IlIill('''; IIIl' p(~rio"i('ily (IJ .uul 11('11('(' the fn''1I1('II('Y and wn v« lcugt II of I Ill' possibk natural modes of oscilln tion when I he dist ributcd cupucity and inductance of t.hc nerinl nud t lu illduct.uue of the lending coil arc kIlOWII. This cquat ion cunnot , huwcvcr. 1)(' :,oln·d directly: it mnv hl' solved ~mphi('ally a,.; shown ill Figur« 4 or a t.ahlc may be prepared inclircet.lv which
g:i\"I''' till' values uf OJ V('"Lo for different values of {~: [roru which t 111'11 ar, J or i. Illay be' de tcrmincd. The sccorul ('OIUIlIIl of Tal,{(· I g;in's tit!';;!' values for the 10w(',,1 natural frcqucncv of ucillut iou, which i;; of mujor importance nut urnllv.
(b) C()~D~:!liSEn 1!Ii L.: .... nIx. At times, ill prnct icc, :t ('011 denser i" inserted in t hc kadin, If the ('apat'it.\· of the corukucr
is C. it s rcactuncc i,.; Xc =  J__(.. This nrut :111('(' i" shown ill (I) .
Figur« .J 11\' t hc hvpcrbola drawn ill solid line. The intersection
.
~ .
.
S".. •
:.~
, \
2~OO
2 "."
,So.
\ ,
/
, l,,' ; 0 ~"~.
: c. C,wceflJlf : c O .• Qo$;:
')1' ,11(' !!\'~:t1i\'l.' 1)[ t h i 1'111'\'1' ,011':11\'11 III <1:1,,1,,·.1 lilll'l wit l: t ho (·(;tall~I·llt ,'111,\,(', 1'l'(ln'''(,!Itill!.!; .\ J.!i\'(·" till' fl'l'<1l1l'lli'i,'" f,11' whirl:
'(;""::'1 .. \.: "I.,,,"ii·('(· L) •. ,·lri'l",· ... I:,. p. 1::: 1~11l ·:(·,d'l·iI. I .. : "L1l'l'!ric':d \\'"rl';." I;;;, 1'. ~."I;: 1~11.,.
:.U.H~
\
TABLE I
. , I I' I ,
I ._}=! [Mer I' ! I  __ ;_1=' DifT('r
Iitl 'I '.1,.: II, I'("lf'(', p('t'I~ ~ (., '('..I,., /1, 11(""'(', pvr
:\J+, (Tilt 1'1 I.... ;\+" "('Ill
: I... .1. L. .11
I 1
. ;:;2 10 .:: I :\ . I II .. ,:;n O. ;i~1I I () . I
;;,\:: ~:!!::;; : :~li :~:;~ I . :
.2;;, :\0 I :J.4:'iI';')IS I 1
.tnx ".:; :L;,);;IO SII :1
.11\1., , :; Ii . ,;fl~ .:,(l~ fl
(I:t, ·1 :;., ·I!I" I ~!Ij'\l II
.'.I.q I :; S .~'Illi .~!1I\1 II
I):;!I . \1 .) !) .4S:,\) ISlill II
. '11111 ~ II 4"fll 4sII1 I)
."'ili ·1., .4.i~s 4:,I!1 II
, , :;., ;, ;; II ·I:;:;n 1:;:\11 II
SIIS .,! ;).:; .HH
7:':2 .• ~I li.O .::H7.~
71 ill 4 il (i', :;S2Ii
7:;\1 . .t!',.1) :lli<)::
.71~1 .;~ Iii 1,;1 ,:t,'l
iOI :1.1 ~I) .:141;;;
.(~".') .:; il s.;; .:;::I;li
.liS!1 .:\ '. <)O:I:!7.;
. tl.};; :~ p ~);) .:n s~.
fi41 ., 10 II .:nll
.li:1.'" ., II II 2'17:1
!ilii 1:1.11 :!s;;fl
n.o .1
!) ".0 2.1
.J .)
.J ')
., 4
., .. 0' Ii
., " .) ~ I
0' II
L L.
.)
1.;;71 1.12'1 1.:n4 1.2'20 1 142 I oi7 I 11'21
."1 ill
':.:::. i
,1lll':
i1; .
li!l!l .I;S:;
.:1 .4
., .1;
'I II 1
.4
... . Ii
., S
.li:.!7 .li1', .li/)4
nil I. II 1', II \'i II l~ (I I' II I!I II 211 (I
.2,11 '21ill :2:J:,Ii '.!·r;ii :,,!t!t".! 2:)::.'\ ".!~77 '.!'.! 1 ~ I
1 .1 1
:iUT
.\<+.\ =0, :11111 IH'11I'(' t hc nnt ur.il fl'l'qll('IH'i('''; uf ",.;('illatioll of t he .m t ('IIIl:!, The f rtqurucirs are i III'n~:l";l'd (t he wa ve 1t.'IlJ..:t h dvcrcuscd) by the insert ion of t he condenser .uul t he oscillnt ions of higher frequencies arc not integral multiples of the lowest.
The condition Xc+ X =0 is expressed by the equation
ian If} vCnL. C
  :::v ;;:£: = c~
(9)
which has been given by Guyau, Equation (n) mny be solved J..:raphically as above or a table similar to Table I may be prepared
g;iving If} rc.i: for different values of tu' More complicated circuits mny be solved in a similar m:11111er.
:3. EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE, INDCCT,\XCE, AND CAPACITY
In the following, the most important practical case of a louding coil in the leadin and the natural oscillation of lowest Irequency will alone be considered. The problem is to replace the antenna of Figure (j (a) which hn n loudinu coil L in the leadin and all a(,rial wit h distributed rh.uactrrit ics h,\' :l circuit Figure G (b) conit iug of the iuduct ancc L in "pril'''; with lurujud resistance N" inductuncc L; capncitv C,. which :ul'pqui\":tkllt to the ncriul. It is nccessarv. hOI\"('\'('I', to t.itc how theso effective v.iluos arc to be defined.
oa,
III pr:ll,til'(' till' qunn nucs which a n of iurport nnce ill :In n n t cu nn :ln' the r('~()Ilallt W:IH' 1('I!:.!!h (,I' fn'qllt'lll'.\' .unl the current :It r l.« «urrcut mnxiruurn. Till' '1II;1ll1ltl('" f." :ll1d ('c ar(" theldurl', d('fill('" as t hoc which will gin' til .. , circuit dJ) the
s.uuc resonant frequency as t lu antenna in (a). Further the three quuutit.ies L" e" n nd H,. must he such t.hnt the current in (b) will be the same as the maximum in the antenna for the same applied emf. whether undamped or damped with any decrement. These conditions determine L .. C .. and R. uniquely at any given frequency, and are the proper values for an artificial antenna which is to represent un actual antenna at. a particular frequency. In t.he two circuits the corresponding maxima. of magnetic energies and electrostatic energies and the dissipation of energy will be t.he same.
Zenneck' has shown how these effective values of inductance capacity and resistance can be computed when the current and voltage distributions arc known. Thus, if at any point .r on the oscillator, the current i and the voltage I' arc given by
i=I!(x);v=l'<p(x)
where I is the value of t.hc current at t hc CUITent. loop .uu! l ' the maximum voltage, thcn t hr diffl'l'('lltial cqun t ion of t ho oscillation is
~_!_fRI!(x)Zdx+azIJLI!(x)1"£+ ' .. _J. =0
a t a t2 : .[,~\ <p (:r)(l~ i 2
fC\ <p (x)1 d »
where the integrals are taken over thc whole oscillator. If we write
( 10) (11 )
( 12)
R.= f HI! (x)z Ii x L,=fL,!(x)2d.r
r =lfCI<P(x)d.r:!
, e J'r . I cf> i .1' !' ,J .1
t he "ljll:ttiC)n h"t'UlIlI'S
J( ~ I .i.], d'_1 .i, f =11
, a / ' . d t ' r '.
whicl: i" the ditf"I"'lItial ('(jllall"" of orill.n iou oi :t ::,illlpk I:il'cuit wit h IUIIl(wd 1'I·"j,.;talll·.·. illdlll'l :111('('. :[lId capacity 1)[ \':ti\ll':' R" L" aud Cr alld ill which I lu 1:lllT('lIr i" IIII' ":1111(' :L" t lu 1I1:IXimum in t he distributrd C:\"I', III <>1'01('1' to «vn luat« t lu«. (I'I:lIlt it ies, it is ncc('';,,;lI'Y ()111~' to d!'!'·l'IIlilll·.r i.rl :lIld cf> rr) : t h.it is, thc Iunct ions whil: .I)('f'if,\· till' .ht rihut i.»: \If ('IIIT('lll .uid \'01 ta~f' ou the o.:'cillatIJI'. III 1111 I·,"IIIC·(·( i011 it will Ill' :1"!lllIcd that the )'(~"i,.;t:lllc,(, i" 11111 "f iurport.uu«: ill dl'l"l'lIlillill~ I hI''''' dit ribut ions,
• Z"I'IU'('k, "Wirl'lc" Tcl"I!I:lpl,y ''['r:llI,1a 11'.1 1 'Y ,\. E. ~l"'li;!;, ),'"", !II,
p. 410.
At the far end of the aerial the current is zero, that is for :r;=I; il=O. From equations (3) and (4) for x=l
VI = cos w t (A cos w VG\L,Z +B sin. cu ,.lei L,l)
,(;  
i, =8'i1l w t..J i~ (.4_ sin eo VCI L,/B cos co Vel LIZ)
and since il = 0
A sill w VG\L,i =B cos CtJ V("t L, I From (3) then we obtain
/' = 1', cos (w V ( i L, I  (I) V C,I_~ x)
Hence 4> (z) = cos (w vc\"L; Z (0 VC,L, x)
Now for ,1:=0 from (4) we obtain
, Ie I  Ie, 1'
to= B \JL. sin io t= A \ILl ianw vC,L,iSlnwt
whence .. 8ilt(wvC,L,I(t)v(~x)
I = I  .   ._  
U sin w v'C:L; I
and f (.r) = 8il~(tJ v(__~L,_l_~t) "\/(',_!~, x~
sill (tJ V'e,L,l
We cnn now evalu.uo the expressions (10), OIl, and (12), from
(10)
"
I
:ll,t! fn'lll : II! wlricl: ('Ullt:lill" t h« ":l1ll(' f\Jllll III' illtq.:r:ti
L"l 1 cut OJ v'('" L]
Lf: = '1 , .. .~ .~. ::_==  . ./~:  _._
 .'/JIOIy("L" oJ "\/("L"
(J,n
aml Irum 1.12)
.: ,_I_·_.: (', (,IJ.\ (IV V' C i L, lw "\/ (', LI .r ) !Ix :_' C. =
.J'.~ C; ('US' ((I) V' (\ L, / 0' "\/ (', i., .r ) ,1,1'
(., ,.~/l(~~JV_(~L,_I
,
 ( OJ V· (', f.,),~
 . 
 Ct (' +'.'> _~_ I~_V'('I /'1 ')
,2 tU/VC't/J'
C"
[   ,   .. / c 1
I'',~/ ( " I,,, cot to v' ('" L" + (I}~_.~,_ " __ 
2 2 s:ll~ (I) "\Ie" L"
310
The expressions (1"') and (1.'» should lead to the same value fOI' the reactance X of tho aerial as obtained before. It. is readily
shown that
,. L 1 ~L"  /C
,~ = til   =   col CIJ v L
• t lU C ~ (,~ u 0 U
ugrceinu with equation (ti).
It is of interest to investigate the values of these quantities at wry low frequencies «(I) == 0), frequently called the static values, and those correspouding; to the natural frequency of the unloaded untennu or the socalled Iund.uucutul of the ant onua. Subst it ut ing W=O in (13), (14), and (15) and evaluating the indotcrmiunnt which enters in the first two cases we obtain for the low frequency values
R = R"
• :3
L  !:::
.. ,  :~
C,=C"
At low Frequencies, t ho (,III'I'('llt is a maximum at the leadin end of the aerinl and falls off linearly to zero at the far r nd. The cffrct ive resistance and inductance arc onethird of the values which would obtain if the current were the same thruout , The voltage is, however, the same at all points and hence the effective c:1p:Il'it~· is the cnpacity per unit length times the lcngt.h 01' C" .
. \t the fundamental of the antenna, the reactance X of
equation I()) 1)('C'OIlH'S equal to zrro nnd hence «J ."...IC"T, =:~, Subt itut inu r h i \':\111(, ill (l:31. (In, .md (J;j)
R .« I
' 2 (
t.. = [~' ~'
('= 8 ('
/, _:.! ".
(17 )
Hence ill J,!oilll! fl'UlI1 I()II" fl't'qll!.'lIt'i!':i lip to that of t he fundamental of till' :llItl'IIII:I, t h« 1'I':,i,.t:tIl('C (1Il',!dedi!ll! radiation .uu l skin effect) :llld tllt~ indu.t.uic« \ 11('J,!lc('rinl! "kill dIed) int:I'I':L"I' h~' fift v pel' ('I'llt .. the (,:Ip:ll'ity, howvvrr, de('l'(·a,.:c:; by about t weut y
,) .)
per crut , The incorrect \':lIIII':;": L" :lIId ::: C, have 1)('1'11 Ire
qucntly given and commonly used as the values of the effective inductance and capacity of the antenna !l.t its fundnmentnl,
These le:~d also to the incorrect value L. = ~n for the low frequency inductance'.
The values for other frequencies muy he obtained by substitutionin (13), (14), (I5). If the value L of the loading coil in the leadin is given, the quantity II} VCoLo is directly obtained from Table 1.
4. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT WITH LU~IPED CONSTANTS
Insofar as the frequency or wave length is concerned, the aerial of the antenna may be considered to have constant values of inductance and capacity and the values of frequency 01' wave length for different loading coils may be computed with slight error using the simple formula applicable to circuits with lumped inductance and capacity, The values of inductance' and capacity
ascribed to the aerial are the static 01' low frequency, that is, ~ for the inductance and C" for the capacity, The total inductance in case the loading coil has a value L will be L +~. and the
:3
frequency is given by
( 18)
or the wave lcngt II in meters by
'=["Sl !(L...l...l_:_.,,)· c:
I, CL \ ':~ ..
where the inductance i:; expressed ill ruicrohcurys and t he capacit y in microfurnds, The accuracy witl: which this formula gives the wave length can be dctertniued by comparison wit h the cxnct formula (8), In the second column of Table I are given
'The"e va lut arc ~i\'('11 hy .r. II. :'1 " I"f.'.",.j r ill ··ProH". I. H. E," .j, p. :;."\1, J!lJ;, It mav be shown that the,' lead to ('orn·, .. t \·"l:le' fur the rcuct.uu«. "f the ncriul a!Hi hence to eorrcct ,",;111(" uf frl'qlll'II1OY ,I, ,,·a,; verified I", the expcrimcn r s. Thev ure not, howcvrr, the values wllich would lol'l'urrerl fur all nrtiii,:;:'] :1111"1111:1 ;11 whirh th" current 111"';1. "'111;:1 rill' "':LxiIIlUIII III the .ict ual :trllf.'nlla :Ind ill wluch tlte f.'Ut·!"l!if':O: II1U..:t ;ti::u !It' 1'(111;11 if) rbo:,c in the .mtcuna. Tilt' rl':"i:1;tlltT value j!i\'PIl h~' Prof. .\Ion'f"r(lft ; q..: rn' wilt! thee rcquircmeur s :ond .. \ ir h r lu ":01'1('~ "lot3111 .. <1 lun.
\":tilll''' fur the ('fTecti\"(! ill<iUl"lall'·" :IlId l":""tI·it~· ill "l!rI'l'lIll'lIt with ti,,,"'.! «f c,tll:lli"o 0:) :tI",,'e have 1"·"11 ~i,·,," hv c;. \\", O. Howe. "y,·",.I0""k "f \\·in·ie. 'l't·k~ral'hy alld Tckphonv." I':I~<: V'!'. I'll;.
the values of lily' Co Lo for different values of L; as computed by formula (8). Formula (18) may be written in the form
_/ 1
IOV LoC,,= ,iI
\fLu +3
so that the values of CIJ v' CuL", which are proportional to the frequency, may readily be computed from this formula also. These values arc given in the third column of Table I and the pel' cent. difference in the fourth 'column. It is seen that formula (18) gives valu~s for the frequency which are correct to less than a pCI' cent.; excepting when very close to the fundamental of the antenna, i. e., for very small values of L. Under these conditiorrs the simple formula leads to values of the frequency which are too high. Hence to the degree of accuracy shown, which is amply sufficient in most practical cases, the aerial can
be represented by its static inductance ~ icitli its static capacity C u ill series, and the [requencs] of oscillation icith. II loadinq coil L in the leadin. call be com puted bl) the ord in ars] formula a p plicable lu circuits with lumped Calista nis.
In an article by 1. Cohen," wh ich has been copied in severn I other publications, it was stated that the use of the simple wave length formula would lead to very large errors when applied to the antenna wit h dist ributed constants, The large errors found by Cohen are due to his having used the value L; for the
induct aucc of the aerial, instead of ~o, in applying the simple Formula.
1\', THE 1:\1\(,(:T.\:\I.£ CUlL
Th« t ruustuission line t hcorv can abo 1)(' :lpplit'li to the t rrnt nunt of the dh'ct" of distributed (·:Ip:l('it.'" ill in.Iuct a nc« coils. III Fizur« ; (a) is rt'pr(,~l'lIt('d :1 "illgil' l.ivtr .ol(·lIuid l'111l11('l'!I·d t o a v.uia hlr ('1>11.1(,11.('1' C. .l .uu] n :lrl' till' tl'rtllinab of the cuil, f) t hc middle. :lIld tltl' (·()I\.il'n"l'r:' druwu !II dot t ed IiII{'" :11';' ""PIH),,('d to l'I'pn':'(,lIt t h« C:lpal'itie" Ii('t\\'l'('ll the diffel'(,lIt part" of t h« ("uil. III Figlln' ; (hi tlte:lllH' ('oil is rcpre:'('II!t'd :\,.; :t line with un iformlv dist ribur ed iuduct ance and c.ip.uitv. Til('~"" a:,.Illllptioll:' :In' a.huit t cdlv rough. hut :11'('
somewhat just ifi« liy t hc kllOWII i ruil.uitv uf t hc ocillnt iou. ill
IOllg "nil'llI.Iid" to tito"(' ill :1 "illlpk :\I;(I'lIlIa.
•
A
",
, ,
, ,
, \
, .' ,
~. :.{.o , 0
" '. I C
, I
" " B
(CJ
FHWIlE 7 !n,luc!anre Coil Represented :IS !\ Line with Unifurm Distribution of Induc tance and Capacity
1. REACT.\NCE OF THE COIL
Using the same notation as before, an expression fOI" the reactance of the coil, regarded from the terminals A. B (x = 0), will be dctcnnincd considering the line :15 closed at tho far end D (.c =/). Equations (3) and (,I) will :I!!ain h(' appliL'd. t akiug account of t hc niw terminal condition, that i:<, for .r=l: 1'=0. H(,lIcc
and fUI" I =0
V Q = A cos (f) t =  B I a II (I) V elL. I cos (IJ t
. /C'B .
1u=\ slnctlt
L,
which gin's for the reactance of the coil regarded from the terminals A B,
01'
,., 'L" "~L _~ = \1; tau OJ 'v Co> .. ( .,
(:w)
:2. X,\TUUL FH~:(~CE:SUES OF O~(·!I.L,\Tl(j\,
At low frrqucncics, the nact ancc of t he coil is very smull and posit ivc, but illcl'I':tse,.; with ill('l'l>a"iJl~ Irequtncv ruu l })('('VIIIl'"
infiuin whuu OJ y'(~i.:=;. Tlii" J'l'JlI'l'''t'llt" t hc lowest Ire<jUl'IH'y of nat ur.d ocillat ion of the ('oil when t he terminals :ue O}1l'Il. _,\!JO\'C this frequency the n':It!:IIH'(' is highly negative, npprouchinc zrro at the frcqurncv lU v' C;" '{, =it, III this range of freqUL'IIl'il'':, the coil behaves :1:' a con.kucr .uul would require
an induct nncc a('I'O,," t he tel'lllinals to form a rcsouaut circuit. At the frequency w vi CoLo =t: the coil will oscillate with its terminals shortcircuited. As the frequency is still further increased the reactance again becomes increasingly positive.
(a) CONDENSER ACROSS THE TERMINALS. The natural frequencies of oscillation of the coil when connected to a condenser C arc given by the condition that the total reactance of the circuit shall be zero.
From this we have
/L" _ / I
\CutalLltJV c.t;» we
or
col OJ VC" L. C
'(~~c.}.J~ = Co
(21)
This expression is the sallie as (8) obtained In the case of the loaded antenna, excepting that go occurs on the righthand side
instead of lL, and shows that the Frequency is decreased and
.J ..
wa vc lcrurt 11 increased by increasing the capacity across the coi I in a munncr entirely similar to the decrease in frequency produced by inserting loading coils in the antenna leadin.
:3. EQl'I\' ALEXT CIRCClT WITH LL':'.IPED CONSTANTS
It is of interest to investigate the effective values of inductance and capacity of the coil at very low frequencies. Expanding the tangent in equation (20) into :1 series we find
y'= t. (1+("~C.I.J"+ )
. ,., ~.. . :) . . , .
. ) ( :) \
(",L.,  ,)
x' = "., ( ..
0)[,,
:)
This is the reactance of .m inductuucc L; in p.unll«] with a capacity ~" which shows that at low frequencies the coil may be
regarded as an inductance t; wit It :l rupncity (:~" across the tcrminuls and, therefore, ill parallel wit li the ('xtc'rll:d cundcncr
~\ t.J
FliHTlIElt DI:,CT;\:;I():\ * ():\ "ELH'TIUCAL OSCILLATIONS IX .\:\TE:\:\.\;"'\ AX]) IXJ)LTTlOK COILS" BY .1011:\ xr. :'.( II.LJo:H
.1011:; H, :'.[UHF.t'HOFT
I 11:1" i,!:lad to sec all .ui.iclo h~' DI', :\[illel' Oil I lu: slll'.i(TI pC oSl'illatiull" in coils and antcnnns ()(,(·:1I1S<.' of mv own iutrrct ill I(II'''lIiJjed, and also ()('(':lII:<(, of the alll!' ruu nuor ill whitI: DI', :\Iill(·1' halldl(,,.; iunt criul of t his kind. The P:II1('1' i" \\"(·11 wort.h studyirur.
r \\,;\,. ";0 IIIC W hat st a rt lcd. however. t,o find 011\ f 1'1111 I t lualit (1"1' that, [ IVa,.. ill ('ITOI' ill "OIllC of the mnr crinl PI'I'''('1I1('<I ill Illy pap('I' in the PUOCEEDI:O>GS OF THE h"T1Tl'TE of H,\DlfI ENm:;EERS Ior December. (Oli, cspcciullv :1'" r had :11 111f' t inur WJ'IIt(· 1I1~' paper thought. aloug similur lill('" :1" do('s DI', Xf ilhr in hi t rcn t uient of the subjcct: t his i" ,,,hUII'1I 11\, nrv I 1'1': It 111('111 of I hI' a n trnna 1'l'"jst:UU'(',
,\~ III whu t the ('fTecli,'" illdul'I:llu'(' :(11" (':IP:II'I:\' "I :111 :111 tl'l,ll:I .i rr wiun it is oscillating in it,'" fllllt!:lIII('III:iI III""" i"" If ,..e'·IlI~ 10 1111', a mu t tvr of viuwpoiut , Dr. :'lili(,!' ('1111('('''(': that III," I n':IIIII(,lIt lead" tt) ('t)IT('Ct, prvdicr iou of IIIl' Iwh:1 viur of t.lu :1111('1111:1 anti I concede the same t o him: it i" a quist ion. thercforcv ns to which t rcat mcnt is the 11101'(' logical.
From t he aut hors deductions we mur ('olll'illtI(' I hat nt qu.uur w.i vc 1(,1I~lh orill.u ion.
Lo J.,= '0
11\
s t :
, .) .
'1'1" v.i lu« uf L rou llv ('UlIll'" Iroru :1 (,(,","'.('1':1111111 ,Ii til" III:'~I ... II" "IWI':,?:~' III r lu :(111 ('1111:1 kl'('jilll:! I lit' ('llIT"111 III II", aruh"I:ll :'1111'1111:1 11ll.''':III1(, :1" IIII' max iu u nu v.i lu« iI, 1!:ld 'II ,1;" act u.il :1111"1111:1, .uu] t luu ,,,('I('j'lill:,?: till' (':11':1['11' «f ,llil::I,[" v.ilu« to j!i,'" till' artificial n n t cnnu the s.un« 11:l11l1':.I 1)('ri",J :1" r hcact un l :1111('1111:1, Tlti,,, III!'III"d .r jll'lH'I'ti II I'l' wil]. :1' II". :1'1!l1('" t au». ~I\'" :111 .ut ifici«! :1111('1111:1 hn viuj; 11\1' ":111\1' 1l:lIUI:t1 in''1111'111','" 111:1!!lll'ti(' "III'r!_!;,'" alld ('I('('j n,,,lalil' "IIC'I',!!,'" :1 r lu ::"lll:t! :1It!('IIIl:I, k('('pill.:! ,tIlt' ('111'1'('111 ill t lu .ut i liri.r] :\111"1111:1 :1 u : ':0111(' a:< till' u.a x iuuu» ('111,[,,'111 ill i l«: .ut ua] :lllt('IIII:I,
BUI ~\ll'l'0~(' he had al tacked til;' pl'ohl('111 [rum till' vicwpoiu: of cloctrost nt ic CIll'I'!l:Y instead of okct rouuumct ic ('!iPI'f,!;Y, aile! I hal, he had obtained t ho ('OIl"I:lllt·" of his artificial .mtenna to ut.isiy tI .... "c condit.ions (which nrc jus as Iundumcntnl aml I'p:tsonahlt· :I" those he die! "':Iti"fy); s.une natural frequency, same 1II:'f,!;Ill'tic cller~y, ":11111' ('I('l'tro,.:talic ('Ill'rI.!'Y and the same \'olt.aJ,!;(~ an,,,,,, the eondl'Il":('1' of til!' artificial :1;; the maximum voltage ill IIH' nrtunl alll('III1:1. HI' would tl1<'11 hu vr obtai lied t.hc 1'(~I:t1."'II"
x
I., = __ , I ...
(:; )
(,,, 2
Now. 'Ilia t ion:' (3) uud (!) :Ill' .i 11,..1 :1,.. (")IT('{'t a" arc \ I) ami ,2) and IIIIIr('O\('r t.he urt ifieiul :tllt(,lIll:1 built with t he constunr~i\'cTl ill 1.:;1 .uul (!) would dllplil'al,' til!' :u'III:t1 :11111'1111:1 just :1'" well as (l". "1)(' built :I("'()J'(lill)! 1(1 till' n,lal ion l!in'lI ill ( 1 \ .md (21.
I 11:1.: Ih('''t' two pv""il.ilili(', ill mind when wrir im; in Ill."
IolIl!lIial :IITil'il' "a" t hc ell'cll'" ... ta t ic ('III'I'I!~ i" :\ iunct iou of t h« !,ut.('Jltwi '.·\lrn' aile! t h« 111:ll!ll<'lil' ('IIl'I'I!Y i" r lu ":lllll' Iunct ion of tlic 1;111'1""11 I turn" a lid hOI h t h(,,..(, ('111'',"('''' h.iv« t hi' same ,,11:11)<.'. !I I~ IOj!Jf"al. a iu! ,'0 Oil. \"(,("11<,,..,, to ":I,'"' I1I11 consider it lo;!u,:d, :"1.] .ifter rcadinz I hi di:;l'u;.;::ioll I .un ure Dr. :'Ilill(')' will .""l! In'· rvusons Ior ';0 t hiukiuz.
Wlu» applying: the t luorv of uuifuru; linrs to ('vil:: I t hink :1 V(,') ,:,,':,!" '.'ITO), i" lliadt" :11 (Jllt'(', which vit iar c vrrv 1:1)'1!(,I.,· :lily 1'()IJ('ill .. ioll:; rcarhcd. TIl<' l. :111<1 C of t he coil. per crnt inutrr 1"'Ig,I.:,. :,'t· I,.,' 110 nunu ... uniform. :l III't'I'''';:Jr~' ""Iltlitioll ill III,' III' r.rv I,; llilifOrill lints: ill:1 IOIII.! ",,,I,'lIl1iti lilt' I. p,'r '·"lIlil!II'I(·'· 111":,1 I'" ,., ut rr of III<' ""d i. IH":II·I~· I wu«: \1"' ,:,!n'al ;I~ till' l, i"'! ,·(,,,111111'1'" "I t h« ('lid ... , :1 1":,,'1 whirl: f"II(J\'·.'; irolll ,,1('IIl('lIlan' II\('o.\" :;:,,1 "II(' 1,'lIidl 11:1, 111""11 I'('rifi(,d ill our lul.orn t orv 1,\· 1I1l':1.'I'·llq: t lu ,\·:t,",'I"II,:,!lh ,,1:1 il!:,!h fr'I)II('I1('" w.i v« t r.r v.liue :I10(1l2. .. ,It Ii :1 "J!"'lOid. TIll" \':11'1' 1"II:,!li, i." 1I11"'!1 lJortl.'r ill t l. t : 1"'!lln "I III(' coil Ih:11I it i. 11t':lr t lu ('lid". \rll:lt. the t'apa('il' Ilt'r ("(,,,111:,,'1"1 IIf:1 ."'''('1\IIld i" h:l:' 11(""('1' 1"'('11 1I1(·:I."lln',1. [ t luu k. 1,,11 It '" 1!1,.j,,"i.tl'dh":,!rl':III'r ill II\(' ('("11,'1' (If t lu ""il t h.rn :!l.':11 II", ':lld,
:I lid
( "
'I'll(' ,',1 ... \,1:1111" II,' 1"1,:,,·111' r,olll hi, ("III:ltjll!: '1·' t luu "I','ll :11 It.,.; 11::II:r:t! in'qll('I1('.'" r h« I. III' 1\\1' ",,,1 1I1:1~" i", n';!:lld(,,1 :1, "qll:d i" ,i", lo«: [n'qll"II(T ,':,jlll' of L i" ,·:dll:l!'!t· III "I fa, ,,il "",,1,1,., ":11' 11('lt('I' til JII',·di,·1 II!,· 1",lt:ll·iilr "f !i,,' ,·"il. 1,11111
,
I
\
should ht: kept, ill miud that n~ally the value Ilf L of the CII&!, when defined as docs the author in the first. part. of his paper ill terms of mugnct ic (,1I('r!!;)" and muxinnuu CIIITI'IIt. in the coil at the high Inqueucy, is vrrv IIIII(:h les than it, is at the 10\\ frequency,
One point 011 which I differ wry lIIatel'ially with the author is the quest.ion of the I'l'al'lall('l' of a coil and coudcnsor, connected in parallel, and excited hy a. frequency the same as tilt' natural Inqucncv of the «ircuit.. The author gives the reactance as infinitv at this f)'('qlll'IIl'~', I\"h(,I'{,:1;; it, is actually zcr« When the impressed fl'e'llll'lIe.\" is ",li~htly hizlur than rcso 11:1 II 1 frequency there is a high capucit ive react ion .uul at :1 frcquencv slightly 101\"('1' than resonant frequency' there is :L high induct iv« reaction, but at t he resouaut frequency the nacf unco of the eircuit is zero. The resistance of the circuit lxcomos infinite a r this frequency, if t he coil and condenser han' no resistanc«. hut for any value of coil r(,,..j,,t:tltCl', till' )'(':II'I:ttl{'(~ of the ('0111 hinnt ion i~ ZI'I'O n t rrsonn ut fl'l'IPII'1I1'\',
1.:,·1
TESLA'S LONGITUDINAL ELECTRICITY A Laboratory Demonstration with Eric Dollard & Peter Lindemann.
If you've ever wondered if there are more llses to a Tesla Coil than just making big sparks then this video is definitely for you. Borderland Labs presents a series of experiments based on actual Tesla patents providing the researcher with insights
n into the reality of Tesla's theories of electricity.
You will see physical exper iments wi th Tesla' s some done for the first time, on The OneWire Transmission System, The Wireless Power Transmission the Transmission of Direct Current Through Space.
concepts, Electrical System and
You will see a novel form of radiant electric light which attracts material objects but produces a repelling pressure on a human hand! This light has the characteristics of sunlight and opens research into true full spectrum incandescent lighting.
You will see DC broadcast through space in the form of a dark discharge from a plasma column transmitter picked up by a similar receiver. You will see a capacitor charged through space with DC from a lightbulb utilizing Tesla Currents.
You will see a longitudinal shortwave broadcast from Borderland Labs to a nearby beach, using the Pacific Ocean as an antenna! This heralds the beginning of the end of u s i nq large radio towers for shortwave broadcasting. This experiment is done for the first time on this video so you can learn as \~e did. This is simply another day at the lab!
These experiments are done so that they can he reproduced by
any competent researcher, no secrets here! Eric bu i Lt his
equipment from the surplus yards.
Today's conceptions of a Tesla Coil provide the researcher with little practical material. Eric Dollard reintroduces the "pancake" Tesla Coils in a series of experiments taken directly from Tesla's work. No modern interpretations needed, we went to the source and the equipment works! Construction details are given so you can do it yourself!
If you want to do some practical work with Tesla's theories then this video will give you a good start. IE you are a Tesla fan then you will be happy to see Tesla's work and conceptions vindicated with p hy s l c e I experiments. Either way y ou will find that this is some of the most incredible Tesla material now available to the public!!
60 mins, color, VHS, ISBN 0945685890 ....•
.11
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