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tylTLAS OF ^

by Gail Roberts




'c^TLAS OF ^
The story of exploration is the story of
history's greatest adventures, resound-
ing with tales of courage and of achieve-
ment in the face of impossible odds. It is

a story that begins far back in the mists

of time, and that even now is not com-
plete. For. although little of the earth
remains unknown, man is constantly
seeking new worlds to conquer, or fresh
deeds to dare.
This atlas tells the story of man's
gradual discovery of his world. The form
was chosen so that the route each
pioneer followed could be plotted in
detail; and the mapsshowing the
explorers' journeys are augmented by
others, picturing the world as it was
thought to be in the time of the explor-
ers,and showing political and geographi-
cal features of their day. The maps are
linked and amplified by the text, which
describes the discoverers, their motives,
and their explorations into the unknown
In an introduction compiled post-
humously from the writings of Sir
Francis Chichester, one of the present
century's greatest adventurers. Sir Fran-
cis describes the search for challenge and
achievement that was the moving spirit
of his life, and of the lives of many of the
explorers who have helped to open up
the world. Thereafter, first in chrono-
logical, then in geographical frame-
work, the history of discovery unfolds.
From the first wanderings of primitive
men. and civilization's earliest recorded
expeditions, it leads through the epic
journeys of exploration to man's latest

adventure the space flights of the
present century.

Printed in Spain
cylTLAS OF ^
cyiTLAS OF ^
Introduction by Sir Francis Chichester

Text by Gail Roberts

Maps by Geographical Projects

Crown Publishers, Inc., New\brk

About this Atlas

The Arias of Discovery tells the story of explora-

tion from the very earliest times to the present
day. The first three chapters are organized chrono-
logically, from the
first wanderings of primitive

men, and civilization's earliest recorded journeys,

up to the first circumnavigation of the world in
A.D. 1519-22. Then, through chapters 4 to 1, the 1

story unfolds geographically, region by region.

The final chapters, 12 and 13, deal with explor-
ation of different kinds —
man's investigation of
the oceans, and his first ventures into space. At
the beginning of each of the first chapters 1 1

those dealing with geographical exploration an —

illuminated globe highlights in blue the areas
where the journeys described in that chapter took
place, and on the relief maps in these chapters the
areas of interest are highlighted in green. To make
cross reference between maps and text easier, the
name of each explorer whose journey is mapped is

printed in bold type.

Frontispiece : During the Great Age of Discovery

in the 14(X)'s and early 1500's, in ships similar to
this, the sea route to India was discovered, the
Americas reached, and the first circumnavigation
of the world was made.
Right: From the discovery of the world's conti-
nents and Europeans turned to the
exploration of the newly discovered lands. Here,
explorers stand at the foot of a waterfall deep in
the South American interior.

Editor Gail Roberts

Cartographic Editor Shirley Carpenter
Design Roger Hyde
Douglas Sneddon
Maps by Geographical Projects

ISBN 0-517-50563-0

Library of Congress number 72-96669

c' 1973 Aldus Books Limited, London
Maps c 1973 Geographical Projects Limited, London
First published in the U.S.A. 1973
by Crown Publishers, Inc.,
419 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y. 10016.
Printed and bound in Spain bv Roner S.A. Madrid.

introduction : The Spirit ofAdventure 6

1 The Beginning 10

2 TheWorld Sleeps 24

3 The Great Age 32

4 The Riches of the Orient 46

5 The Conquistadors 58

6 ^ iVew Wbr/d TVb Lo/jg-er 68

7 South America Unveiled 92
5 The Exploration ofAsia 104

9 The Dark Continent 124

/O Terra Australis 138

7/ The Ends of the Earth 160

A? The Seas and the Oceans 174

/J The New Frontier 184

Reference 189
*@e Spirit of
Sir Francis Chichester's thoughts on the challenge of life

'^\ think a cruise is delightful, and

have enjoyed a number, both
as air-pilot and in sail. But it is not to be compared with racing,
record-breaking, or doing something that has not been done
before, for excitement, interest, sport, and the satisfaction of
achievement. Those of you who have both raced and cruised
know exactly what I mean; you have only to recall the excite-
ment and sport and fatigue that you have had out of four
hours racing compared with four hours of a leisurely sail."
This is how, in 1969, Sir Francis Chichester summed up the
moving spirit of his hfe, the search for challenge and
achievement that he shared with so many of the adventurers
of the past. He was to have written the foreword to this book
about those great adventurers, the pioneers of world
discovery, but unfortunately he never saw it completed.
During the spring and summer of 1972, while making his
public preparations for his latest adventure, a third and final
entry in the Singlehanded Transatlantic Race, Sir Francis
was privately battling with the fatal illness that forced him
to retire from the race and caused his death two months
after his return to England. After his death, his son Giles
compiled these words from his writings.
"I look back and find that romance, romantic adventure,
has been the keynote of my life." Even in Sir Francis' childhood,
this was true. His first solo expedition with an adventure in it
happened when he was 1 1 years old. "I used to wander all day
through the woods in North Devon by myself ... I caught a snake.
This viper bit me and for 20 hours, so I was told, it was touch and go
whether I would survive. This seemed strange when very few people
died from snake bites in England, and it was caused by the fact that I
had traveled seven miles, as fast as I could, running and on a bicycle,
hampered, perhaps, for the first part of the journey by the snake that I was
still carrying."
Aviation was still in its infancy when, in 1929, Sir Francis took up flying. He
was quick to sense the excitement of solo flight. "I can still feel the thrill of many
of the 'firsts' of that time. Such as the first solo landing and then the first time I
went up alone at night. The tremendous thrill of landing in the dark, no luxuries hke
lights to help one take off or land Of course, doing things by oneself, I find that one
. . .
Sir Francis Chichester on board is much more efficient. I seem to come to life when I am
Gipsy Moth IV, the boat in which he
thrown onto my own resources." "Ahhough to my regret, I
made hisvoyage around the world.
never achieved a big solo flying, I did pull off one or
first in
Sir Francis had been a keen aviator
before taking up sailing, and all his two minor firsts which I found thrilling and satisfying. I was
boats were named after the Gipsy Moth the first person to fly solo from New Zealand to Australia
airplane in which he flew from England
across the Tasman Sea. Then I had all the sport and thrills
to Australia in 1929-30 and made the
first east-west solo flight across the I could wish for when I made the first long-distance solo

Tasman Sea. Gipsy Moth II, bought flight in a seaplane. This was from New Zealand to Japan
secondhand after World War II, was
in 1931. But the first which gave me the greatest satisfac-
his first boat, but it was in the new
Gipsy Moth HI that Sir Francis tion was that of devising a system of astronomical navi-
won the first Singlehanded Trans- gation to find a 3.y-thousand-acre island in the Tasman
atlantic Race in I960. After the Sea while flying alone and solely depending on sextant
second singlehanded race across the
Atlantic in 1964, when he finished
observations of the sun."
second, Sir Francis conceived his From flying, Sir Francis Chichester turned to sailing,
plan for a round-the-world voyage, and and it was as a sailor that he achieved the feat for which he
Gipsy Moth IV was born. After the
will be longest remembered, his circumnavigation of the
circumnavigation, Gipsy Moth IV
was put dock at Greenwich,
into dry world in 1966-7. "The thrill of Gipsy A/o^A voyage around

beside the wool clipper Cutty Sark. the world is a priceless treasure for me. I believe this is

40° 80° 120° 160° 160°

— 80°-


C I F |.C

because there were some unique features about the A The route Sir Francis Chichester
voyage. Other yachts have sailed around the world by followed on his voyage around the
world. When Sir Francis sailed from
Cape Horn, but this was the first time it had been done by Plymouth on 27 August 1966, his aim
a small boat in two passages. And then the speed meant a was to make a circumnavigation using
lot to me, circumnavigating at twice the speed of the next the route of the wool clippers which
used to ply between England and
fastest small vessel. The thrill of these things can never be
Australia. He hoped to equal their
repeated. How many people could name the second passage time of 100 days from
person to climb Mount Everest, or the second person to Plymouth to Sydney and, perhaps, to

fly alone across the Atlantic, or for that matter the second make the fastest ever circumnavigation
of the world by a small boat. Despite
person to fly alone from England to Australia [this was setbacks, he arrived in Sydney only
Sir Francis himself]. The hard fact is that once something seven days behind schedule, and on
has been done, much of the first-time magic has gone." 29 January 1967 he set sail from
Sydney bound for Cape Horn. He
For Sir Francis, there were common factors in all he rounded the Horn on 20 March in a
had set out to do, and he summed up the most important howling gale, then set his course north.
of these in his last book, published in 1971. "At the head On 24 April, he crossed the equator,
of the list came the attraction of doing something that had and on 28 May he was back in
Plymouth. On 7 July, in recognition of
never been done before, because of the appeal of the his magnificent achievement he was ,

untried, the unknown, and the excitement." dubbed knight by the Queen.
/ "^e Beginning
Long, long ago, in the dawn of his existence on earth, man first set out into the
unknown. In those far-off days, tens of thousands of years before the birth of Christ,
almost every journey w as a journey of discovery. Men knew only their immediate

neighborhood the river where they fished, the forest where they hunted, the
spring where they drank. Although their homes were only primitive shelters,
still they represented security in a world full of danger. \\ hen a man left

his familiar surroundings, he w as at the mercy of the unknown.

Yet, despite their fears, men did venture beyond the safety of the
area they knew. They forged paths across the trackless wilderness,
and sailed down turbulent rivers. Their expeditions were
motivated not by love of adventure, but by need, as they sought
food and shelter, or fled from danger. They journeyed to no
special country, in search of no definite goal. Their travels
ended where they found a safe place to make their homes.
By 10,000 B.C., man had discovered the secrets of cultivating
crops and of domesticating animals, and permanent
farming settlements had replaced the nomadic hunting
communities of earlier years. Still, however, periodic
upheavals took place; these carried men far into the
unknown world.
The men who made these, the world's first journeys of
exploration, could not write, and left no record of the
paths they had followed, or of the lands through which
they had passed. Present-day knowledge of their wander-
ings is derived from archeological findings, but no such
information was available to the primitive travelers
themselves. A
man's journeys died with him, and although
one traveler might follow in the footsteps of another, he
had no warning of the difficulties he would meet on his
way. Every journey was a new and terrifying undertaking.
Thousands of years were to pass before men recorded their
travels, and a picture of the world could be built up.
Even with the beginning of recorded journeys, and the
consolidation of knowledge, exploration was a slow process.
Equipment was primitive, and direction finding difficult, so that at
sea mariners dared not venture out of sight of land, and on land
travelers were in constant danger of getting lost. Ships were frail, and
shipwreck frequent, while on land travelers often faced hazardous
terrain. Always there was the danger of death if food and water should
run out.
In spite of such great difficulties, the early explorers pushed back the
frontiers of the unknown. They learned about the lands they lived in, then about
other lands beyond. From the isolated communities of earlier times, they forged a
known, civilized world, whose boundaries spread wider with each succeeding year.
The story of how man's knowledgeof his world increased is the story of discovery. Its

first chapter begins with the appearance of civilization on earth.


^irst Steps


/^ •Nineveh


*H. O '

• Tadmor

M ^D\l ERR ^ Uh ^H M^^""* Syrian Desert S-

^- _AKK AD
i<y Damascus

^ BabyloiT ^ Q\
~ V<*abl« ormer
^ O f^ f

^^V*" . f coastline

C iy
^ Ponepolis

yPena.J f
L ibya n ^.


• Thebes



O Geographical Project:

Civilization first grew up between potamia, meaning "between the Early Middle Eastern civilizations.
5000 and 6000 years ago in the rivers" — included the lands of Akkad
so-called Fertile Crescent of the and Sumer. In Sumer, one of the Before 2900 B.C., in the region of
Middle East, an arc of rich land world's earliest civilizations emerged. Assur on the upper Tigris, the
curving from the Nile Valley, through Its life centered around its great foundations of the great empire of
the coastlands of the eastern Med- rivers, and on these rivers the first Assyria were laid. Through trade
iterraneanand the valleys of the journeys of the Sumerians took place. with Sumer, the Assyrians adopted
Euphrates and Tigris rivers, to the But as their civilization developed, Sumerian civilization, and in time
Persian Gulf. There, for the first they needed raw materials unobtain- they began the spread of Assyrian
time, cultured, organized societies able at home, and they began to rule. In the 700's B.C., they estab-
emerged in which the nomadic venture farther afield in search of lished an empire extending from the
hunting and agricultural existence of them. In time, they were sailing the Persian Gulf to the Nile, but in the
earlier times was replaced by a Persian Gulf to trade with India. 600's, they fell to attacks from the
planned economy, and a sophisticated As trade led to exploration, so too Babylonians and Medes.
way of life. Village settlements did conquest, for the expansion of first emerged in Egypt,
became towns, a system of govern- civilization resulted in an increase in in the valley of the Lower Nile, at
ment evolved, and religion, learning, knowledge of the world. Around approximately the same time as in
and the arts flourished. Writing was 2700 B.C., nomadic invaders from Sumer, and Egypt was to become one
invented, with the result that journeys Akkad conquered the Sumerians, but of the most highly developed, as well
of exploration could at last be within 600 years they, too, had been as one of the longest-lived, nations of
recorded. With this, the story of overthrown. The Elamites, their ancient times. The life of the country
discovery becomes clearer. conquerors, in turn fell to new revolved around the Nile River, and
In ancient times, the Persian Gulf invaders, the Amorites, who made on that river the Egyptians made
probably extended farther northwest Babylon their capital, and ruled until their first voyages. Later, however,
than it does now, and the Tigris and about 1750 b.c. Babylonia was to like the Sumerians, the need to trade
Euphrates rivers entered it at two come intopower again in the 600's drove them beyond the Egyptian
separate places instead of, as today, B.C., when the Chaldeans made shores. It was they who made the
through a single mouth. The region Babylon their capital, initiating the first seagoing voyage ever recorded.

12 between the two — known as Meso- great period of new Babylonian rule. In 2600 B.C., an Egyptian fleet voyaged
to Byblos in Phoenicia for
from the mountains of Lebanon, and
brought 40 shiploads of timber back
to Egypt. The Egyptians made other
expeditions, too, most of them, like
the \oyage to Byblos, in search of
raw materials unobtainable at home.
Aroimd 2270 B.C., several such
trading expeditions were made by
Herkhuf (dates unknown), governor
of Eg>pt"s southern province. Herk-
huf traveled south up the Nile,
returning with ivory, ebony, and
frankincense. He even brought back
a pygmy from one expedition.
From Punt, to the southeast of
Egypt, the Egyptians obtained the
incense that they used in religious
ceremonies. The first recorded ex- Egyptian ship of about 2000 B.C.
pedition to Punt took place as early
as 2500 B.C., in the reign of Sahure
(dates unknown). Nearly 500 years
later, an Egyptian named Hennu
(dates unknown) sent a ship to Punt
for myrrh. The most famous expedi-
tion to Punt was, however, the one
commissioned by Queen Hatshepsut
(dates unknown) in 1493 B.C., and
commanded by Nehsi (dates un-
known), who brought back myrrh
trees for Hatshepsut's temple.
Despite their trading voyages,
however, the Egyptians were unwill-
ing sailors, and played little part in
opening up the Mediterranean Sea.
In time, they even left their trading
voyages to others, first to the Minoans
of Crete, and later to the Phoenicians.
The Minoans were the pioneers
of Mediterranean exploration, for
Crete's prosperity depended on trade
and, for this island civilization, trade
depended on seagoing voyages. Their
supremacy only lasted until about
1400 B.C., however. Then, the Minoan
civilization was destroyed, by an
earthquake, or p>erhaps by an invasion
from mainland Greece.
After the fall of Crete, the
Phoenicians, the most skillful sailors
of ancient times, dominated the
Mediterranean. Phoenicia was a
narrow country, bounded by the
Mediterranean on the west and by
the mountains of Lebanon on the
east and, when the population out-
grew the resources of the land, the
Phoenicians looked to the sea for
their living. Often employed as
carriers by other countries, they also _ _ _ Voyage to Byblos

traded cedarwood from

in the Sahure s expedition j>

mountains of Lebanon, and in red-

purple cloth, colored with a SF>ecial Herkhuf 3 2270 BC
local dye. Phoenician seamen ex-
plored the Mediterranean from end .^^^ Hennus expedition 4 2007 B

to end, and even ventured through the

Strait of Gibraltar into the unknown ^.^.^^ Oueen Hatjhepsut J expedition 5 1493 BC
under Nehsi
Atlantic Ocean. Experts who have dis- Alternative route 5A
covered similarities in building styles
C G«ogr«phic«l PrOf*clt I I I I I I

in the Middle East and the Americas 13

^__^__ Carthaginian trade routes

even wonder whether they, or other right around Africa 600 years before Spain. The Carthaginians controlled
seamen of their time, may have sailed the birth of Christ. trade in the Mediterranean, but the
right across the Atlantic. Such voy- In the 500"s B.C., Phoenicia fell to great sea beyond the Strait of
ages are as yet mere conjecture, but we the Babylonians. Thereafter, the Gibraltar interested them more.
do know that the Phoenicians traveled Phoenician colony of Carthage took Carthaginian sailors discovered Ma-
down the Gulf of Aqaba and into the up the challenge of the unknown. deira, Canary Islands, and the
Red Sea and, although no proof of Situated in present-day Tunisia, in Azores, and in about 450 B.C., a
such an expedition has yet been found, North Africa, Carthage founded a Carthaginian named Himilco may
the Greek historian Herodotus re- powerful empire that stretched across have sailed north to Britain. Certainly,
14 cords that a Phoenician fleet sailed North Africa, and reached up into at about that time, an explorer
called Hanno voyaged out through the first time, a simple love of the Greeks founded colonies in Asia
the Strait of Gibraltar, and far down discovery had prompted a journey Minor, and later spread throughout
the African coast. into the unknown. the Mediterranean Sea. They also
Trade or conquest inspired most of This new spirit was embodied in explored the Black Sea, and traveled
the early journeys of exploration, but the of the Greeks, whose
travels north through Europe to the Baltic,
in Hanno's voyage, another cause is passion for adventure was to lead the North Sea, and the English
seen. For although Hanno had set them far beyond the Mediterranean Channel. Their civilization was
out with the intention of founding world. The Greek civilization ori- characterized by a spirit of inquiry
colonies, he sailed on south even ginated in the Balkan Peninsula in and a natural curiosity, and this was
after his mission was completed. For southern Europe, but as time passed. evident whenever theGreeksexplored. 15
^The World ofthe Greeks

accorcliiig to

BC 450


The Greek Herodotus

historian Asia and Africa together. Of the A World map, reconstructed from
(4847-424? wrote his His-
b.c.) north and east he knew little, men- descriptions in Herodotus' Histories.
tories in the mid-400's b.c. His book tioning neither Britain nor Scan-
was intended first and foremost as the dinavia, and confessing ignorance of named Xenophon (4347-355? b.c.) led
story of the Greeks' long struggle eastern Asia. In the geography of a force of 10,000 Greek troops from
with the Persian Empire, but Hero- India,Herodotus made a surprising the heart of the Persian Empire
dotus also included everything he mistake. Although he knew that overland to the Black Sea. The
had been able to find out about the a Greek mariner called Scylax (dates Greeks had joined the Persian prince
geography, history, and peoples of unknown) had sailed down the Indus Cyrus (4247-401 b.c.) in a war against
the world. His work, with the map River and around Arabia into the his brother King Artaxerxes II but
that can be reconstructed from his Red Sea, Herodotus maintained that on Cyrus' death in battle at Cunaxa,
descriptions, provides our most the Indus flowed southeast. they were stranded far from home.
detailed picture of the world of the In two respects, Herodotus' knowl- They then elected Xenophon to lead
Greeks. edge was considerably in advance them back to Greece. The way over-
Herodotus was not only a great of his time. He realized that the land through Asia Minor was long,
writer, but he was also an adventur- Caspian was an inland sea and not, and Xenophon therefore decided to
ous traveler. His researches for as many geographers thought, a gulf try to reach the Black Sea, from
his book took him from his home in connected to the ocean that was which the Greeks could easily find
Halicarnassus in Asia Minor the — supposed to encircle the earth. Also, their way home. Although the route
peninsula of western Asia between he stated that Africa was surrounded was unknown, and the conditions
the Black Sea (Herodotus' Pontus by sea, and cited the Phoenician harsh, Xenophon managed to com-
Euxinus) and the Mediterranean voyage commissioned by Necho in plete the grueling journey. He even
through much of the known world. 600 B.C. as definite proof of this. made notes about the lands through
His geographical descriptions are Some 500 years after Herodotus which he and his 10,000 men had
based on the observations he made wrote, the geographer Ptolemy, whose passed, and which had formerly been
on this journey, combined with what knowledge was more detailed than unknown to the Greeks.
he learned from people he met. From Herodotus', mistakenly joined Late in the 300's, another Greek
this information, he built up a southern Africa to Asia, making the made a journey that helped to fill in
picture of the world that is very Indian Ocean into an inland sea. the gaps in Herodotus' description of
near the truth. The area he knew was Herodotus' knowledge of the course the His name was Pytheas
small, but his knowledge of it was of the Nile was, however, as hazy as (dates unknown), and he set out
amazingly complete. of that of the Indus. According to from Massalia (Marseille) in about
Herodotus scoffed at the popular him, it rose south of the Atlas, and 325 B.C. Opinions differ as to the
belief that Europe, Asia, and Africa flowed across Africa before turning route he followed, but it is thought
(which he called Libya) were all the north to flow through Egypt toward he sailed up the western coast of
same size, and made up a circular the Mediterranean Sea. Europe, and along the coast of
world. His view of the earth was Nearly 50 years after Herodotus' Britain before continuing into the
closer to our own, although, because travels, another Greek made a northern seas. He had heard of an
his knowledge was limited, he journey that did much to increase island called Thule, supposed to be

16 described Europe as being as long as knowledge of the east. A soldier the "outermost of all countries", and
he thought that if he reached that are obscure. When he returned to expeditions could have been more
land, he might discover the farthest Massalia, far from being honored for different. Pytheas' small ship com-
limits of the world. his feat, he found his stories were pares strangely with the massed
Thule was probably Iceland, al- received with disbelief. troops of the Macedonian-Greek
though some think it was Norway, While Pytheas was making his army. Pytheas' contemporary reputa-
and evidence has been produced to voyage of discovery north, another tion is in contrast to the renown of
support both claims. It is not certain, Greek was exploring in the eastern Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.).
however, whether Pytheas did get extreme of the world known to the Alexander was born in 356 B.C.,
18 there, for further details of his voyage peoples of the Mediterranean. No two son of King Philip II of Macedonia.
When Alexander heard of Darius'
death, he proclaimed himself king
of Persia. His pursuit of the Persian
monarch had led him deep into the
Persian Empire, but although his
conquest was complete, he did not
turn back. Instead, he spent several
years exploring east into Sogdiana
and Bactria, then in 327 b.c,
crossed into northern India. There,
wearied by the long years of war, his
men rebelled. They would follow
him no further.
Ordering troops to march along the
banks of the Indus as a safeguard
against attack by hostile tribes, Alex-
ander and the rest of his men sailed
down the river in a fleet of especially
constructed ships. From the Indus
delta, he sent the sick and wounded
with Craterus (?-321 b.c.) by the
overland route to Persia, while he
himself led his best troops along the
unexplored Makran coast. Nearchus
(dates unknown) was to sail to the
Persian Gulf. In 324 B.C., the army
was reunited in Susa.
Alexander was as much an explorer
as a conqueror, and his journeys
almost doubled the area known to
the Greeks. He routed his marches
through as much unknown country
as possible, and arranged that a

Alexander the Great.

510^S07 B,;

^_^^_^ Xenophon part und«r Cynisl 2 401-400 B C

Other sections of army 2A
^—.^^^^_ Alexander
20 I
334-330 BC 3a
'3b 329-327 6
3c 327-326 BC
3d 326-323 BC
Routes followed by sections of the army under other generals 3A 334-326

~ Craterus Iwith baggage & most of army)

Nearchus (with fleet!

Expedition sent by Alexander (to explore tha Caspian Saa areal

—— Ships sent by Alexander 7a 323 B.C

Ito axplora the Arabian ooasti 7b 323 BX^
7c 323 BC
Greatest extent of Alexander's Empire

Persian Royal Road

60- 70° O G«>gr»phic«l Project

On his father's death, he inherited Alexander's army swept through record be kept of all the new things
not only the kingdom but also a plan the Persian Empire, liberating the he saw. After his return from India,
to unite the Macedonians and Greeks Greek colonies in Asia Minor and he sent expeditions to the Caspian
against the Persians, who had overrun pressing south into Syria and Egypt, Sea, and down the Arabian coast,
the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, where he established Greek rule. but when he died in Babylon in 323
and whose armies threatened Greece. Returning north, he defeated the B.C., his curiosity about the unknown
When Alexander crossed the Helles- Persian army at Gaugamela, but was still unsated. No one knows
pont (Dardanelles) in 334 B.C., the King Darius escaped and fled east. what discoveries he might have made
conquest of Persia was his goal. Soon afterward, he was murdered. had he lived. 19
Carthage and her colonies 218 BC

Hannibal I 218-202 B.C

Aelius Gallus 2 25-24 BC.

Suetonius Paulinus 3 AD. 42

Julius Caesar's campaigns in Gau

Julius Caesar's campaigns in the

O Geographical Projacts
The Roman Empire

The ancient Mediterranean world

was to see the of one more
great power — Rome. From about
500 B.C., the city of Rome had
gradually increased the territory it
ruled, but when it looked beyond the
frontiers of Italy, it saw the might of
Carthage in way. Three wars — the

Punic Wars —arose from the Romans"

struggle to overcome Carthage.
The Punic Wars, though fought
over known territory, gave rise to
one of the greatest feats of military
exploration ever. In 218 B.C., on the
outbreak of the second war, the
Carthaginian general Hannibal (247-
183 B.C.) led his troops from Spain,
across the Pyrenees and throughGaul
(France), and over the Alps, the
great mountain range guarding Italy's
northern frontier. He planned a
surprise attackon the Romans, and
knew they would never expect him to
use such a hazardous route. Despite
the dangers his army faced, it made
the 135-mile crossing in only 15 days.
Even Hannibal's inspired leader-
ship could not hold back the power
of Rome, however. In 201 B.C.,
Carthage lost the war and, little more
than 50 years later, the city itself was
destroyed. Now^ Rome reigned
supreme in the Mediterranean. As
the Romans were more interested in
conquest than in exploration, most
of their journeys were military

expeditions with discovery an oc-
casional bonus.
One such expedition was that of
Aelius Gallus (dates unknown) to
southern Arabia in 25-4 B.C. Gallus
failed in his object of capturing
Marib, center of the valuable Arabian
trade, so although he traveled over
much new country, his expedition
was judged a failure. The crossing of
the Atlas by Suetonius Paulinas
(dates unknown) in a.d. 42 was far
more acclaimed, even though his
only aim was to explore.
One Roman general did see his
conquests as more than military
achie\ements. This was Julius Caesar
(100-44 B.C.). It was Caesar who
conquered the country the Romans
called Gaul, and who in 55 b.c. first
led his troops into Britain. The
accounts he wrote of the lands he
visited are some of the earliest
descriptions of them in existence.
Caesar's battles against the north-
ern barbarians were followed by a

more bitter struggle civil war. Fear-
ing that he had grown loo powerful,
the Roman rulers appointed Pompey
(106-48 B.C.) to throw him down.
For four years the opposing forces
battled throughout the empire. When
the war ended, Pompey was dead,
and Caesar was in control of Rome. 21
^he Far East

Around 1700 B.C., in the fertile valley of the Hwang Ho,

the earliest Chinese civilization of which there is arche-
ological evidence emerged. Cut oif by the deserts and
mountain ranges of central Asia, China grew up independ-
ently of the contemporary Mediterranean world. It was not
until the lOO's B.C. that it emerged from its isolation and
made its first contacts with the civilizations of the West.

that time, China's rulers had Route across central Asia, linking
By pushed
beyond their
out its frontiers
original limits in the
far China to the West.
Along this great trade route were
valley of the Hwang Ho. In the carried the precious supplies of silk
north, part of the Great Wall of that Roman Europe craved and that
China had been built to protect the China alone could produce. But
empire barbarian attacks,
against other luxuries besides silk could
yet in the lOO's B.C., China's ruling be obtained in the East. At first,
Han dynasty was still engaged in a they were brought to Europe by
constant struggle against the Huns, a Arab traders, but as demand in-
warlike people from northern Asia. It creased, Europeans themselves be-
was the Han emperor Wu
Ti's search gan to travel to the lands where the
for an ally in this struggle that led Eastern treasures were found.
the Chinese to make their first By the time of Christ, mariners
journeys westward. bound for Asia had discovered the
The people with whom Wu Ti advantage of the seasonal monsoon
hoped to unite against the Huns were winds. The South West Monsoon,
the Yue-Chi, a nomadic race from which blows in summer, would carry
central Asia. 138 B.C., he sent
In them across the Indian Ocean to
Chang Ch'ien (dates unknown) on a their destination, and they could use
mission to the Yue-Chi, but at the the North East Monsoon in winter
start of his journey, Chang spent to return. In time, they sailed around
10 years as prisoner of the Huns. the tip of India and discovered that
Although he did eventually reach the monsoons could be used to travel
the Yue-Chi, his embassy met with from India to Southeast Asia across
little success. But he did learn much the Bay of Bengal. The Malay Penin-
about the hitherto unknown lands sula was rounded, and the seamen
and peoples that he saw, and his from the West pushed northward. By
knowledge was instrumental in the A.D. 120, China had been reached.
setting up in 105 B.C. of the Silk In A.D. 476, Rome fell to the
barbarians.Darkness descended in
T Hsuan-tsang. Europe, and European voyages of
exploration virtually ceased. Asia,
too, was in turmoil, but one Chinese
traveler did explore in defiance —
of the emperor's orders forbidding
him to leave China and journey in the
troubled lands.
Hsuan-tsang (a.d. 6007-664), a Bud-
dhist monk whose aim was to learn
more about his religion, set out from
China in a.d. 629. He was making
for India, the birthplace of Buddhism.
Hsuan's 16-year journey took him
west to Bactria, then over the Hindu
Kush and east into Kashmir. He
studied for two years there, and
visited cities and monasteries in the
valley of the Ganges River. He
traveled down the east coast of
India, bordering the Bay of Bengal,
and returned north up the west coast
to recross the Hindu Kush and head
for home. In 645, Hsuan arrived back
in China. So important was his
expedition considered that, far from
being reprimanded for ignoring the
ban on his journey, he was received
11 with great honor. I

Chang Chien 1 136-126 B

Hsuan-tsang 2 A 629-645

Trade routoj

im m Great Wall of China

—^^^^ Boundary of early .Western Han dynasty c.100 B.C.

— ^^^ Boundary of later (Eastern) Han dynasty c. A. D. 100 I ! M !

60° W
2 l^e World Sleeps
In A.D. 476, Rome was taken by the barbarians. Her mighty empire, which had once
united Europe and the Mediterranean area, crumbled and fell. Europe sank into
turmoil. The turbulence and unrest of those years echoed throughout the known
world and, as the dust settled, a new picture emerged. In Europe, many small
kingdoms had grown up, each supplying its own needs, and caring little for
other lands. In the Middle East, however, the concept of empire was
reborn. There, in the 600's, in Arabia, the prophet Mohammed
preached the religion of Islam. His Arab followers, in their desire to
spread his teachings, conquered vast territories. By the 900's, the
Islamic Empire stretched from western India, through southwest
Asia, and across northern Africa to the Atlantic Ocean. Its rule
even extended up into Spain, across the Strait of Gibraltar.
For Europeans in the years following the fall of Rome, the
world was a narrow one, turned inward on itself. Bounded on
the west by the wild waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and on the
east by the barbarian-infested plains of Asia, its life centered
on the Mediterranean Sea. In this world, there was httle
place for exploration. Journeys were dangerous and their
outcome uncertain. What travel did take place was, like
the conquests of the Arabs, inspired mainly by rehgion.
The growing Christian communities sent out missionaries
to convert the heathen, and pilgrims ventured abroad to
visit the holy places of their faith.
Although Christianity did inspire some travel, it had the
adverse eifect of halting the increase of geographical
knowledge. This was because Church leaders were afraid
that discoveries might disprove accepted belief, as set out
in the Bible. They based their view of the earth on Biblical
descriptions and, as the travels of ancient times were
forgotten, strange superstitions became rife. Europeans
thought that the earth was flat, and that if they sailed too far
in any direction they would fall off the edge. They feared
strange monsters and other imaginary dangers, and their fear,
added to the terror of other, actual perils, made the prospect of
travel terrible. Most Europeans dared not venture beyond the
bounds of the world they knew.
Yet, even in those troubled times, the spirit of discovery never
completely died in Europe. A
few courageous travelers did brave the
unknown, journeying far beyond the limited horizons of their time.
Some sailed out into the Atlantic, to Iceland, Greenland, and probably to
America. Others traveled east, across central Asia to China, well known in
times past, but long cut off from Europe. Their journeys had few lasting results,
for the paths they had pioneered were soon forgotten. But they did succeed
in overcoming the barriers of fear and superstition that had isolated Europe. By
their travels, they proved that the frontiers of Europe were not the limits of the world.

^heW^stern Travelers

In the 500's, in search of converts to Christianity, the Irish The most astounding Viking Journeys
were made in the Atlantic, but their
set sail. Theirs were, however, no ordinary missionary
expeditions were not all ocean voyages.
voyages. When they launched their frail boats onto the
Vikings also traveled through Europe,
Atlantic Ocean, the Irish were braving an unknown world. as far as the Mediterranean Sea.

From the monasteries of Ireland, mysterious lands far out in the the north. The Viking homelands
Irishmonks had firstspread the Atlantic Ocean. So widely is Brendan were poor and overcrowded, and the
word of God among their neighbors supposed to have traveled, it seems Vikings found it more profitable to
in Cornwall, in southwest England, likely that he has been credited with raid their more prosperous neigh-
Wales, and northern France. As the voyages of other, unknown Irish bors than to try to scratch out a
time passed, however, they began seafarers besides his own. living at home. From the late 700"s,
to travel farther afield in search Definite proof does, however, exist they terrorized Europe, sweeping
of new lands in which to preach. of other Irish voyages to northern south to Spain, Italy, and North
Some of their journeys are record- islands. In 563, Saint Columba foun- Africa. The Swedish Vikings, unlike
ed in monastery archives, but others ded a monastery on lona, and from the Danes and Norsemen (Nor-
survive only as legends. there the Irish set out to convert the wegians), were interested in trade,
One of the most famous Irish Scottish people of the mainland. In and traveled overland to the Caspian
legends recounts the voyage of time, the Irish-Scots began to travel and Black seas and beyond. It is
Saint Brendan (484-577). From north. By about 700, they are known probably from one of the Swedish
monastic records, Brendan is known to have reached the Faeroe Islands. tribes,the Rus, that the name of
to have visited Scotland, Wales, and Some 70 years later, they arrived in Russia comes.
Brittany. The legend, however, tells Iceland. They called it Thule. While at first the Vikings were
of journeys to more distant lands, At about this time, the seafarers concerned solely with plunder, later
to the Sheep Islands (probably the who were to continue the Irish ex- they voyaged in search of new lands
Faeroe Islands), the Paradise of plorations first appeared on the to settle. They pushed west, and word
Birds (perhaps the Shetland Islands waters of the Atlantic. They were of their coming must have reached
26 or the Outer Hebrides), and other the Vikings, from Scandinavia in Iceland for, by 870, Iceland had
been abandoned by the Irish, who fled nists founded two communities, mild in Vinland, and Leif 's men spent
farther west. According to the sagas, which they called the Eastern Settle- the winter there before setting out for
which tell the story of Viking voyag- ment and the Western Settlement. home.
ing, the Vikings themseK es discovered From Greenland, it was only a Leif's glowing reports of Vinland
Iceland by accident. In about 860, short step to the shores of America inspired his brother Thorwald (dates
Gardar Svarsson (dates unknown) and, so the sagas say, the first unknown) to try his luck in this
was blown off course, and landed Vikings made the crossing the year new land. He found it so beau-
on the island's southeast coast. after Eric had founded his Green- tiful he wanted to make his
Others followed him and, within land colony. But Bjarni Herjulfsson home But tragedy overtook
70 years, Iceland was a thriving (dates unknown), who made the first the Vikings when, in a clash with
Viking colony. landfall, never went ashore. It was Thorwald was killed.
the Indians,
By the end of the 900's, the left to Leif Ericson (dates unknown), The American Indians were to des-
Vikings were again seeking new son of Eric the Red, to take that troy Viking hopes of settling in Vin-
lands. When Eric the Red (dates un- adventurous step. land. In 1005-6, the attempt of
known) was exiled from Iceland in In about 1000, Leif Ericson set Thorfinn Karlsefni (dates unknown)
982, he set out west. He landed in sail for Herjulfsson's new land. He to found a colony had to be abandon-
the country discovered by the Irish made three landfalls on the Amer- ed when fighting broke out between
in their flight from Iceland more ican coast — Helluland, which was Indians and colonists. Although
than 100 years before. Eric called probably part of Baffin Island; other Vikings did make their way to
it Greenland, and in 985 he return- Markland, which was probably in La- Vinland, their push west was nearly
ed to colonize the island. On the brador or Newfoundland; and Vin- over. Within a few years, America
west coast of Greenland, the colo- land, farther south. The climate was had been forgotten. 27
^he World beyond Europe

The East remained a mystery to the (dates unknown) to illustrate his which, according to his map, Africa
peoples of Europe long after the Commentary on the Apocalypse of was only a part. South of this conti-
Irishand Viking voyages into the 776. Beatus was a Spanish Benedictine nent lies an ocean, beyond which
The atmosphere
Atlantic in the west. monk who, with his followers, had another land, called the "fourth part
in Europe from about a.d. 500 a profound effect on religious car- of the world", is shown. According

onward the period often called the tography. Beatus maps are symbolic, to the inscription on this region,

"Dark Ages" did not favor explora- oriented to the sacred East where nothing is known of the fourth part
tion, for religious teaching fixed Palestine, the birthplace of Chris- of the world because of the heat of
its own on the world.
limits It would tianity, is situated. Ironically, al- the sun. The inscription records,
take impending disaster to force though Christian maps of those years however, that there live the Anti-
Europeans to travel east. were thus oriented to the East, podeans, "of whom so many tales
In those years, the study of Palestine and the sacred shrines of are told".
geography suffered from a notably Christendom were almost always Around the simplified and trunc-
unscientific approach. Maps were under Islamic rule. ated world of the Beatus maps lies

made by scholars, and scholars were Because east is placed at the top an ocean, which here teems with
invariably monks, who accepted in Beatus maps, they are easier to islands, fish, and boats. OflF the coast
without question the Church's view read if they are given a quarter turn of Europe, this ocean is named the
of the world. Even though great to the right. Thus, the position of Oceanus Britannicus, and it is thought
journeys of exploration were under- the continentscorresponds to a that one of the islands in it represents
taken by the Moslem Arabs through- modern map of the world. To the the British Isles. Off" the coast of
out this period, the knowledge of the north lies Europe, cut by a narrow, Libia lie the Insulae Fortunatarum
Moslems was ignored in Europe. riverlike Adriatic between Italy and —the Fortunate Islands, a name by
European map makers based their Acaia (Greece), and divided from which the Canaries were once known.
work on Christian andprinciples, Asia by an enlarged Hellespont In general, however, the picture of
interpreted Biblical statements and (Dardanelles), and a small Black Sea. the world in Beatus maps was so
descriptions literally to build up a Asia, in turn, is divided into two defective that, with only such maps
picture of the world. Typical of parts, Asia Minor and Asia Major. to help them, itunderstandable

cartographers' work during this time Somewhere between the two, the why Europeans were reluctant to
are the so-called "Beatus" maps. Garden of Eden, with Adam, Eve, venture out into the world.
These —
maps drawn between the and the serpent, is shown.
900's —
and 1200's were copied from West of Asia Major lies the World map, after that of Beatus, made
one used by Beatus of Valcavado continent Beatus called Libia, of in France between 1028 and 1072.

^ oc c i^€iNrs
the 1200's, from their bleak Mongols, whose personal domain
In homeland on the Mongolian was the easternmost of the five.
steppes, the Mongol warriors swept In the north, the khans of Siberia
through Asia. They conquered all in ruled a region that lay southwest
their path. Cities, countries, empires of present-day Siberia. In central
— all fell before their advance. Asia, Genghis Khan's son Djagatai
The man behind the Mongol rise and his heirs held sway. Southern
to power was Genghis Khan. Born in Russia was ruled by Genghis Khan's
1 162, he became khan (ruler) of the grandson Batu. He set up the Golden
Mongols in 1206. He reorganized Horde, so called because he made
Mongol society along feudal lines, his original headquarters (called
and welded the nomad Mongol ordu by the Mongols) in a great
warriors into one of the most efficient golden tent. The Ilkhans of Persia
fighting units the world has known. ruled what is now Iran. Ilkhans
By 1234, seven years after his death, means "obedient khans", for, like
theMongol Empire reached from the the other Mongol rulers, the Ilkhans
Yellow Sea to the Caspian. were vassals of the Great Khan.
Under Genghis Khan's successors, At first, Europe knew nothing
the Mongol lands stretched farther of this great Eastern empire. But as
still. Too governed by one
large to be the Mongols drove west, and devas-
central the empire
administration, tated the frontier lands of eastern
was divided into five smaller khan- Europe, they forced the Europeans
ates under Kublai Khan, Genghis' to recognize their might. So, with
grandson. Each owed allegiance to their very existence threatened, the
the Great Khan, supreme ruler of the Europeans for the first time looked
out fearfully into the vast, unknown
< Genghis Khan. Eastern world. 29
^nto the East

In 1241, the Mongol advance west halted. The Great Khan The city-state of Venice, home of the
Ogotai was dead, and the Mongol leaders hurried back to Polo family, was well situated as a
centerfor trade between East and West.
their homeland for the election of a new Great Khan. In the
By the mid- 1 200's, it ruled the world's
lull that followed, the first Europeans ventured east. greatest commercial empire. T

The European leaders knew nothing capital, Karakoram, and to write an journey was to change the course
of events in Mongolia, and had account of his experiences in the of history. It gave Europe a picture
no idea what had made the Mongols East. of the East that was fabulous beyond
call off theiradvance. As far as they was elected Great
In 1259, Kublai the wildest imaginings, and destroyed
knew, the rampaging hordes might Khan of the Mongols, and under his for ever the narrow insularity of the
at any moment resume their progress rule, peace came to the Mongol Mediterranean world.
west. It was in an attempt to prevent domains. His new capital, Cambaluc The Polos stayed at Kublai Khan's
such an occurrence that Pope {Khanbalik, the "City of the Great court for 16 years, during which time
Innocent IV sent a mission to the Khan""), was a magnificent and Marco acted as the khan"s adviser,
Mongol rulers in 1245. He charged wealthy place, to which Kublai and traveled on diplomatic missions
his envoy, Giovanni de Piano Carpini welcomed foreign travelers, traders, throughout the Far East. In the
(1182-1 252), to persuade the Mongols and priests. account of the Polos" travels which
to give up war, and to convert them The first Europeans to visit was recorded by the writer Rusticello,
to the Christian faith. Carpini Cambaluc —
and, indeed, the first Marco tells of their adventures,
reached the Mongol summer court at to reach China (which they called mentioning the strange people and
Syra Orda in time to see the —
Cathay) were two Venetian mer- places they saw and giving geograph-

coronation of Kuyuk, the new Great chants, Nicolo and Maffeo Polo ical descriptions and information on

Khan. But his long and dangerous (dates unknown). In 1255, the Polos trading possibilities. Many thought
journey was all for nothing, and he left Venice for a trading trip to it exaggerated, but when asked if he

had to return to Europe with his Constantinople. Their expedition was wanted to alter anything, Marco
mission unfulfilled. to last 14 years, and would take them replied: "I did not write half of what
William of Rubruck (1215-1270) far beyond their original goal. They I saw.'"
led a missionary expedition to the traveled into lands never seen by Other Europeans, too. were wel-
Mongols in 1252, but met with no Europeans, and met the Great Khan. comed at Kublai"s court, among them
more success. The Mongols refused Kublai. When they set out for home, the missionary John of Montecorvino
to become Christians, and the letter they promised to return to his court. (1247-1328?). John, a Franciscan
Rubruck carried back to his patron. In 1271, Nicolo and Mafl'eo Polo, friar, made his journey to China by
King Louis of France, held a threat accompanied this time by Nicolo's sea. There, he founded a church, and
of war. Rubruck was, however, the son Marco (12547-1324?) set out succeeded in making many con\erts
30 first European to visit the Mongol once more for the East. Their to the Christian faith.
Under Kublai Khan, the long disused
trade routes across Asia were re-
opened, and caravans journeyed be-
tween East and West. With one such,
the Polo brothers traveled east. ^

Polo brotherj. N & M

Polo. Marco (with Polo brofherj) 4 1271-95
Polo. Marco 4A
3 "^e Great Age

In the 1400's and early 1500's, in one glorious surge of voyaging and discovery, the
invisible frontiers that had so long surrounded Europe
finally fell. The first steps
forw^ard were tentative enough, but once the barriers of fear and superstition
had been breached, progress was swift. In 50 short years, European sailors
rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed to India, crossed the Atlantic to
the Americas, and at last, in the heroic culmination of this great age,
sailed all the way around the world.
No single factor was responsible for this sudden burst of explora-
tion— rather, it was the product of a combination of circum-
stances and events. To begin with, the Europe of those years
was no longer the narrow, inward-looking world of earher
times. The new lands the Vikings had discovered in the west
had been forgotten, but the travels of Marco Polo and his
contemporaries had reminded Europeans that in the east lay
countries whose wealth and splendor surpassed those of
Europe herself. Trade with those countries, which had
lapsed since the days of the Roman Empire, was re-estab-
lished. By the 1400's, many of the necessities, and most of
the luxuries, of European life were imported from the East.
The importance of the Eastern trade was to prove a
major factor in the revival of European interest in the
world. All Eastern goods reached Europe through the
ports and markets of the Middle East and, in the 1400's,
these vital commercial centers were in Moslem Arab hands,
as they had been for some 700 years. It was only on terms
dictated by the Moslems that Europe could obtain Eastern
goods at all and, as the Moslems would trade solely with
the Itahan city-states of Venice and Genoa, other European
countries had to buy through them. Prices rose each time
the goods changed hands, and by the 1400's, Europeans
were reasoning that if they could find a new route to the East,
bypassing these avaricious middlemen, they would be able to
buy more cheaply directly from the producers of the goods.
Not only did Europe have a vital reason to take an interest in
discovery, but at the same time, seemingly unrelated events com-
bined to enable exploration to take place. The reappearance in Europe
of Greek and Roman works on geography, mathematics, and astronomy,
lost since the fall of the classical world, provided important new sources
of knowledge, vital to the study of geography and to the science of
navigation. Developments in shipbuilding also helped. During this period,
for example, was built the first caravel, a light, seaworthy ship that sailed well
both before and into the wind, and was also suitable for long voyages across
dangerous seas. It was in Portugal and Spain that the first caravels were developed,
and from these countries, with their long seafaring tradition, the voyages that marked
the beginning of what we now call the Great Age of Discovery took place.

cA Sea Route to India

Prince Henry of Portugal never went on a voyage himself, Soon after 1418, Henry settled at
nor did he direct the journeys that finally opened a sea Sagres, to the west of Lagos. There

route to the East. But it was his pioneering work that paved he built an observatory and naval
arsenal, and founded his "school of
theway for those journeys, and it was due to him that the navigation". Little is known about
Great Age of Discovery began. the school, for the Portuguese were
secretive about everything concerning

Henry was bom in 1 394, the third allies, for, like most Europeans in the exploration. But there Henry brought
son of Portugal's King John I. 1400's, he believed that somewhere in together experts on maps and navi-
As a young man, he took part in an ex- Africa lay a Christian kingdom ruled gation, and trained the pilots who
pedition that captured the Moslem by a priest-king called Prester John. would undertake his voyages.
stronghold of Ceuta in North Africa. Henry was sure that if an embassy Portugal was a nation of seafarers
From this he learned much about could reach that legendary monarch, and, for his voyages, Henry knew
Africa, and about the Moslem Em- he might be persuaded to join the that he could count on reliable ships,
pire,which was richer and stretched Portuguese crusade against the and on experienced crews. But those
farther south than he had ever Moslems. very men put the first difficulty in his
dreamed. When he returned home, he A Holy War against Islam was not way. They refused to sail beyond
pondered how he could use his new Henry's only reason for his interest in Cape Bojador, a headland on the
knowledge to benefit his country, and the south, however. Like most African mainland south of the Canary
to further his crusading aims. For, pioneers of discovery, he was fasci- Islands and, at that time, the southern
like many Europeans, he hated the nated by the unknown, and he limit of the known world. The Portu-
Moslem "unbelievers", and longed thought exploration might lead to guese knew of no sailor who had pass-
to destroy their power. new and profitable trade. In the ed Cape Bojador and lived. Some
By sending south down
his ships southern lands, there would be fresh thought the seas beyond boiled and
the African coast, Henry reasoned, sources of commerce and competi- — steamed, others that any white man
he might discover the Moslem Em- tors would probably be few. Henry who traveled farther south would turn
pire's farthest limits, and there find a may even have envisaged the possi- black. Portuguese mariners called the
weak spot at which he could direct bility of opening a new route to the southern ocean the "Sea of Dark-
an attack. There, too, he might find rich countries of the East. ness", and would not sail there.

AZORES *>^j^


A T L A N T 1 c

^ '

/ y

ic^TrX^ape Bojador

/r/?ro de Oro
Prince Henry the Navigator.
Prince Henry's task was to
Cape aran<\^ ii dispel these fears.

He sent out ship

after ship to round Cape Bojador,
but none of his captains would do it.
Some went crusading against the
Moslems, others sailed to Madeira or
/ ^VERDE // the Canary Islands and, by 1432,

Gon^alo Cabral (dates unknown) had
GoncBloCabral 1

reached the Azores. But not one man

^JZape Verde ^ Eannes 2b U33
2b 1433-4
dared to venture beyond the dreaded
ib,^ Cantor (with Baldayal 2c 1435 cape.
"lb In 1433, however, the break-
through in Henry's campaign was
Da Cadamosto 4a 1455 made. In that year, Gil Eannes (dates
aissAGOi IS
^' . 4b 1456
unknown), a squire of Prince Henry's
34 C G«ogr*pl<ical ProjKii \ 1 j 1 i
1 1 Milw
household, who on his first voyage
had failed to pass Cape Bojador, was
so ashamed at Henry's disappoint-
ment in him that he set out immedi-
ately on a second voyage south. In
1434, he was able to bear the glad
news back to Portugal Cape Boja- —
dor had been rounded at last.
Eannes' achievement was small in
terms of discovery, but immeasurable
in its effect. Once he had shown that
Cape Bojador could be rounded, the
way was open for others to journey
south. In 1435, Eannes made another
voyage, landing on the African coast
south of Cape Bojador. There, he and
Alfonso Gonfalves Baldaya (dates
unknown) saw tracks of men and of
camels. In 1436, Baldaya tried un-
successfully to meet the people of the
region, but he did sail farther south
to Cape Blanc —
beyond the southern
limits of the Moslem world and he —
returned home with thousands of
sealskins, the first commercial cargo
to be brought to Europe from that
part of Africa.
la 1482 In the 12 years after Baldaya's
lb 1465 expedition, the Portuguese pushed
south beyond Cape Verde but, after
1448, troubles at home prevented
Prince Henry from commissioning
further voyages. For the next seven
years, although some trading expedi-
tions did take place, few discoveries
were made. The Portuguese had
realized that there was wealth in
slaves, and with no shortage of
potential victims in the known
regions, most seamen found no need
to sail farther south.
By 1455, however. Prince Henry
was able to turn his attention once
more to the unknown. In that year,
a Venetian mariner named .\lvise
da Cadamosto (14327-1511?) entered
his service. Da Cadamosto made
two voyages for the Portuguese,
reaching the Gambia River on the
first in 1455. The following year,
he sailed up the river to trade
with an African tribe. On this
second \oyage. Da Cadamosto also
continued to the Geba River, but
he turned back to Portugal on
finding he was unable to trade.
In the account he wrote of his
travels. Da Cadamosto claims that he
discovered the Cape Verde Islands,
but he was probably not the first
seaman to reach this island group.
Two years after Da Cadamosto's
second \oyage, a small fleet led
by Diogo Gomes (1440-1482) sailed
as far as Cape Palmas. This was
the southernmost point that Prince
Henry's sailors would reach. In
1460, the year of Gomes' return,
the Portuguese pioneer died. He
had paved the way for the great
voyages that would open up the
world, and it is a tribute to his
achievement although he never
sailed on the voyages he had planned,
he is known to history as Prince
36 CG'os^P'""' ''oi«c>
Henry the Navigator.
After 1469, the Portuguese crown In 1495, King Manuel I succeeded to the Portuguese
for a time abdicated direct responsi-
throne. He was known as "the Fortunate", and in the realm
bility for exploration. In that year,
Alfonso made a five-year
of exploration, the nickname was well deserved. For it was
agreement with Fernao Gomes where- during Manuel's reign that the long years of patient
by, in return for exclusive trading creeping down the African coast brought their reward, and
rights on the African coast and sole the longed-for sea route to the East was found at last.
control of the profits, Gomes was to
explore 400 miles of new coast each
year. But although the arrangement
man who commanded the
Themomentous seaport of Kilimane. There, they
worked well, the contract was not
voyage across the could learn nothing of the way to
renewed when it expired. Instead,
Indian Ocean was Vasco da Gama India, so they continued to Mozam-
King Alfonso put exploration in the
(14697-1524). He was born in the sea- bique, a predominantly Moslem port
hands of his son John, who shared
port of Sines, but little is known of visited regularly by Arab ships
Prince Henry's enthusiasm for dis-
his career before King Manuel chose trading between India and the
covery and crusading and who hoped,
him first expedition to
as leader of the African coast. The Portuguese had
too, that he might be able to capture a
India. He
must, however, have had reached the regions where the
share of the Eastern trade for
some experience at sea to be picked Moslems dominated trade.
for a mission that was of such great Although Da Gama and his men
At first, John had
little time for his
importance to the Portuguese. were welcomed warmly at first, their
new His country was at war;
Da Gama sailed from Lisbon on chances of receiving help vanished
then, in 1481, his father died and he
8 July 1497, in command of four when they were found to be Chris-
succeeded to the throne. The follow-
small ships. As far as the Cape Verde tians. In Mombasa, too. the hostility
ing year. King Johncommissioned
Islands, they steered southwest. But of the Moslems was strong; but in
his first expedition. Its leader, Diogo
soon afterward, Da Gama made a nearby Malindi, the Portuguese man-
Cao (7-1486), was to discover more
wide sweep out into the Atlantic aged to obtain a pilot who would
than twice as much new coast in a
away from the African coast, perhaps guide them across the Indian Ocean
voyage as Fernao Gomes' sea-
to try to avoid the calms and adverse to their destination.
men had been required to in a whole
currents Dias had encountered in the On 21 May 1498 the Portuguese
Gulf of Guinea. Not until 7 November ships anchored off"Calicut on India's
Cao south past Cape St.
did the fleet reach St. Helena Bay on southwest coast. Dangers and diflfi-
Catherine, southernmost point
that the Portuguese had reached, and
the southwest coast of Africa, north culties faced them still both in —
of the Cape of Good Hope. India where the Moslems, rather than
continued to the mouth of the Congo
The Portuguese fleet rounded the the Hindu rulers, controlled all trade,
River. There, he set up a padroa
Cape of Good Hope on 22 November, and on the terrible voyage home.
(stone pillar) bearing the Portuguese
and sailed up the east African coast. But nothing could obscure the
arms. On Cape St. Mary, still farther
They gave the name Satal to the area greatness of their feat in opening the
south, he set up a second padroa
of the coast they passed on Christmas long desired direct sea route to the
before returning home. In 1485,
Day. In March, they arrived at the rich countries of the East.
made another voyage, erecting two
more padroas. one on Monte Negro,
north of the Cunene River, and the
other on Cape Cross.
Cao's voyages convinced King
John that Africa's southernmost
point could not be far off", and with
this mind, he briefed his next
expedition. Bartolomeu Dias (14507-
1500) was to round the continent and
sail north. Once the Indian Ocean
was reached, John thought, the way
to the East would be clear.
Dias set his course close to the
African coast, but off" Cabo da Volta,
his ships were caught in a storm.
Helpless before its fur>', they were
blown south for nearly two weeks.
When the wind died down, no land A N
could be seen. Dias had been blown
past the tip of Africa, the point the
Portuguese had striven so long to
When Dias sighted land again, he
was halfway along Africa's southern
coast, and he sailed east beyond
Algoa Bay before turning for home.
As the fleet made its way west, a
great cape came into view. Dias
named Stormy Cape, because of

the storm that had hidden it on the

voyage out. But King John changed
its name to Cape of Good Hope, for
Os Gama 1497-8
with discovery, the possibility of
its ^—_ Da Gama I49&-9
finding a sea route to the East was 1000 1IW <M0
C Gaographica' ^rofcti I ' ~l MilM Eqitatorial Seal* 37
greatly increased.
The New World
Christopher Cobunbus (1451-1506) landed on the island of The firstEuropean landfalls in the
San Salvador in the Bahamas on the morning of 12 October New World were made on the
Caribbean islands. Columbus landed
1492. He thought he was in the Orient, for he had set out to
on the island in the Bahamas that the
find a westward route to the rich lands of the East. Little
inhabitants called Guanahani {now
did he dream that he stood on an island that lay, not in the San Salvador), and named two islands
East Indies, but on the edge of a vast new world. for the king and queen of Spain, y

'with Ojeda & La Ccsa

Columbus was not the Euro-

first It had taken Columbus years of It was not until 1492 that King
pean to reach the Americas, struggle to gain the financial backing Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of
but in the 1400's, Europeans knew he needed to make his great \ oyage. Spain were persuaded to sponsor his
nothing of the Vikings' earlier He had long dreamed of finding a grandiose scheme.
voyages, and the very existence westerly route to the Orient, and all In Spain, Columbus was supplied
of the new land those bold seafarers he read and saw only strengthened with three caravels, the Santa Maria,
had tried to settle had been forgotten. his belief that such a route existed. .\ina, and Pinta. Two Spanish
When Columbus set sail in 1492, he But the monarchs of Portugal and seamen, \icente and Martin Pinzon
was sure nothing lay between Europe England, to whom he first took his (14607-1524? and 14407-1493), were
38 and the treasure-rich East. plan, were skeptical of its feasibility. to captain the Nina and Pinta,
^—^—^— Columbus 1 1492-3
(wifh the Pinz6n brothef^l
— Pedro Cabral 9 1500

_^^_ Columbus 2 1493-6 -^—^—

— _-_—
Gespar Corfe-Rool
Caspar Corte-Real
(with Miguel Corte-Reall
^ Miguel Corte-Real (after 11A 1501
John Cabot 5 1497 leavmgGaspar Corte-Reall
Iwithyoung Sebastian CabotI
John Cabot 6 1496 Miguel Corte-Real 12 1502

Vespucci 7 1499-1500 — ••• Sebastian Cabot )3 1509

.._^... Vespucci 8 1501-2 Sebastian Cabot 14 1526

d MiIm Equalonsl Sc«l«

while the Santa Maria was com- to give an account of his voyage. He the outposts of a new land mass,
manded by Columbus himself. On believed that he had landed in the their importance was at first ignored.
3 August 1492, the little fleet set sail. Orient, that Cuba was mainland Only later did the full significance of
The first landfall of the three ships China, and Hispaniola the island of Columbus' discovery become clear.
was the Canary Islands, where they Japan. Although he had found none Meanwhile, the search for a
were delayed for a month while of the precious goods for which the westward passage to the East went
repairs were made The
to the Pinta. East was famed, he was sure that on. In 1497, the race was entered by
work completed, on 6 September other voyages would open up trade England in the person of the Venetian
they set out across the unknown sea. and give Spain her share of the navigator John Cabot (1450-1498).
At that time, long voyages out of Eastern wealth. The Spanish mon- Cabot and his son Sebastian (1476?-
sight of land were rare and, as the archs had no reason to doubt 1557) sailed from Bristol across the
days passed without even a glimpse Columbus. They were delighted by North Atlantic to Nova Scotia and
of a distant island, Columbus' men the success of his voyage, and the Newfoundland. On his return, Cabot
became uneasy. They did not share trading possibilities it opened up. claimed to have found the land of
their commander's confidence in his They rewarded him lavishly, honor- the Great Khan, and the following
dream, and they began to wonder ing him with the title "Admiral of the year King Henry VII authorized a
whether they would see Spain again. Ocean Sea". second voyage to the area. But the
At last, however, on 12 October, Christopher Columbus was to journey produced neither precious
the ships reached land.They were make three more voyages to the goods nor ambassadors from the
lying San Salvador in the
off" "Indies" far in the west. On the first khan, and Henry lost interest in
Bahamas, and Columbus went ashore of these, he discovered Dominica, exploration.
to take possession of the island for Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, and Ja- Sebastian Cabot, however, did not.
Spain. From San Salvador, he sailed maica. He also established the settle- In 1509, he sailed, as his father had
on Cuba, and then east to another
to ment of La Isabela on Hispaniola's done, from Bristol, but he set his
large island which he named La northern coast, some distance away course farther north. Touching on
Espafiola (Hispaniola) in honor of from the place where his men southern Greenland, he continued
the country that had sponsored his had been killed. But he was to prove west, and is thought to have sailed
voyage. On Hispaniola, misfortune himself less successful as a colonial into Hudson Strait before turning
struck. The Santa Maria was ship- administrator than as a seaman. His south down the Labrador coast.
wrecked, and when Columbus set attempts to put down a revolt \n Although he returned safely, he must
sail for Spain on 16 January 1493, he Hispaniola in 1498 during his third have been convinced of the imprac-
was forced to leave 40 men behind. voyage ended in his being arrested ticability of the northern route. On
On his return to the island during his and transported back to Spain in his next attempt to reach the Indies,
next voyage, he found they had all chains. Although he redeemed him- he sailed south, exploring the Rio de
been killed. self enough for the
Spanish monarchs la Plata in South America.

Storms and high winds battered the to permit another —

voyage on which Exploration in the northwest was
Nina and Pinta as they struggled back he reached mainland America he — kept alive by the Portuguese. In
across the Atlantic, and it seemed a never regained their lost favor. 1500, Caspar Corte-Real (1450?-
miracle to their crews when they It is generally thought that, when 1 501 ?), who had probably heard John

reached the Azores. From the Azores, Columbus died in 1506, he was still Cabot's claim of having found the
Columbus contmued to Portugal, unaware that the lands he had Great Khan's realm, sailed north to
visiting thePortuguese court. There, reached were part of a huge continent Greenland, continuing up the coast
he was honored by King John who, lying between Europe and Asia. The until he was forced by icebergs to
a short time before, had turned down Spaniards continued to refer to the turn back. The following year, he
his amazing plan. new lands as the "Indies", identifying
It was not until March that them with the East Indies, where the An allegorical engraving, hailing
Columbus arrived in Spain, and not spices Europe needed were grown. Christopher Columbus as the dis-

until April that he reached the court Even when they were recognized as coverer oj the New World.

John Cabot 1 1497
(with young Sebastian CabotI

Caspar Corte-Real 3 1500

Caspar Corte-Real 4 160)
(with Miguel Corte-Rea
Miguel Corte-Real 4A 1501
Caspar Corte-Reall
(after leaving

Miguel Corte-Real 5 1502

Sebastian Cabot 6 1509

made another voyage to the north, Da Cama and landed on the coast of navigation as a hobby and who, late
this time with his brother Miguel Brazil. According to the Treaty of in life, had turned explorer. He had
(7-1502?). Sailing to Greenland as Tordesillas of 1494 —
which attempted already made a voyage to the New
before, the brothers then crossed to to resolve disputes over ownership World in 1499-1500 with Alonso de
Labrador, and cruised down the of newly discovered lands by granting Ojeda (14657-1515) and Juan de la
coast to Newfoundland. There, they Spain the right to those west of an Cosa (7-1509), Columbus" pilot on
took prisoner a number of Indians imaginary line some 350 leagues west his second expedition. On this,
and, while Miguel returned to of the Cape Verde Islands, and Vespucci's second expedition, he
Portugal with their captives, Caspar Portugal the right to lands east of claims to have sailed as far south as
sailed on south. When he had failed that given line —
Brazil fell within the 50^S. This claim is generally un-
to return by May 1502, Miguel set Portuguese sphere of influence. There- accepted, as indeed are Vespucci's
out in search of him. Nothing was fore, acknowledging Brazil as a reports of two other voyages he made
heard of either brother again. completely new land, and moreover to the Americas.
With each new voyage across the one that by rights "belonged" to Whatever the truth about Ves-
Atlantic Ocean, it became clearer Portugal, Portugal sent out an pucci's voyages, his account of them
that Columbus had been mistaken in expedition to ascertain its size. was widely believed in his own time.
believing he had reached the East. On this Portuguese expedition of It even led the geographer Waldsee-
In 1500, on his way to India, Pedro 1501 sailed the man who was to give miiller to regard him, rather than
Alvares Cabral (14677-1519?) tried to his name to both the great continents Columbus, as the discoverer of the
follow Da Cama's route, making a of the New World. Amerigo Vespucci great land mass in the west, and to
wide sweep west into the Atlantic, (1451-1512) was a Florentine mer- suggest that it should be called
but he sailed much larther west than chant who had studied geography and America in honor of his explorations. 41
Juan de la Cosa's Map

made maps of Cosa's map

Christopher Columbus must have
discoveries, but only one of his sketches exists today. A
his LaColumbus' depicts not only
discoveries, but also
shows Da Gama's voyage to the
contemporary record of the lands he reached does, however, East, and it is the oldest map in
still survive. It is a world map, drawn in 1500 by Juan de la existence to record both these events.
Cosa, and this makes it particularly interesting, for La Cosa By the time it was drawn, enough
was no stay-at-home cartographer, but had actually seen was known of Africa for La Cosa to
depict the west coast
the lands he depicted. He had acted as Columbus' pUot on accurately.
Even his portrayal of the east coast,
his second expedition, and had later sailed with Ojeda and navigated for the first time by Da
Vespucci to the "New World" far in the west. Gama only two years earlier, is
essentially His principal
correct. believed, he had reached Asia. Cuba shown as an island,

interest however, in the newly

lay, Spanish discoveries up to 1499 in although was not proved to be

discovered Americas, and he drew —

South America and his own voyages separate from the mainland until

them on a larger scale perhaps as a to the New World —
enabled La Cosa 1508, the year before La Cosa's
way of showing that they were what to map the South American coastline, death. Oneexplanation that has
his map was really about. and John Cabot's landfalls of 1497 been forward for La Cosa's
In the west of the map, the land aremarked in the north. However, knowledge is that Portuguese mari-
fades into the edge of the parchment. La Cosa was probably ignorant of ners reached North America before
This avoids the question of whether the geography of the Yucatan region Columbus, and that La Cosa based
Columbus had discovered a new of Central America, for a picture his depiction of certain regions on
continent or whether, as he himself of Saint Christopher hides the coast. information they provided.
cAround the World

Cape Horn

Miles Equatorial Scale


Even after the disco\er\ of

America, the attention of
Europe was still concentrated on the
East. The Portuguese controlled the
Cape route, and the English the
North Atlantic, but it was still
possible that a passage to the
Magellan sails with 4 ships - southwest might exist, in 1519,
* \ Trinidad. Victoria. Concepa6n
San Anfonio Ferdinand Magellan (14807-1521) set

out to find one his \oyage was the
first circumnax igation of the world.

ATLANTIC Magellan had taken part in man\

Portuguese expeditions to the East,
but he had been refused the rewards
usual for such services. Enraged, he
had made his way to Spain, seeking
backing for a voyage to find a
westward passage to the East.
The Spanish king warmly approved
Magellan's scheme and. by 1519, the
expedition was under way. After a
three-month voyage, Magellan's ships
reached the bay of Rio de Janeiro.
Sailing south, they spent 23 days
exploring the estuary called Rio de la
Plata, believing it was the strait they
sought. But now the days were

OCEAN growing shorter and, on

1520, the fleet put into
31 March
Port St.

Julian for the winter. Pro\ isions were

running low, and Magellan incurred
Cape Hor

t ? T T r f r ^r^
t U.U. £) Geographical Pi^ecls
< The Strait of Magellan.
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/ ^ A / !

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till r«li( 'frill rrnlr^ nitrrrr toiii i U..nlr..rlill

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{•it Pont lc..ipiJiiirNa» lilt ipir.ts^«ii«;*' -ifrjtlltii

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fr\ .Ir^Diiians pruntf^ !.i»n«l1rs(r«i>^1in* n^ilut« ritaltt

M Ferdinand Magellan died before his A In 1524, two years after the Victoria
voyage was complete, but its inspi- returned to Spain, Antonio Pigafetta,
ration was his, and it is to him that a member of the crew, wrote an
honor is due. The strait he discovered account of the magnificent voyage for
was too dangerous for regular use, but King Charles V. This page from his
he proved that a strait existed and, book, which was published by King
although he was not the first man to Charles, shows the islands that
Magellan '519-21 see the Pacific, he named it, and was Magellan named the Islas de las
——— Del Cano 1521-2
the first to sail across it. When he Ladrones —the of thieves.
succeeded in reaching the East by There, as later on many of the other
Trmidad 152=
a'tenpTS *0 return across trie ^aC'*iC sailing west, he provided conclusive Pacific islands, the people stole all they
e Geographic*! Projects
proof that the earth is a sphere. could from the European seamen.

his men's hatred by reducing their

rations. Soon mutiny broke out, and ^^ \ A: ^^}.. --PHILIPPINE
only Magellan's prompt action avoid- SOUTH ^- '•
^^x^^^'-\ '^"^^
Magellan & his
ed the voyage ending there and then. fleet of 3 ships

When the fleet continued south in

mid-October, it v\as only three days
before a waterway was sighted,
opening to the west. It was a lu SEA ^^
r^^*r^ o) C, ^^Concepcion burnt after
hazardous, winding passage, but it yZ^ \r^ ^ i Magellan s death on Mactan '

proved to be the longed-for strait. On ^ ^- -^J^INDANAO -

28 November 1520. Magellan's ships

emerged into the Pacific Ocean.
For week after week, the Spanish
ships sailed northwest. The food was
exhausted, the men dying of hunger
and disease. But they saw no land
where they could take on supplies. It
was early March before they reached Trinidad
•" y^ attempts to
the Ladrones (the Mariana Islands).
/y'vJ return aoxMS
From the Ladrones, Magellan Pacific

continued to the Philippine Islands.

There, for him. the long voyage
ended. In a battle between local rulers,
Magellan was killed. His men sailed
on to the Moluccas, where they
loaded up with spices. Then the
Trinidad set out across the Pacific,
while the Victoria, under Sebastian
del Cano ( ?-l 526), continued west. On
6 September 1522, the Victoria
reached harbor in Spain.
The Philippines and Moluccas. ^ r sails for Spain under Del Cano
4 '^e Riches
of the Orient
Vasco da Gama's voyage to India was the culmination of years of effort and of hope.
For Portugal, it was the crowning triumph of the campaign of discovery Prince
Henry the Navigator had initiated, and the end to which all her later voyages had
been bent. Yet, while marking the close of one chapter in the story of Europe
and the East, it also heralded a new one. The sea route to India had been
discovered; now the expansion to the Orient could begin.
Strange though the Asian seas were to Europeans of the 1400's,
they were far from being totally unknown. The journeys European
sailors had made to India and China in the days of the Roman
Empire had long been forgotten, but since then, the monsoon
routes had been followed by the Arabs sailing eastward, and by
Chinese sailors voyaging west. According to the Arab historian
al-Masudi, who wrote in the 900's, Chinese ships were visiting
the Euphrates River in the a.d. 400's, and Chinese records of
the 600's and 700's describe the course these ships would
have followed from Canton. Early in the 1400's, when
Prince Henry the Navigator was just beginning his push to
the southward, the Chinese admiral Cheng Ho made
voyages to India, and as far west as the Persian Gulf and
Africa's eastern coast.
In Europe, however, nothing was known of these

journeys the European explorers had to rediscover the
eastward routes for themselves. They had to contend with
the hardships and dangers that inevitably accompanied
ocean voyages and, moreover, they faced the implacable
hostility of the Moslems. For trade as far east as the Indies
was under the control of the Moslems, who bitterly
resented Europeans intruding on their preserve. The
Europeans, however, looked on Asia as the treasure house
of the world, and their desire for a share in her riches led them
to disregard the dangers that they faced. These travelers were
the children of a materialistic age, when interest in discovery
was subordinate to the desire for wealth. Because of this, the
East was opened up by commercial voyages that had trade as
their first aim. These trading expeditions took Europeans to the
East Indies, and to China and Japan, extending the frontiers of
knowledge in the struggle for mercantile growth.
The European powers did not set out to establish their rule in the
Orient, since they were interested first and foremost in the setting up of
trade. But as nation after nation joined the race eastward, Europeans
came to realize that profitable trade was an impossibility without direct
political rule. For only through the control that this would give them could a
commercial monopoly be achieved. Thus, in the wake of trade, European
government reached the East. It paved the way to a dominion lasting 300 years.

European after Marco
ThePolo to write
Asia, home of mystery, of adventure, of riches beyond
a realistic descrip-
compare, in the 1500's what great visions were conjured up tion of the East was Odoric of
by the mere mention of its name. The fire of its fascination Pordenone (1274?- 1331), a Francis-
burned in the imagination of the West, kindled by the men can friar who made a 12-year
who had first traveled its unfamiliar, and often dangerous missionary journey to India, the East
Indies, and China, returning to Eur-
paths w ith their tales of the strange and splendid things they
ope overland. Then, early in the
had found there. Those same bold pioneers, in their journeys, 1400's, Niccolo de Conti (dates un-
had spearheaded the European advance east. known), an Italian nobleman, spent
25 years wandering through India and Prester John's kingdom, and to country in which the Prester John
Southeast Asia, and wrote an discover whether a sea route around legend had originated, he entered the
account of his travels as important to Africa did exist. De Covilham visited emperor's service, remaining there
map makers as Marco Polo's had India and Persia, then sailed to until his death.
been. But the first detailed knowledge Sofala, while De Paiva searched for The report De Covilham sent to
of the Indian trade and the Indian Prester John. Returning through Portugal, with that of Bartolomeu
Ocean came from the Portuguese. Cairo, De Covilham learned that De Dias, helped in planning the voyage
Pedro de Covilham (1450?- 1545?) Paiva had died, so he sent his report to India in which Da Gama opened
and AfTonso de Paiva (dates unknown) to Portugal, then set out to find direct trade with the East. The true
were sent by King John II to find Prester John. In Ethiopia, a Christian source of the spice trade, though.

A Nutmeg, cinnamon, and other spices

highly valued in Europe,

was not India, but a series of island

groups in the East Indies. Named the
Moluccas, they were known as the
Spice Islands because of their main
The first European to visit the
Spice Islands may have been Ludovico
di Varthema (dates unknown). In
1502, Di Varthema left Italy to see
the world, and he visited Arabia,
Persia, India, and Pegu besides the
Spice Islands, sailing back to Europe
around the Cape of Good Hope. His
book, Itinerario, was full of valuable
information, and very successful.
By the mid-1500's, Europeans had
reached even farther than Di Var-
thema —two Portuguese had visited
Japan. The first was Fernao Mendes
Pinto (1509-1583), unjustly dubbed
"Prince of Liars" because his book
about his travels was so widely
disbelieved by his contemporaries.
The second was a missionary. Saint
Francis Xavier ( 506- 1552), who made

many converts in Japan, and preach-

ed in the Spice Islands too. When he
died, he was preparing a mission to
the Chinese. 49
Qastaldi draws Asia

During the 1500's, in Italy, and in

particular in Venice, the art of
map making flourished. Not only had ,,U. ^
the city long been a crossroads on the L'«*f J»«T»
* D f S E R T O D F
trade routes between East and West, LOP
^^ ^ C I A P C I A N
thus receiving
all the latest geograph-
information, but also the tech- <^V
niques of map printing by wood and
copper engraving reached new heights
there. One of the greatest of the
cartographers working in Venice
during this period was Giacomo
Gastaldi (15007-1565?), a native of
Piedmont, in northwestern Italy.
During his career, which began in
1544 with a map of Spain, Gastaldi
drew nearly 100 maps, depicting the
world, Europe, Africa and the —
distant Asian lands.
Gastaldi's map of Asia was
published between 1559 and 1561, on
six separate sheets. This one
showing Southeast Asia appeared —
in 1561. Gastaldi was familiar with
G. Ramusio's recent Italian edition
of Marco Polo's book, and on his
map he tried to show all the places
Polo had described, taking their
names from Ramusio's text. He was
able to draw on other, more up-to-
date sources as well, among them
Niccolo de Conti's account of his
journey to the East.
Although Gastaldi's map is not
strictly accurate, it represents a
considerable advance on earlier draw-
ings of the Orient. Asia as we know
ittoday was at last taking shape. India
and Ceylon, and the general outline
of the Malay Peninsula, and of part
of China, can easily be recognized,
and the huge group of islands that
stretches away from the mainland of
Southeast Asia clearly corresponds
to the East Indies. On looking at
those islands more closely, however,
we can see how Gastaldi's map diflfers
from the truth. He places many of the
islands wrongly, and shows more
large islands than there really are.
Such errors were inevitable in the
days when accurate position finding
was and map makers relied
partly on hearsay. Two separate
islands were often believed to be
joined together before the strait
dividing them was discovered, while
one, sighted twice, but with its posi-
tion calculated diff"erently on each
occasion, might be shown as two.
In places, Gastaldi uses short
descriptions to amplify his drawing,
and in these, fact and hearsay blend
strangely. For while he writes
correctly — that in the Moluccas lie
numerous kingdoms in which spices
are found, he also reports Marco
Polo's warning of the strange spirits
that he believed to lurk in the deserts U* Lk*^M ils«rt m^-A »t*»<wM
of central Asia.
:_ rir-

. .4ii- ,-J?f' i^-^t -VXijIsiiMffiS'^-'--' <3-

KTTll Ui. TTUA T 4 l»«VT

f HfNA

through Trade to the Indies

Vasco da Gama sailed back to Europe with his ships heavUy Long before Da Gama's voyage,

laden with the treasures of the East. The search for a sea mariners had used the seasonal
monsoon winds when sailing in the
route to India was finally over, and now the dawn of a new Indian Ocean, and it was in the path of
era broke. This new era was in spirit one of commerce, not these winds that trade routes grew up.
one of exploration, yet discovery did follow in the wake of Ships bound for India used the South
trade. Also, as each European nation attempted through West Monsoon, which blows from
territorial expansion to protect its mercantile interests in
May to October, to make their out-
ward voyage, and returned in winter
Asia, the foundations of great colonial empires were laid. with the North East Monsoon.

When the Portuguese reached

India by a sea direct route,
Hormuz and Aden,
western centers, and in the ports of
the trade's

they won a substantial lead over the India. More important, the Moslems
other countries of Europe in the race ruled many of the lands where the
for the Indies trade. To exploit this Eastern goods originated, as well as
advantage, they followed up Da the port of Malacca, the foremost
Gama's voyage with a second trade center of the East. To insure
expedition, led by Pedro Alvares success for its Portugal
Cabral, in His was the fleet
1500. would have to wrest control of the
that made the European landing
first Indian Ocean from the Moslems, and
in Brazil. In Calicut, the goal of then extend its authority to the
his expedition, Cabral's attempts countries of the East.
to set up trade were unsuccessful, It was to this end that in 1505,
but in Cochin, he was luckier. He King Manuel appointed Francisco
sailed back to Portugal with his ships de Almeida first permanent Portu-
laden with precious goods. guese representative in the East.
Despite the success of these early Almeida first tried break the
voyages, however, Portugal still had Moslem grip on the Indian Ocean,
no guarantee of a share in the and this he achieved in 1509 by the
Eastern trade. The Indian Ocean sea defeat of a combined Egyptian and
routes —and with them the import Indian fleet off" Diu. During his term
trade into —
Europe remained in
52 Moslem hands, as did commerce in Afonso d' Albuquerque. ^
of office, the first Portuguese
too, his control of the Indian Ocean estab- on the mainland, but on the
fleet reached Malacca, but it had lished, he led an expedition to island of Macao. In Japan,
little success in opening trade. In fact, Malacca itself. In 1511, that vital link were welcomed more warmly, as
the Moslems were so hostile to Diego in the trade routes fell to the Mendes Pinto's account of his travels
Lopez de Sequeira (dates unknown), Portuguese. shows, but the Portuguese could not
the fleet's commander, that they Under D'Albuquerque, for the persuade the Japanese to give them
tried to destroy his ships and many firsttime a European power gained preference in trade. However, in
Portuguese were killed. supremacy in the East and, from this Ceylon, the "Pearl of the Orient",
Almeida had broken the Moslem day on, the area of European the Portuguese quickly established
stranglehold on the Indian Ocean influence and rule gradually grew. In their rule. They took over most of the
trade routes. His successor, Afonso 1509, the Portuguese had established western half of the island in an
d' Albuquerque(1453-1515), establish- a factory (trading post) at Pedir, an attempt to establish a monopoly over
ed the Portuguese in the ports that important pepper-trading center in the valuable trade in cinnamon.
dominated the trade. In 1507 before — Sumatra, and after 1511, numerous Portugal's was a sea empire, based
taking up his post —
D'Albuquerque other commercial settlements were on trade routes linking commercial
had captured Hormuz from the made throughout the islands of ports, and as such, vast supplies
Moslems, and in that same year Southeast Asia. of men and arms were necessary to
Tristao da Cunha (14607-1540?) had In 1513, the first Portuguese ships secure its far-flung bounds. For a
taken the island of Socotra at the reached China, but their attempts to small country, the expense was too
mouth of the Gulf of Aden. D'Albu- trade were hindered by Chinese great to bear for long, particularly
querque was later to try to capture hostility to foreigners. Not until 1557 as the Portuguese monarchs simply
Aden, but without success. In 1510, were the Portuguese allowed to open seized the riches for themselves
however, he captured Goa. Then, with a factory. Even then, it was not rather than plowing the profits back 53
into the empire. Consequently, as Dutch to sendan expedition east. van Neck (dates unknown) and
time passed, the profits themselves In group of Amsterdam
1595, a Wybrand van Warwijck (dates un-
began to decrease. Lacking money merchants commissioned the first known), traveled by the Cape route,
to buy arms, or to employ men to Dutch voyage to the East Indies. while others sailed west through
defend its possessions, Portugal was Led by Cornelius Houtman (1540?- Magellan's strait. Van Neck and
at the mercy of any nation that made 1599), the expedition was almost a Van Warwijck's expedition was a
a bid for the Indies trade. The —
complete disaster the ships return- great success, establishing friendly
challenge this afforded was taken up ed w ith only small cargoes of spices, relations in the Indies, and yielding
by the Dutch. and more than half the men died. a profit of 400 per cent. Of the
Dutch pilots had long been em- But it did prove to the Dutch that the westward expeditions, however, only
ployed on Portuguese ships, and Portuguese were not all-powerful in two reached the East. One was that
the Dutch were therefore well in- the Eastern seas. of Oliver van Noort (dates unknown),
formed about Portugal's Eastern During the next few years, the who went on to become the first
trade. They had another source of Dutch sent numerous expeditions to Dutchman to circumnavigate the
information in Itineiario, a book the backed by a number of
East, world.
by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, a separate companies, each trading The Dutch fleets that sailed to
Dutchman who had worked for some from a different port. The competi- the Indies were at first concerned
years for the Portuguese in Goa. tion between the companies them- solely with trade, but when their
His descriptions of the Indies, and selves was as strong as that between sponsors realized how many islands
the maps illustrating his text, pro- the Dutch and the Portuguese. grew they saw that a com-
54 vided the necessary spur for the Some fleets, like the one of Jacob mercial monopoly would be neces-

sary if they were to make the profits

they had hoped for. Thus, like
the Portuguese before them, the
1577-80 Dutch began to build trading posts.
Gradually, their hold on the area
3a 1591-
tightened, and eventually most of
3b 1601-
the East Indies was to come under
Dutch rule.
By the end of the 1500's, the
English had also developed an inter-
1598-1601 est in the East. They obtained their
first information from Francis Drake

(15407-1596), who had called at

the Moluccas on the last stage
of his voyage around the world, and
as early as 1591 an English fleet had
sailed east to trade. But George Ray-
mond unknown) was drowned,
and although James Lancaster(1550?-
1618) reached the East, he had little
success. Nevertheless, the English
tried again. The publication in English
of Van Linschoten's Itinerario, added
to reports of Dutch successes in
the Indies, inspired the forma-
tion of a company to organize the
Indies trade. In 1600, the "Governor
and Company of Merchants of
London trading into the East Indies"
—as the English East India Company
was formally known — were granted a
royal charter by Queen Elizabeth I.

Unlike the Dutch, who wanted to

capture from Portugal the carrying
trade between Asia and Europe, the
English were interested in expand-
ing their own exports, and in par-
ticular, in finding new markets for
theirwoolen cloth. This did not pre-
vent them from taking an active
interest in the spice trade of the
Indies, and the East India Com-
pany's first fleet, commanded by
James returned home
with holds full of pepper. Sur-

prisingly, although it was trespassing

on ground the Dutch considered to be
theirs, it had met with no resist-
ance from the Dutch.
It was the English challenge,
however, that forced the Dutch to
realize that their hold on the Indies
trade would be greater if the resources
of their various companies were
pooled. In 1602, therefore, they
founded their own East India Com-
pany to take over the work of the
numerous smaller concerns. By 1604,
when Henry Middleton (7-1613)
made the English East India Com-
pany's second expedition, the Dutch
presented a united front, and Middle-
ton had considerable difficulty in
trading. As English traders gradually
moved into Dutch territory, the
situation became increasingly strain-
ed.By the mid-1600"s, however, the
Dutch had emerged triumphant, and
the English East India Company
had directed itsattention to another
part of the East.

< Ships of the English East India

Company at sea. 55

tucknow !^ Coodi
^/1i A T I

Patna ^
Br 1620 Gsnge

^Br. 1666

Fr 1688.

1 Mouths o

w. Br. 1669


I */
Sopors *^'oonda
^ >1asol,patam _
Oxfch 1605-1781

•O " j Armagon
-48r 1620

^ ^ (0 fO
^ \S'-'^25 ""^'eca ''6^2.
8r 1761 /
o Uy
. i; Cochin °«" '616
tP'-'C (663
~8f- ' 1824

;^!^ Port 1560
-^^J ^"•<^'"658:

Newberry la 1583 /P"'''' 1658 /

^' '^81-1817
(with Fitch, Leeds & Storey! .''ncomalee*
Newberry . lb 1585 CGsS
(with Filch &Leed$l
Newberry Ic 1585
(sets out to return homel
Ou^rSalJ Se,^-a3ej\i?iW^'^'^"
Fitch IC 1585-91
(after leaving Newberry) Galie
s'^ort 15,;,* ;

'<!5'' 1656 n°" '*«-'640/

Jourdain 2 1608-12
\^ ^^'^9§_

O Geographical Pmjactt
74° ^ T I ! I I T I I I I M,i« 90°
^he English and India

When the English turned from

the Indies search of new op-
through. So long was he away that
on his return he found that he had
enings for trade, it was to the Indian been presumed dead, and all his
subcontinent that they looked. India belongings sold.
had as yet been httle affected by the It was not until 1608 that the
spread of European power in the English attempted to set up a trading
East, for although the Portuguese had post on the Indian coast. This
kept a tight grip on India's western unsuccessful venture, led by William
ports, their main interest was always Hawkins, is recounted in Hawkins'
the East Indies. The riches of papers, and in those of another
India were still virtually untouched, traveler, John Jourdain (dates un-
and commercial
to the English, the known), who in about 1610 visited
seemed great.
possibilities the Mogul court, and wrote glow-
England had learned much about ingly of its wealth. Two years later,
the prospects for Indian trade from the English won the first of two
Ralph Fitch (7-1606). Fitch left naval victories against the Por-
England in 1583 with a party tuguese, and so impressed the Mogul
headed by John Newberry (dates emperor Jahangir, that he granted
unknown), who had already made a them facilities to trade. Factories
journey in the Middle East, and in- were founded Cambay, Baroda,
cluding James Storey (dates un- Surat, Ahmadabad, and Ajmer.
known) and William Leeds (dates In 1615, King James I sent Eng-
unknown). Their goal was India, but land's first official ambassador to
their journey also provided infor- the Mogul court to negotiate a
mation about the ancient but, to general trading agreement. Although
western Europeans, hardly known, no treaty was signed, the Moguls
overland route from the eastern did promise support and protection

T Akbar, Mogul emperor. Jahangir, Mogul emperor.


Mediterranean, which it was hoped against Portuguese attacks. Now

might prove an alternative to the English expansion began in earnest.
sea route around the Cape. In An English factory had been estab-
Hormuz, the men were arrested, and lished in Masulipatam on the east
they arrived in India as prisoners; coast in 1611, and in 1639, Francis
but an Englishman working in Goa Day founded St. George present- —
managed to obtain their release. day Madras. Bombay came under
Storey left the party in Goa, but English rule in the 1660's, and in
the others traveled to Fatephur 1690 Calcutta was founded.
Sikri, seat of the court of the Mogul By the late 1600's, the Moguls
emperor Akbar, whom they pre- were no longer all-powerful, and
sented with a letter from Queen the English were forced to take
Elizabeth of England. Then, they measures to protect themselves.
separated. Leeds remained with the They chose direct rule as the best
court, and Newberry set out for means to secure their interests.
home, disappearing on the way. So successful were they that until
Fitch spent six years wandering the mid-1800's, it seemed they had
through the East, garnering knowl- achieved their aim of "English do-
,edge of the countries he passed minion in India for all time to come". 57
5 "We Conquistadors
When the Great Age of Discovery drew to its close, the Portuguese had gained a
foothold in the countries of the East. In the west, however, it was the Spanish who
had firmly staked their claim. At first they displayed little interest in their new
American lands, because Spain, like Portugal, still looked on a share in the
spice trade as the goal of exploration, and the islands of the Caribbean
yielded nothing to compare with the riches of the East.
As time passed, however, Spanish interest in the Caribbean region
gradually increased. Why should those strange and distant lands
not hold a way to riches and to fame? The Spanish sailed west to
make their fortunes, and to gain honor for themselves, hoping
that in so doing they would win new lands for the Spanish crown.
These first emigrants were hardy adventurers, as they had every
need to be, for the early colonies in the Caribbean afforded
little but hard work and disease. In time, however, the search

for gold and glory led to the Spanish west from the Caribbean
to the American mainland shores. There, in Mexico and
Peru, they found the treasure that they sought.
These bold adventurers earned the name conquistadors,
for they conquered while they explored. The time that they
held sway in the Americas was one of turbulence and
romance, for these small bands of European adventurers
brought mighty empires under Spanish rule. The conquista-
dors made themselves vast fortunes, sent immense treasure
back to Spain, and in so doing, opened up the Americas
from southern North America and Mexico in the north to
Chile in the south. As they conquered, they paved the way
to nearly 300 years of Spanish colonial rule.
The means used by the conquistadors have been ques-
tioned, for they were ruthless and cruel, and the Spanish
conquest destroyed not just civilizations, but decimated
whole peoples as well. But the Spanish had reasons other
than gold lust for the methods that they used. They were
vigorous and determined Christians who used the sword to
spread God's word, feeling that any means were justified to
stamp out the heathen practices that they found. Fear, too, made
them terrible, for they were stranded far from home. Deep among
hostile peoples, they chose terror as the best means to establish their
power and thus to ensure their safety.
The rule of the conquistadors was a short one, for their conquests
were soon complete. Alone, they had founded their empires under the
distant control of Spain. But as peace descended on the Americas, their
star began to decline. The Spanish government, determined to maintain

grip on its rich new colonies, preferred to place their government in other
hands. The conquistadors were not the type of men to make good administrators,
and besides, such warUke conquerors might well seize power for themselves.
Gradually, the place of the conquistadors was taken by bureaucrats from

TAe Taking of Mexico
In the year Ce Acatl, so the Aztec legend ran, the god According to Aztec legend, Quet-
Quetzalcoatl would return. Strange portents foretold his zalcoatl had been driven from
coming in the Ce Acatl year 1519. In the event, however, it Mexico by his rival Huitzilopochtli,
but, on leaving his lands, he had
was the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes, not promised to come back. Small
Quetzalcoatl, who came to the Aztec lands. wonder the Aztec, who knew nothing

ID Gvograph
of Europeans, thought Hernando Balboa had founded a colony on the coasted Central America, discovering
Cortes (1485-1547) was their god. Isthmus of Panama, and in 1513. had the Yucatan Peninsula, and finding
When Cortes set out on his crossed the isthmus to the Pacific; traces of a great ci\ilization there.
expedition, the Spanish knew little of but to the west Francisco Fernandez Gold especially appeared to be
the lands west of their Caribbean de Cordoba (7-1518) and Juan de plentiful, and in Mexico, Grijalva
bases. To the south, Vasco Nunez de Grijalva (14897-1527) had merely heard of greater treasure inland.

A Cortes, by an Indian artist.

Seeking that treasure, Cortes set

sail.With Pedro de .\lvarado (1495?-
1541) and Cristobal de Olid (1492?-
1524), he disembarked at Villa Rica
de la Vera Cruz, near present-day
Veracruz, on Friday, 22 April 1519.
This was the day the legend had
named for Quetzalcoatl's return.
Emissaries from the Aztec emperor
Montezuma met Cortes at the coast,
but the rich gifts they ga\e him only
increased his desire for gold. Deter-
mined to see Montezuma himself,
Cortes setout for the Aztec capital
Tenochtitlan. There, he was received
as befitted a god.
The friendship between Aztec and
Spaniard did not last long. Cortes
saw that his life and those of his men
were in Montezuma's hands, and he
decided to act. He arrested the Aztec
emperor, hoping to make him a
puppet ruler under the king of Spain.
At this critical moment, Cortes
was forced to leave Alvarado in
charge at Tenochtitlan, while he
returned to the coast. On arriving in
Mexico, he had declared himself
responsible only to his king, thus

usurping the authority and possible
profits — of the governor of Cuba,
sponsor of his expedition. Keen to
keep control of an undertaking of
such potential, the governor sent
troops to bring Cortes to heel. Their
threat was easily disposed of, but
Cortes' absence from Tenochtitlan
led to a crisis. During a religious
festival, Alvarado massacred thou-
sands of Aztec, and Cortes returned
in 1520 to find the city hostile. Soon
after his return, the Indians attacked. 61
The Aztec capital, Tenochtitldn, was and a stone aqueduct brought drinking razed almost to the ground during A
called by the Spanish the "Venice of water from the springs ofChapultepec, Cortes' siege of 1521. It was not long to
the New World". Built on an island in some three miles away. The city, with remain in ruins, however, for on its site
Lake Texcoco, it was joined to the its fine stone buildings and beautiful the Spanish built Mexico City as

62 mainland by wide stone causeways. chinampas {floating gardens), was the capital of New Spain.
During the fighting, Montezuma When the Spanish reached mainland America, they were
was killed when, at Cortes' request,
faced with a surprise. Here were no primitive tribesmen,
he tried to persuade the Aztec to
allow the Spanish to leave unharmed. such as those who inhabited the islands of the Caribbean.
Now, as the Spanish were in great Instead, mighty, civilized empires held sway over the land.

people were slain. Yet for all this, the

Theandmost ancient of these empires,
one which, at the arrival of Aztec were no uncivilized barbarians,
the Spanish, was in the final stages of but a highly cultured race. Their
decline, was that of the Maya in legends told of a gentle god, Quet-
Guatemala, Honduras, and the pen- zalcoatl, patron of learning and the
insula of Yucatan. Between the a.d. priesthood, he for whom Cortes was
300's and 800's, when Europe was mistaken. Although these same
sunk in darkness, Maya civilization legends recounted how the fierce
reached its height. In the 900's, Huitzilopochtli had driven Quet-
however, it suff"ered a period of decay zalcoatl out, still, under Aztec rule,
and, although a later revival did take science and art flourished, and beau-
place, the Maya never regained their tiful temples and palaces were built.
former greatness. According to an old saying, while
To the west of the Maya home- the Maya dreamed and the Aztec
lands, in what is now Mexico, lay the worshiped, the Inca built, and the
empire of the Aztec. The Aztec were land of the Inca in what is now Peru
a warrior people, and their men were bears splendid testimony to this.
constantly fighting to enlarge the Houses, palaces, and irrigation pro-
boundaries of their empire, or to —
jects to all these they lent their
Mexico City in the 1500's. bring new tribes under their rule. As hands. In the 1400's, they conquered
befitted such a fierce people, the a vast area stretching from Peru
religion around which their life north into Ecuador, and south into
danger, Cortes attempted to break centered was bloodthirsty, too. They Bolivia and Throughout this
from the island city to the nearby believed that disaster could only be empire, they
. up a magnificent
mainland. Although he succeeded, averted by offering Huitzilopochtli, network of roads. The Inca were a
nearly two-thirds of the Spanish the chief of their gods, the most farming people and theirs was a
soldiers were killed. It took the —
valuable of all gifts life. In Aztec community, rather than an individual,
conquistadors nearly a year to religious ceremonies, thousands of way of life.

prepare another attack, and not until

May 1521 did Tenochtitlan come
under Spanish siege. Then, the Aztec
held out for 80 grueling days, sur-
rendering to the Spanish only when
their leader was captured.
After the fall of Tenochtitlan,
Cortes began to consolidate Spanish
authority in his colony of New Spain
and, within three years, the land was
at peace. Mexico City was built as
capital of the Spanish domains, and
Cortes arranged expeditions outside
Mexico. Alvarado marched into
Guatemala, while Olid traveled in
the west and then, via Cuba, to the
coast of the Gulf of Honduras.
There, he rebelled against the auth-
ority of Cortes.
Cortes himself made a punitive
expedition to the Panuco River in the
north, and marched east across
southern Yucatan against Olid. In
1 522-4, he arranged voyages along the
Pacific coast to search for a strait to
the Atlantic, and in 1527 sent a fleet
to the Moluccas. He tried, unsuc-
cessfully, to colonize Lower Cali-
fornia in 1532-5, and in 1536, sent
Aztec Empira ot time of Conquest
ships to the aid of Pizarro in Peru.
But it was after his time that Maya Empire at time of Conquest

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (1510- Inca Empire at its greatest extent

1554) carried his gold lust north and,

in so doing, explored much of what
is now the southern United States. e G«ografhic«l Pfojaelt 63
TTie Conquest of Peru

From the Spanish colony of Panama, the conquistadors sent leaving a small garrison at Tumbes,
their ships sailing south. In 1522, under Pascual de he advanced south. On the edge of
the Sechura Desert, he founded San
Andagoya (14957-1548), the first government survey was
Miguel, where he and his men stayed
made. It brought back tales of a rich kingdom, which Indians for several months. From the Indians,
called Biru. Probably from this word developed the name by they learned that Atahualpa was not
which the Spanish knew the country Peru. — at Cusco, his capital far to the south,
but at Cajamarca, little more than a
quarter as long a journey away.
Andagoya's report aroused interest exploration to the south. Pizarro In September 1532, the Spanish
and soon a group
in the south, therefore took his case to the king of set out for Cajamarca. From the
of Spaniards had applied to the Spain, who at length agreed to back burning desert, their route led
governor of Panama for the right to an expedition, and created Pizarro through the snow-capped mountains
explore. In 1524, Francisco Pizarro governor and captain-general of any of the Andes and, so hard was the
(1475-1541) sailed south, followed by lands he might subdue. In 1531, way that, had the Inca attacked, the
Diego de Almagro (1475 7-1538). accompanied by his four half brothers Spaniards might never have reached
Most of their capital was provided by Hernando (14757-1578), Gonzalo their goal. But Atahualpa had
a priest, Fernando de Luque, who (15067-1548), and Juan Pizarro determined to receive the invaders as
helped plan the expedition, but who (15007-1536), and Martin de Alcan- friends. Secure in his strength as Inca
did not actually take part. tara (dates unknown), Pizarro set out. ruler, he saw no threat in the tiny
This first Spanish venture met with The Spanish adventurer could not Spanish force.
little success. Although the adventur- have chosen a better moment to The Spanish expedition reached
ers explored part of the coast north embark on his quest. For five years, Cajamarca on 15 November 1532.
of the equator, their hopes of gold civil war had raged in Peru between Pizarro, determined to strike his
were unfounded, and they had to Huascar, the legitimate Inca emperor, blow against the Inca quickly, chose
return to Panama when their supplies and his half brother Atahualpa, to his first meeting with Atahualpa as
ran out. But this did not deter them whom Huascar'sfather had left the occasion for his coup. When the
from making a second expedition. one-fifth of his kingdom. Although Inca ruler and his unarmed body-
This time, they sailed with a pilot, in the year 1532 the war ended, and guard arrived for the meeting, the
Bartolome de la Ruiz (dates unknown), Atahualpa ruled, dissent still filled Spaniards were lying in wait. Taking
a sea captain who was to become the the Inca lands. Atahualpa prisoner, they slew his
first Spaniard to meet the Inca people Pizarro and his men landed at San followers.
of Peru. On this expedition, the Mateo Bay, from which they ad- Atahualpa hoped the conquista-
Spaniards reached the city of Tumbes, vanced overland to Tumbes. Since dor's greed might secure his release,
confirming for themselves earlier Pizarro's last visit, the civil war had and he promised Pizarro a huge
reports of Inca wealth, and sailed reached Tumbes, and the city had —
ransom enough gold to fill a room
south to the Santa Pau River. been sacked and stripped of many of 22 feet long by 17 feet wide, as high
Despite this new proof of Peru's its treasures. Now, Pizarro remained
riches, the government of Panama there only long enough for rein- The rival Inca emperors, Atahualpa
proved unwilling to sponsor further forcements to reach him. Then, {left) and his half brother Huascar.

as the emperor could reach (some Quito, where he thought he would accustomed to fighting in mountain
seven But even when the
feet). find great wealth. He was forestalled, territory, and had managed to lay
treasure was assembled, Pizarro however, by Sebastian de Benalcazaar siege to Cusco, and to prevent the
dared not let the Inca ruler go. He (14957-1550?), governor of San relief parties sent from Lima by
had him tried for treason, and Miguel, who had already captured Pizarro from reaching the city.
strangled. Quito when he heard of the approach Almagro defeated their army; but
From Cajamarca, Pizarro con- of Almagro, sent to put down then he turned rebel himself. Claim-
tinued to the Inca capital Cusco. Alvarado. He joined Almagro at ing that Cusco lay within his
There, the Spanish soldiers ran wild. Riobamba, and there they were able territory, and not Pizarro's, he
They plundered temples, looted to buy Alvarado's departure without seized the city. In 1538, he was
houses and palaces, raped, and a fight. Alvarado even visited Pizarro defeated and executed but, three
generally debauched. Eventually, before traveling north again. Benal- years later, his followers were re-
Pizarro managed to restore order and cazaar himself was appointed gov- venged. In 1541, they murdered
gain a firm grip on the city but, ernor of Quito, and extended Spanish Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of
nevertheless, he was never to have rule north, beyond what had been Peru.
the same control of Peru that Cortes the Inca's northern frontier. The conquistadors, in their search
had of Mexico. He founded Lima Almagro, as a reward for his for gold, traveled far beyond Peru's
which he named Ciudad de los Reyes services, was created governor of a frontiers, and thus opened up much
(the City of the Kings) —as capital of province in the south, stretching for of South America. Gonzalo Jimenez
the Spanish domains, and appointed 500 miles beyond Pizarro's land. In de Quesada (14977-1579?) traveled in
Manco Capac, half brother of July 1535, he left Cusco on a tour of the northwest, and, on the plateau of
Huascar and Atahualpa, Inca ruler his new domain. Although he claimed Bogota he conquered the Chibcha,
under the Spanish king. At first, the the lands as far south as present-day the last of the wealthy Indian peoples.
Inca accepted the conquest almost Santiago for the Spanish king, he Pizarro's brother Gonzalo, mean-
without resistance but, among Pizar-
; returned to Peru a bitterly dis- while, made an expedition with
ro's own followers, dissatisfaction illusioned man. In his province, there Francisco de OreUana (15007-1550?)
and jealousy were rife. were no riches to rival the Inca that led to Orellana making the first
Pizarro's position was first threa- wealth, and he saw little hope that voyage down the Amazon River.
tened even before the founding of his governorship would bring him the Pedro de Valdivia (15007-1553) estab-
Lima, and from outside, rather than reward he felt was his due. lished a colony in Chile, and founded
from within, Peru. In 1533, Pedro de In 1537, Almagro arrived back in —
both Santiago today the capital of
Alvarado, Cortes' captain, sailed Cusco to find the Inca had rebelled. the country —
and Valparaiso.
from New Spain for South America, The situation seemed serious, for the
and marched on the kingdom of Indians, unlike the Spanish, were T Battle between the Inca and Spanish.

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This map of the Americas in the Portuguese in the east of the con- Gutierrez was almost completely
years after the Spanish conquest of the Spanish
tinent, as well as those ignorant of the interior. In compen-
was drawn by Diego Gutierrez in the west, Pizarro and his followers sation, the continents team with life,
(7-1554) and engraved posthumously in Peru, and Cortes in Mexico. The as do the seas. In Africa, Gutierrez
by Hieronymus Cock in Antwerp in most important feature of his map of shows an elephant, a rhinoceros, and
1562. Gutierrez was a cosmographer South America is the Amazon River, a lion, and he peoples South America
— an expert in the sciencedealingwith which Orellana's voyage enabled him with imaginary natives. Cannibals
the general appearance and structure to place. However, he had little carry out their horrible practices in

of the earth at the Casa de la Con- idea of its true course, and based his Brazil; to the south, in Patagonia,
tratacion de Las Indias (the House of sinuous portrayal on Sebastian giants are shown. Ever since Magel-
Trade for the Indies) in Seville, Cabot's map of 554. The Parana and
1 lan's expedition had nicknamed the
Spain. This establishment, founded Uruguay rivers, which flow into the inhabitants of this region Patagonians
in 1503. had as its first head Amerigo Rio de la Plata, he greatly exagger- — which in Spanish means "big feet"
Vespucci, and from 1518 to 1548 it ated in size, and Tierra del Fuego, — the belief had grown in Europe
was under the direction of Sebastian which he called Tierra de Magallanes that area was populated by a
Cabot. — the land of Magellan —
he extended race of enormous people. The life of
Gutierrez' map concentrates chiefly southward, making it part of a great the seas is even more fabulous than
on the Atlantic seaboard, and on continental land. that of the land.And, amidst weird
Central and South America. For the Although the coastline of the gods and monsters, the ships of
latter regions, he was able to take Americas, like that of Africa, was Europe ply their way over the newly
into account discoveries made by the already reasonably well known, known seas. 67
6 c55 NewWorld
No Longer
It is difficult toimagine a time when North America was hardly known, much less
explored, when Europeans could not trace the continent's outline, nor guess at its
extent. Yet, for the first explorers to reach there, America was indeed a "new
world". The great continent stretched before them, unknown, mysterious, no
one knew how far. In its vastness were hidden deserts and mountains, great
rivers and rolling plains. There were furs there for the trader, and land for
the farmer. Above all, in the unknown, there was adventure for the brave.
When Christopher Columbus sailed the Atlantic, his goal was not
the Americas — indeed, he did not even know of the existence of
such a land. Like many of the mariners who would follow him,
he sought a new route to the Orient, and it was by these
seekers after Eastern treasure that the first western landfalls
were made. The sailors were followed by the gold-seekers,
who made the first journeys into the interior, but it was not
until the arrival of traders and colonists that North American
exploration really began. For, in the pursuit of their own
interests, these pioneers set out westward, gradually
extending their knowledge far beyond the Atlantic shores.
To the pioneers, this magnificent country lay open for
the taking, despite the fact that they found an indigenous
people already there. With the Eskimos of the far north,
the European settlers had little contact, but they encoun-
tered the Indian inhabitants of the rest of the continent at
every step they took. At first, the Indians often helped the
European settlers, but although friendly relations were
maintained in the north, in what is now Canada, the situ-
ation soon changed farther south. When the colonists
became self-sufficient, they regarded the Indians as obstacles
to the expansion of white rule. The struggle between
invaders and natives was to be long and bitter, but eventually
the Indians were driven from their homelands in the face of
the white advance.
The traders and settlers who
out into the American interior
were the spearhead of a continuing drive by the white man
toward the West. After 1783, when the United States came into
being, there was a sense among the pioneers that their advance was
inevitable, that it was their nation's true destiny to expand to the
Pacific shores. In 1845, this sense of destiny was put words when
John L. Sullivan wrote in a New York City newspaper, "It is our manifest
destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which
Providence has given us". Soon the phrase "Manifest Destiny" was being
used whenever westward expansion was talked of, yet this was only the voicing
of a belief that every pioneer held. First through trade, then through this sense
of the inevitability of the push to the westward, North America was explored.

^he Conquistadors Push Northward

Restless, and greedy for glory and In 1527, Panfilo de Narvaez (1478?- died, or were enslaved
by Indians.
for gold, the Spanish left their 1528) left Spain to conquer and But Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
homelands to sail to the American colonize Florida, but his overland (14907-1557?) was lucky enough to
shores.They looked not for new march there revealed none of the gold fall in with a friendly tribe, whose
lands to discover, but for treasure, he longed for, s6 he resolved to nomadic existence he shared for
conquest, and honor for God and rejoin his ships and continue to New nearly six years. At last, with three
Spain. For many of these conquista- Spain. When he reached the coast, companions, he managed to escape,
dors, the reward was to be small. however, he found that his ships had and in April 1536, after a grueling
Juan Ponce de Leon (14607-1521), sailed without him, and his men had journey, the four men were found by
who had sailed on Columbus' second to build boats for the voyage around Spanish cavalrymen on the frontiers
expedition, set out not for love of the Gulf of Mexico. After passing the of New Spain.
gold, but seeking a fountain whose Mississippi delta, they were caught Although the Indians De Vaca had
waters he believed would give eternal in a storm. Narvaez' boat was blown lived with had been poor, from them
youth. Although he never found it, out to sea, and the conquistador was he had heard of rich tribes farther
he discovered Florida, which he never seen again. north. A reconnaissance expedition
thought was a great new island. He Only one of the other four boats, sent from New Spain to investigate
named it after the day he sighted it and the crew of a second, survived. his story glowingly confirmed the
Pascua Florida (Easter Sunday). Then, after the men had landed, many Indians' report. The men even
< De Soto reaches the Mississippi.

claimed to have seen the fabled Seven

Cities of Cibola, reputedly one of the
world's greatest sources of riches. In
1 540, therefore, the viceroy of Mexico

dispatched an expedition to capture

the Se%en Cities" weahh.
While Francisco Vasquez de Coro-
nado led a large force from New
Spain northward, Hernando de
.\larc6n (dates unknown) sailed with
two ships up the Gulf of California,
carrying supplies. His Noyage was to
prove that California was a peninsula,
not an island as had previously been
conjectured, and he discovered the
mouth of the Colorado River, and
tra\eled up it a little way. He never
met up with Coronado, and sailed
for home alone.
Coronado himself reached Cibola,
to find that it was only a poor Indian
village. He sent Melchior Diaz (dates
unknown) to find Alarcon and get
Narviez iwith D>e Vacaj 2 1527-8 ^^m supplies, but at the mouth of the

s ^ De Vaca after

De Soto
after death of
loss of

De Soto
Nwaez' 2A



Colorado, Diaz discovered a message
from Alarcon saying he had left for
home. Other parties were sent to
search for richer lands and one, led
^^^^ Coronado
Alarcon with supply ships
1540-1 by Garcia Lopez de Cardenas (dates
Diaz in search of Alarcon 1540 unknown), traveled a short way down
Cardenas 1540-1
the Colorado, and discovered the
Grand Canyon. Coronado himself,
continuing to Cicuye and Tiguex,
heard of a rich land called Quivira to
the north. Seeking Quivira. he pushed
north and across the Arkansas, but the
legendary kingdom ne\er material-
ized. Disillusioned, Coronado led his
men back to New Spain. The
expedition had made many discover-
ies and reported on the Indians and
their customs. But because they had
discovered no treasure, Coronado
found himself in disgrace.
While Coronado sought the Seven
Cities in southwestern North America,
Hernando de Soto (1500 7-1542) was
seeking them in the southeast. As a
reward for his part in the conquest of
the Inca, De Soto had been appointed
governor of Cuba, and given the
right to conquer Florida. He reached
Tampa Bay in May 1539, and set out
oserland. Pushing north past the
Savannah River, he crossed the
Appalachians, turning south, then
west. In 1541, he arrived at the
Mississippi. Although he pushed far
to the west of that river, his hopes of
gold proved ill-founded. In 1542, sick
and exhausted, he died on the
Mississippi's banks. His successor,
Luis de Moscoso (dates unknown),
buried him in the river, then turned
west on another unsuccessful quest.
At last, abandoning his search for
gold, he sailed down the Mississippi
and around the coast to New Spain. 71
c5^ "New Description of America

1570, Abraham Ortelius (1527-

In 1598), an Antwerp cartographer
and map publisher, produced the
first edition of his atlas Theatrum

Or bis Terrarum (theater of the world).

This work is generally considered to
be the first modern atlas, for although
collections of maps had been issued
earlier, they were made up of existing
maps of varying sizes, and by
different cartographers, whereas every
one of the 70 maps in Ortelius' atlas
was especially engraved for the
occasion. After 1570, the atlas went
through numerous editions, and for
many of them new maps were added.
By 1601, there were 121 in the body
of the atlas, besides 40 in a supple-
ment that was devoted to historical
In the first edition of his atlas,
Ortelius included only one map of the
Americas, and another was not
added until 1579. This first map
the "New Description of America, or
the New —
World" showed both
North and South America, and also
a large portion of the imaginary
southern continent (usually known
as Terra Australis Incognita the —
unknown southern land), which was
then supposed to cover the southern
part of the earth. Surprisingly, the
outline of South America is less
accurate than in Gutierrez" map pub-
lished eight years earlier but, even so,
Ortelius knew more of South America
than of the north.
Ortelius' North America is easily
recognizable, but its proportions are
far from the truth. The Gulf of
Mexico coastline is too short, and the
distance from Florida to Cape Breton
too small. In mapping the southern
part of the continent, Ortelius could
draw on his knowledge of the Spanish
expeditions northward, and he marks
Tiguex and Quivira, but far from the
area of Coronado's search. For the
St. Lawrence region, he had the
journeys of Jacques Cartier, made
between 1534 and 1542, to help him.
Elsewhere, his knowledge was so
limited that he simply left his map
blank, with the exc^feption, that is, of
a few mountain ranges dotted about
the interior, and a legend to the effect
that the northwest was unknown. It
seems odd that he did know of the
existence of Hudson Bay, even
though his map was drawn 40 years
before Hudson's ill-fated voyage
there. Generally, however, the im-
pression his map leaves is of just how
much remained for the explorers of
North America to reveal. 73
%e French Explore
Asfrom Spanish
the pushed northward
Mexico, another nation
began to explore farther north. In
1534, searching for a westward
passage to Asia, Jacques Cartier
(1491-1557) reached the Gaspe Pen-
insula. A year later, he discovered the
St. Lawrence River, and sailed up it
to Hochelaga,on the site of Montreal.
But he was prevented by the Lachine
rapids from going farther, and his
1541-2 voyage added nothing to
knowledge of "New France".

Jacques Cartier.

Cartier certainly did not reach who were their enemies. With a Iroquois stronghold near Lake
Asia, but he paved France's way to Huron war party, in 1609 he dis- Oneida, but he missed their rendez-
America. In his wake, French covered Lake Champlain. vous at the Lachine rapids, and had
fishermen regularly visited the fishing In 1610, Champlain met a youth to travel to GeorgianBay to catch
grounds off Newfoundland, and fur named Etienne Brule (15927-1633), up. Then Brule, who had ac-
trade with the Indians was also who wanted to live with an Indian companied Champlain, left the main
opened up. tribe to learn its language. To force to take part in a separate
The man whose travels laid the Champlain, anxious to find out attack. When he arrived, the battle
foundations of French Canada first more about the interior, this seemed was over, and Champlain and the
traveled there on behalf of the fur an excellent idea. On Brule's return, Hurons had been defeated. Brule
trade monopoly. His name was Champlain was able to learn about the then traveled south down the
Samuel de Champlain (15677-1635), region Brule had visited, and about Susquehanna to Chesapeake Bay.
and he made his first expedition up Georgian Bay, which Brule was the Five years after his journey down
the St. Lawrence in 1603. The year first white man to see. From
another the Susquehanna, Brule made an-
after, he explored the North American Frenchman, Nicolas Vigneau (dates He traveled west,
other exF>edition.
coast, sailing south beyond Cape unknown), Champlain heard that and may perhaps have reached
Cod, and helped to found Port Royal, north of the Ottawa River there lay Chequamegon Bay. During his career
Nova Scotia, the first French colony a great sea, and in 1613 he set out to of exploration, he had discovered
in the New World. In 1608, he was find it. Some way up the Ottawa, four of the five Great Lakes. In 1634,
again on the St. Lawrence, and estab- however, it became clear that Vigneau Jean Nicolet (1598-1642), another of
lished Quebec as a base for the fur was lying, and Champlain turned Champlain's proteges, reached the
trade. He made friends with the back. watershed between the Fox and
Huron Indians, and agreed to fight In 1615, Champlain promised to Mississippi rivers, and did much to
74 with them against the Iroquois tribes. join the Hurons in an attack on an clarify the Great Lakes' geography.
1 1

la 1534
lb lS3i-6
k 1541-2

2a 1603
2b 1604-7
2c 1608-9 40°
2d 1611

Oiamplain (with Vigneaul 2e 1613

Champlain Ipart with Brule) 2f 1615

Brvie 3a 1610-2
Brule lafter leaving Champlainl 3b 1615
Brule 3c 1620

4 1634

e Geographical ProjaeX

The work of Champlain and his was sent to find and explore it. In what is now Louisville, Kentucky. In
followers was continued by two May, Joliet left the Strait of Mackinac 1678, on the Niagara, he built a ship,
brothers-in-law, Medart Chouart, accompanied by Father Jacques Le Griffon, to collect furs from Indians
Sieur de Groseilliers ( 625 ?- 697) and Marquette ( 1 637- 1 675), a Jesuit priest. around the Great Lakes. One of his
Pierre Esprit Radisson (16367-1710?). The two men traveled via Green Bay companions, Louis Hennepin (1640-
Groseilliers and
Radisson were and the Fox and Wisconsin rivers 1701 ?) first described Niagara Falls.
traders who ranged through the to the Mississippi, and paddled far Le Griffon sailed as far as Green
Great Lakes in search of furs. Their enough down that river to be almost Bay, Lake Michigan, and then La
travels finally established the relation- sure that flowed into the Gulf of
it Salle disembarked and sent the ship
ship betweenLake Superior and Mexico. Then, afraid of being to take its cargo of furs to the Niagara,
Hudson Bay — the
"sea" Champlain captured by Indians or by the and to collect supplies. Continuing
had searched for in the north and — Spanish, they set out again upstream. south, he founded Fort St. Joseph,
the trading missions that they carried Father Marquette later founded a Fort Miami, and Fort Crevecoeur
out for England from about 1668 mission among the Illinois Indians, (Fort Heartbreak); but when after
drew English attention to the Hudson working with them until his death. three months there was no sign of Le
Bay area.Through this new interest, Although Joliet and Marquette Griffon, La Salle traveled east to the
the Hudson's Bay Company was were the first to travel down the Niagara for news, then returned to
formed in 1670. Mississippi, the river is linked above Montreal. The ship was never heard
To the west of Lake Michigan lie allwith another man. Robert Cavelier, of again and, while La Salle was
the headwaters of the Mississippi, Sieur de la SaUe (1643-1687), a away, the Fort Crevecoeur garrison
North America's greatest river. In French nobleman, had emigrated to mutinied and drove out their leader,
1634, during his travels, Nicolet had Canada hoping to make his fortune Henri de Tonti (1650-1704). La Salle
heard Indians talk of this waterway, in the fur trade. In 1 669, he discovered took time to find his friend, so it was
and in 1673 Louis Joliet (1645-1700) the Ohio River, and followed it to not until 1681 that he was able to 75
start his long-planned journey down returned north, and made his way to eventually reach the Mississippi, and
the Mississippi River. France. In 1684, he set out on the ill- there met Tonti, who had established
In 1681-2, La Salle traveled down fated journey that has been recounted a post to await La Salle.
the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, by Henri Joutel (dates unknown), his Meanwhile, in 1680-1, Father
taking possession of the valley of the aide. La Salle's ships missed the Hennepin had made an independent
Mississippi for France, and calling it mouth of the Mississippi altogether, expedition to the upper Mississippi.
Louisiana after the French king. and every attempt to find the river Taken prisoner by Indians, he joined
Then, seeking backing for a perma- failed. At last. La Salle was murdered their wanderings and only escaped
76 nent Gulf coast colony, La Salle by his own men. Joutel, however, did when Sieur Duluth arrived.
When Columbus reached the Bahamas, he thought he was in
the East. Identifying the islands with the East Indies, he
called their people "Indians". In time, the name was applied
to the inhabitants of the American mainland too.

Columbus' landing, The Subarctic Hunt- who lived between the

At the time of
there were more than 600 Indian
eastern Farmers.
ers were nomads, who followed the
tain Indians,
plains and the Pacific coast were —
tribes inNorth America, speaking at herds of caribou and moose, but the divided into two groups, the Seed
least 200 separate languages, and Northeastern Woodsmen were farm- Gatherers and the Horsemen. The
following widely differing ways of ers, though they lived from hunting former were nomads, who gathered
life. Everywhere the white man and fishing as well. The Southeastern seeds, nuts, and berries as they
traveled, he encountered the Indians, Farmers also farmed, hunted, and ripened; the latter gathered
and although some were helpful, fished. seeds, but combined with hunting
others did all they could to hinder the To the west, in the center of the and riding, learned from the Indians
European advance. As the white man continent, lived the Plains Indians. of the plains.
spread his dominion ever farther, the Some tribes were originally farmers, The Southwest Indians, like those
Indians were driven from the lands but others were nomads, following of the Eastern Forests, comprised
that were their home. the herds of buffalo around. After the three groups. All —
save one tribe of
When the first Europeans reached coming of the white man, however, Nomads, the Apache, who lived by
America, the Indians, apart from the the Plains Indians acquired horses raiding their more peaceful neighbors
northern Eskimo, could be divided and guns, and buffalo hunting became — lived from farming, although the
into five main regional groups. In the their normal way of life. Farmers were seminomadic too.
north and east lived the Eastern The Northwest Coast Indians were Generally speaking, the culture of the
Forests Indians — Subarctic Hunters, fishermen, whereas their southerly Southwest Indians was the most
Northeastern Woodsmen, and South- neighbors theCalifornia-Intermoun- stable and highly developed of all. 77
Charting the Eastern Seaboard

As ship followed ship across the Atlantic, the outline of Hudson's fate in no way lessened
interest in the Northwest Passage
North America began at last to take shape. Still searching
indeed, from Bylot's report, some
for a Northwest Passage by way of which they might reach concluded that the passage had been
the Indies, mariners sailed north of mainland Canada, found. The groups of businessmen
and merchants who then sponsored
while colonists, in settling, opened up the east coast.
voyages of discovery for trading
purposes continued commissioning
expeditions. A number were briefed
to trade with Asia via the strait some
thought Hudson had discovered;
others, with more skeptical sponsors,
to find a northwest strait.
In 1615, Robert Bylot sailed to
find the Northwest Passage, with
William Baffin (1584-1622). The
expedition sailed through Hudson
Strait to Foxe Basin, and from his
observations, Baffin concluded that
that route did not lead to a Northwest
Passage. Although on their second
voyage, in 1616, Bylot and Baffin
made many valuable discoveries,
they never managed to find the
passage that was their goal. They
did, however, explore Baffin Bay
thoroughly, discovering the entrances
to both Jones and Lancaster sounds.
One of the first English attempts to
colonize North America was made
by the same Sir Humphrey Gilbert
who had argued that a Northwest
was Sir Humphrey Gilbert (1 539?- A Hudson lands on Manhattan Island. Passage did exist. In 1583, he tried to
It 1583) who reawakened in England settle Newfoundland, but his expe-
an interest in the Northwest Passage, could not be the strait he was seeking, dition met with nothing but ill luck.
for he believed that America was the but his voyage did draw Dutch On the outward voyage one ship
legendary island of Atlantis, and that attention to America. Soon enter- deserted, at Newfoundland another
a northern passage around it must prising Dutch traders were traveling had to be abandoned as unseaworthy,
exist. To find this passage, Martin there to deal in furs. and the largest of Gilbert's three
Frobisher (15357-1594) set sail in One of these explorer-traders was remaining vessels ran aground on
1576. He rediscovered Greenland, Adriaen Block (dates unknown), who Cape Breton Island. With two tiny
and discovered Baffin Island, sailing in 1614 discovered the waterway that —
ships one, the flagship, of only 10
into Frobisher Bay, which he thought the Indians called the Quinnitukut — —
tons Gilbert set out to sail back to
was the strait. In England, however, the Connecticut River. Block sailed England. But during the voyage his
greater interest was aroused by some 50 miles up the river, and was frail flagship sank, and he was
"gold" ore he discovered, and in so impressed with the surrounding drowned. His Newfoundland colony
search of this he sailed in 1577 and country that he urged the Dutch to did not long survive his death.
1578. The "gold" was found to be colonize the area. However, it was Farther south, Walter Raleigh
worthless, and 1578 colonizing
his around the Hudson that they settled, (1552?-1618), Gilbert's half brother,
attempt failed, but he did reach the and to that region that the name New organized three expeditions to the
entrance to Hudson Strait. Netherland came to apply. The first New World. The first, led by Arthur
Frobisher's sight of Hudson Strait settlement on Manhattan Island,on Barlow (1550?- 1620?) and Philip Am-
convinced him that this, not Frobish- the site of present-day New York, adas (1550-1618), was a voyage of
er Bay, was the Northwest Passage. was made by the Dutch, and called reconnaissance. The queen of England
Nevertheless, he did not explore it. New Amsterdam. was so pleased at its glowing reports
That was left to the man after whom In 1610, Henry Hudson made a of the region, named Virginia after
it is named. Henry Hudson (1550?- second voyage to America, this time her, that she knighted Raleigh. A
161 1) made his first voyages in search in English service. His route now lay party of settlers was sent to Virginia
of a North^o^r Passage to China, and to the northward, through Hudson the following year under Sir Richard
it was northeast that he set his course Strait and into Hudson Bay. Through- Grenville (1541?-1591). Expeditions
when he sailed for the Dutch East out the voyage his crew was mutinous were made inland but, once the
India Company in 1609. After and, after a terrible winter, rebellion colony was established, Grenville
rounding northernmost Norway, broke out. Hudson, his son, and returned to England. The settlement
however, he turned west, and crossed seven othermen were cast adrift in an he left on Roanoke Island, under the
the Atlantic. On this first voyage open boat. The mutineers then sailed direction of Ralph Lane ( 530?- 1 603),

westward, he discovered and explored for England, and the ship, under the had trouble with the Indians, and
the Hudson River, and landed on command of Robert Bylot (dates soon ran short of supplies. When, in
Manhattan Island, where he and his unknown), arrived home safely; but 1586, Drake's fleet stopped at
crew were welcomed by the Indians. Hudson and his companions were Roanoke Island, the colonists were
78 It was clear that the Hudson River never seen again. only too glad to leave for home.
^^ SOT 50P


Barlow (with Amadas 2a 1584

Grenville iwith Lane & Whitel 2b 1585-6
White 2c 1587

Smith (for the London Company' 5a 1606-9 ^

Smith (for the Plymouth Companyl 5b 1614

Raleigh's third expedition was led and explored it and Penobscot Bay. pedition founded Jamestown, which
by John White (dates unknown), w ho Such coastal expeditions marked the was named after the king of England
had already visited the New World limitsof English exploration, for, and, largely due to Smith's efforts,
with Grenville and Lane. It, too, although a few expeditions had been the colony sur\ived. In 1609. an
ended in disaster for, while White made from the Roanoke colonies, the accident forced him to return to
was back in England obtaining English at this stage never penetrated England, but before that he explored
supplies, all the settlers disappeared. far inland. Chesapeake Bay. and made several
Their fate remains a mystery, for the In 1606, two
companies were expeditions into Virginia, opening the
only trace found of them was the granted patents by King James I of way for the colony to expand. Smith
name "Croatoan" car\ed on a tree. England to colonize North America. ne\er. howeser. tried to cross the
In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold The Plymouth Company was to settle mountains in the west.
(7-1607), on a \oyage to collect a northern area —
roughly betueen In the year 1614, for the Plymouth
sassafras, a medicinal plant, dis- Penobscot Bay and Chesapeake Bay Company, Smith surveyed the North
covered and named Cape Cod, and — and the London Company a region American coast from Cape Cod to
in 1605 George Waymouth (dates stretching south from the Hudson Penobscot Bay. He made a map of
unknown), while in\estigating the River. In the service of the London the region, which he called "New
possibilities of colonizing the north- Company. John Smith (1580-1631) England", a name that is still used to
80 east, discovered the Kennebec River, set sail for America in 1606. His ex- describe the area todav.
As the European explorers pushed into America, each and Nova Scotia, and the War of the
Austrian Succession (1740-8) was
claimed his discoveries for his country and king. By 1700,
fought in North America under the
three nations were established in North America, each name of King George's War. After
believing it had indisputable rights to the land. King George's War, to strengthen
their position, the French built
forts around the British colonies.

On set
the east coast, the British
up their colonies,
and they
it eventually
war would
became clear that only
settle their rival claims.
Some were in the Ohio Valley, to
which the French laid claim, but in
also claimed the region around After 1689, there was ahnost constant which Britain was greatly interested.
Hudson Bay. They knew this area as fighting between them, but from the In the Ohio Valley conflict, the final
Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, first the British held the upper hand. struggle for dominion was born.
cousin of England's King Charles II, Not only were there far more British The French and Indian War the —
who was the Hudson's Bay Com- than French settlers, but the British Seven Years' War (1756-63) in
pany's first governor. Between the were more willing to fight. They Europe —saw New France finally
British claims lay New France, regarded America as their home, won for Britain by the capture of
stretching from theLawrence St. whereas the French were mainly Quebec in 1759. Britain's gain was
Valley through the Great Lakes the — interested in trade. confirmed by the Treaty of Paris of
area that Champlain and his succes- The wars Britain and France fought 1763. By this, Britain also gained
sors had explored. After La Salle's in North America were offshoots of French possessions east of the
1681-2 journey, France also laid their struggle in Europe fighting in — Mississippi, except New Orleans,
claim to the Mississippi basin, which Europe gave rise in 1689 in North which was ceded to Spain. Spain also
La Salle had named Louisiana. To America to the so-called King Wil- recei\ed French land west of the
the west of Louisiana lay New Spain, liam's War, which lasted until 1697. Mississippi, but had to give Britain
whose frontiers had been pushed The War of the Spanish Succession, Florida in return. Thus, in 1763,
northward past San Francisco. Queen Anne's War in America, in Britain became supreme in the east of
Britain and France had long been 1713 won Britain recognition of her the North American continent, while
in dispute over their territories, and claim to Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, Spain still ruled in the west.

Quebec •
^auit Montrea"
Mar.e 1642.
Vl668^c > f'

^.^ /::rr/T»\*^tM'iymouthi62o

lutch 1625 Br 1664

^ Ft.
doeipHia 1662

San Francisco All Mississippi basin cla'Hned lamsburg 1699
by France since 1682


^- "il

Augustine 1565

the Alamo "
1513-1763 Br 1763-83

O F '^'« ^^ «i!»'^
•HtLfLtufi* Br 1647
Bf 1670

British posseisionj 1700


E W S P A I N ,;

French possessions 1700

Sp 1630
J Spanish possessions 1700

kx3B Areas claimed by British & French

^ °— .^^

Br 1655*

Fr 1697

traders in the Northwest

1670, Hudson's Bay

the Company into the Northwest since that of which copper abounded. Hearne, an
Inwas founded in England to further Groseilliers and Radisson, and it was inexperienced traveler, did not get far
trade with British North America, to be the last until 1754. In that year, on his first attempt. A year later,
and to promote discovery and the Anthony Henday (dates unknown) however, he explored much previously
search for the Northwest Passage. It left York Factory to explore, and to unknown country, on his return
was the servants of this company, try to increase the company's trade. journey meeting an Indian named
— —
and later their rivals, who opened He ranged through the region be- Matonabbee, who promised to lead
up the Northwest. tween the North and South Saskat- him to a so-called copper "mine".
At first, the Hudson's Bay chewan rivers, and wintered with the Hearne set out again from Chur-
Company depended for trade on furs Blackfoot Indians before returning chill in December 1770 and, thanks
the Indians brought to the coast, and to Hudson Bay. to Matonabbee's guidance, he reached
initially none of its servants pene- Despite the company's interest in the Coppermine River, and followed
trated far inland. Not until 1690 was trading, the search for the Northwest it to the sea. But the ocean he reached

a serious attempt made at explora- Passage was not forgotten, and in was the Arctic, not the Pacific, and
tion. Then, Henry Kelsey (1670?-?) 1769 Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) was although he found some copper, the
traveled inland to try to persuade sent to see whether a waterway linked quantity was small. He did, however,
more Indians to come to Hudson Bay the Pacific to Hudson Bay. He was prove that those regions held little
with furs. His was the first journey also to follow up reports of a river in hope for trade.


/ 40° e G«ogr»pt<ie»l Pro)«et»/ V^^'-

After Britain took over New new source of furs. From Lake
France in the mid-1700's, a new type Winnipegosis, he traveled to the
of trader began to appear in the southern shores of Lake Athabasca,
Northwest. These men, backed by where he built a trading post. It was
Montreal trading companies, tried to a great success, for the Indians could
circleHudson Bay, thus preventing now trade without making the
the Indians and their furs from journey to Hudson Bay.
reaching the coast. The Hudson's Pond was convinced that a water
Bay Company scornfully called the route existed to the Pacific, and in
traders "Pedlars", but their threat 1789 Alexander Mackenzie (1764-
was nevertheless real. Their trading 1820) left Fort Chipewyan to test the
activities were in time to force the truth of this theory. His expedition
Hudson's Bay Company to send its was made for the Northwest
men inland. Company, an organization formed in
One of these independent traders, 1783, made up of the various
Peter Pond (1740-1807), set out in independent traders. His route led to
1778 on behalf of a group of the Great Slave Lake, then down the
Saskatchewan merchants to find a Mackenzie River. Soon, however, it

Samuel Hearne.

became clear that the Mackenzie led

to the Arctic Ocean, but all the same

Mackenzie followed it to that point.

In 1792, Mackenzie set out again
for the Pacific, following the Peace
River to the fork of the Finlay and
Parsnip, where he turned south. Soon,
he reached another great river (the
Fraser). He thought this was the
Columbia, but when he was told it
was unnavigable, he turned north.
Crossing to the Dean, he followed it
to the Pacific Ocean. His was the
first crossing of the continent since

that of Cabeza de Vaca, more than

250 years before.
In 1808, Simon Fraser (1776-1862)
proved that Mackenzie's unnavigable
river was not the Columbia when he
traveled down it to the sea. This new
river was named the Fraser after him.
Soon, the course of the Columbia
itself was traced. David Thompson

(1770-1857), its explorer, was a fur

trader, a brilliant surveyor, and one
of the most important of all North
American travelers. Between 1790
and 1811, Thompson covered vast
areas of the Northwest —and his
achievement is particularly impressive
inasmuch as his first duty was to
trade. In 1790, for the Hudson's Bay
Company, he surveyed the Saskatch-
ewan River, and in 1792-7, the area
between the Nelson River and Lake
Mackenzie Sa ;789 Athabasca. In 1797, he transferred to
5b 1792-3
the Northwest Company. For them,
Thompson 6a i790 he traveled widely between 797 and

6b 1792-7 1802. Then, in 1807-11, he explored

6c 1797-8
6d 1798 around the headwaters of the Colum-
6e 1799 bia, and followed that river to its
6f 1800-2
6g 1807-11 mouth. He had proved that, with
only short overland treks, traders
^^~~~ Fraser 7 1808
could travel by water from the St.
Lawrence Valley to the Pacific coast. 83
fulfilling the American Destiny

In 1776, the 13 British colonies in America declared On their return journey, Lewis left ^

themselves independent and Britain, to defend her posses- Clark in the Bitterroot Range in order
to look for a more direct route.
sions, went to war. But the Americans won the struggle, and
in 1783 the colonies became the first 13 "united states".
Even before the United States had
become owner of Louisiana, President
Jefferson planned an expedition west.
Led by Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809)
and William Clark (1770-1838), its
purpose was to find a water route to
the Pacific coast.
Lewis and Clark left St. Louis only
five months became
after Louisiana
part of the United They
traveled up the Missouri, and on
its banks built Fort Mandan, where

they wintered. There, they obtained

the services of a reliable Indian
guide. She led them through the
Rocky Mountains, and in Novem-
ber 1805, they arrived at the Paci-
fic. In December, they made a short

voyage out to sea before preparing

for the winter. Not until March 1806
did they start their journey home.
On 23 September 1806, the explor-
ers arrived back in St. Louis.
They had opened the way for future
transcontinental journeys, and had
shown United States fur traders
the potential of the West. They were
careful and systematic explorers, and
as such they marked the beginning of
Independent of Spam 1821 a new era of exploration.

Lewis and Clark left St. Louis on 14

May 1804, and reached the Pacific
© Geographica! Pi^ojec
coast 18 months later.

The new American nation ruled all west. At however, these western

the territories east of the frontiers were not clearly defined.

Mississippi, that had belonged to According to the Spanish rulers
Britain since 1763. Louisiana —now of Mexico, the boundary lay on
taken to refer only to the land the Red River, while the United
west of the Mississippi had from — States believed that it ran along the
the same date been a Spanish pos- Rio Grande, which would add a
session but in 1801, by a secret strip of land some 500 miles wide
treaty, Spain ceded the whole area to the United States. This disputed
to France. For the newly formed —
area included Texas whose bound-
United States, this was an unde- aries differed from those of present-
sirable change. The France of —
day Texas which sought to break
Napoleon Bonaparte was aggressive free from Mexican rule.
and warlike, very different from As the dispute continued, United
weak Spain. Besides, Spain had States explorers pushed into what the
allowed the United States to use Spanish regarded as their territory
New Orleans, a strategic southern and, in retaliation, the Spanish
port. Fearing that France might clapped them in jail. And indeed,
close this vital outlet to United in 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty
States shipping. President Jefferson substantiated the Spanish claim to
sent an envoy to Paris to try to vhe region by fixing the boundary
buy New Orleans. Imagine his sur- line along the Red River.
prise when Napoleon oflFered to sell In 1821, Mexico^ncluding Texas
him of Louisiana.
all — became independent of Spain, and
In 1803, for a price of some 15 over the next years, many Americans
million dollars, Louisiana Terri- went there to live. In 1835, the
tory became part of the United Texas Americans revolted against
States. The acquisition of such a Mexico, and Texas became an
vast area of land doubled the size independent republic the following
of the American nation and, in one year. In 1845, the republic of Texas
84 giant step, its frontiers were pushed became part of the United States.
Following the United States pur-
of Louisiana, explorers
began to penetrate the American
Southwest. In 1806, Zebulon Pike
(1779-1813), an army officer, was
sent to investigate the headwaters of
the Arkansas and Red rivers, and to
make peace between two warring
Indian tribes. This was not his first
journey of exploration, for in 1805-6
he had traveled up the Mississippi
to Leech Lake, establishing the
United States in the area in the face
of infiltration south from British
North America.
Pike's official orders for his 1806
journey forbade him to enter Spanish
territory, but his party became
lost among the foothills of the
Rockies, and mistook the head-
waters of the Rio Grande for those
of the Red. Following the Rio
Grande, the explorers found them-
selves in Spanish country, and they
were arrested and taken to Santa Fe.
Their records were confiscated, and
they themselves were sent on to Chi-
huahua, from which they were
deported through Texas to the
United States.
Pike was the first American to
travel those regions and, despite
the loss of his notes, he wrote a
very detailed report. His work
opened the way for other explorers
and traders, but hardly encouraged
settlers, for he deemed the Arkansas
River region unfit for farming. From
his account arose a belief that the
central plains were a desert.
Pike's theory about the plains
was supported some 12 years later
by another army officer, Stephen
Long (1784-1864). Their adverse
reports led pioneers to settle the
Far West before the plains. Long's
journey was made after the signing
of the Adams-Onis Treaty, to obtain
detailed knowledge of the new bound-
ary area. His party traveled along
the Platte to the Rocky Moun-
tains. Then Long attempted to
return down the Red, which formed David
ing journey only to find that to discover theKlamath. A year
part of the Adams-Onis frontier. Thompson had already claimed later, travelingfrom Malheur Lake,
But the river he followed turned the Columbia region for Britain. Ogden discovered the Humboldt,
out to be the Canadian, and his ex- To inform Astor of this develop- which he called the Unknown. He
pedition brought back little in- ment, a party under Robert Stuart went on to the Great Salt Lake, re-
formation of any worth. (1785-1848) set out east. The War turned to Malheur Lake, and pushed
Meanwhile, farther north, fur of 1 8 1 2 broke out before they reached north to the John Day River. In 1829-
traders had moved westward after Astor, and Fort Astoria passed into 30, he journeyed to the Colorado,
Lewis and Clark's expedition, and British hands. But Stuart's journey becoming the first w hite man to cross
fur companies were to play an was not altogether wasted, for he the West from north to south.
important part in opening up those discovered South Pass, a 20-miIe-wide Another, almost legendary, pioneer
lands. Manuel Lisa founded the gap in the Rockies, which could be was Jedediah Smith (1798-1831). In
Missouri Fur Company in 1807, and used by settlers going west. 1826-7, Smith traveled \ia the Great
John Jacob Astor, a New York Another fur trader, Peter Skene Salt Lake to San Gabriel (today the
merchant, established the Pacific Fur Ogden ( 1 794- 1 854), was to do much to city of Los Angeles), becoming the
Company in 1810. He sent an open up the northwest United States. first American to reach California

expedition by sea to build Fort In 1824-5, he traveled across the Blue overland. This territory was part of
Astoria at the mouth of the Colum- Mountains to the Snake River, then the newly independent land of
bia, and another overland. north to the Bitterroot Range, and Mexico, and the Mexican officials at
Astor's overland expedition was south to the Great Salt Lake. From San Gabriel made Smith appear be-
led by Wilson Price Hunt (1782?- Fort Vancouver, in 1826 he traveled fore the governor at San Diego
86 1842), whose party endured a gruel- up the Deschutes, then turned west before he could continue his journey.
6^ ^''^~~ Astorjans 'Hunt & Stoarti 2 1811-3

.- Long 4 3 1819-20

-\^ Fremont w.ih Nicoiiet ^4^ 1836-40

\^Fremo< 4b I8i
4c > 1842 f^aa:,,^

4d 1843-4 4
4f. ia_48-
trom Army 4g 1B53-4

Then, skirting San Gabriel and turn- Trail, although later, owing to one American, John Sutter, built
ing inland, he crossed the mountains Indian hostility, it had to be changed. Sutter's Fort. In 1wagons
822, the first
via the Tehachapi Pass, and passed Yet another important link in were seen on the Midwestern plains
north into the San Joaquin Valley. communications with the West was when William Becknell led a wagon
Turning east, he crossed the Sierra discovered by Joseph Reddeford train along the trail he had blazed to
Nevada and the Great Basin the — Walker (1798-1876), who in 1832 Santa Fe. Soon, long lines of covered
great desert of Nevada —
to the Great joined a fur-trading and scientific wagons became a familiar sight on the
Salt Lake and Bear Lake. That same expedition led by Benjamin Bonne- plains, as settlers pushed northwest
year, he journeyed via San Gabriel to ville. In 1833, Walker was com- along the California and Oregon
Monterey, where he was arrested. missioned to explore the Great Salt trails, or followed Becknell's route
After his release, Smith took a Lake and its surroundings, and from southwest to Santa Fe. From Santa
ship to San Francisco Bay, then there he followed the Humboldt Fe, the pioneers either moved south-
made his way up the Sacramento, River, crossing the Sierra Nevada to west along the Gila Trail, or turned
and down the Willamette to Fort Monterey. His return journey led northwest along the Old Spanish
Vancouver, where the Canadian fur him around the southern end of the Trail. Part of the Mormon Trail was
traders welcomed him. Pushing up Sierra Nevada, and it was then that carved out in 1846-7 by Brigham
the Columbia, he crossed to Flathead he discovered Walker Pass. Young and the Mormons in their
Post, from which he traveled south By the time of Walker's journey, trek to theGreat Salt Lake, and soon
through the Bitterroot Range, then Americans were already settling in others were using this trail to cross
turned east. the extreme West. In California, they from the Oregon to the Old Spanish
Smith's first journey had helped to obtained land grants from Mexico trails. The trails gave the settlers a
fix the route of the Old Spanish and, in the Sacramento Valley, measure of safety, but the dangers 87
O Geographical Projects

A Trails the settlers followed west. American Far West. One of its mem- interest in the area and fully awakened
bers, John Charles Fremont (1813- the spirit of Manifest Destiny in the
were still numerous, and many died 1890), earned the nickname "Path- United States.
from hardship, or in Indian attacks. finder", so were
detailed his By the mid- 1 840's, tension was high
In 1848, gold was discovered at explorations. Fremont's career began between the United States and
Sutter's Fort, and immediately there in 1838-40, when he surveyed the Mexico, and when Fremont set out on
was a rush of prospectors to the Missouri-Mississippi area with J. N. his next journey, he was also
West. They were known as "Forty- NicoUet (1786-1843). In 1841, he equipped to fight. When he heard that
Niners", from the year the first party made a survey of the Des Moines war had broken out, he rallied the
arrived in California. They were River,and his next expedition, in 1 842, Califomian Americans, and managed
interested in wealth, not exploration, disproved Pike's theory of a "Great to gain complete control of northern
and the discoveries they made were American Desert". By showing that California. Fremont retired from
few, but they greatly increased Cali- the land west of the Mississippi the army not long afterward, but
fornia's population —
in one year some was good for cultivation, he inspired he continued his exploits as an
80,000 migrants reached the West. pioneers to settle the plains. In explorer. Later, he made two inde-
In 1838, the United States Army 1843-4, he examined the area from pendent expeditions, seeking a route
Reorganization Act set up a Corps the Columbia south to Mexico and for a railroad to the West.
of Topographical Engineers to make east to the Great Salt Lake. His
a scientific investigation of the investigation of California fostered Wagon train attacked by Indians.
%e Continent Revealed
After the expeditions of John and the Missouri, and followed the unknown) worked in the country
Charles Fremont, few major Yellowstone for some of its course. northwest of Santa Fe, gaining the
geographical discoveries remained to In part, his expedition was conceived first clear idea of the area's river

be made in North America. From his to find routes for military expeditions system. William F. Raynolds (dates
time on, the story of the West was against the Sioux Indians. The map of unknown) crossed from the Cheyenne
that of the pioneer, the man traveling the area that he completed in 1857 to the Powder River, and followed the
in search of land and opportunity, was the most accurate and compre- Yellowstone and the Bighorn rivers.
the man through whose efforts the hensive to be made of the region at He crossed the watershed to the
American West would be tamed. that time. Snake, then recrossed it to reach
But before extensive settlement could In 1857, Joseph Ives (1828-1868) the Missouri at Three Forks. From
take place, detailed scientific knowl- traveled up the Colorado to find Three Forks, he continued down the
edge of the southern and western how far it was navigable, and Missouri to St. Louis.
United States was necessary. Such succeeded in reaching the Black By the mid-1860's, the surveyors'
information would pinpoint the best Canyon by boat. Retracing his steps, work had resulted in a number of
regions to settle, and pave the way he crossed to the Grand Canyon, railroads being built in the Midwest.
for the building of railroads. then continued to Fort Union. James In 1862, work was started on the
The army in particular sent out Hervey Simpson (1813-1883) twice first transcontinental railroad, and

a series of surveying expeditions. In crossed the Great Basin during seven years later the link between
the mid-1850's, Gouverneur Kemble reconnaissance for a wagon road, and California and the east coast was com-
Warren (1830-1882) examined the explored the region of the Great plete. At last, the dream of Manifest
region between the North Platte Salt Lake. John M. Macomb (dates Destiny was fulfilled.

the mid-1 800's, from the vast 1818, the United States and Britain In treaties made in 1824 and 1825
By lands of North America, two signed a treaty allowing the citizens
of both countries to trade and settle
with the United States and Great
great transcontinental nations had Britain, Russia's southern frontier
been forged. One, it is true, was still in Oregon; but by 1846 so many in America was recognized as 54°40'.
closely linked to but the
Britain, Americans had entered the region that In 1867, Alaska was sold to the
other had been independent since a firm frontier had become imperative. United States for more than seven
1783. These same two nations still In that year, the 49th parallel was million dollars.
rule North America today. fixed as the boundary of Oregon, After gained control of
The United grew from the
States making it even with that of Louisiana New France 1763, the region
original Thirteen Colonies, to which Territory. became known as the Province of
were added British lands east of the Texas, the region to the southwest Quebec. In 1791, the Province was
Mississippi, and Louisiana, which of Louisiana, had become inde- divided into two parts, Upper and
had been bought from France. At pendent of Mexico in 1836, and was Lower Canada. In Upper Canada
first, Louisiana's northern boundary admitted to the United States in lived Americans who, loyal to Britain,
was disputed with Britain, but in 1818 1845. A dispute over the new state's had fled to Canada during the
the 49th parallel was established as exact frontiers led to the outbreak American Revolution, whereas
that territory's frontier. United States of war with Mexico, but by the 1848 Lower Canada was populated by the
lands north of this line were ceded to treaty ending the war, all Mexican Canadian French. The region west of
Britain, and British lands south of it territories west to, and including, these provinces was still ruled by the
to the United States. Florida, retaken California, became part of the United Hudson's Bay Company. In 1867,
by the Spanish during the American States. In 1853, to settle the southern the Dominion of Canada was formed.
Revolution, was bought from Spain —
boundary which was still a disputed Upper Canada became the province
for five million dollars in 1819, and —
area James Gadsden purchased the of Ontario, and Lower Canada the
passed formally to the United States Mesilla strip from Mexico for the province of Quebec. Two other prov-
in 1821. United States. inces. New Brunswick and Nova
To the northwest of Louisiana The extreme northwestern tip of Scotia, also joined the dominion, and,
lay the region known from the early —
North America Alaska had been— as time passed, others were carved out
1800's asOregon Country. At that claimed by Russia since 1741, for of the Hudson's Bay Company lands.
time, Russia and Spain also laid in that year, the Russian navigator Thus, in less than 400 years after
claim to Oregon, but by 1825 both Vitus Bering had landed there. After America's discovery, from a vast
had relinquished their claim to 1 799, the region was governed by the unknown continent, two great and
Britain and the United States. In Russian-American trading company. prosperous nations had been formed. 91
7 ^outh America
Southward from the Isthmus of Panama stretches the second great continent of the
New World. From its northernmost point in Colombia, some 830 miles north of
the equator, it —
spans more than 40° of latitude to its southernmost point Cape
Horn. This vast land mass encompasses many regional types, mountains,
deserts, and pampas (grasslands). In the selvas of the Amazon basin, it holds
the largest continuous area of low-lying tropical forest in the world.
With the exception of the pampas, these widely contrasting regions

have one outstanding characteristic their impenetrabihty to man.
Explorers could enter the selvas up the Amazon River and its
tributaries, but once on land, travel became impossible. The
jungles are so dense that a path cannot be cleared, torrential
rain frequently turns the land into a sea of mud, and incessant
damp rots supphes. The Andes, with their rugged passes and
harsh chmate, formed a barrier to exploration in the western
part of the continent, and the near-desert that covered much
of the south proved an obstacle too. Even in the pampas
the temperate grasslands —
of southern South America,
little exploration took place.

The difficulties of terrain and chmate were not the only

obstacles in the way of explorers in South America. The

inhabitants both human and animal —were no more
welcoming than the land. The Indians —the continent's
original peoples — struggled for self- survival, and were
fiercely and bitterly resentful of the Europeans. Vicious
insects, wild animals, and poisonous snakes abounded.
Even the shortest journey was a hazardous undertaking.
Nevertheless, from the time of the conquistadors to the
present century, explorers have found that the fascination
of South America outweighs the dangers it holds. Some, such
as the buccaneers of the 1500's and 1600's, traveled there in
search of gold, but others have sought a different treasure
the scientific data that can be obtained nowhere else in the
world. In their journeys, the explorers outhned and then opened up
South America, sailing its rivers and climbing its mountain peaks
but the country's hostihty to intruders remains implacable, and
vast stretches are still to be explored. So dense are the jungles, and
so quickly do they grow, that they can soon mask the features, and
change the appearance of the land. Perhaps somewhere, remains of an
ancient civilization rivaling that of the Inca may be hidden, for certainly
unexpected riches have already been found. In 1911, high in the Andes,
Hiram Bingham discovered the ruins of the ancient city of Machu Picchu,
perhaps the last stronghold of the Inca. The sacred city of Chavin de Hauntar,
built in the 700's, was discovered by Julio C. Tello in 1943. In a continent that
holds some of the last stretches of land in the world to remain unexplored, who
can tell what strange and fascinating discoveries may still be made.



^he Search for El Dorado

Even before the Spanish had con-

quered the Inca Indians, their
hearts began to beat faster at a
new and exciting tale. Somewhere
in South America, they heard, lay
yet another fabulous kingdom. Its
monarch was known as El Dorado
the "gilded one" —because each day
he dusted his body with gold. At
a time when every explorer's dream
was treasure, no story could have
attracted adventurers more.
The seekers for El Dorado were
doomed to disappointment, for no
such monarch existed. But their
quest led to the exploration of
much of northern South America,
and to the conquest of the last of the
rich Indian kingdoms there. This
was the land of the Chibcha Indians
on the plateau of Bogota.
In 1536, Gonzalo Jimenez de Que-
sada led an expedition south from
the Caribbean coast in search of
El Dorado's kingdom. While the
main part of his force marched over-
land, ships sailed up the Magdalena
River carrying supplies. The voyage
was difficult, and one ship partially
wrecked, but the survivors did even-
tually meet the land force, and
they continued south together. On
the plateau of Bogota, Jimenez de
Quesada founded the town of Santa
Fe. Later called Santa Fe de Bo-
gota, and then simply Bogota, it is
today the capital of Colombia.
In that region, Jimenez de Que-
sada made contact with the Chibcha, -10'
and abandoned his search for El
Dorado to plunder their wealth. His
expedition amassed vast treasure, Ciiidad de los Reyei \ ^

besides opening much previously un-

known country, but his only reward
was, in the 1560"s, to be appointed PACIFIC ' ^-^ ^^ ^^
councilor at Santa Fe de Bogota. He
took up his post in 1565 and, in
1569-71, made another expedition,
reaching the Orinoco River.
Gonzalo Pizarro was the next Span- oLr © Geographical Projatfs

iard to search for El Dorado, during

an expedition whose principal ob-
ject was to find a land where the Quito, a sadly ragged and depleted tained the Nina on Columbus' first

valuable cinnamon spice grew. Such force, early Jime 1542, and
in voyage, had discovered the river's
a country was supposed to lie to branded Oreilana a deserter. mouth, and named it Rio Santa Maria
the east of Quito, and from Quito, According to Oreilana, however, de la Mar Dulce. But when Oreilana
Gonzalo had to travel across the his boat had been swept down the sailed down the Amazon from its

snowbound Andes, then through the Coca and into the Napo.
River, confluence with the Napo, he became
densely forested Amazon basin with Then, when he had found food, the the first white man to explore the
its numerous streams and swamps. current had been too strong for river's course. His adventurous voy-
The hardships of travel were con- him to return upstream. He had age was recorded by a companion,
siderable worse, supplies ran
but, therefore followed the only course Caspar de Carvajal (dates unknown),
short, and Gonzalo delegated Francis- open to him —
to continue his voy- a Dominican friar. Of all De Car-
co de Oreilana to sail down the age east. In February 1541, he vajal's tales,the one that most
Coca River to find food. Oreilana reached the point where the Napo intrigued Europe was of an that
did not reappear, and although Gon- flows into the Amazon River. encounter with warrior women, rem-
zalo and his men struggled some Oreilana was not the first Euro- iniscent of the Amazons of clas-
way down the river after him, they pean to see the Amazon. On a sical legend. It was after these
could not find him, and eventually voyage to South America in 1499- mythical beings — the Amazons — that
94 had to turn back. They arrived in 1 500, Vicente Pinzon, who had cap- the river was named.

In 1595, the English
adventurer the Caroni, and then up the Caroni, Raleigh that if he found the kingdom,
Walter Raleigh,
pioneer of the they found no trace of El Dorado. a free pardon should be his. But this
Virginia colonies, joined the search The following year, however, when new venture, led by Raleigh, his
for El Dorado's kingdom. He hoped Keymis was sent back to South son Walter ( 1 592 ?- 1 6
7), and Keymis,

that if he discovered it he could America, he brought back a report of was ill-fated from the start. Raleigh
restore himself to the good graces a lake named Parime, on the
situated was stricken by fever, and had to wait
of Oueen Elizabeth I, whose favor way to the city of the golden king. in Trinidad, and Keymis, although
he had forfeited by his marriage Twenty years passed before Raleigh he explored some way up the Orinoco,
to one
of the queen's ladies-in- could test the truth of Keymis' re- ruined the expedition's chances of
waiting. Raleigh sailed from Ply- Queen Elizabeth died,
port. In 1603, a happy outcome by attacking the
mouth, England, accompanied by and her successor. King James I, Spanish town of San Thome.
his nephew, John Gilbert (dates cordially disliked the gallant adven- Raleigh's son was killed and Keymis,
unknown), and Lawrence Keymis turer.Raleigh was arrested on a filled with remorse, committed sui-
(7-1617), a friend from Oxford Uni- trumped-up charge of treason, and cide. When Raleigh returned to
versity. Their goal was the Orinoco imprisoned in the Tower of London England after his disastrous expedi-
River, where Raleigh believed the until 1616. In that year, however, tion, the old charge of treason was
land of El Dorado lay. Although they KingJames himself became interested revived. In October 1618, Raleigh
sailed up the river to its junction with in El Dorado, and he promised was beheaded. 95
^laeu Maps the Americas


The sea pioneers, the conquista-

dors and pirates, the searchers
for El Dorado, all played their
part in making America
known to the world. By soon after
1630, when Willem Blaeu (1571-1638)
probably made his map of the
Americas, the outline of the continent
had already been established, and
parts of the interior had also been
explored. Explorers had made their
way into North America too, and
Blaeu had at his disposal far more
information than Ortelius did in
1570. His superior knowledge is
evident in the increased detail and
accuracy of his map.
The line of demarcation laid down
by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
between the territories of Spain and
Portugal gave Spain claim to most
of South America. The eastern
bulge of Brazil, however, fell within
the Portuguese sphere. From both
Spain and Portugal, throughout the
1500's and 1600's, settlers poured
into South America, setting up
ranches and plantations in the
accessible coastal lands. Blaeu's map
clearly divides these known coast-
lands from the vast, unexplored
interior. For those regions, he had
to rely on a combination of hearsay
and imagination to fill in the blanks
on his map. He shows Keymis' Lake
Parime as a vast inland sea strad-
dling the equator in Guiana, and the
strange peoples of rumor and wild
tales also found their way onto
the map.
Blaeu depicts Tierra del Fuego as
an island, and not as part of the
southern continent, even though
Terra Australis Incognita does ap-
pear on his map. The name Terra
Australis is given, however, to a
strangely indeterminate region, whose
boundaries are not defined. The
Amazon River is no longer formally
serpentine, and Blaeu's picture of its
course is close to reality, but the
Parana River, which flows into the
Rio de la Plata, is still exaggerated in
On the side margins of his map,
Blaeu shows the peoples of the

Americas the inhabitants of the
north are pictured in the left-hand
margin, while the peoples of South
America are shown to the right.
Along the top, vignettes depict the
towns of America, and it is interesting
that, although colonization of North
America had already started, all
those shown are in the center or
96 in South America.

%e Scientist-Adventurers

the year 1734, the French but they soon found that they were
InAcademy of Sciences commis- harassed by government officials
sioned two expeditions to take who found scientific procedures in-
measurements that would determine comprehensible, and thought the
once and for all the exact shape of the Frenchmen were searching for Inca
earth. One party of scientists was treasure. Only by visiting Lima could
to carry out its work in Lapland, La Condamine obtain an order
the other in the Pichincha province allowing them to work in peace.
of Ecuador, which straddles the Although his journey meant an eight-
equator. The expedition to Pichincha month delay in the project, it enabled
was led by Charles Marie de la him to see more of South America
Condamine (1701-1774), a French than he had ever dreamed.
nobleman who was also a distin- Battling with extremes of climate,
guished scientist. difficult terrain, and a hostile people,
La Condamine's party consisted not until 1743, near Cuenca, did
of 10 men, including an astronomer, La Condamine take his last measure-
Louis Godin des Odonais (1704-1760), ment. By then, his survey was un-
and a mathematician, Pierre Bouguer necessary, for the Lapland party had
(1698-1758), as well as a draftsman, a obtained the necessary proofs. Their
botanist, and a doctor. They sailed mission over. La Condamine and
from La Rochelle, France, in May Maldonado sailed down the Amazon
1735, and traveled via Cartagena, River, the first time that a trained
Colombia, and Panama to Manta, scientist had traveled its waters.
Ecuador. Then, while the others con-
tinued to Pichincha by the usual The South American llanos.

route through Guayaquil, La Conda- After La Condamine's journey, the La Condamine's work was to be
mine and Bouguer stayed on the South American interior was no continued by a German scientist,
coast to take their first measure- longer totally unknown and myster- Alexander von Humboldt ( 1 769- 1 859).
ments. There, they met Pedro Vin- ious. Vast areas did, however, re- Accompanied by the doctor and bota-
cente Maldonado ( 1 704- 1 748 ?), a keen main to be explored. His expedition nist Aime Bonpland (1773-1858),
amateur scientist, who volunteered was to have one amazing sequel the — Humboldt sailed for South America
to lead La Condamine to Pichincha journey of Isabela Godin des Odonais in 1799.Their journey was made
via the httle-used Rio Esmeraldas (1729?-?), the wife of Louis Godin under the protection of the king of
route. On the journey. La Condamine des Odonais. In 1769, she set out Spain, who gave them official permis-
made many observations preparatory down the Amazon to join her husband sion to travel anywhere on the conti-
to the start of his survey, and viewed who was then on the Atlantic coast, nent — still mainly under Spanish rule
with fascination the strange tropical but her journey was a catalog of — in return for a report on mineral
world. He discovered rubber, which, All Madame Godin des
disasters. deposits and special metals there.
although known to the Spanish, Odonais' companions died, and it Humboldt first set himself to
had never been seen in Europe, and was only with the help of friendly investigate the possibility of a water
the precious metal platinum. Indians that she managed to reach link between the Orinoco and the
In Quito, capital of Pichincha, the river mouth to be reunited with Amazon river system, which had
98 the scientists began their survey, her husband at last. been reported by La Condamine, but

La G>n dam ine (withGodin d«sOdooais,Bougu«r&partyl la I73S-6
La Condamine with Bouguar & Maldonsdo lb 1736
La Condamine 1c 1737
La Condamine with Maldonsdoi ,
'd 1742-5

Madame Godin des Odonais ^ 1769-70

Humboldt with Bonpiand 3a 1799-1800
Humboldf ».th Bonpta^'d 3b 1801-3

60° 50°

which that explorer had not been where they packed up the surviving lena River, which they followed up-
able to check. Humboldt and Bon- botanical specimens. Of the three stream into the Andes. They then
piand crossed the llanos, the dry almost identical collections, one journeyed south through the moun-
tropical grasslands of northern South remained in Cuba, while the other tains, descending to the coastal plain
America, to the Apure, then sailed two were shipped to Europe. Luckily, north of Lima, Peru, constantly
up the Orinoco. As they went, they the two collections were dispatched observing and recording all they saw.
made observations and collected separately, for the ship carrying one They climbed high up Mount Chim-
botanical specimens, few of which was wrecked, and the hard-won borazo, and visited the Inca city of
survived the damp and the voracious specimens lost. Cajamarca. They witnessed an erup-
insects. From the Atabapo River, In 1801, the scientists returned to tion of Cotopaxi, and realized the
they crossed to the Negro, sailing South America. This time their value of guano as a fertilizer. Their
down it as far as the Casiquiare, goal was the Andes, for Humboldt work continued magnificently the
which proved to be the link they wanted to gather information in researches of La Condamine, opening
sought. Then, they headed back down northwestern South America that northern South America to the world.
the Orinoco to Angostura, and re- would enable him to map accurately Now, realizing the treasures that lay
crossed the plains to the coast. the entire continent north of the hidden in the continent, countless
Their first task completed, Hum- Amazon. The two men traveled from scientists and explorers would travel
boldt and Bonpiand sailed for Cuba, . Cartagena, Colombia, to the Magda- there in their wake. 99
Naturalists and Explorers

In 1859, Britain was rocked by a new publication, which collectors, La Condamine had
suggested that the Biblical story of the Creation was untrue. returned with few specimens, and
Its author was Charles Darwin (1809-1882), a naturalist Humboldt and Bonpland had worked
farther north.
and in his youth a keen and adventurous explorer as well.
The Wallace brothers made their
base at Santarem. Then, after
spending several months in and
around the town, they continued with-
out Spruce to Manaus. There, in 1 850,
they were rejoined by Bates, who
went on to collect in the region
of Ega. Meanwhile, Herbert Wallace
had tired of collecting, and started
back down the Amazon on the first
stage of his journey home. He was,
however, never to reach England,
for he died of yellow fever in Para
while awaiting a ship. With him
when he died was Henry Bates,
who had been forced to return to
Para when his money was stolen.
From Manaus, Alfred Wallace had
sailed up the Negro River, and
there, and on the Uaupes, he spent
two years studying insect life. Only
on his return to Manaus did he hear
of Herbert's death. That tragedy,
Darwin book On the
called his A H.M.S. Beagle at anchor in Sydney coupled with persistent attacks of
Origin of Species by Means of Harbour, Australia. fever,made him decide to leave for
Natural Selection, or the Preser- home. But he was not deterred from
vation of Favoured Races in the vastatedConcepcion and other towns. making the expedition to Southeast
Struggle for Life. In it, he propounded He studied the plants, animals, and Asia, during which his theory of
the theory of evolution by means of people of South America, and made natural selection evolved.

natural selection that is, the gradual geological observations. On these, Bates, meanwhile, had traveled
change and development of plants Darwin's first surmise of how the back up the Amazon to Santarem, and
and animals by means of which they world had evolved was based. Impor- there he made his base until 1855,
survive. Darwin's theory implied that tant as his South American studies when he returned to Ega for a
the earth and life on it had developed were, however, they were only the further four years. On his first trip
slowly, instead of being created in prelude to his greatest work. On up the Amazon, he had collected
seven days, as the Bible affirms, and as the Galapagos Islands, in the Pacific hundreds of formerly unknown
most people then believed. Ocean, actual evidence for natural insects, and dozens of birds, and this
Darwin gathered his evidence on was found.
selection score increased progressively during
natural selection during the 1830's, Another naturalist, Alfred Wallace this later expedition. The collection
when he acted as honorary naturalist (1823-1913), conceived the principle he took back to England in 1859
on H.M.S. Beagle during a voyage to of natural selection quite independ- included more than 14,000 species of
complete a survey, which had been ently of Darwin. His idea was based animals, 8000 of which were formerly
begun in 1826, of the coasts of on observations he made in the forests unknown.
Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. of Southeast Asia but, like Darwin, Spruce, attracted by Wallace's
The Beagle was to extend the survey he had previously traveled in South leports of the rich botanical harvest
up the west coast to include Chile, America, arriving there in 1848 with to be garnered on the Negro River,
Peru, and some Pacific islands. Hen»-y Bates (1825-1892). Both men setout for it in 1851. He completed
The Beagle sailed from England on were entomologists naturalists Wallace's work on the Negro and
27 December 1831, and from Bahia, specializing in insect life. They made Uaupes rivers, and in 1854, he
Brazil, continued via Rio de Janeiro their first expeditions to collect returned to Manaus. From there he
to the Rio de la Plata. Then, for specimens in the country around traveled up the Amazon and made his
nearly three years, the ship tacked Para (present-day Belem) and up way to the Andes, where he spent
backward and forward along the the Tocantins River; then in Sep- several adventurous years, crossing
coasts of southernmost South Amer- tember 1848, they went their separate the mountains, and working
ica, and around the bleak shores of ways. Bates remained in Para, while among the western foothills and on
Tierra del Fuego, surveying as it Wallace made an expedition to the the coast. Eventually, he was forced
went. During the trips out to sea to mouths of the Amazon. For part of by ill health to return to England, but
take measurements, Darwin would the time, he was accompanied by an although he brought back 30,000
remain on land. To him. South orchid collector named Yates (dates plant specimens, he never received the
America was a new world, untamed unknown). Then Wallace, accom- credit that was his due. His pension
and unknown, and he experienced its panied by his brother Herbert was minute, and the only recognition
life to the full. With a gaucho (cow- (7-1851), who had just arrived in of his invaluable workman honorary
boy) guide, he traveled from Bahia South America, and by Richard Spruce —
doctorate of philosophy came from
Blanca to Buenos Aires across the (1817-1893), a botanist, set out up a German institution. Yet it was he
pampas, and at Valdivia he felt the the Amazon. At that time, the river who had opened the upper Amazon
100 tremors of an earthquake that de- basin was almost a virgin field for region to the world.
Oarwin'i •xpeditions:
2s 19 J5nu*ry - 7 February 1633 oilh small boaO
2b mid 1633
2c 11-17 August IS33 on hors«b«chl
2d e - 20 Sapiamba- 1833 ion hcMbeckl
2a V Sapiembsr - 7'>< Notambar IS33 on horsabact
and <n small bca>
2f U - 26 Novamba' 1833 ion horsaback
29 16-19 K/arc*^ 1634
2h 18 April - 8 May 1634 iwilh small boais'
2j 14 August - 27 Septambar 1634
2k 22-28 January 1835
2ni 13 SAarch - 10 Apnl 1835
2n 27 Apnl - 4 July 1835

C Gaographica Projacts

So vast was South America that,
even early in the 20th century, much
remained unknown. The unexplored
regions were the subject of much
sf)eculation, and rumors abounded
of "lost" tribes of fair-skinned
and strange cities no white
man had seen. While exploring the
jungle country south of the Amazon,
Percy Fawcett (1867-1925?) came
into possession of a document
about one such city, and resqlved
that he would find it. Fawcett
called this undiscovered city "^".
With his son Jack (7-1925?) and
Raleigh Rimell (?-1925?), Fawcett set
out in 1925 in search of Z. He was
well qualified to lead such an expedi-
tion, for his knowledge of South
America was extensive. After 1906,
he had carried out four surveys in
unknown country to determine the
boundaries of Peru, Bolivia, and
Brazil. He had also made other
expeditions into the vast, unexplored
heart of the continent. Fawcett
believed that Z was situated between
the Tocantins and Sao Francisco
rivers, and in that direction his
proposed route for the journey lay.
But, somewhere near the Xingu
River, Fawcett disappeared. Neither
he nor his companions were ever seen
To the west of the area where the
Fawcett expedition disappeared lies
a region called Rondonia, named
after Candido Rondon (dates un-
known), a Brazilian explorer. There,
in 1909, some
explorers located
the source a previously un-
known river which they called the

Rio Duvido the "River of Doubt" PACIFIC
— because they knew nothing of its
course. When Rondon heard that a
former President of the United States, OCEAN
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), was
planning an expedition to South
America, he suggested that they
should join forces to investigate
this stream. The party, which also
included Roosevelt's son Kennit
(1889-1943), traveled up the Paraguay Wallace & Bates
River, then across highland country Wallace iwith Yatml
Wallace with Herbert Wallace & Spruce
to the Rio Duvido's source. In Wallace with Herbert WaMace
seven dugout canoes, they set out to Wallace a''er meeting Bates in Manaus & aftei

Herbert Wallace s return to ParaJ

sail but this was much
down the river,
easier to plan than to accomplish. Bates
-2cr^ Bates aftef meeting Wallace brothers m Manaus
The upper course of the river was Bates based at Santarem
broken by numerous rapids, and in Bates based at E 9a I

nearly three weeks the expedition Sprvice

covered barely 70 miles, and lost Sprvx:e
four canoes. They built more, how-
ever,and continued to struggle on- Fawcett
ward, passing from the Duvido onto
the Aripuana, and following the
Aripuana to its junction with the
Madeira. Soon they were at the
Amazon itself. They had put a totally Fawcett (with his son & Rimell)
new river on the map of South Fawcetts projected route
America, a river that was renamed the
^ -^ ^— ^ Roosevelt Iwith his son & Rondon)
Theodore Roosevelt after the man
whose journey meant that it could no |0 Geographical Project!

102 longer be called the "River of Doubt".

8 'X^e Exploration
For Europeans in the 1500's, the continent of Asia was no new world to be discovered,
but a land whose history through the ages had been intertwined with theirs. It

was in Asia in the Fertile Crescent, in China, and in the valley of the Indus

River that the world's first civilizations had developed, and it was in Asia too
that all the world's great religions had been born. Since the very earliest
times, there had been intercourse between Europe and Asia, whether
caused by the ebb and flow of peoples, or by the necessity for trade. In
the days of the Roman Empire, Chinese silk was imported to Europe,
as was incense from Arabia, while in the 1200's European envoys
traveled east to the Mongol rulers, in an attempt to save Europe
from the all-conquering Mongol hordes. When the Portuguese
rounded southern Africa, the goal of their journeys was Asia,
for they longed to share the treasures that they knew came from
Asia's rich and fabled lands.
Although in the 1500's, Asia had long been known to
Europe, hundreds of years were to pass before the land mass
was fully explored. One reason for this was its size, for at
more than 17 million square miles in area Asia is the largest
of the world's continents. Within this huge area, too, lies
some of the world's most hostile terrain. The northern
coastlands of Asia lie north of the Arctic Circle and are
cold, desolate,and uninviting. In central Asia, great
deserts stretch for mile —
upon mile barren areas, noted
for their extremes of cold and heat. The deserts are broken
and enclosed by forbidding mountain ranges, which can
be crossed only by treacherous passes, and which include
some of the world's highest peaks. The Middle East

southwest Asia is another desert region: the Arabian
Peninsula in particular is one of the world's most barren lands.
The lands of Asia were hostile to foreigners, and so were
many of the Asian peoples. In Arabia, for example, after the
birth of the Islamic religion in the a.d. 600's, rehgious fanati-
cism was so pronounced that any Christian traveler risked death.
And, for long periods in the country's history, no foreigner was
permitted to enter Tibet. From the 1500's on, however, the explora-
tion of Asia went forward — the first steps were taken by Cossack
adventurers, by traders, by envoys, and by Jesuit priests. In the
1800's, the opening of central Asia became a political matter as the
great powers, Britain and Russia, struggled for influence, and later it was
the lure of Asia's past that led archeologists there. Not until the present
century was the puzzle at last completed, and then the newly known lands
would not remain open for long. For communism was soon to envelop much
of Asia and, as the iron curtain descended, the gates to the heartland closed.


^ New Map of Asia

that Abraham Ortelius
published in 1570 under the
title Theatrum Orbis Terrarum was
the foremnner of other, similar
collections of maps. Each gave an
updated, and progressively more
realistic, of the world. In
1585, Flemish cartographer,
Gerardus Mercator ( 1 5 1 2- 1 594), pub-
lished the first part of his atlas, and
four years later a second section
appeared. In 595, some months after

Mercator's death, his son Rumold

published a third section and the same
year saw the appearance of the
complete atlas of 107 maps.
Only two editions of this complete
atlas were ever published, how-
ever, in 1595 and Then, in1602.
1604, the plates were bought by the
Flemish cartographer Jodocus
Hondius (1563-1612). Over the next
60 years new editions appeared,
published by Hondius, his son
Henricus, and Henricus' brother-in-
law. The atlas was frequently revised,
and new maps added.
This map of Asia was included for
the first time in the 1623 edition of
the Mercator-Hondius atlas to
replace an earlier, less accurate
map. It was drawn by Willem Blaeu,
who until 1619 signed his work with
his patronymic Janszoon, and was
first published by itself about 1617.

Like the map Blaeu later drew of the

Americas, the margins of his map of
Asia are decorated with vignettes of
Asian peoples and towns.
By the time Blaeu drew his map,
the outline of the Asian continent
had been established, apart from
the Arctic coastline and the extreme
northeast. There, Blaeu shows a
strait, which he calls Anian, dividing
northeastern Asia from Alaska.
Such a strait, the Bering Strait, does
indeed exist. It was not until 1644-9,
however, that the Bering Strait was
discovered, and not until nearly a
hundred years later that its existence
was generally acknowledged. Farther
south, Korea (Corea) is shown as an
island, and India appears narrower
than it does on present-day maps.
Early in the 1600's, little more was
known about the interior of Asia
than days of Marco Polo, and
in the
Blaeu's map combines hearsay and
legend, as did most maps of his time.
Overtones of classical geography
linger on in the names "Arabia
Felix" and "Arabia Deserta" on the
Arabian Peninsula, and Marco Polo
had written of the "desert of Lop".
And Blaeu drew the Caspian Sea
oriented east-west, exactly as
Herodotus had described it more
than 2000 years before. 107
TTze Advance to Siberia

May 1553, three ships sailed from Mongol ruler turned him back. On his Semen Ivanov Deshnef (16057-1673),
InDeptford, England. Commanded second journey, Jenkinson reached founding what is now Nizhiye
by Sir Hugh WilloughbyC 7-1554), and Qazvin, Persia, returning to Moskva Kolymsk on the river's bank.
with Richard ChanceUor (7-1556) as with trading goods. From the mouth of
the Kolyma,
pilot-major, their mission was to Prior to the journeys of Chancellor Deshnef 's party took to the sea, and
find a Northeast Passage to China. and Jenkinson, the land of Muscovy sailed south around the coast, dis-
From Deptford, the ships steered had been unknown. For
virtually covering the Bering Strait, which
north, but north of the Lofoten Is- centuries, had formed part of the
it divides Siberia from Alaska. Desh-
lands they were separated in a storm. Mongol Empire, and only in 1480 nef's discovery of Bering Strait was,
Willoughby and his crew landed on had the Russians overthrown the however, never generally known. To
the Scandinavian coast in the region Golden Horde. Even in the 1500's, the south, Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov
of Vardo, where they had arranged the country was wild and lawless. (dates unknown) discovered the
to meet Chancellor, then sailed on, Western Muscovy was roamed by Amur River and traveled down it to
probably to Novaya Zemlya. Return- bands of warrior brigands the — its mouth. A shorter, easier route to
ing, the ship was wrecked off Vardo Cossacks —while Siberia, east of the the Amur from Yakutsk was
and all were drowned. Urals, was a strange, hostile land. found by Khabarov (dates unknown).
The second of the expedition's It was the Cossacks who pushed In 1689, Czar Peter I came to the
three ships disappeared completely. the frontiers of Russia east into throne of Russia. He set about mod-

The battle between Cossacks and Siberia. In 1579, Yermak Timofeyev

Mongols that decided Sibir's fate. (1540-15847) entered the employ of
a fur trader in the Ural Mountains.
and Richard Chancellor sailed alone His mission was to drive back the
around northern Scandinavia, and Mongol who had cut off fur
into the White Sea. At Colmagro from the east. In 1581,
(present-day Archangel) he landed to Yermak took the Mongol capital
find that he was in Muscovy —as Sibir, then sent a messenger to lay
Russia was then called. this newly conquered region at the
Abandoning the search for the feet of the czar. Ivan, delighted, made
Northeast Passage, Chancellor set out the Cossack his representative in
for Moskva (Moscow), the capital. Siberia but, before the news could
In Moskva, he met the Russian czar reach him, Yermak had been killed.
Ivan, and opened the way for Anglo- In 1587, Yermak's followers built
Russian trade. So pleased were the Tobolsk near the site of Sibir, then
English at Chancellor's achievement gradually they fanned out to the
that in 1555 they sent him to Moskva east. They traveled to the mouth of
again. He
secured from Ivan a trade the Ob River, and discovered the
monopoly in the White Sea for the Yenisei and the Lena rivers. Even-
Muscovy Company. tually, in 1638, they reached the Sea
In the year 1557, Antony Jenkinson of Okhotsk. Elisei Busa (dates un-
(7-1611), chief factor of the Muscovy known) discovered the Olenek and
Company, visited Moskva and was the Yana rivers, while Ivanov Postnik
well received by Czar Ivan who gave (dates unknown) traced the course of
him letters of introduction to help the Indigirka. In 1641-4, Mikhailo
him travel farther afield. On his first Stadukhin (dates unknown) traveled
journey, Jenkinson reached Bukhara from Yakutsk to the Kolyma River.
whence he had hoped to continue to In 1644, Stadukhin repeated his
108 China. At Bukhara, however, the journey down the Kolyma with

ernizing its cumbersome and primi- much valuable information, but on discover whether such a strait did
tive society, and pushed Russia's his returnto St. Petersburg his exist. All the supplies for Bering's
frontiers west to the Baltic Sea. achievements were hardly noticed. expedition were taken overland from
There, he buih St. Petersburg He therefore set out for his native St. Petersburg, and one ship was built

(present-day Leningrad) as the new Danzig, hoping to find recognition at Okhotsk,

and another on the
capital of his domains. More im- there. But again he failed and he Kamchatka before the
east coast of
portant from the point of view of returned to Russia where, in 1735, voyage began. It was 1728 when
exploration, he prompted the first he died in poverty. Bering, with his lieutenants Alexei
scientific surveys of Siberia. In Czar Peter's time, little was Chirikov (dates unknown) and
In 1719, the Prussian naturalist known of Deshnef's voyage, and Martin Spanberg (dates unknown),
Messerschmidt (7-1735) left St. such information as did exist was setout north. They sailed through
Petersburg to travel in the region of disputed. The czar was still uncertain Bering Strait —named after Bering
the Ob, Yenisei, and Amur rivers. For whether Asia and America were to the point where the coast bears
part of his journey, he was accompan- joined. In his possession, however, west. There, Bering turned back,
ied by the Swede Strahlenberg (dates he had a map, which marked a strait rightly convinced that he had passed
unknown), by which title Philipp dividing Siberia from Alaska, and in northernmost Asia. But, because he
Tabbertwas generally known. Messer- 1725 he commissioned the Danish had not sighted America, the strait's
schmidt traveled widely, collecting navigator Vitus Bering (1680-1741) to existence was not truly proved.
TAe Kingdom of Persia
To the Portuguese, Afonso d' Albuquerque's capture of
Hormuz was important because the city was a vital link in
the trade routes with the East. It showed Europe that the
Moslem monopolies could be challenged, and it focused
attention on the country at whose gateway Hormuz lay.
That was the kingdom of Persia, a rich and fabulous land.

European was nicknamed the "Great Game".

first to visit Persia
the English trader Antony In those years Britain sent a
Jenkinson and, indeed, it was almost number of diplomatic missions to
exclusively by the English that Persia Persia, one of them led by Sir
was explored. But the route Jenkin- Harford Jones Brydges (dates un-
son had followed was a long one, known), who was received by the
and dangerous, and, although other shah in 1809. Jones Brydges traveled
travelers did attempt it, they were north to Tabriz and sent expeditions
few. In 1581, however, John New- still farther north, and to the Caspian

berry, a merchant, was encouraged Sea. Britain also commissioned the

by the Levant Company to reopen exploration of unknown parts of
the ancient caravan route leading Persia and Afghanistan, and much
from the Mediterranean to the valuable information was acquired
Persian Gulf. Newberry made the by Charles Christie (7-1812) and
journey safely, then sailed from the Henry Pottinger(1789-1856)in 1810-2.
head of the gulf to Hormuz. He The two men set out from Bombay,
returned through Persia, becoming and traveled into Baluchistan dis-
the first Englishman to cross that guised as horse dealers. At Nushki,
N I S T A N country. In 1583, he was to lead a they separated, Christie to travel by
party to India using, and finding out a northerly route through Herat, and
more about, overland route.
this Pottinger to make his westing farther
In 1598, Anthony Sherley
Sir south. From Isfahan, they journeyed
(1565-1635?) and his brother Robert together to Qazvin, then, while
(15817-1628) traveled with John Christie pushed north, Pottinger
Manwaring (dates unknown) to continued to the Persian Gulf.
Persia search of adventure. At
in It was 100 years after Christie and

Qazvin, they entered the service of Pottinger's journey before the last
the Shah of Persia, helping him to blanks were filled in on the map of
reorganize his army to fight his Persia. This was achieved by the ex-
enemies, the Turks. In 1599, Anthony plorations of Percy Sykes (1867-
Sherley was sent as ambassador to 1945). In 1893, Sykes traveled from
Europe and left Persia with Man- Baku on the Caspian to Meshed,
waring. Some 10 years later, Robert then south to Kerman and Bushire.
Sherley too became an ambassador That year and the next, he explored
for the shah. Despite all his eff'orts Persian Baluchistan, continuing to
I N Dl to seek allies for Persia, when he Astrakhan via Kerman and Teheran.
returned there for the last time in His next journey started at Baku in
1627 he was coldly received. 1894, and in 1896 he served on the
The party with which Robert Perso-Baluch boundary commission,
Sherley returned to Persia in 1627 in- subsequently investigating a political
cluded another Englishman, Thomas dispute in the Karun valley in south-
Herbert (dates unknown). Herbert west Persia. The following year, he
spent more than a year in the country was again in Baluchistan, surveying
and wrote a popular account of it. much unexplored country, and in
During the 1600's, merchants also 1898 he pioneered a route for the
visited Persia, but they contributed Central Persian Telegraph Line. He
little to exploration and, in England's then explored south of Kerman and,
race for the treasures of India, the from 1902 to 1906, in the regions of
country was almost forgotten. It Kerman and Meshed, finally spend-
was, however, because of India that ing four more years traveling in the
English interest in Persia revived. northeast, between Meshed and the
Early in the 1800's, India, the Caspian Sea. In 1907, just after he
British Empire's most valued pos- had started this final phase of ex-
session, was seriously threatened by ploration, the "Great Game" ended
Russian expansion. Persia, with Af- in Persia when Britain and Russia
/ ghanistan and Kashmir farther east, divided the country into three, in
/ provided a buffer between India the north was a Russian zone,
and Russia, and Britain therefore divided from southwest Persia,
/ wanted to extend its influence there. Britain's province, by a neutral
Russia, too, tried to gain power in central area. The country remained
the area. The struggle between the two divided until after World War I. Ill
^nto the Heartland

©Geographical P

The Portuguese had sailed east- When De Goes reached Suchow, these great mountains, severed by
ward and had established trade Cathay's westernmost limit, he sent them from the Indian subcontinent,
with China, Marco Polo had a messenger to Matteo Ricci, head of lies Tibet, one of the most inacces-
traveled overland to a country he the Jesuit mission in Peking. From sible countries in the world. Tibet
called Cathay. In the 1600's, when Ricci, De Goeslearned that Cathay contains some of earth's most deso-
geographical knowledge of Asia was was indeed the same place as China. late regions and highest mountain
limited, Europeans were unsure No sooner had the message reached peaks. It was this inhospitable land
whether these two places were the De Goes than he died. His was that the Jesuits would next try to
same. In 1603, therefore, Bento de the first overland journey to China reach. Rumors had penetrated India
Goes (1562-1607) was sent overland since the 1300's, and it helped fix that there were Christians in Tibet,
from India to try to reach Cathay. the country's position on the map. and in 1624 Antonio de Andrade
He traveled as a Moslem merchant, De Goes had had to travel by a (15807-1634) set out to see whether
and journeyed through Kabul and roundabout way to China, for no this was true.
Yarkand. While waiting for a caravan caravan route crossed the Himalaya, Andrade, disguised as a Hindu on
from Yarkand to Suchow, he visited the vast mountain range guarding a pilgrimage, traveled to Badrinath,
112 the jade mines at Khotan. India's northern frontier. North of then struggled over the 18,000-foot

Cacella set out again for Shigatse,

but when he arrived in February 1630
he was gravely sick, and only seven
days later he died. The following
year, Cabral too returned to Shigatse,
but he was recalled to India in 1632.
The next Jesuits to reach Tibet
traveled there by a far longer and
even more hazardous route they —
came all the way from China, an
overland journey made necessary by
the Dutch closure of sea routes to
the East. Johann Grueber (1623-1680)
and Albert d'OrvUle (1621-1662)
trekked from Peking to Koko Nor,
then southwest to Lhasa, where they
stayed for some six weeks. They were
the first Europeans to visit Lhasa
Tibet's capital —
for 300 years. After
leaving Lhasa, the Jesuits made their
way through Nepal to Agra, and
there D'Orville died. Grueber, how-
ever, continued his journey westward,
traveling down the Indus and
through Makran, southern Persia,
and Mesopotamia to the Mediter-

T Matteo Ricci.

Azevado 4 163 -2

G'liebsr &DOrv:i:e 5 166:-^

Oesidari & Froyre .
^ 4.

Freyre t=
Oejider, 6
Desider 60 /ZD

Hue .with Gat*?' 7a 1S44-6

t'uc^^^H^ 7b 1846-9

Mana Pass to the city of Tsaparang. the Jesuit returned to India. The ranean Sea and Rome. His account
There, ahhough he found no Chris- rejoicing was, however, short-lived, of his journey describes the route in
tians, the Buddhist ruler received him for the Buddhists remained hostile and added much to European
warmly and the following year to theJesuits, and in 1635 the knowledge of Asia in his day.
Andrade returned to found a church. mission was abandoned for good. In 1714, IppoUto Desideri (1684-
He remained in Tsaparang until Meanwhile, in eastern Tibet, Joao 1733), who had the previous year
1630, when he was recalled to be- Cabrai (1599-1669) and Estevao arrived in India, set out for Tibet
come Jesuit superior in Goa. Not Cacella (1585-1630) had founded a with Emmanuel Freyre (1679-?). In
long after he had left, his mission mission at Shigatse but soon Cabral Leh, they were received kindly, and
was overthrown by the Buddhists. had to return to India for supplies. the king tried to persuade them to
In 1631, therefore, Francisco de Cacella, meanwhile, tried to reach found a mission, but Freyre was
Azevado (1578-1660) was sent to Leh the Tsaparang mission, but snow determined to return to India. Hoping
to persuade the king of Ladakh forced him to abandon his attempt, to find a safer route, Desideri and
to allow the mission to continue. and he therefore continued to India Freyre set out east for Lhasa, traveling
The king granted the necessary per- by the usual route, to rejoin Cabral from Gartok to the Tibetan capital
mission and, with this good news. atCooch Behar. In September 1629, over a road that no other European 113
would use for nearly 200 years. From and was by George Bogle (1746-
Lhasa, Freyre returned south through 1781). Boglewas the first Englishman
Nepal, but Desideri remained in Tibet to travel beyond Nepal and Bhutan,
until 1721. For months after
six and the first European for over 100
Freyre's departure, he was the only years to reach Shigatse. There, he met
European in Lhasa and he wrote an the Tashi Lama, Tibet's second most
excellent account of Tibet. powerful Buddhist leader. Bogle
was the last attempt by
Desideri's established good relations with the
the Jesuits to found a Tibetan Tashi Lama, and made a detailed
mission, and other religious orders report on the trade of the northeast
met with no more success. In the frontier of India, but the British
mid-1 800's, however, two mission- unable to take advantage of what he
aries did manage to reach Lhasa. had learned because the authorities
Evariste Regis Hue (1813-1860) and in Lhasa refused to allow other
Joseph Gabet (dates unknown), while foreigners into Tibet. The ruler of
working in China, decided to preach Bhutan, a Himalayan country
in Tibet and they set out for thait through which the route lay to Tibet,
country in 1844. In Lhasa, they were also proved intransigent. Although
welcomed, but religious teaching was he would allow goods to pass through
forbidden and the Chinese resident his country, he refused permission
decided to send the missionaries for English merchants themselves to
back to China. They left Lhasa, use the route.
under escort, in March 1846 and In 1783, Hastings sent a second
reached China again in June. Their mission to Tibet, led this time by

route the main road from Lhasa to Samuel Turner (17497-1802). The

China passed through treacherous occasion chosen for the journey was
the reincarnation of the Tashi
T Leh, the capital of Ladakh. —
Lama the time when, according to

2 1783-4

ining 3 1811-2

4a 1808
Hisarsey I with Moorcrofti 4b 1812

AAoorcroft 5 1819-25

''Noin Singh 68 1865-6

part with Mam Singhl
Nain Singh (with Main Singh 6b 1867
& Kalian Singhl
Nwn° Singh (with Kishen Singh 6c 1873
& Main Singhl
Nain Singh ,
6d 1873-5

Kishen Singh |A.K.) 4 «- 7a 1869

Kishen \Singh i> / 7b 1871-2
Kishen Slngtui,.-^-' t 7c 1873-4
Kishen Singh | 7d 1878-82

Kintup (K.P.) 8 1879-83


mountains and was no more than a Tibetan belief, the soul of the dead even entered the "forbidden city"
track. Hue wrote a detailed if — lama returns to earth in another as Lhasa was by then known.
somewhat unreliable account —
of body. When Turner was in Tibet, the Manning was the first Englishman
theirjourney across the heartland of reincarnated Tashi Lama was only to visit Lhasa and the first to see the
Asia, and his marvelous report of 18 months old. Dalai Lama, Tibet's supreme ruler,
Lhasa fascinated the world. Turner's journey told the British but his visit to the Tibetan capital
The Jesuits had seen Tibet as a much about Tibet, but an oppor- lasted barely four months. The
field for their missionary activities; tunity never arose for this informa- Chinese officials there made it abun-
the British who followed them there tion to be used. In 1788, Tibet was dantly clear that he was not welcome
had a different interest in the land. attacked by Gurkhas, a people from and in April 1812 he left for India.
They regarded Tibet as a possible Nepal, and although they were bought The first accurate geographical in-
trading partner for the British East off, in 1791 they returned and cap- formation about the mountain ranges
India Company, with its rule firmly tured Shigatse. The Gurkhas were of the western end of the Himalaya
established in India, had begun to only driven back with the aid of a was obtained by Hyder Jung Hearsey
look farther north. Later, too, Chinese army and, in return for (1782-1840), who in 1808 traveled
knowledge of Tibet was felt to be vital its help, China seized the oppor- alone in the region, and William
to India's security, for only thus could tunity to control of Tibet.
take Moorcroft (7-1825). Hearsey and
Britain guarantee the sub-continent's missions might be
Diplomatic Moorcroft disguised themselves as
northern frontier. over, but in 1811 an Englishman Indian fakirs (holy men) and traveled
The first British mission to Tibet traveling in an unofficial capacity into western Tibet. They penetrated
was sent there in 1774 by Warren did manage to reach Tibet. He was to the far side of the Himalaya and
114 Hastings, India's governor general, Thomas Manning (1772-1840), and he visited Lake Manasarowar. Seven
years later, Moorcrott, with an East ploying Indians who, disguised as Kishen Singh (7-1921), Main Singh
India Company geologist, explored merchants or pilgrims, would make (dates unknown), and Kalian Singh
from Lahore to Leh, then northwest a secret survey of Tibet. With their (dates unknown). Kishen Singh,
through the Hindu Kush. But some- elaborate technical training, the whose code name in the survey was
where in Afghanistan, in 1825, he Indian surveyors became known as A.K., also made many journeys in
was murdered by local tribesmen. pundit-explorers, from the Indian his own He explored much
In 1802, Britain had launched the word pundit, meaning "wise man". previously unknown country, and he
Great Trigonometrical Survey, an Nain Singh (dates unknown), the too measured how far he had traveled
attempt to map the entire subconti- first of the pundits, traveled more by his number of steps. Once, the
nent of India and to chart the moun- than 3000 miles in the course of his caravan he was accompanying took
tains guarding her northern frontier. surveys, making many new discover- to horses to escape from bandits, and
By 1863, the work of mapping the ies and covering much previously for 230 miles Kishen Singh had to
mountains on the southern and unknown ground. He traced part of record distance by counting the paces
western frontiers of Tibet had already —
Tsangpo the upper
the course of the of his horse.
been completed. Much of the map of —
Brahmaputra River and discovered Kintup (dates unknown), who was
Tibet, however, was still entirely a vast mountain range (the Nyen- called K.P. in the survey code, at-
blank for China, believing Britain chentanghla) lying north of the river tached himself to a Mongolian lama
partly responsible for the Gurkha and parallel to it. His journeys were to make his journey. But the lama
attacks of 1788 and 1791, had all measured in footsteps, and he sold into slavery and it was two
closed the of Tibet to
frontiers traveled in the guise of a Tibetan years before he could escape. His
foreigners. Then a surveyor, T. C. trader, occasionallyjoined by another journey proved that the Tsangpo and
Montgomerie, had the idea of em- of the pundits, among whom were Brahmaputra rivers were one. 115

Tjbe Great Game-and after
"Great Game" of maneuver was the key to control of Asia, but
andcountermaneuverthat Britain their hopes of winning power there
Kalgan, near Peking,
sorties into northeast
Mongolia and

and Russia acted out in Persia was were for a long time little more than the Ordos Desert, he left Peking for
played too in central Asia. There, in a dream. Tibet remained closed to Koko Nor. He
followed roughly the
the bleak deserts and lofty mountain foreigners, cut off by the hostility of same route as Hue and Gabet,
ranges of the continent's heartland, the Tibetan government and its correcting many of the exaggerations
explorers forged the v\ay for the ex- Chinese advisors, as well as by in Hue's story. Przhevaiski had hoped
pansion of their country's power. In its extreme climate and hazardous to visit Lhasa, but he had only
their wake, Russia, feeling that Asia mountain terrain. For many years, reached a point southwest of Koko
fell naturally within her sphere of in- the only European to get near Lhasa, Nor, on the eastern edge of the
fluence, gradually extended her boun- the Tibetan capital, was the Russian Plateau of Tibet, when winter set in,
dary southward, while the British explorer Nikolai Przhevaiski (1839- and he was forced to turn back. He
pushed north from India, determined 1888). In his efforts, Przhevaiski re- had, however, explored much pre-
to protect their vital frontier. vealed more of central Asia than any viously unknown country, and col-
Nowhere was the "Great Game" man before him. lected many specimens of animals
played with greater feeling than in In 1871, Przhevaiski crossed the and plants.
Tibet. For both nations, that country eastern end of the Gobi Desert to Przhevaiski made his next attempt

on Lhasa farther west, from Dzun- kidnap the Dalai Lama, and the to Issyk-Kul. Przhevalski intended to
garia. Unsuccessful in pushing south, Tibetans were not prepared to give lead another expedition in 1888, but
he retraced his steps and skirted the him the chance. He did, however, he died before it began. Although he
mountains at the southwestern edge carry out thefirst exploration of much never reached Lhasa, he made vast
of Dzungaria, then crossed the Tien of northern Tibet, of which he wrote areas of Asia known to Russia,
Shan. He located the seasonal lake a valuable account. opening the way for her empire to
Lop Nor, and discovered the Astin Przhevalski never got nearer to expand.
Tagh but, unable to find a way through Lhasa than he had on his 1879-80 Up until this time, few British
the mountains, he was forced to turn journey. In 1884, he crossed the Gobi explorers had entered central Asia
back. In 1879-80, however, traveling Desert, and explored the country but, in response to the Russian
farther east through Tsaidam and aroimd the source of the Hwang Ho, threat, the British now began to
visiting Koko Nor, he managed to then made his way to Lop Nor, move into the heartland. The most
penetrate deep into the Plateau of intending to push south from there famous of their explorers w as Francis
Tibet but, only 170 miles from Lhasa, into Tibet. He was, however, pre- Younghusband (1863-1942). In 1886,
a party of Tibetan officials refused to vented from traveling south, so Younghusband, after traveling widely
allow him to go on. It was rimiored in turned east to Khotan, then traversed in Burma, accompanied a British
Lhasa that Przhevalski intended to the Taklamakan Desert and Tien Shan expedition into Manchuria, north-
122",; a» 40°
east of Peking. The following year, see the city since Hue and Gabet. A The peoples of Tibet, cut off in
he Peking to cross central Asia
left Hearing of the approach of the their mountain country, over the
to Kashmir. In July, Younghusband British expedition, the Dalai Lama centuries evolved their own way of
reached Hami, having traveled more and hisRussian agent had fled, and life, religion, customs, and clothes.
than 1250 miles* through the Gobi the regent was forced to concede all These three watercolors of Tibetans
Desert, then he proceeded along the Younghusband's demands. But com- are by Sven Hedin who, during his
edge of the Taklamakan Desert to munications were so bad between Journeys in central Asia, made hun-
Kashgar, whence he set out south. He British India and Lhasa that in 1906 dreds of drawings and watercolors
crossed the Karakoram range by the Britain made a treaty with China, of people and places. They show
Mustagh Pass, which he discovered, giving the latter sovereignty over {left to right) two youths exchanging
and continued to Lahore and Simla. Tibet. In 1907, Russia agreed to this a traditional greeting, a woman in
During the following years. Young- arrangement. The "Great Game" was traditional costume, and a soldier
husband made a number of impor- at an end. armed with an ancient musket.
tant expeditions into the complex of Exploration in Asia still went on,
moimtain ranges on India's north- however, for vast areas remained
west frontier. Surveying the passes unknown. In 1890-1, Sven Hedin
leading to the Pamirs in 1891, he was (1865-1952), a member of the Swedish
arrested by a Russian force. His embassy in Persia, traveled to
ambition, however, was to explore Kashgar and over the Tien Shan to
Tibet, and in 1903 he was chosen to Issyk-Kul. This first expedition whet-
lead a mission to Lhasa. The Dalai ted his appetite for exploration, and
Lama's agent, a Russian by nation- in 1893 he began the first of five
ality, was trying to foster links with great central Asian journeys. He
Russia, and to counter the Russian explored around Kashgar, south and
influence Lord Curzon, viceroy of west into the Pamirs, and east into
India, decided that a show of the Taklamakan, then from a point
British strength was called for. near Khotan, he crossed the Takla-
The mission Younghusband headed makan from south to north. Contin-
consisted of 3000 Indian soldiers uing to the western shores of Lop
commanded by James Macdonald Nor, he discovered that the lake's
(1862-1927), besides 10,000 Indian position had changed since Przhev-
portersand a survey corps. alski had located it. From Lop Nor,
Geographically, the work of the Hedin turned west along the edge of
surveyors who accompanied Young- the Taklamakan. Then he made his
husband was of great importance, way east, keeping south of the Tsaidam
for they explored the Tsangpo Depression, to Koko Nor. He
(Brahmaputra) River from Shigatse continued to Peking, turned north,
almost to its source, then went and crossed the eastern end of
on to survey the Sutlej River the Gobi Desert to Mongolia. During
from its source as far as the Indian his journey, he had made a discovery
frontier. Politically, the results of great value, in particular to
of the expedition were just as archeologists. In the Taklamakan
impressive, though they were not Desert, he had found ancient cities
achieved without bloodshed. Al buried under the sand.
Guru, Younghusband's force was In 1899, Hedin set out on another
met by 2000 Tibetan soldiers, but journey, traveling via Kashgar and
won through owing to superior train- Yarkand, then along one branch of
ing and arms, while at Gyantse, Mac- the Tarim to explore in the region of
donald captured a Tibetan fort. Lop Nor. Thence, he turned south,
Younghusband entered Lhasa on and crossing the Astin Tagh started
118 2 August 1904, the first European to out across the Plateau of Tibet. He


had disguised himself as a Mongol, expedition, and valuable work ac- Miran and Loulan, and, near Tun-
and hoped that thus he would be able complished, by which many of the hwang, discovered the Caves of the
to enter Lhasa, but he was still outstanding blanks on the map were Thousand Buddhas, cave-temples
more than 150 miles from Lhasa filled. This venture had no sooner which were a treasure house of
when a party of Tibetan warriors ended, than Hedin left Shanghai, ancient Chinese culture. For part of
turned him back. Hedin then attempt- China, on his last journey. He sur- his journey, he followed the route
ed to push south to India, but that veyed the eastern part of the Silk Hsuan-tsang had traveled some 1 300
route passed through forbidden —
Route the great ancient trade route years earlier. Stein's explorations
coimtry, and instead he had to between China and Europe, along took him as far east as the Nan Shan.
travel west, across the plateau to Leh. which, in the time of the Roman On his return journey, in the Kun-
This meant Hedin could explore Empire, Chinese silk reached the lun, he was severely frostbitten and
an area that was unknown. west. On this expedition, Hedin had to be carried back to India in a
So totally unfamiliar was the worked chiefly between Lop Nor and litter. Following this expedition, in

region Hedin covered on his next the Nan Shan. 1912, Steinwas knighted.
expedition that the most up-to-date Hedin's report of ancient cities In 1913, Stein set out again for the
British map simply designated it lying under the sands of the Takla- Lop Nor area, where he made more
"unexplored". This was the western makan Desert fascinated Aurel Stein important discoveries. Although his
part of the Tibetan plateau, lying (1862-1943). Stein, a British arche- most valuable work on this ex-
between Leh and Shigatse, an area ologist, resolved to study in the area pedition was done around Lop Nor,
which included a new mountain to learn about its past. He made he also traveled east to the Nan Shan,
— —
range the Kailas on the Tibetan many expeditions into central Asia, and surveyed in the region of
side of the Himalaya, and also the accompanied always by trained sur- Turfan, before returning to India.
sources of the Indus and Brahma- veyors who made maps of the regions During the 1920"s, Stein made two
putra (TsangpoJ rivers. Hedin dis- he had traveled. His firstjourney to more short expeditions, the first

covered the Kailas Range, and the the Taklamakan, in was a

1900-1, northeast of Peshawarand the
source of the Brahmaputra. He also reconnaissance of the Khotan area, second in Quetta province on the
confirmed the source of the Indus, which confirmed its possibilities for Afghan frontier. These journeys
which the pundits had disco\ered. archeological research. with those of Hedin filled in—
Nearly 20 years passed before Stein's excavations on his next virtually the last blanks on the map.
Hedin made his next expedition in expedition in 1906-8 showed that But central Asia was not long to
central Asia. Then, in 1927, he led a central Asia was once a fertile plain. remain open to Europeans. With the
joint expedition of Swedish and He found documents with seals communist takeover of China and
Chinese scientists there. During this depicting Hercules and Eros which — later —of Tibet, the heartland, which
six-year scientific mission, an enor- proved that the region had once been had been explored with so much
mous amount of ground was covered closely connected with Greece and difficulty, was closed to foreign
by the various members of the Rome —uncovered the lost cities of travelers once more.


^ S ,

c^rabia Felix

No part of Asia was to remain longer unexplored than

Arabia. In that desert land, travel was rendered perilous,
not only by the harsh climate and terrain, but by the danger
of death at the hands of wandering tribesmen. For in Arabia,
the birthplace of the religion of Islam, the people were fanati-
cal in their hatred of those who did not share their beliefs.

classical Arabian
times, the of the mid-1 700's, would soon make
InPeninsula was known
Arabia as travel there more dangerous for non-
Felix ("happy Arabia") because from Moslems than it had ever been. When
there came precious incense and Johami Burckhardt (.1784-1817) made
spices to meet European demand. the pilgrimage in 1813-5, he disguised
But the name seemed merited to
little himself as a Moslem. Burckhardt had
the Europeans who tried to open up visited Damascus, and explored in
the country and, indeed, for many Jordan, discovering Petra, before
years only Arab traders and Moslems setting out for Mecca, and he
making the annual pilgrimage to the traveled to Mecca from Africa,
holy cities of Mecca and Medina crossing the Red Sea to Juddah. His
attempted to travel there. It is to a journey provided Europe's first de-
Moslem pilgrim that we owe one of tailed knowledge of the Hejaz, the
the first accounts of the holy places. region which includes the holy cities,
Sheik Muhammad ibn-'AbduUah ibn- and so minute was his description
Batuta (1304-1377), a young lawyer that Richard Burton (1821-1890),
from Tangier, tried to reach Mecca Mecca's next European visitor, could
by crossing the Red Sea but for lack add little to it geographically.
of a ship he had to travel to Damascus Burton's greatest interest was, how-
to join the pilgrim caravan there. ever, Arab peoples, and he
After his pilgrimage, Ibn-Batuta studied them closely, both on the
continued his journey in Arabia, pilgrimage and on his 1877 journey
visited East Africa, Persia, and into Midian, east of the Gulf of
southern Russia, and made his way Aqaba. It was Burton who made the
as far east as China. His account of first English translation of The
his travels includes a vivid report of Arabian Nights.
the pilgrimage and he can claim to be The first European to penetrate
the first true explorer of Arabia. the interior of the Hadhramaut, the
The first Christian who is known hilly plateau in southern Arabia,
to have made the pilgrimage to was a naval officer, James Wellsted
Mecca, and the first European to (dates unknown). In 1834, while
record it, was Ludovico di Varthema, serving on the survey ship Palinurus
who reached the city in 1503. Di in Arabian waters, Wellsted sighted
Varthema avoided the ban on non- ruins on the cliff" of Hasan Gorab,
Moslems entering Mecca and Medina near Bi'r 'AH. In 1835, some 50 miles
by pretending to be a Moslem, and inland, he discovered the ruins of
joining the guard accompanying the Nakab-al-Hayar and at both these
pilgrim caravan from Damascus. He sites he copied inscriptions in the

later visited inland Yemen before ancient Himyaritic tongue. Nearly

taking a ship for the Far East, where 60 years James Theodore Bent

he continued his


more than 250
Di Varthema's journey was a
attempt made to

(1852-1897) and his wife Mabel
(dates unknown) led a party into the
Hadhramaut. The Bents completed
their journey safely despite Arab
- Ibn-Bsfufa

Arabia by a scientific expedition hostility, and later visited the Qara
Di Virthemt 2 ^c

sponsored by King Frederick V of

Denmark in 1761. The expedition
consisted of five scientists, each a
specialist in a particular field, but
Mountains, and southern Yemen.
Between his two visits to the
Hadhramaut, Wellsted had traveled
in Oman where, although the tribes
- Niebuhr







only one, Carsten Niebuhr (1733- were Wahhabis, he was

fanatical 5b

1834 :

1815), survived to return to Europe. hospitably received. He penetrated 5c '83.;

were made of inland to the edge of the Rub' al

Detailedstudies Burton 6s 8;J -

Yemen, and information gathered Khali, the "Empty Quarter", Arabia's 6b 1877

about other parts of Arabia, all of

which Niebuhr included in his
great southern desert, but he never
tried to enter its wastes. Indeed, he
ff— Bent,T.& M. 7s 1893-4
7b 1894-5
7<: 1897
even the hardy
Description of Arabia, one of the
1700s' most important geographical
wrote that there ". .

Bedouin scarcely dares to venture


works. Even in the last quarter of the
During Niebuhr's visit, Moslem 1800's, no European had penetrated
fanaticism in Arabia was at low ebb, far into the Arabian interior, although ,30« o

120 but Wahhabism, an Islamic revival the heart of the peninsula was
40° 50°

regularly crossed by traders, and by unknown), journeyed down the A The age-old routes the merchants
pilgrims following the traditional Euphrates to Baghdad, and the and pilgrims followed across Arabia.
routes to Mecca. But the traders and following year they set out for Ha'il
pilgrims were Moslems, and as such to see the peoples of Arabia, and to al Khali in 1928-9 while traveling in
safe from the religious fanaticism of buy Arab horses for breeding. Dhofar. The following year, he
the Arabs, who reserved their hostility Although they traveled undisguised, crossed the desert from south to
for any infidel intruder. In 1875, and made no secret of being British, north. Another Englishman, Harry
however, Charles Doughty (1843- they completed their journey safely, St.John Philby (1885-1960), who, like
1926), while traveling with Bedouin most probably because they traveled Thomas, worked for an Arabian
tribes beyond the Jordan, heard of, in company with an Arab sheik. ruler, made
the crossing the very
and resolved to visit, the ancient Gertrude Bell (1868-1926) was less next Before his magnificent
monuments at Meda'in Salih. In lucky, for Arab hostility forced her feat, Philby had already traveled
1876, he joined the pilgrim caravan to curtail her journey at Ha'il instead widely in Arabia, crossing the
from Damascus, and traveled with it of continuing to Riyadh as she had peninsula from east to west in 1917
to Meda'in Salih. Then, traveling as originally intended. Nevertheless, she and in 1918 traveling south to As
a Christian and an Englishman, but learned much about Arabia, and her Sulayyil.
in the guise of a healer, he spent two knowledge was of more than geo- The exploration of the Rub' al
years wandering with the Bedouins graphical importance, for she put it Khali was completed by Wilfred
through Arabia. Doughty suffered at Britain's service during World Thesiger (born 1910) who made two
much hardship, being expelled from War I. crossings of the desert, in 1946-7,
Ha"il, robbed, and nearly killed, and Not until 1930-1 did a European and 1947-8. Thesiger was the last
was often in great danger. Yet he cross the great Rub' al Khali, the of the great explorers of Arabia, for
survived to write Arabia Deserta, a desert that had so impressed Well- by then the face of the country was
vivid picture of the country. sted nearly a century before. Bertram changing. Oil had been discovered in
In 1878, two English travelers, Thomas ( 1 892- 1 950), who had worked the desert and the peninsula's new
Wilfrid Scawen Blunt ( 840- 1 922) and for some years for Sultan of
the challenge would be the exploitation
his \sife Lady Anne Blunt (dates Muscat, reached the edge of the Rub' of its hidden wealth. 123
9 '^e Dark Continent
Even as recently as the late 1700's, the interior of Africa was almost totally unknown.
During the Great Age of Discovery, the continent had been regarded more as an
obstacle in the sea route to India than as a land worthy in itself of exploration
and, although some missionaries and traders had subsequently traveled to

Africa, none had penetrated far inland. In southern Africa, most rivers the
usual routes to the interior —are navigable for only a short distance
inland before their course is broken by rapids and falls. Over these falls,
the rivers drop from the interior plateau down to the narrow coastal
plain. Many of the African peoples, too, were hostile to intruders
and, in that unfamiliar climate, Europeans were always at the
mercy of some tropical disease. In the north, the wastes of the
Sahara divide the Mediterranean coastlands from tropical Africa,
and there explorers faced fanatical Moslem tribesmen, besides
the dangers of travel in desert lands.
Rumors of course abounded about a land so little known,
and Africa came to be called the "Dark Continent", so
mysterious did it seem. Theories, often wildly mistaken,
persisted about Africa's geography and her peoples, and
many believed that the continent held hidden stores of
wealth. Only with the coming of the explorers toward the
end of the 1700's did the aura of mystery begin to be
dispelled. Discovery centered on three main areas: the
Nile and the lake region of eastern Africa the southern

and central parts of the continent and the Niger and the

Sahara desert. Gradually, the geographical problems of

each region were unraveled and the true face of Africa
slowly became clear.
In classical times, northern Africa was an integral part of
the civilized world of the Mediterranean. One of the world's
first civilizations developed in Egypt; the city of Carthage in
present-day Tunisia was the hub of a powerful empire and the

Roman Empire included all Africa's Mediterranean shore.

Then, in the a.d. 700's, the Arab onslaught brought the Islamic
religion to north Africa. Because of the great barrier of the Sahara,
however, the influence of civilization never spread far to the south,
and as late as 1800 most of Africa's inhabitants still followed a
primitive way of hfe. To these people, the arrival of Europeans
inevitably brought change. Missionaries traveled to Africa to convert
the heathen, and humanitarians to abolish the slave trade, through
which, between about 1450 and 1880, some 10 million black Africans were
sold. In the wake of the explorers and reformers, the colonizers reached
Africa, and by 1900 almost all the continent was under European rule. The
European empires in Africa were short-lived, for by 1970 most African countries
were self-governing, but in those few years, the evolution of centuries had been
achieved. Africa had stepped forward to take her place in the modern world.

Africa 1570 was a continent
in outline of the continent was laid in two lakes in the heart of Africa,
known and yet unknown, a down with some accuracy, and one and the rivers debouching from these
continent of which, although its might believe that the map maker lakes join north of the equator to
existence had long been recognized, also knew something of the interior, flow north. The map maker reveals
little that was definite had been for he depicts mountains and rivers just how persistent was the Prester
learned. Such knowledge as Europe with conviction, and includes numer- John legend, for near the confluence
had of Africa related to the coastlands, ous towns. This picture is, however, of the Nile's branches, he marks the

and not to the interior the Portu- rather the result of an imaginative region that he believed was ruled by
guese who forged the sea route to interpretation of classical works of that legendary king.
India had traced the outline of the geography, and of contemporary The great lake where the western-
continent, and from missionaries and rumor, than of definite geographical most branch of the Upper Nile rises
traders Europe had acquired some knowledge. is shown as the source of two other

information about the lands bordering The cartographer's picture of the rivers as well. To the west flows the
the coasts. Nile derives most probably from the —
Zaire the river generally known as
Knowledge of Africa might be Greek geographer Ptolemy's work of the Congo —and to the south the
limited, but the continent's existence before a.d. 150. Ptolemy had envis- Zuama, which branches to enter the
was certain, and its place was aged the river risingin two lakes deep sea as two separate rivers. Here,
therefore assured in Abraham Orte- in the interior,and fed by melting Ortelius may have had definite
lius' atlas Theatruin Orbis Terrarum. snows from what he called the knowledge, for the northernmost river
This map was among the 70 in the Mountains of the Moon. On the map could well be the Zambezi, and the
126 first edition of Ortelius' work. The in Ortelius' atlas, too, the Nile rises southernmost the Limpopo River.
— ; V

^he Source of the Nile

Northward through Africa flows the mighty Nile River. Its

lower reaches have long been known, for in its fertile valley
the civilization of ancient Egypt was born. Until the 1600's,
however, its upper course remained a mystery, and even
then it was the work of centuries to map that great stream.

its upper reaches, the Nile is of the Blue Nile. He visited the
In really two rivers, which join at Springs at Geesh, and verified their
KJiartoum to flow together to the position, then, via Gondar, he
sea. These two branches are known traveled overland to Sennar on the
as the Blue Nile, and the White Nile, Blue Nile. From Sennar, Bruce
from the color of their waters. The followed the Blue Nile to Khartoum,
source of the Blue Nile w as first seen then continued dow n the mainstream
by a European in 1613 when Pedro of the Nile past Berber. He crossed
Paez (7-1622), a missionary at the the Nubian Desert, rejoined the Nile
Ethiopian court, visited the Springs at Aswan, and eventually reached
at Geesh. About 15 years later, Cairo, convinced that he had seen
another missionary, Jeronimo Lobo the source of the Nile. In fact, Bruce
(1593-1678), traveled from Lake Tana was mistaken, for the White Nile is
down the river past Tisisat Falls. But the longer of the river's branches, and
it was James Bruce (1730-1794) who the point where the White Nile rises is
made the first scientific exploration considered the source of the Nile.

V ^ /-^

/ •»
3 200 300 «o aoo
1 j

Paez 1 1613

Lobo 2 1628?

--^^"^^-.^^-^ 8 Bruce 3 1768-73


Cv A

r v\ /

' Aswan
Isf. Cararacf

Zrxl Ca»ar»cf
X \ /

TheOrtelius map gives a totally
impression of the course of the
Nub 1
a n \
Niger River. It is shown rising a little DeseVl
north of the equator in a lake also Dunqulah. )

named Niger, and flowing north, 1 Suakrn^ X^

AtK \5th.Catarmci v.'' \
then v\est, to enter the sea through a Cataract

great around Cape Verde

delta "-

in the region where the Senegal and

J 3%
Gambia ri\ers enter the sea. Farther Khandi
south, a region named Zanzibar is
marked. In short, the Ortelius map
reveals Europe's almost total ignor-
Khartoum J
ance of the African continent. This /ksmW^ —
picture would not, however, be
improved for some 200 years. Even in
i:i!L E T H iJo:¥ 1 ^
the 1730's, the English satirist Jon- 9

athan Swift was writing that:

= ^ f^L Tana
". .geographers, in Afric-maps,

With savage-pictures fill their gaps

And o'er unhabitable downs
Place elephants for want of towns." C Geographical PrcfeOs
The clues to the origins of the
first alone to discover Lake Victoria. He Baker reached the lake, naming it
White Nile were discovered by returned convinced that he had found after Prince Albert. Later, he dis-
missionaries journeying inland from the source of the White Nile. In covered the Murchison Falls.
the east coast of Africa. They were England, the discovery of Lake Baker had fitted another important
Johannes Rebmann (1820-1876)— Tanganyika was largely ignored in piece into the Nile puzzle by his
who in 1848 discovered Mount the excitement of Speke's claim. He discovery of Lake Albert and its
Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest moun- was given command of
another connection with the White Nile. But
tain—and Johann Krapf (1810-1881) expedition and, with James Grant the picture was still incomplete, for
—who sighted Mount Kenya in 1849. (1827-1892), he traveled around the Lake Edward and the Kagera River
From Arab caravan leaders Krapf west side of Lake Victoria and were unknown. Lake Kivu had not
been discovered either, but Lake Kivu
belongs to the Congo river system,
and not to that of the Nile.
Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-
1925), a German botanist, was the
first European to cross the Nile-

Congo watershed. He discovered the

Uele River, and although he did not
explore it, he wrote a valuable
account of the region. Schweinfurth
thought the Uele was the upper
course of the Chari, but in fact it
flows into the Ubangi which joins the
Congo. Further explorations on the
Nile-Congo watershed and around
the White Nile's headwaters were
made by Emin Pasha (1840-1892),
whose realname was Eduard
Schnitzer. From 1876, as an Egyptian
government oflBcial, Pasha lived in
the Upper Nile country, but in 1885,
when the fanatical Moslem forces of
the Mahdi captured Khartoum and
won control of the Sudan, Emin
Pasha was cut from the outside

world. Not until 1888 was he rescued

by Henry Stanley (1841-1904). Pasha
later set out with Stuhlmann (dates
unknown) to try to cross Africa but he
was murdered near the Congo.
In 1878-80, with a Royal Geo-
graphical Society expedition seeking
a good route from the coast to Lake
Nyasa, Joseph Thomson (1858-1895)
traveled via Lake Nyasa to Lake
Tanganyika, finally establishing that
the Lukuga River was the outlet of
the lake. From the Lukuga, he tried
to reach the Congo, but native
opposition forced him to turn back
and he therefore returned via Tabora
A John Hanning Speke. discovered Ripon Falls. There, a to the coast. On this expedition,
river — —
the White Nile leaves Lake Thomson discovered Lake Rukwa.
had heard in 1848 ofan inland sea and Victoria. But Speke did not follow His next journey led him to the
a range of mountains. Could such a the White Nile from Lake Victoria. Rovuma River, to investigate an
lake be the source of the Nile? He set out inland and, crossing the unfounded report was coal
that there
The Royal Geographical Society of river between the Karuma Rapids there, and, in with James
London took the missionary's report and the Murchison Falls, he rejoined Martin (dates unknownX he opened
so seriously that an expedition was it downstream of Lake Albert. Thus, a new route from the coast to Lake
commissioned to find his inland sea. he still had no definite proof of his Victoria, forging a path through the
It was led by Richard Burton, who in claim and Burton, who had never country of the warrior Masai. He
1853-4 had made the pilgrimage to believed the Lake Victoria theory, visited Lake Naivasha, and dis-
Mecca, and who was accompanied was quick to question it. Before the covered Lake Baringo and Mount
now by John Speke (1827-1864). The truth could be discovered, Speke died Elgon. In 1890-1, in the service of the
two men discovered Lake Tanganyika, in a shooting accident. He never British South Africa Company,
and sailed up the east coast from knew he was right, and Burton wrong. Thomson traveled in the unmapped
Ujiji. But they neither found which At Gondokoro on the White Nile, country between lakes Nyasa and
way the lake drained nor reached its Speke and Grant had met Samuel Bangvveulu. Two years earlier,
northern end. Baker (1821-1893). Baker had left Samuel Teleki (dates unknown) and
From Arab traders, Burton and England to seek the source of the Ludwig von Hohnel (dates unknown)
Speke heard of another lake north- Nile but, hearing that Speke had had discovered lakes Rudolf and
east of Tanganyika, but when they "settled" the Nile question, he Stefanie. A few blanks still remained,
reached Tabora Burton was too sick started in search of the Luta Ngize, a but with their discovery the map of
128 to continue the search. Speke went on lake of which Speke had told him. eastern Africa was virtually complete.

A C G«>graphical Pro|«ci> 10°

Tie Heart of Africa
In 1652, the Dutch founded the first settlement at the Cape Luanda to Quelimane (formerly Kili-
mane), discovering the Victoria Falls.
of Good Hope. Intended by the Dutch East India Company
In 1 858, Livingstone left Quelimane
as a port of call for Dutch ships en route to the Indies, the with his brother Charles (1822-1875)
colony was at first concentrated around Table Bay. Gradu- and John Kirk (1832-1922). They
ally, however, the settlers made their way into the interior. made a number of expeditions on the
In 1752, August Beutler (dates unknown) led a party Zambezi and the Shire rivers, dis-
covering lakes Shirwa and Nyasa,
across the Great Kei River, and was only prevented from
then traveled up the Zambezi to
traveling even farther afield because his men were fatigued. Linyanti. In 1861, they tried to sail up
the Rovuma River to Lake Nyasa,
but the river proved unnavigable, and
Groote (Orange) River, which 1851 they managed push north the route up the Shire had to be used
flows from the Drakensberg to beyond Linyanti to
the Zambezi. again. Once on Lake Nyasa, much of
the Atlantic,was first crossed in 1760, Returning they visited Linyanti. the western shore was explored. A
and 1777 Robert Gordon (dates
in Although, until Livingstone's second attempt was later made to sail
unknown) reached the river near its journey, nothing had been known of up the Rovuma, but it too was
junction with the Vaal. For part of the upper reaches of the Zambezi, the unsuccessful and in 1863 the ex-
his journey, Gordon was ac- Portuguese had long been familiar pedition was recalled. By this time,
companied by William Paterson with its lower course. In 1798, the Livingstone's reputation as an ex-
(1756-?) who, the following year, river had even been explored as far as plorer was prodigious and when,
with a young Dutchman, Van Reenen the Quebrabasa Rapids by Francisco after Baker's discovery of Lake
(dates unknown), crossed the Groote de Lacerda (7-1798). Lacerda, who in Albert in 1864, the Royal Geograph-
near its mouth. In 1778-9, Paterson 1787 had traveled on the Cunene ical Society planned an expedition to
and Van Reenen traveled east beyond River, was seeking a practicable route complete the mapping of the Nile's
the Great Fish River. In 1779, with across Africa, but he died near Lake sources, it was to Livingstone they
Gordon, they pushed north to the Mweru, and his party returned to the turned. He left the coast near the
mouth of the Groote which Gordon coast. Soon, however, his ambition mouth of the Rovuma and trekked
renamed the Orange. was realized by two Portuguese viaLake Nyasa to Lake Tanganyika,
In 1806, Britain finally took traders, Pedra Baptista (dates un- going on to discover Lake Mweru and
possession of Cape Colony and known) and Amaro Jose (dates Lake Bangweulu. Then, he turned for
British missionaries were soon travel- unknown), who traveled from the Ujiji to collect his letters and stores.
ing South Africa to preach.
to Bihe Plateau to the Zambezi. By this time, Livingstone was suffer-
Returning from a mission to Latta- After his journey to Linyanti, ing from the effects of years of
koo, the Batswana capital, in 1812-4, Livingstone returned to Cape Town, hardship and sickness and his
John Campbell (1766-?) reached the but in 1852 he set out again. His goal position was made no easier when he
confluence of the Hartz and Vaal was to complete the exploration of found his stores had been stolen.
rivers, and traced part of the course the Zambezi. Reaching the river near Undeterred, Livingstone traveled
of the Orange. Six years later, he Linyanti, he traveled to the Atlantic west to the Lualaba River, which at
discovered the source of the Limpopo coast at Luanda. On his return first he was inclined to believe to be
River. Moffat (1795-1883),
Robert journey, he crossed Africa from a source of the Nile. Later, he
who was to spend more than 50
years among the Batswana people, in
1817-9 crossed the lower Orange
and continued far to the north.
Moffat moved the Batswana mission
from Lattakoo to Kuruman, and
explored the fringes of the Kalahari,
then pushed north to the Save.
In 1841, Moff'at was joined at the
Kuruman mission by David Living-
stone (1813-1873). Livingstone, in his
travels, was to redraw the map of
Africa, and to him discovery was as
important as missionary work. Still,
throughout his time in Africa, he
worked to better the Africans, and
above all to abolish the slave trade.
Two years after his arrival at
Kuruman, Livingstone founded a
new mission at Kolobeng and in 1849
he set out from there with Cotton
Oswel! (1818-1893) and Mungo Mur-
ray (datesunknown) for Lake Ngami
in the The following year,
Livingstone and Oswell tried to reach
Linyanti and, although on their first
attempt they were unsuccessful, in

Victoria Falls. ^ 131

guessed rightly that it belonged to Henry Stanley, the man who had
the Congo. From the Lualaba, he "found" Livingstone, set out in 1874
returned to Ujiji and there, on 10 for Lake Victoria and, after circum-
November 1871, Henry Stanley's navigating the lake, he confirmed
expedition arrived. Stanley had been that its only outlet was Ripon Falls.
sent by the New York Herald to find He crossed the Kagera River to
Livingstone, who had been for long discover Lake Edward, and thorough-
"lost" to the outside world. The two ly explored the country between that
men together explored the northern lake and Lake Victoria. He then
end of Lake Tanganyika but, although continued to Lake Tanganyika, and
Livingstone accompanied Stanley as sailed around the southern end of the
far as Tabora, he would not return lake, concluding incorrectly that the
with him to the coast. The problem lake only flowed through the Lukuga
of the Nile was still unsolved, and River when it was exceptionally high.
Livingstone, believing
its ultimate The Lukuga was finally proved to be
source must near Lake Bangweulu,
lie the lake's outlet by Joseph Thomson
insisted on going there. Near the in 1878-80.
source of the Luapula River, south In 1876, Stanley left Ujiji, and
of Lake Bangweulu, on 1 May 1873, trekked west to the Lualaba River.
David Livingstone died. There, by threatening force, he
Just a month before Livingstone's succeeded in obtaining boats where
death, Verney Cameron (1844-1894) Cameron had failed. In the face of
led an expedition from Zanzibar to horrific dangers, and suffering con-
take supplies to Livingstone. At stant hardship, he sailed down the
Tabora, from the explorer's servants, Lualaba past the point where it
he learned of their master's death, becomes the Congo. He reached
but nevertheless he continued his Boma, at the mouth of the Congo,
journey to carry on Livingstone's 999 days after he had left Zanzibar
work. Cameron made the first maps for Lake Victoria in 1874.
of much of the coast of Lake In 1879, Stanley was back on the
Tanganyika, and discovered the Congo, sponsored by the King of the
Lukuga River, which he correctly Belgians to open up access to the
believed to be the lake's outlet even interior.He traveled upstream to
though he did not follow it. On Stanley Falls and, in 1883, discovered
reaching the Lualaba, he concluded lakes Tumba and Leopold II. In
that it was part of the Congo, but 1888, Stanley left the Atlantic coast
Arab hostility prevented him pro- on his last great journey, the rescue
curing boats to sail down the river of Emin Pasha. He traveled through
and prove his claim. Cameron did, the Congo forests to meet Pasha on
however, continue his journey west- the Upper Nile, and finally led his
ward to the Atlantic coast. party down to the east coast. On his
way, he explored the Semliki River,
A contemporary newspaper picture of linking lakes Albert and Edward, and
Stanley's meeting with Livingstone. discovered the Ruwenzori Range.


A J I A N J \ C

Cape Tc

Cape of Good H*

e 100 100 ' JOO aoo »

I I I J Mil,

e Gaographical .1^

132 m.

Livingstone la ISM
Livingstone lb 1842-7
Livingstone 1c 1849
Iwith Oswrcll &Morrayl
Livingstone Id 1850-2
(with Oswelll
Livingstone le 1&52-6
Livingstone If 1858-63
Iwlth ChBrl« L ivingstone& KirkJ
Livingstone ig 1866-9
Livingstone Ih 1869-73

Stanley 2a 1871-2
Stanley 2b 1874-6
Stanley 2c 1876-7
Stanley 2d 1879-84
Stanley 2e 1888-9
Mwfof EminPashal

B ^ .

^^^^^H^l ^1
^he Search for the Niger

1788, not long after James Bruce party to Africa to travel to its mouth. Sokoto and sail down it to its mouth.
In had, as he thought, fixed the Before reaching the Niger, however, But Ciapperton died at Sokoto, and
source of the Nile, the "Association most of his men died. The survivors Lander abandoned the attempt. In
for Promoting the Discovery of the built a boat at Sansanding, and set 1830-2, however, with his brother
Interior Parts of Africa" was founded sail down the river, but all were John (1807-1839), Lander traveled
in London. The African Association, drowned at Bussa, escaping from an inland to Bussa, then sailed down the
as it was generally called, first turned African attack. Niger to the sea.
its attention to the Niger River, Between Park's two journeys, Meanwhile Timbuktu, long the
about which was known. In the
little Friedrich Hornemann (1772-1801) goal of Europeans, had been visited
1300's, Ibn-Batuta, the great Arab traveled from Cairo across the Sahara by two travelers. In 1 825-6, Alexander
traveler, had crossed the Sahara to to Lake Chad, then on toward the Laing (1793-1826) trekked from
the Niger, and had visited the trading Niger, but he died at Bokani, little Tripoli to the city, but was murdered
town of Timbuktu, but 400 years short of his goal. Then, in 1818, the soon after leaving there. Two years
later Europeans did not even know British government sent an ex- later, Rene Caillie (1799-1838), who
which way the river flowed pedition across the Sahara. After had already made two journeys to
Although neither of the associ- leaving Marzuq, however, Joseph west Africa, arrived in Timbuktu
ation's first explorers reached the Ritchie (7-1818) died, and George from the coast. From the city, he
Niger, they did acquire some infor- Lyon (1 795-1 832) was unable to travel continued to Fez across the Sahara.
mation about the African interior. much farther south. In 1850, a British "mixed scientific
The next attempt on the river was In 1822, Hugh Ciapperton (1788- and commercial expedition" left
made from the mouth of the Gambia 1827), Dixon Denham (1786-1828), Tripoli. Its leader was James Richard-
by Daniel Houghton (17407-1791). and Walter Oudney (17927-1824) son (7-1851), but he died after the
After crossing the Senegal River crossed the Sahara to Lake Chad long Sahara crossing, before reaching
Houghton was decoyed into the desert then, while Denham explored around Kukawa, and it was to Heinrich
by Moslem tribesmen, his possessions the lake, and along the Chari River, Barth (1821-1865) that the ex-
were stolen, and he was left to die. Ciapperton and Oudney pushed west. pedition's success was due. Barth had
Mungo Park (1771-1806), who set out But Oudney died at Kano, and Ciap- already traveled the length of the
in 1795 for the Niger, saw the place perton continued to Sokoto alone. north coast of Africa, and now, with
where Houghton died. There, he tried to find a guide to lead Adolf Overweg (1822-1852), he com-
Park himself was captured by him to the Niger but, as he was pleted the exploration of Lake Chad.
Moslems, and, for three months, he unsuccessful, he had to turn back. In The expedition's next aim was
was held prisoner at Benown. At last 1825, however, Ciapperton returned Timbuktu, but Overweg died before
he escaped, and made his way to Africa with Richard Lander (1804- the journey began. Barth continued
southeast. At Segou, he saw the 1834) to seek the river's mouth. From alone, carrying out the first scientific
Niger River, flowing steadily east. the Gulf of Guinea, they struck exploration of much of central and
Park did not follow the river far on northeast and crossed the Niger, west Africa, and opening the way for
this occasion, but in 1805 he led a intending to return to the river from the conquest of the Sahara to begin.


O £:E a N

? I T T T "- H M,l.s oG«>g'.phr


< From the days of the Roman Ibn-Batuta la 1325-32 Clapperton 78 1824
Empire, trains of pack camels wound Ipart of joumeyl (after death of Oudneyl

their way across northern Africa Ibn-Batuta lb 1349-53 Denham 7C 1823-4

carrying the treasures of Africa north Clapperton 7d 1825-7

across the Sahara desert, and goods Houghton 2 1790-1 (with R. Lander)
from Europe south. These camel 7D 1827-8
Lander, R.
caravans followed traditional trails
(after death of Clapperton)
which had grown up along routes Park 3a 1795-7

where there were known to be 3b 1805-6

waterholes. There, even though the Laing 8a 1822

desert oases might be several hundred Home 4 1798-1801 8b 1825-6
miles apart, travelers crossing the
Sahara could be reasonably sure that

. Calllie 5a 1816, 1824 Lander, R. 9 1830-2
they would not die of thirst. But they
5b 1827-8 (with J Lander)
still had other dangers to contend

with, quite apart from the heat, and

the harsh desert climate. The caravan — . .i^ Ritchie & Lyon 6 1818 Barth 10a 1845-7

routes across the Sahara were control- Barth 10b 1850-5

led by the fierce Tuareg tribesmen, and — Clapperton 7a 1822-5 (with Richardson&Overweg(
it was on the good will of the Tuareg with Oudney&Denhaml Barth ^ after lOA
that the success of any journey would Clapperton 7A 1823-4 Overweg ) explorers lOB
ultimately depend. (with Oudneyl RichardsonJ separated IOC 135
The Conquest of the Desert
The Sahara stretches through northern Africa like a band
burned across the face of the continent, a scorching,
virtually waterless region, held in thrall by the nomad
Tuareg Through the ages, its hostility to intruders
has been legendary, and consequently, the Sahara was one
of the very last regions of Africa to be explored by Europeans.


Thethe desert
explorers to venture into
first A A waterhole in the Sahara desert,
saw the Sahara simply drawn by Heinrich Barth.
as a route to the Niger River, as an
alternative to the route inland from region, before returning to the
the west Heinrich Barth's
coast. Mediterranean via Wadai, Darfur,
researches, however, awakened a new and the Nile River. Although this
interest in the desert, and after his was a route that had defeated many
journey it was visited by tra\elers earlier explorers, Nachtigal com-
concerned with the region itself. pleted his journey safely, and in so
Between 1859 and 1861, a young doing for the first time established a
Frenchman, Henri Duveyrier (1840- connection between the Lake Chad
1892) wandered in the northern region and the Nile. 1 18i9-e:

Sahara studying the Tuareg tribes- The achievement of Oskar Lenz Rohlfs 2b 1862
men, and, although at first he met (1848-1925) was to cross the Sahara 2b 1863
2c 1865
with considerable hostility, later he from the Grand Atlas to Timbuktu 2d 1867-8
was hospitably received. Illness pre- in effect, Rene Caillie"s crossing of 2e 1869
2f 1874
vented Duveyrier making another the desert in reverse. Lenz spent
29 1878
expedition in Africa, yet even so his three weeks in Timbuktu, and learned 2h 1880-1

book. The Tuareg of the North, much about the city. In 1885-7, he Nachtigal 3 1869-74
remains a standard work. journeyed through central Africa,
Lenz 4a 1879-80
Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs (1831- traveling up the Congo River, and to
4b 1885-7
1896) became interested in Africa lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa.
while serving in the French Foreign In the year Lenz reached the mouth 5a 1880
Flatters « •
D.a.-:.. 5b 1880-1
Legion, and later, after his conversion of the Senegal at the end of his
Fcxjreao 6e 1895-6
to Islam, he spent nearly 20 years transsaharan journey, a French mili-
Foureau pt' wirh Lamy 6b 1896- I9O0
traveling there. Rohlfs' expeditions tary expedition under the command
led him over much of the Sahara and of 'Paul-Xavier Flatters (1832-1881) \ G^ogrBpJ'icA' ?fofciv

the Libyan Desert, east to the Nile, was sent to survey a route for a
and to the fringes of the Abyssinian railroad across- the desert. On this
Highlands. He was the first European first attempt. Flatters penetrated the

to cross western Africa from the desert only to the Tassili-n'-Ajjer, out to recross the desert, but food
Mediterranean to the Gulf of Guinea. but later the same year, with and water ran out, and they were
Gustav Nachtigal ( 834- 1885), who,
1 Lieutenant Dianous (7-1881), he set mercilessly attacked by the Tuareg.
like Rohlfs, was a German, made a out again. This time, in the Ahaggar Very few of them reached the French
long and important journey in the Mountains, the Tuareg ambushed bases alive.
desert between 1869 and 1874. Flatters and a small party while they After the tragedy of the Flatters
Nachtigal's first explorations were were obtaining water, and every one expedition, the French government
carried out in the Tibesti Massif and of the Frenchmen was killed. Dianous temporarily abandoned the idea of
136 later he investigated the Lake Chad and the main body of the force set forging a path across the Sahara.
Femand Foureau (1850-1914), how- ranean coast to the southern bound- battlewith an army from Bornu,
ever, did not. His dream was to see aries of the desert. The following year, Major Lamy was killed. The mission
the establishment of a link across the his expedition set out. showed, however, that a strong force
desert, and he spent 15 years wander- Foureau's party was accompanied could cross the desert and now the
ing there to prepare the way for his by a military escort commanded by subjugation of the Tuareg became
dream. In 1897, he went to Paris, and Major A, Lamy (7-1900), an escort France's overriding aim. The desert
there he managed to obtain backing strong enough to deter the Tuareg would always hold dangers, but the
for his projected expedition to explore from trying to attack. The desert was dangers gradually became fewer as
across the Sahara from the Mediter- crossed safely, but at Kousseri, in the conquest of the Sahara went on. 137
10 Terra Australis

Far away, in theunknown southern regions of the world, there lay, according to the
ancients, a great continent. Such a land mass was necessary, they reasoned, to
Northern Hemisphere, and to balance
offset the weight of the continents in the
the earth on its axis. Between a.d. 100 and 150, the Greek geographer
Ptolemy placed this continent on his world map as a great land bridge
joining Africa with eastern Asia. He called it Terra Australis Incognita,
the unknown southern land.
European belief in Terra Australis persisted throughout the
Middle Ages and in time a web of fantasy was woven around that
mysterious land. Marco Polo wrote of the rich and wonderful
countries he had visited in Southeast Asia, and Europe ascribed
his tales to the southern continent, picturing it as beautiful and
fantastically wealthy. After Vasco Nuiiez de Balboa's discovery
of the Pacific Ocean in 1513 and Ferdinand Magellan's
voyage across it 1\ years later, it was on the Pacific that the
search for the southland centered. Explorer after explorer
set sail across the ocean. Some never returned. Others
suffered terribly —from from hunger and thirst
when weeks passed without landfall; from the violent
storms which all too often belie the Pacific's name. Each
navigator, however, made his contribution to the map of
the ocean, for it was through the search for Terra Australis
that the Pacific was explored. Gradually, in succeeding
voyages, its waters were charted and the bounds of the
legendary continent limited until, by the end of the 1700's,
Terra Austrahs had disappeared from the map. Gradually,
too, through these voyages, the islands of the Pacific were
discovered, and Australia, New Zealand, and finally
Antarctica found.
With Terra Australis proved merely a legend, Europe, and
in particular Britain, turned to its new discoveries, Australia
and New Zealand. The exploration of these lands is a com-
paratively recent enterprise —
only 200 years ago they were
virtually unknown —
and their story is largely one of settlement,
and of the search for land and natural wealth. Australia especially
held riches in land and minerals undreamed of by its discoverers,
who described it as an unpromising country, and whose accounts
contributed to its long neglect. It held dangers too, for the Aborigine
inhabitants were bitterly hostile to Europeans, while in much of the
continent travel was difficult, and water in short supply. In New Zealand,
while the climate was milder, the terrain hindered explorers, while the
colonists faced a long war with the Maori peoples for the possession of the
land. In time, the Europeans ousted the Aborigines and the Maoris — the men
who were the true discoverers of the lands of Australia and New Zealand. For, long
years before European explorers reached those countries, the Aborigines and the
Maoris had themselves arrived in Australia and New Zealand from across the sea.

Long ago, thousands of years before European ships first migration. Most experts agree, how-
ever, that the Polynesian settlers
entered the Pacific, and before Europeans even dreamed of
came originally from Asia, but they
its existence, the exploration of that vast ocean began. From
dispute when they arrived, and what
Asia first, and later, perhaps, from the Americas, as route they followed.
generation succeeded generation groups of men made their The traditional theory is that travel-
way across the ocean from island chain to island chain. ersfrom Melanesia and Micronesia
gradually spread east into Polynesia,
but some believe that such journeys
These first explorers were to be the stretches of ocean, the settlement of would have been impossible because
first of the Pacific
inhabitants Micronesia involved long sea voy- of prevailing adverse currents and
islands for, in those days, from such ages, and it was probably not until winds. They hold that far back in
long journeys, there was no going 3000 or 2000 B.C. that the first time the original settlers of Polynesia
back. The earliest settlers came from travelers reached the islands. Even migrated from northeastern Asia
Asia. At an early date, they began to then, colonization was a slow process. into Alaska and that later, in two
make their way via the Malay Only over generations did voyagers separate waves, from northwestern
Peninsula and the East Indian archi- find their way from island group to North America, and from western
pelago into the Pacific region known island group. South America, these men set out
as Melanesia

"black islands". The About the settlement of Poly- across the sea.
first wave of migrants was followed by nesia
— "many islands" —the third European knowledge of these
others and gradually the travelers and of the Pacific regions,
largest journeys is, however,
a relatively
spread throughout Melanesia and controversy is rife. Many of the recent acquisition, pieced together
pushed south into Australia. landfalls must have been accidental, from legends, and from archeo-
North of Melanesia, and east of made by seafarers who set out with logical remains. The first European
the Philippine Islands, the no particular goal, and from such sailors to set out across the Pacific in
region of Micronesia

is- uncharted voyages it is almost the 1500's knew nothing of that

lands". Cut off as it is by vast impossible to establish a pattern of great ocean at all.

Migration routes from th« Americaj westward

C Gaographical Project
^he Southern Continent

Coastline as mapped by
Mercator in 1569 &
Rumold Mercator in 1587

GvognphicaJ Projects

the days before European ex- southern Africa with eastern Asia, A The outline of Terra Australis, the
Inplorers had finally established the thus making the Indian Ocean into imaginary southern continent, super-
world's geography, cartographers a vast inland sea. During the Middle imposed on a map of Australasia.
used to speculate about the areas Ages, the legend of an unknown con-
that were unknown. One of the most tinent persisted and, with the re- nary continent extended north from
pyersistent of their theories related newed interest in the world created the South Pole into the South Atlan-
to the great continent that they during the Great Age of Discovery, tic Ocean, where a broad passage
believed to exist in the Southern speculation about it was revived. To separated it from Africa, and it
Hemisphere, and that they knew as men who had no idea of the existence covered part of what is actually
Terra Australis Incognita. of Australia or Antarctica, such a Australia and much of the South
The theory of Terra Australis had huge land mass seemed logical, and Pacific Ocean too. According to
first been put forward in classical Gerardus Mercator even wrote that Mercator, Tierra del Fuego was a
times by Greek geographers. One of without it nothing would prevent the promontory of this southern land.
them, Pomponius Mela, believed it earth overbalancing and "toppling Unlike many of his contemporaries,
to be so large that he named Ceylon to destruction amidst the stars". however, Mercator separated Terra
as its northernmost tip. But when Mercator depicted Terra Australis Australis from Nova (New) Guinea,
Ptolemy drew his world map, he used on the world map he drew in 1569 even though no one yet knew of the
the southern continent to join for the use of sailors. His imagi- existence of the Torres Strait. 14]
Q,uain ex
O RM.\--\]Ayi
B I S T E R R A E ^oTTpi
re vCaliQerkrdiMcrcatoris Domino Richardo Gartho. Geographic acc^tcranun bonarum artiu'

From 1569, when his world map Rumold divided the world into two southern Pacific Ocean, and part of
was published, until death in
his hemispheres, the Eastern Hemisphere Australia too. In fact, at first glance,
1595, Mercator was occupied with — the Old World, Europe, Africa, and Rumold's map gives the impression
two great projects. The first of these —
Asia and the Western Hemisphere that he actually knew of Australia,
was an edition of the work of — the New World, or the Americas. for the northern peninsula of his
Ptolemy, which appeared in 1578 Rumold Mercator's map was in land mass pushes through the
and again in 1584. The second was effect a redrawing of his father's western part of the continent, and
his atlas, the first part of which was 1569 map and, following his father, the west coast of this peninsula is
published in 1585. It was for the atlas he filled much of the Southern Hemis- roughly parallel to Australia's west
that in 1587 Mercator's son Rumold phere with a huge continent. Terra coast. In 1587, however, Australia
142 (15457-1599) drew a world map. Australis, covering much of the had not yet been discovered, and
>ri ac faiitoi-i
1 O S
fumino, in vetcris
aiiiicitic ac fnmiliaritatis
Rumoldus Mercator
I p
curabat iV M.D.Lixxvu.

Rumold was basing his map on he was referringto the southern Rumold Mercator's world map.
Marco Polo's book. On the penin- continent. Soon, everything that
sula, he names the kingdom of Marco Polo had written of Locach whether one was there. Their search
Lucach, thus identifying it with the was ascribed to the southern land. revealed the Pacific Ocean, and led
country that Polo had written of as By the time Rumold Mercator to the discovery of its islands, and
Locach, describing it as lying to the drew his map, most Europeans al- of Australia and New Zealand, but
south of China, and as a rich and ready thought of these tales as refer- of the legendary southern continent,
splendid land. Although Polo was ring to a fact, and not to a theory, not a trace was found. Gradually, the
probably referring to Siam, or to the and explorers set sail in search of a Europeans pushed the possible
Malay Peninsula, both of which he continent whose existence they were bounds of Terra Australis toward the
had visited, Europeans thought that convinced of, rather than to see South Pole until the myth dissolved. 143
c^cross the Pacific

1522, Ferdinand Magellan's flag- Valparaiso and Callao. So rich were

Inship Victoria, commanded by his rewards that future English
Sebastian del Cano, reached Spain expeditions concentrated on plunder,
after its round-the-world voyage. It not on discovery. Drake sailed north
had opened a new route to the Indies past San Francisco Bay unsuccess-
across the Pacific Ocean, and in 1525 fully seeking the Northwest Passage,
Spain sent a seven-ship expedition to then made his way across the Pacific
the Indies by that route. But one ship for home.
only reached the Moluccas and, from After Mendaiia's death, Quiros be-
Mexico, Alvaro de Saavedra (7-1529) came obsessed with Terra Australis,
was sent by Cortes to its aid. He and in 1605, with three ships, he
found its survi\ ors, then turned east sailed from Peru to find it. But,
along the coast of New Guinea. But lacking the strength of will necessary
adverse winds prevented him return- in a leader, Quiros had little success.
ing across the Pacific, and he died on At Espiritu Santo, in the New
his second attempt to make the Hebrides, his ships were separated,
voyage back. Not until 1565 did the and he sailed back across the Pacific.
Spanish make the west-east crossing. However, Luis Vaez de Torres
Soon, the dream of a southern con- (7-1613?), the captain of one of the
tinent outweighed the lure of the other ships, continued along southern
Indies. To find and settle the New Guinea, and discovered Torres
southland, and convert the heathen, Strait. He proved New Guinea to be
Alvaro de Mendana (1541-1595) left an island, not part of Terra Australis,
Peru The continent proved
in 1567. but, for 200 years, his disco\er>' was
elusive, butMendaiia discovered the generally unknown.
\J U LT wr ->
Solomon Islands. Nearly 30 years In 1616, the Dutchmen Willem
later, he made a voyage to colonize Schouten (15677-1625) and Jakob le
the Solomons, but he could not find Maire (1585-1616) discovered Le
them. He did, however, discover the Maire Strait, southeast of the Strait
Marquesas and the Santa Cruz Is- of Magellan, and first rounded, and
lands, where he died. The voyage was named. Cape Horn. Crossing the Pa-
continued to the Philippines by his cific, they discovered islands in the

pilot, Pedro deQuiros (1565-1 61 5). Tuamotu and Tonga groups, and the
Even before Mendaiia's second Horn Islands, but in the East Indies
voyage, Francis Drake had sailed to they were arrested for infringing
find the southern continent for Eng- the Dutch East India Company's

land and to win booty too. Emerg- monopoly, and both their ship and
ing from the Strait of Magellan, he goods were confiscated. Some 70
was blown south of Tierra del Fuego, years later, the English buccaneer
and concluded that it was not part of William Dampier (1652-1715) sailed
Terra Australis. Drake therefore on a voyage of piracy in the Pacific.
course northward, plundering
set his But it is to the story of Australia that
Spanish shipping, and the towns of his expedition really belongs.

Sketch of a ship like Mendaiia's.

Tie Truth and the Legend

The first mariners to cross the Pa- Dutch landfalls in western Austra- Then, via Tonga, Fiji, and northern
cific found no trace of Terra lia. By 1630, the Dutch knew this New Guinea, Tasman made his way
Australis, but their voyages did help coast of Australia, which they called home. He had sailed over much of
to limit its possible bounds. The first New Holland, from the Northwest what was thought to be Terra Austra-
steps in piecing together the truth Cape to Cape Leeuwin. lis, thus pushing its northern bound-

from the legend were made from the In 1642, Anthony van Diemen, ary still farther south, but he had not
Indies, not the Pacific. There, by governor general of the Dutch East completed his mission. In 1644, there-
the early 1600's, the Dutch had Indies, sent Abel Tasman (1603-1659) fore,Tasman was sent out again. On
firmly established their power. to explore the southern Indian Ocean, thisvoyage, he circumnavigated the
In 1605, WUlem Jansz(1570-?) was and to investigate the relationship Gulf of Carpentaria, proving it a
sent to investigate southern New between New Guinea and lands far- bay, not the mouth of a strait. He
Guinea. He crossed Torres Strait, ther south. Tasman sailed from Bata- had missed Torres Strait, however,
and sailed some way down Cape York via to Mauritius, then struck east to and still believed that the Cape York
Peninsula, be part
believing it to discover Tasmania, which he named Peninsula and New Guinea were one.
of New Guinea. Then, in 1616, Dirk Van Diemen's Land. Continuing east, The last questions about the Austra-
Hartog (dates unknown), following a New Zealand, which he
he discovered lian coastline were not resolved until,
new route east from the Cape of Good was sure was part of the southern in 1801-3, Matthew Flinders (1774-
Hope, made the first of a number of continent. He called it Staaten Land. 1814) charted most of the coast.

During his buccaneering voyage,
William Dampier spent some months
on the northwest coast of New Hol-
land, forming a poor opinion of the
country. However, the journals which
he published in 1697 aroused much
interest and he was given command of
an expedition to that land. His in-
tention was to sail around Cape Horn
into the Pacific, and to explore the
unknown east coast of New Holland,
continuing to New Guinea, but he was
forced to abandon this plan. By using
the Cape of Good Hope route, he
missed his opportunity to make great
new geographical discoveries, but he
did prove that New Britain was
divided from New Guinea by a strait.



P A C 1 F / C

^v BAN


- IS.


Gulden Zeepaard 1627

The map of the west coast of New obtained in 1627 by the Gulden
.SOUTH Holland was pieced together from a Zeepaard, commanded by Francois
ISIANO namber of Dutch landfalls, made Thyssen, which sailed past Point
180° O G«ogf«ph'C«' Proi»cn following Dirk Har tog's in 1616. The Nuyts {named after a passenger) to the
first knowledge of the south coast was Great Australian Bight. 147
Completing the Puzzle
By 1700, the Pacific Ocean had been crossed, not once, but
many times. Australia, New Zealand, and numerous islands
had been discovered. In the century that followed, the work
of navigators would be to discover the final pieces of the
Pacific puzzle and forge a picture of the ocean. Gradually,
the remaining mysteries of the Pacific would be solved.

1700, too, the great days of the the southern continent. After passing
By Dutch were
in the Pacific
though Jacob Roggeveen (1659-1729)
over, al- through the Strait of Magellan, how-
ever, the ships became separated, and
did makea voyage there in 1721-3. continued their voyages alone.
Roggeveen sailed across the Pacific Bad weather prevented Wallis from
in search of the southern continent, sailing far in high southern latitudes,
but because he was not employed by and he therefore made his way north-
the Dutch East India Company, after west. During his voyage across the
his voyage he, like Le Maire, was Pacific, he discovered Tahiti — one of
arrested for infringing that com- the most idyllic South Sea isles. Carte-
pany's monopoly. He was, however, ret, meanwhile, searched for islands
eventually compensated for his con- reported to exist near the Juan Fer-
fiscated ships. nandez Islands, but he could find no
Roggeveen discovered Easter Is- trace of them. He therefore sailed
land, but he found no trace of the across the Pacific, in constant diffi-
southern continent. He remained con- culty because his men were sick, and
vinced, however, that such a land his ship so rotten that it should never
mass did exist. In England, too, many have been allowed to sail. Carteret
believed in Terra Australis, and John discovered Pitcairn Island and the
Byron (1723-1786) set sail in 1764, Admiralty Islands, and rediscovered
commissioned to discover unknown Mendaiia's Santa Cruz Islands. He
lands in the South Atlantic. He, also sailed through the Solomons,
Philip Carteret (7-1796), and Charles but failed to identify them with Men-
Clerke (1741-1779) found no such dana's discovery. Struggling home
lands, but they visited the Falkland through the Atlantic, the Swallow
Islands, and did discover new islands was passed by another vessel north of
in the Pacific.Byron was also ordered Ascension Island. It was La Boudeuse,
to seek a strait to the Atlantic on the commanded by Louis Antoine de
northwest coast of America, but he BougainviUe (1729-1811), returning
seems to have ignored this instruction, from a voyage around the world.
perhaps because there was sickness Bougainville left France in 1766
among his men. to hand the Falkland Islands over to
The very year that Byron returned the Spanish, and to seek the south-
to England, one of his ships, the ern continent. His first task accom-
Dolphin, sailed again for the Pacific, plished, he made for the Pacific to
this time under the command of start his search. Unable to find any
Samuel WalUs (1728-1795). The Dol- trace of the legendary land mass,
phin, with the Swallow, under the Bougainville continued to Tahiti,
command of Philip Carteret, who had
sailed with Byron, was to search for T La Perouse's men on Easter Island.

Roggeveen 1 1721-3

. . Byron 'with Carteret & Clerkel 2 1764-6

Wallis & Carteret 3 1766-7

Wallis 3A 1767-8
Carteret 3B 1767-9

C G«ogr.phic«l PrO).ctj 140°

——. La Perouse


Vancouver & Broughton 6 1791-2

Vancouver 6A 1791-5
Broughton 68 1791-2
Equatorial Scale Cook (with Bligh, Clerks. Gore, King 2c 1776-9
& Vancouver!
fcL I I I lidrr
Clerke lafter^de^toTCo
Gore & KitU lafaf death S Clnrk

where, like Europeans on many of the the British Royal Society, of a transit around the Cape York Peninsula, he
Pacific islands, he suffered from the of the planet Venus across the sun. rediscovered Torres Strait. Cook
thieving of the islanders. From This was due to take place on 3 June claimed all eastern New Holland for
Tahiti, he went on to Samoa, then 1769, and could be best observed in naming it New South Wales.
sailed west as far as the Great Barrier the central Pacific. Secret orders, Cook's detailed and careful obser-
Reef. Turning north, he discovered however, instructed Cook to continue vations, with his charts of Tahiti,
the Louisiade Archipelago, and pass- his voyage in search of the southern neighboring islands. New Zealand,
ed through the Solomon Islands but, continent and, the transit duly record- and eastern Australia, gave Europe
like Carteret, he failed to recognize ed at Tahiti, that is what he did. for the first time a truly accurate pic-
them as such. Cook sailed his ship. Endeavour, ture of those lands. As important
Bougainville did not find Terra from Tahiti to New Zealand, and as his scientific and geographical
Australis, but belief in it persisted, circumnavigating that country, he investigations, however, was the
for no ship had yet sailed over much proved it to be two islands, not fact that he was the first commander
of the South Pacific. Even before part of a southern land. He then to prevent scurvy on his ships. On
Bougainville returned to Europe, continued to the east coast of New 13 July 1771, Cook returned to Bri-
however, James Cook (1728-1779) Holland, discovering Botany Bay, tain but, a year later, he set out
had left England on the first of three which he named because so many bo- again for the Pacific. This time, he
Pacific voyages. In those voyages, the tanical specimens were found there. sailed east, and pushed much farther
legend of Terra Australis was finally Sailing north, Cook discovered the south, crossing the Antarctic Circle
disproved. inlet where Port Jackson (present- on three occasions. Thus, he des-
The ostensible motive for Cook's day Sydney) was later founded and, troyed the possibility that Terra
150 first voyage was the observation, for continuing up the east coast, and Australis might exist. Cook, however.

voyage was continued by Clerke, who

charted the Asian coast of the Bering
Sea. It was completed, after Clerke's
death, by Gore and King.
Little remained to be done in the
Pacific after Captain Cook's voyages
— thereafter explorers had only to
fill in the details on the map. Jean

de la Perouse (1741-1788) sailed

to discover the prospects for a whale
fishery and for the fur trade in the
Pacific, and to try to find the Solo-
mon Islands. He called at Easter
Island and the Sandwich Islands,
then made a coasting voyage down
North America, later crossing the
Pacific to sail up the Asian coast.
From Kamchatka, La Perouse sailed
for Port Jackson. Thence, he set off
for the Solomons, and was never
seen again.
La Perouse's disappearance occas-
ioned the dispatch in 1791 of a search
party under Bruni d'Entrecasteaux
(1737-1793) which, although it found
no sign of La Perouse, did finally
identify the Solomon Islands, and

T Captain Cook.

ci Grcgraphical Projects 1610°


suspected the existence of Antarctica, covery. The master of the Resolution explored them and the Louisiade Ar-
believing that land lay behind the was William Bligh (1754-1817); the chipelago. Then, in April 1791,
ice that turned him back. On this captain of the Discovery was Charles George Vancouver sailed with Will-
voyage, too. Cook rediscovered the Clerke, who had sailed with Cook on iam Broughton (dates unknown) for
Marquesas, which had not been both of his previous voyages, and northwestern North America. Before
sighted since Mendana's second Cook's lieutenants were John Gore reaching their goal, they charted 300
voyage. He also explored the New (dates unknown) and James King miles of the south coast of Australia,
Hebrides and New Caledonia before, (dates unknown). George Vancouver and discovered the Chatham Islands.
on 11 November 1774, finally leaving ( 1 757- 1 798) sai led with Captain Cook By his American surveys, Vancouver
New Zealand for Cape Horn. Cross- as midshipman. proved that no easily navigable
ing the South Atlantic on his home- Cook's object on this voyage was Northwest Passage opened along that
ward voyage, Cook discovered the to explore the virtually unknown coast.
island of South Georgia. North Pacific, and to find a passage In less than 100 years, the Terra
In recognition of Cook's achieve- from western North America to the Australis theory had been totally
ments, in 1 776 he was elected a Fellow Atlantic. After discovering Christmas demolished. But in its place, a great
of the Royal Society, and awarded Island and the Sandwich Islands (the ocean and many new lands had been
its Copley Medal for his conquest of Hawaiian Islands) on his voyage found. The exploration of Antarc-
scurvy. In July, five months after his northward, he coasted North Ame- tica —the true southern continent
election, he sailed again for the rica and passed through Bering would be the work of the future.
Pacific. His ships were the Reso- Strait. But, returning south, Cook With the exploration of the Pacific
lution —
with which he had sailed on was killed in Hawaii during a quarrel completed, it was to Australia and
his second voyage —
and the Dis- with natives over a stolen boat. The New Zealand that Europe turned. 151
The Birth of a Colony

In January 1788, 12 British ships sailed into Botany Bay. be dangerous to continue. But even
so, his voyage was a magnificent
Their mission was not primarily to explore, but to settle.
achievement: he had sailed around
The British government, prevented by the United States and carefully mapped —more than
newly won independence from shipping convicts to America, three-quarters of the Australian coast.
had become interested in Australian colonization. The On his voyage back to Britain, Flin-
fleet's mission was to found a penal colony at Botany Bay. ders' ship put into Mauritius for re-
pairs, and there Flinders was impri-
soned for 6^ years by the French, with
Botany Bay, however, proved un- On his return to Britain in 1800, whom Britain was at war. When he
suitable for a settlement, and the Flinders was given command of the reached home, he found that Baudin,
British founded their colony at Port Investigator to make a voyage to Aus- who had accomplished far less, had
Jackson, farther north. The new tralia. He unknown
sailed along the claimed Flinders' discoveries as his.
colony was cut off from the Austra- south coast, discovering Spencer Gulf Not until 1813 was the first cross-
lian interior by the Blue Mountains, and Gulf St. Vincent, before reaching ing of the Blue Mountains made by
and the first exploration was made Encounter Bay. There, he met the Gregory Blaxland (1778-1853), but
along the coast. In 1795, George Bass French ship, Le Geographe, com- then others were quick to follow him.
(1771-1812?) and Matthew Flinders manded by Nicolas Baudin (1750?- The Lachlan and Macquarie rivers
sailed some way up the Georges River 1803). Baudin had already charted were discovered; in 1818, Hamilton
from Botany Bay, then, in 1797, Bass the rest of the south Australian coast. Hume (1797-1873) discovered Lake
set out to discover whether Van From Encounter Bay, Flinders Bathurst, and, soon afterward. Lake
Diemen's Land and Australia were continued to Port Jackson, then north George, some 10 miles away, was
joined. Sailing as far as Western Port, to circumnavigate the Gulf of Car- reached. With the discovery of the
he Bass Strait. The
discovered pentaria. He had hoped to complete Murrumbidgee sometime before
Van Diemen's Land was
insularity of charting the north coast of Australia, 1823, the colony's most urgent prob-
proved finally when Flinders and and to map the west coast, but his lem was the charting of the river
Bass sailed around it in 1798-9. ship was so rotten that he felt it would system of the interior. When, in

3 T A S 1^ A N

Bass iwilh Flinders! la 1795

Bass lb 1797-8

Flinders I with Bassi 2a 1798-9

Flinders 2b 1801-2

"~~^^ Baudin

O G«ographical Projacts

1 1815-5

Hume 2a 1818
Hume with Hovelil 2b 1824

Sturt (with Humel 3a 1828-9

ICING in 6 ASS JTRAIT" >\furneaux Sturt with Madsyl 3b 1829-30
Sturt iwith Sfuertl 3c 1844-S

Mitchell 4a 1831

4b 1835
4c 1836
4d 1845

Gaographical trnfttl

1824, Hume traveled with William < Sturt in the Australian deserts.
Hovell ( 1 786- 1875) from Lake George
to Port Phillip Bay, he came back the exploration of the Darling River,
convinced that all the rivers emptied and he discovered Sturt Desert and
themselves into a huge interior lake. Cooper's Creek.
In 1828, Hume accompanied In 1831, Thomas Mitchell (1792-
Charles Sturt (1795-1869) on an 1855) crossed the Liverpool Plains to
expedition to find new pastureland. the Namoi River, then continued
They discovered the Bogan River and north over the Gwydir to the Barwon
followed it to the Darling, then traced (Macintyre). Four years later, he
part of the Darling's course. The traveled down the Darling. The year
following year, with George Macley 1836 found him on the Lachlan,
(1809-1891), Sturt sailed down the Murrumbidgee, and Murray rivers,
Murrumbidgee and on down the and he established their relationship,
Murray. The Murray flows into a and that of the Murray to the Dar-
lagoon. Lake Alexandrina, whose ling. Returning up the Murray, past
outlet is to the Indian Ocean, and by its junction with the Murrumbidgee,
this discovery Hume's theory was dis- Mitchell crossed from the Loddon to
proved. With John Stuart (1815- the Glenelg. In 1845, Mitchell set out
1866), in 1844-5, Sturt attempted un- north over the headstreams of the
successfully to reach the center of Darling and, on his return, discovered
Australia. He did, however, complete the upper course of the Barcoo River. 153
^nto the Interior

While explorers were pushing

outward from the British
colony southeastern Australia, the
first steps were being taken toward

opening up other parts of the country.

Perth was founded on the west coast
in 1829, and from Perth, in 1837,
George Grey (1812-1898) sailed north
to Brunswick Bay. He had intended
to make the return journey overland,
ts] \ /\ ^

but his expedition had to be aban-

doned. Two years later, Grey set out
again. This time, he landed at Shark
o C t A N / X' ^Ki m be rie

Bay, and discovered the Gascoyne

River, but lack of food forced him to
/ Land) -/^X J \ ^f "—
turn back to Perth. During the return
voyage, his ships were wrecked, and
he completed the journey overland.
In South Australia, meanwhile, in
1839 Edward Eyre (1815-1901) sight-
ed Lake Torrens from Mount Eyre,
and that same year he explored the
coast of Australia from Port Lincoln
to Streaky Bay. In 1840, Eyre tried to
travel north but he was unable to
penetrate the salt lakes, which he
believed formed a continuous horse-
shoe around the head of Spencer
Gulf. This theory was not disproved
until 1858 when Peter Warburton
(1813-1889), on his second expedition
in South Australia, traveled over the
bridge of land separating Lake Tor-
rens from Lake Eyre. That same
year, John Stuart, Sturt's traveling
companion, explored between Lake
Torrens, Stuarts Range, and Streaky
Bay, and in 1859, west of Lake Eyre,
he discovered the Neales River.
Seven years later, east of Lake Eyre,
Peter Warburton discovered the river
that is named after him.
Eyre followed his South Australian
journeys with a greater feat of en-

durance a trek from Fowlers Bay to
Albany over almost waterless land.
From Moreton Bay on the east coast,
in 1844-5, Ludwig Leichhardt (1813-
1848) traveled to Port Essington har-
bor in the north. He discovered much
good pastureland, and many rivers
and mountains, but he was neither a
good organizer nor leader, and when,
in 1846-7, he tried to walk around
three sides of Australia, his expedi-
tion came to grief. Undeterred, in
1848 he set out to cross Australia. Grey la 1837 Gregory. F, 6a 1846
He was never seen again. lb 1839 6b 1857-8
No luckier than Leichhardt, al- Eyr« 2 1841

though a better leader and admini- Stuart 7a 1860-1

strator,was Edmund Kennedy (1818- Leichhardt 3a 1844-S 7b 1861

3b 1846-7 7c 1862
1848). In 1847, Kennedy was sent to 3c 1848
discover which way the Barcoo Burke & Wills 8 1860-1
Kennedy 4a 1847-8
flowed, and this he accomplished. In 4b 1848 Forrest, J 9a 1869

1848 he was sent out again to explore 9b 1870

Gregory. A. 5a 1846 9c 1874
Queensland. But, in the north of 5b 1855-6
Cape York Peninsula, he was mur- 5c 1857 Forrest. A. lOe 1871
10b 1879
dered by Aborigines when seeking
help for his starving men, all but two iio» 120"
154 of whom were later found dead.
C Geographical Projects
Two brothers, Augustus and Frank (some $4800) to the first man to
Gregory (1819-1905 and 1821-1888), cross Australia from south to north.
did much to open up unknown Aus- In the event, however, Robert Burke
tralia. Augustus Gregory made his (1820-1861) and William Wills (1834-
first journey in 1846 from Perth to 1861), who were the first to complete
north of the Murchison River, then the crossing, did not live to collect
in 1855-6, in northern Australia, he their reward. Burke and Wills left
discovered, and traced, Sturt Creek. Menindee in October 1860 and in
From Sturt Creek, he traveled to the November, from Cooper's Creek
Victoria River, then along the south the lower Barcoo River —
they made a
side of the Gulf of Carpentaria. He dash for the north coast with two
followed the Burdekin south, and companions. In February 1861, they
eventually emerged on the east coast. were nearly at the mouth of the
In 1857, Gregory traveled from Bris- Flinders River, but did not continue
bane to Adelaide, exploring the to the sea because their supplies were
upper Barcoo River. Frank Gregory's running short. On the return journey,
expeditions were made in west and one of their companions died, and
northwest Australia, and he dis- when the survivors reached Cooper's
covered several fertile regions suitable Creek, they found that the supply
for settlement. party they had expected to meet them
In 1860, the government of South had left. Before help arrived, Burke
156 Australia offered a prize of £2000 A Ernest Giles. and Wills too were dead.
John Stuart also hoped to be first Giles traveled into the fringes of the covered a new area of pastureland.
he was unable
to cross Australia, but Gibson Desert, which he named after In 1875-6, Ernest Giles achieved
to achieve his ambition on his first his companion, who disappeared his cherished dream of an inland east-
two attempts. He chose a route which there. That same year, too, William west crossing of western Australia.
lay to the west of that followed by Gosse (1842-1881) attempted to cross On his return journey, he traveled
Burke and Wills and in April 1861 he western Australia, and he discovered through the Gibson Desert, search-
reached the center of Australia, na- Ayers Rock before being forced to ing unsuccessfully for traces of his
ming a high mountain Central Mount give up. Peter Warburton, however, missing friend. Twenty years later,
Sturt, after Charles Sturt. The name did manage to make a crossing that two crossings of the deserts were made
was later changed to Stuart, after its year. in a south to north direction. Law-
discoverer. Stuart nearly reached The first west-east crossing of rence Wells (1860-1938) led a party
Attack Creek on this occasion, and western Australia was made in 1874 from Lake Barlee to the Fitzroy River,
later that year pushed north past the by John Forrest (1847-1918)— later while David Carnegie (1871-1900)
creek. At last, on 24 July 1862, he Lord Forrest, and the first premier made his journey farther east and
managed to reach the sea. Within 10 of Western Australia. In 1869, For- reached Sturt Creek.
years, along his route, the Central rest had traveled from Perth to Lake Little more than a hundred years
Overland Telegraph Line was laid. Raeside, passing over rich goldfields had passed since the first settlers
By the time the Overland Telegraph without knowing it, and in 1870 he reached Australia, yet in that short
Line was opened, most of eastern had traced in reverse Eyre's route time the continent had been explored.
Australia was known, and explorers along the Great Australian Bight. Work still remained for pioneers in
were concentrating on the virgin coun- Forrest's brother Alexander (1849- the search for pastureland and for
try in the west. In 1 872, Ernest Giles 1901) also made two journeys of ex- minerals, but, by the turn of the cen-
(1835-1897) traveled up the Finke ploration — the first from the Swan tury, few areas were entirely un-
River into the Macdonnell Ranges, River to the Great Victoria Desert, known. Parallel with exploration, too,
but lack of water forced him to return and the second from the De Grey settlement had gone forward, and
to the Telegraph Line. The following River to the coast west of Arnhem now Australians could take advan-
year, with Alfred Gibson (7-1873), Land. On this second journey, he dis- tage of the vast resources of their land.

^^^"^ Tasman
— -

(^ew Zealand

The navigator Abel Tasman returned to Batavia in 1643 and the expansion of settlement.
North Island was made known.
convinced ttiat he had discovered the southern continent.
In South Island, however, progress
East of Van Diemen's Land, he had come upon a formerly was slower — there, travel is more dif-
unknown land mass, and he had sailed north for hundreds of ficult, for the Southern Alps form
miles along its coast. Surely such a discovery could only be a a barrier down the island and, even
peninsula of an as yet otherwise unknown southern land. below the peaks and glaciers, the
undergrowth is dense and the rivers
swift. In 1843, Thomas Brunner( 1821

More than a hundred years pass-

ed before the truth was learned
was not really interested in geogra-
phical discovery, but he made three
1874) traveled inland from Tasman
Bay, and two years later, w ith Charles
about Staaten Land, Tasman's dis- important journeys during his seven Heaphy (1820-1881), William Fox
covery, for it was not until James visits to New Zealand before 1 837. (1812-1893), and Ekuhu (dates un-
Cook's first voyage that its coast was In 1831, Henry Williams, another known), a Maori guide, he visited
explored. Cook disco\ered that Tas- missionary, visited a Maori village at lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa. The fol-
man's "land mass" was in reality two Lake Rotorua, and his brother lowing year, he, Heaphy, and Ekuhu
islands, and he learned much about William Williams (dates unknown) traveled south to the Taramakau
the country, and w as impressed by the walked right across North Island in River. At the end of 846, Brunner set

prospects for European settlement. 1839. Two years later, William out on what has become known as
On his later voyages. Cook returned Colenso (1811-1899) traveled from "The Great Journey'". It led him along
to that country to revictual. Poverty Bay to the Bay of Islands, the courses of the Buller and Grey
As Cook had found. New Zealand and in 1843-4 he circled Hawke Bay, rivers, and south to Tititira Head.
— as Staaten Land became known and Lake Waikaremoana. In
visited Once exploration had begun in
was an excellent watering place, and 1847, Colenso visitedLake Taupo in South Island, settlement soon follow-
soon sealing and whaling ships were the center of North Island, and ed. The gold rush to the pro\ ince of
regularly visiting Dusky Sound and penetrated the Ruahine Range. Otago, in southeastern South Island,
the Bay of Islands. Traders arrived Sponsored by the New Zealand in 1861, opened up that region, and
from Australia, for the country was Company, the first settlers arrived in in that same year the first recorded
rich in flax and timber, and in their 1839 on board the Tory, and they exploration of a New Zealand glacier
wake came the missionaries to con- what is
established their colony at — the Forbes —
took place. In that
vert the Maori to Christianity. The now Wellington. That same year, year, too, surveys began in South
first mission station was founded in Ernst Dieffenbach climbed Mount Island and, as they progressed, they
1814 at the Bay of Islands by Samuel Egmont, and in 1840 New Zealand removed the blanks from the map.
Marsden (1765-1838), chaplain to the Company surveyors began exploring
colony of New South Wales. Marsden North Island. Through their work. T New Zealand forests.

of the Earth
The extreme north and the extreme south of the earth are Explorers traveling north and south
covered by an ocean, and by a continent. There, the ice lies have found themselves in a cold,
unfamiliar world, a world which in
deep winter and summer alike, and the cold is always
winter is bleak and dark. Plant and
intense. There, the northernmost and southernmost points

of our planet are situated the ends of the earth's axis, the
animal life are limited, particularly in
the Antarctic where they are almost
North and South Poles. There, for centuries, brave men nonexistent. The climate is so harsh,
have battled to explore the ends of the earth. and the dangers so numerous, that

for some of its explorers, the frozen the continent, and sometimes this ice expeditions in the spring. If supplies
world has meant death. does not melt from one year to the ran short during a land journey,
After the cold, the ice is the most next. Icebergs, too, break off the particularly in the Antarctic, there
notable characteristic of the polar Antarctic icecap and drift north. was little hope of survival, for the

regions. The Arctic Ocean is covered The exploring season is short in the land could not support life.
by an ice pack many feet thick. In Arctic and the Antarctic, not only In parts of the Arctic and Antarctic,
summer, with warmer weather, the because of the climate, but also owing too, direction finding is difficult.

outer floes break off, and great chasms to the phenomenon of "'eternal night". Compass needles do not point to the
appear in the main pack, so that a At the Arctic and Antarctic circles, on true North and South Poles, but to
traveler who took to the pack by one day in midwinter, the sun never the North and South Magnetic Poles,
sledge in summer would be in as much rises, and the nearer one travels to the which are over 1000 miles away. In
danger as one entering it by ship in poles, the longer the period of these areas, compasses are unreliable.
winter. The continent of Antarctica, darkness becomes. At the North and Both the search to locate the magnetic
with the exception of a few mountains, South Poles, the eternal night lasts for poles, and the race to be first at the
is entirely ice covered. From its shores, sixmonths. During the polar winters, North and South Poles would in time
a number of vast shelves of never- explorers' ships became icebound, occupy explorers. But at first it was
melting sea ice jut out into the and in the Arctic travelers would the search for a Northwest or North-
polar waters. Pack ice surrounds winter in the ice, continuing their east Passage that led explorers north.

the 1500's, although little definite pole rises from a sea, and the sea is Zemlya, is called "S. Hugo Wil-
In was known about the polar enclosed by islands divided by four loughbe's Land". Willoughby was
regions, cartographers still contrived great channels. Through these, its one of the first Europeans to penetrate
to include them on their maps. When, waters issue into an outer "icy sea". the Arctic, and he is believed to have
in 1595, four months after Gerardus Thus, from Rumold's map, it appears reached Novaya Zemlya before he
Mercator's death, his son Rumold that it would not only be possible to was wrecked and drowned. Here,
issued the third part of Mercator's sail from Europe to Asia via a however, his landfall is shown as a
atlas, a chart of the Arctic was among Northeast or a Northwest Passage separate island, near what is actually
the 18 maps. Rumold took his picture but also directly over the North Pole. Spitzbergen.
of the Arctic from an inset in his The from Greenland east to
icy sea Although Asia had not yet been
father's world map of 1569. This had, the Ob (Oby) River contains many proved to be separated from America,
in turn, been based on even older islands. Greenland is mapped in some Rumold divides them by a strait
records, among them an account by detail, as is Iceland, and Novaya called Anian. North of the Strait of
one Jacob Croyen, and a work called Zemlya is shown in outline, while Anian, he marks two magnetic poles,
Inventio Fortunatae, whose author Rumold also depicts other, mysteri- one almost in the channel issuing from
may have visited Greenland and ous lands. One, southwest of Iceland, the polar sea. Nothing was then
America. Both are lost, but their con- is called Frisland. This was the name known of northern North America,
tents survive in the Mercators' maps. Martin Frobisher had given to and there Rumold's map is sketchy.
At thecenter of Rumold Mercator's Greenland and, after Greenland had Strangely, however, he names the
map lies the North Pole —
the Arctic been identified, Frisland was depicted northern point of the continent

Pole as he called it which he depicted on maps as a separate land. The other, "California", although present-day
162 as a "black and very high rock". The north of Lapland and west of Novaya California is far to the south.
a . .

continued in ignorance of vast channels. He believed that, stretch so far north, and Bouvet had
Europe channels,
the exact nature of Antarctica through those the ices in fact discovered the island that is

long after European sailors had begun of the polar sea flowed north to now named after him. Buache's map
opening up the Arctic in the north. emerge as icebergs in the ocean. includes too the routes followed by
The persistence of the theory of Terra Buache's continent, based as it is Bouvet's ships, as well as those of
Australis long prohibited geographers on the Terra Australis legend, is far earlier voyages to the southern seas.

from looking objectively at the larger than Antarctica. Most of that The expeditions of Magellan, Quiros,
Antarctic regions, and such discover- continent is contained within the and of Le Maire and Schouten are
ies as were made were usually believed Antarctic Circle, and no point marked, as are those of Tasman and
to be part of the southern land. Even reaches north of latitude 60^ south. Dampier. The portion of the coastline
in 1 739, when the French geographer Buache's continent, however, in sev- of Australia (New Holland) then
Philippe Buache (1700-1773) drew his eral places stretches north to 50' known is depicted, together with the
map of the earth from the South Pole south, and once nearly to 30° south. southern part of Van Diemen's Land.
to the Tropic of Capricorn, the focal There, it includes New Zealand, of Buache notes on his map his
point of his map was still a huge which part of the coast was known. theories, and information which
continent surrounding the pole. On his map, Buache shows the might be helpful in drawing geo-
Buache was a member of the Royal "new discoveries" made south of the graphical conclusions. The ocean
French Academy of Sciences, and Cape of Good Hope in the very year around the South Pole is marked as
son-in-law of Guillaume Delisle, at itwas first published, by a French "conjectured", while on the continen-
that time cartographer to the king of expedition under the command of tal coast east of New Zealand a note

France. His principal interest in Lozier Bouvet. On Bouvet's map and reads that in that region there must be
geography was to find a system memoirs, Buache based that section a mountain range, where the rivers
governing the earth's structure. In of his own map. An account of rise that provide the ice in the interior
1754 he published an Atlas Physique. Bouvet's voyage is printed in the sea. On Bouvet's route north of Cap
In it, he included a revision of his left-hand margin, and a more detailed de la Circoncision there is a record of
1739 map of Antarctica, still dated chart of one of his discoveries at the soundings taken between 3 December
1739, but annotated as revised in bottom of the right-hand side. Bouvet 1 738 and 5 February 1 739 in which no

1754. Buache deduced from the had named his landfall Cap de la bottom was found at 180 fathoms
geography of the Arctic that the Circoncision, and Buache therefore (1080 feet). Detailed as Buache's map
South Pole, like the North Pole, lay assumed that it was part of the is, however, less than 40 years after

in a frozen sea. This sea was surroun- southern continent, and showed it as a its first publication it was rendered

ded by a huge continent, cut by two cape. Antarctica does not, however, obsolete by Cook's discoveries.

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JlUll .i^u%.r p^rte liieutctui Iwime ttiolitre tejct>-itn*fati^fue du foyu^e
^he Frozen North

The earth was round. Ferdinand Magellan had proved it by Davis la 1585
lb 1586
his circumnavigation, and to the nations of Europe, seeking Ic 1587

a new route to the Indies, his discovery pointed the way to Barents (with Linschoten 2a 1594
Barents 2A 1594
other, untried paths. If Magellan could sail southwest Other members of 2B 1594

around the Americas, why should there not also be a passage expedition
Barents (with Linschoten 2b 1595
to the northward? The search for such a passage continued Barents iwith Linschoten 2c 1596-7
Expedition after death 2C 1597
long after the race to the East was over, and by the seamen of Barents

who sailed north, the Arctic regions were first explored. Hudson 3a 1607
3b 1608
3c 1609
3d 1610-1

Bering 4a 1725-7
Bering 4b 1728-9
iwith Chirikov & Spanberg
Bering part with Chirikov 4c 1740-1
Survivors 4C 1741-2
(after death of Bering)

Buchan (with FranklinI 5 1818

Ross.John 6a 1818
with Parry & Ross, James C
Ross.John 6b 1829-33
Iwith Ross.James C
Parry (with Ross.James C.I 7a 1819-20
7b 1821-3
7c 1824-5
7d 1827

lilien Willetn Barents' ship became

icebound off Novaya Zemlya in 1596,
he and his men were forced to winter
in the Arctic. The Dutchmen built a
hut to live in, and the wood they needed
for building and for fuel had to be
< dragged for eight miles.

Seeking a Northeast Passage, Sir wintering, but Barents died on the John Franklin (1786-1847) sailed to
Hugh Willoughby probably return journey. His companions, the North Pole. Ross and Parry, with
reached Novaya Zemlya and, sailing however, did e\entually reach home. Ross's nephew James Clark Ross
west, Martin
Frobisher discovered Henry Hudson made his first (1800-1862), sailed into Baffin Bay,
Baffin Island and reached Hudson voyages in search of a northeasterly and reached the entrance to Lancaster
Strait.Then, in three voyages west, route to China. In 1607, he reached Sound, but Ross would go no farther
John Davis (15507-1605) opened up Spitzbergen and, on his homeward west, for he believed the sound was
the Greenland coast north to Sander- voyage, discovered Jan Mayen, and merely a bay. Buchan and Franklin
son's Hope, and coasted America the following year he \isited Novaya were beset by ice north of Spitzbergen
from Baffin Island to Newfoundland. Zemlya. In 1609, Hudson sailed west and were forced to turn back.
He returned convinced that the to North America, and in 1611, To succeed where Ross had "fail-
Northwest Passage did exist. seeking the Northiv^'^/ Passage, he ed". Parry sailed in 8 9 on the first of
1 1

In 1594, theDutch commissioned met his death in Hudson Bay. three expeditions in search of the
an expedition to sail to China via When Vitus Bering sailed in 1728 Northv\est Passage. By his voyages,
Novaya Zemlya, and Wiliem Barents from Kamchatka, he sought not a the map of the Canadian Arctic was
(15507-1597) reached northern No- northern passage, but to discover transformed. In 1819, he won a £5000
vaya Zemlya before ice forced him whether a strait really divided Russia prize for passing the 110' meridian
back. The other members of the from America. With Alexei Chirikov west of Green wich and, during his voy-
expedition, with Jan van Linschoten and Martin Spanberg, he sailed ages, he discovered many islands and
(1563-1611) —whose Itinerario spur- through Bering Strait, then, 12 years waterways. He was the first Arctic
red the Dutch to sail to the Indies later, he and Chirikov set out to explorer to extend sea voyages by land
attempted a more southerly route. sail to the northwest coast of exploration, and he made remarkable
When they reached the open waters of America. Their ships became sep- efforts to keep his men healthy and
the Kara Sea, they thought the way to arated, but both reached America. amused during the Arctic winters. In
the East was clear. The following Returning, Bering was shipwrecked 1827, Parry tried unsuccessfully to
year, therefore, was by Linschoten's
it on Bering Island, w here he died. reach the North Pole and he traveled
route that Barents and Linschoten In 1817, improved climatic condi- farther north thanany man before.
sailed. The ice was bad, and they only tions rendered the polar seas relatively In 1829, John Ross made another
reached Vaigach Island, but in 1596 ice free and, after an interval of expedition to the Canadian Arctic,
Barents sailed north again. He more than 200 years, British interest with James Clark Ross as second-in-
discovered Spitzbergen and Bear in the Northwest Passagewas renewed. command. Four winters were spent in
Island, and rounded the northern tip In 1818, a twofold expedition was the Arctic, and important explora-
of Novaya Zemlya, but his ship commissioned. John Ross ( 777- 856) 1 tions were carried out by J. C. Ross
became icebound, and he and his men and William Parry (1790-1855) were on Boothia Peninsula and King
were forced to winter there. Almost to seek the Northwest Passage, while William Island. Ross fixed the posi-
164 all survived that unprepared Arctic David Buchan (dates unknown) and tion of the North Magnetic Pole.

y V^ •
" ^ r^ '^

«graphtc«i Pfq)»cti
^he Search for Franklin

During the winter of 1 846-7, Britain

became anxious about an expedi-
tion commanded by Sir John Franklin
that had sailed to find the Northwest
Passage in May 1845. The expedition
had not been heard of since July,
the year it sailed.
To Britain,
Franklin was one of the
most renowned of Arctic explorers.
After his voyage w ith Buchan, he had
traveled overland with George Back
(1796-1878) and John Richardson
(1787-1865) from Hudson Bay to the
Arctic coast of Canada, which he had
mapped first from the mouth of the
Coppermine to Bathurst Inlet, and
later from the Mackenzie to Cape
Beechey. Franklin was knighted for
his achievements, and when an at-
tempt on the Northwest Passage was
mooted in 1845, he became leader.
Finding Barrow Strait blocked by
ice, Franklin sailed north between
Devon and Cornwallis islands. He
returned to winter on Beechey Island,
and in spring he pushed south. North
of King William Island, his ships were
beset by ice. They w ere ne\ er freed.
Sledging parties from Franklin's
ships explored King William Island,
and in a cairn at the north they left
a message recording the progress of
the expedition. At that time, all was
well, but in June 1847 Franklin died.
After another winter in the ice,

F. R. Crozier (7-1848), now in

command, decided to abandon ship.
In April 1848, 105 men set out for
Back River. Not one reached his goal.
In 1847, the search party was

sent to look for Franklin. John

Richardson and John Rae ( 1 839-1 893)
were to examine the coast east from
the Mackenzie, and the strait between
Victoria Island and the mainland,
but ice prevented them tra\eling be-
yond the mouth of the Coppermine.
Meanwhile, Sir James Clark Ross, winter in Walker Bay. Next year, The Death of Franklin, by Thomas
with Robert McClure (1807-1873) and Collinson continued to Dease Strait, Smith, mistakenly depicts Franklin
Leopold McClintock (1819-1907), had and sledges reached Gateshead Island as the last of his company alive. ^
tried to follow Franklin's proposed from his ship.
route. The ice was so bad that the ships In 1850, from Britain, Horatio Aus- men, and from the Eskimos he bought
only reached Somerset Island, but Erasmus Ommanney
tin (1801-1865), items belonging to Franklin's men.
sledging trips were made farther south. (dates unknown), and William Penny In 1854, the British government
In with Richard Collinson
1850, (datesunknown) sailed for the Arctic officially abandoned the search for
(1811-1883), McClure sailed via Be- with Sir John Ross and McClintock Franklin. Not so Lady Franklin, who
ring Strait for the Arctic, but their while from America E. J. de Haven had already fitted out four expedi-
ships became separated, and each (dates unknown) and Elisha Kane tions to find her husband and who,
searched alone. McClure sledged to (1820-1857) joined the search. At in 1857, dispatched the Fox to the
the head of Prince of Wales Strait and, Beechey Island, were found of
relics Arctic under Leopold McClintock.
seeing open water ahead, realized that Franklin, but sledging trips from the His expedition finally rex ealed the
a Northwest Passage was found. Off British ships re\ ealed no further trace. truth. The message left b> Franklin's
Banks Island, however, his ship be- It was John Rae who first disco- sledging party was found, with a note
came icebound in 1851, and he and vered the fate of Franklin. In 1851, added that Franklin was dead, and
his crew were only rescued by Sir he traveled from Great Bear Lake to the ships abandoned. Records of the
Edward Belcher's expedition in 1853. Prince Albert Sound, then continued expedition, and some skeletons, were
Collinson entered Prince of Wales to Gateshead Island. Two years later, disco\ered too. TweKe years after
Strait 10 days after McClure had left he set out from Repulse Bay for Bellot Franklin's death, the mystery had
it, then rounded the southwest corner Strait. Rae met an Eskimo, who told been solved. In those 12 years, the
166 of Banks Island before returning to him of the deaths of a party of white Canadian Arctic had been explored.
Franklin la 1819-22
(with Back & Richardson
Franklin lb 1825-7
IwitF) Back & Richardson)
Franklin with Crozier Ic 1845-7
Winter Sledging parties ID IB47
Crozier -emaimng IE 1848
"^en'be's c* exced 'ion or. foot
Position of ships in
successive winters

Search expeditions:

Richardson Iwith Rae 2a 1847-9

Ross, James C. 2b 1846-9
with McClure & McChniock
McClure 2c 18S0-5
Collinson 2d 1850-4

2nd Search expeditions:

British ships with Austin. 3a 1850-1
McClintockJohn Ross.
Ommanney & Pennyl
Sledging parties from 3b 1851

British snips
American ships 3c 1850-1
t,,f Ze i-a-©-- & i^a

Rae 3d 1851

3rd Search expeditions:

Rae 4 i8S3-4

Final Search expeditions

McClmtock 5a 1857-9
McClintock & sledging 5b 1858-9

Ibward the Pole

search for Sir John Franklin left the ship to make an attempt on the from Lancaster
had virtually completed the map pole by sledge. Unable to reach their
to Bering Strait. The year he
of the Canadian Arctic. Still the north goal, the two men retreated to Franz completed his voyage, Vilhjalmur
challenged adventurers, and explora- Josef Land, where they wintered un- Stefansson (1879-1962) set out into
tion there went on. In 1878-9, the prepared. In 1896, they met a British northwestern Canada. Between 1906
Northeast Passage was first navigated expedition, and returned home in its and 1912, Stefansson lived with and
by Nils Nordenskjold (1832-1901) in ship, Windward. The Frain, com- studied the Canadian Eskimos, and
the Vega and, in 1879, George manded by Otto Sverdrup (1855- with an Eskimo named Natkusiak
Washington de Long (1844-1881) 1930), emerged from the ice in August (dates unknown) he visited tribes on
passed through Bering Strait in the 1896, and sailed back to Norway. Victoria Island who had never seen a
Jcanneltc. Beset off Herald Island, Nansen's observations told the white man. On one of his journeys,
the Jcannette drifted nearly to the world much about the Arctic. It was Stefansson was accompanied by the
New Siberian Islands before being he, too, who revealed the true nature zoologist Rudolph Anderson (1876-
crushed by the ice. Of three parties of the Greenland icecap when he made 1961) who also carried out indepen-
that left the ship, only one survived. the first crossing of Greenland in dent research. In 1913, Stefansson
De Long, and most of his men, died. 1888. His researches there were con- was appointed leader of the Canadian
Three years the Jeannette
after tinued by Robert Peary (1856-1920), Arctic Expedition, the principal ob-
tragedy, Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) who made his first expeditions in ject of which was to chart the Beaufort
read that wreckage from the ship had Greenland before trying for the North Sea. Much valuable scientific work
come ashore in Greenland, and con- Pole. Peary was the first explorer to was accomplished, and Stefansson
cluded that the ice drift might be used adopt Eskimo traveling techniques. showed the potential importance of
to reach the North Pole. Nansen, who In 1900, with Matthew Henson (dates the Arctic regions to the world.
had already made an Arctic voyage to unknown), his Negro servant, and The Arctic was explored, but
tind zoological specimens, sailed companion on all his journeys after several "firsts" would still be accom-
north in 1893 to test his theory. 1887, Peary reached the northern tip plished. In 1958-9, the United States
Nansen's ship. From, was frozen in of Greenland, and in 1905-6 only the submarine IWautilus crossed the Arctic
north of the New Siberian Islands, ice condition prevented his attaining Ocean under the polar icecap while, 10
and began to drift with the ice. In his goal. In 1908, however, he again years later, VValiy Herbert (born 934)

time, however, it became clear that traveled north, and on 6 April 1909 led the British Trans-Arctic Expedi-
the ice drift would not carry it far he reached the North Pole. tion in the first surface crossing of
enough north, and in 1895 Nansen In 1903-6, Roald Amundsen (1872- the Arctic Ocean, completing one of
and Frederic Johansen (1867-1923) 1928) first navigated the Northwest the last great journeys on earth. 169
TTie Great Southland

The world believed for centuries that there was a continent Menkes' men land on Antarctica,

in the Southern Hemisphere it was known as Terra — while one of his ships lies offshore
amid the ice. Neither ships nor men
Australis Incognita, the unknown southern land. The were adequately prepared for their
fabulous Terra Australis proved only a figment of men's Antarctic voyage —
the ships were not
imaginations but, deep in the unknown south, an undis- reinforced against the ice, the govern-

covered land mass did exist. Hidden behind the Antarctic ment-purchased clothing was too thin,
and the stores were insufficient.
ice pack, frozen and snowbound in summer and winter, the
This painting is based on a sketch
continent of Antarctica lay waiting to be explored. made by Wilkes himself.

knowledge of the Antarc- 1834), in search of new sealing

The tic

was gained during the search grounds, crossed the Antarctic Circle
lingshausen Sea and, afterward,
Wilkes coasted Antarctica south of
for Terra Australis. Early in 1773, du- and, with good weather and no ice, Australia, claiming many new dis-
ring his second Pacific voyage. Captain succeeded in sailing south to 74° 1 5' coveries. Most of these have since
Cook made the first crossing of the 214 miles nearer the South Pole than been disproved, but, in his memory,
Antarctic Circle and later, in the Cook. Weddell made scientific obser- the region west of Adelie Land is
South Pacific Ocean, he pushed south vations, naming the sea he had sailed today called Wilkes Land.
to latitude IV 10'. The ice forced him over after King George IV of England. —
James Clark Ross already famous
back on both occasions, but on the Today, it is called the Weddell Sea. for his work in the Arctic — sailed in
second he sighted ice mountains, and In 1839, the Frenchman Jules Du- 1839 for the Antarctic with the ships
concluded that to the south must lie mont d'UrviUe (1790-1842) tried to Erebus and Terror. His second-in-
land. He also discovered South Geor- surpass Weddell's southing but that command was F. R. M. Crozier, who,
gia, and the South Sandwich Islands. year the pack ice extended farther with both the ships, was to disappear
The first land within the Antarctic north, and D'Urville had to turn back. on Franklin's tragic 1845 expedition.
Circle was discovered by a Russian Sighting the northern part of Graham Ross penetrated the ice pack to reach
expedition led by Fabian von Bellings- Land, he named it Louis Philippe open sea off the shores of Antarctica.
hausen (1778-1852), who in 1820-1 Land, and the islands of D'Urville He discovered Victoria Land and the
circumnavigated the world almost and Joinville he called Joinville Land. Ross Ice Shelf, a vast sheet of perma-
entirely south of the 60th parallel. Both these "discoveries" had, how- nent sea ice extending from the
Bellingshausen named his discoveries ever, been sighted before. The follow- Antarctic mainland, and named an
Peter 1 Island and Alexander I Land, ing year, sailing south from Hobart, active volcano Mount Erebus and a
but the latter is now known to be an D'Urville discovered Adelie Land. nearby mountain Mount Terror, after
island, separated from the mainland An American expeditioncommand- his ships. Ross even landed on the
by an icebound strait. ed by Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) was Possession Islands, and Franklin
On his voyage. Cook had noted in theAntarctic at the same time as Island.
how many seals there were in the D'Urville. It was perhaps the worst In 1841, Ross set sail from New
South Atlantic and, by the time of prepared of all Antarctic expeditions Zealand, and despite difficult condi-
Bellingshausen's expedition, sealers for the conditions there, and Wilkes tions, he reached nearly 78° 10' south.
were regularly hunting in those icy accomplished far less than D'Urville. In December 1842, he sailed from the
170 seas. In 1823, James Weddell (1787- Two of his ships explored the Bel- Falkland Islands to try to surpass
this record, but the ice pack halted and help. They reached South Geor-
him at 71° 30' south. Ross had, how- gia, but to get to the whaling station
ever, already pushed farther south Shackleton had first to cross the
than any of his predecessors, besides island —the first time this had been
making important discoveries and done. He got there, though, and in
scientific observations. time all his men were rescued too.
After Ross's voyage, interest m In 1921, Shackleton sailed once
the polar regions was concentrated on more for the Antarctic but he died in
the Arctic, and no great contributions 1922 of a heart attack and was buried
were made to knowledge of the on South Georgia. The voyage, which
Antarctic for nearly 60 years. Then, in resulted in only a few soundings, was
1900, the Royal Geographical Society continued in the Quest by Frank Wild.
commissioned an expedition under In 1911, Douglas Mawson led an
Robert Scott (1868-1912). Scott was expedition to the Antarctic in the Aur-
accompanied by Ernest Shackleton ora. He made his base at Common-
(1874-1922), Edward Wilson (1872- wealth Bay and sledged east with
1912), and Frank Wild (1873-1939). B. E. S. Ninnis (18887-1912) and
His expedition showed for the first Xavier Mertz (18837-1913). King
time what the Antarctic plateau was George V Land was added to the map,
like. In 1902, Scott established a new but both Ninnis and Mertz died.
southerly record by sledging south to Meanwhile, sledging west from
82° 17', and the following year he Shackleton Ice Shelf, Frank Wild
traveled 300 miles into Victoria Land. reached Queen Mary Land. In 1929,
Three years after Scott's return, Mawson led an expedition to Ant-
Ernest Shackleton led an expedition arctica in the Discovery, carrying out
to the Antarctic and, with a party in- oceanographic research and dis-
cluding Wild, he pushed south to covering Princess Elizabeth Land
within 97 miles of the South Pole. and Mac-Robertson Land. In 1930-1,
Shackleton was forced to turn back by he coasted Antarctica from Common-
a shortage of provisions, and by bad wealth Bay nearly to Enderby Land.
weather, but Douglas Mawson (1882- The first man to use airplanes for
1958) reached the South Magnetic Antarctic exploration was Sir Hubert
Pole, and a party led by Raymond Wilkins (1888-1958) who, in 1928-9
Priestley (born 1886) climbed onto and 1929-30, made flights over Gra-
the interior plateau at much the same ham Land and west of Peter I Island.
point as Scott. Other pioneer flights were made
Shackleton had allbut reached the by Richard Byrd (1888-1957) who, in
South Pole, and in 1910 Robert Scott 1928-9, in the first American expedi-
set out to conquer it. That same year, tion to Antarctica since that of Wilkes,
however, Roald Amundsen also set his made the first flight over the South
sights on the pole. After wintering Pole and established the Little Ame-
at the Bay of Whales, Amundsen set rica base at the Bay of Whales. In
out for the South Pole, which he rea- 1933, Byrd made a number of flights
ched on 14 December 1911 after a from a support ship off" Antarctica,
comparatively easy march. Scott, and the following year he set up a base
however, suffered setback after set- 123 miles south of Little America to
back on his journey southward and he, take weather measurements. For
Edward Wilson, and three compan- nearly five months during the Antarc-
ions reached the pole only on 17 Jan- tic winter, Byrd manned it alone.
uary 1912. The disappointment of In 1957-8, Shackleton's dream of a
finding Amundsen had got there first, crossing of Antarctica was accom-
combined with bad weather, made the plished when, from Shackleton base
return journey a nightmare and before on the edge of the Filchner Ice Shelf,
reaching their base all five men died. Vivian Fuchs (born 1908) traveled via
So great was this tragedy that at the the South Pole to McMurdo Sound. Mawson (with Wildl: \ \

time it obscured the success of the His expedition had been carefully pre- _ Aurora (taking expedition soulh) ^ 1911-2

scientificwork carried out by Scott's —

pared Shackleton base was set up _ Mawson
(sledging parties with Ninnis &
t<Xirtf.\ :'
ship Terra Nova and by Raymond in 1955 and only in 1956 did the body
_ Wild (sledging parties) 4B'»t3»4. ,

Priestley's Northern Party on shore. of the expedition sail from England. _ Aurora (to relieve expedition! 4C I9I2-3 "k

In 1914, Ernest Shackleton set out In 1957, while Fuchs traveled south _ Aurora (to pick up Mawson) 4D 1913m
_ Mawson (on D.sco^eryl 4b 1929-30'
to cross Antarcticafrom the Weddell from Shackleton, Sir Edmund Hillary _ Mawson 4c 1930-1 ";

Sea to the Ross Sea, but he never (born 1 9 1 9) laid out food depots south
.. Wilkins 5a 1928-9
managed to land on the Weddell Sea from McMurdo Sound to the pole. 5b 1929-30
coast. As his ship Endurance sailed Fuch's journey took place during
Byrd 6a 1928-9
west, the ice grew thicker and in Jan- the International Geophysical Year, a ,.
Byrd 6b 1933-5
uary 1915 the Endurance was beset. In —
year of international and peaceful Byrd's flights from ship 6B 1933
November, crushed by the ice, it sank. scientific experiments. Numerous Byrd's winter station 6C 1934

Shackleton and his men managed scientific stations were established in

_ Fuchs (on Magga Dan) 7a 1956
to reach Elephant Island then, leaving Antarctica and, in 1959, a treaty was Fochs 7b 1957-8
Hillary 7c l957-«
Frank Wild in charge, Shackleton and ratified stating that no country can
five others set out in the James exclude another from performing • I.G.Y. Scientific Stations
Caird, an open boat 22 feet long, to peaceful scientific experiments there.
cross the 1000 miles of open sea se- Today, it is by these researches that
140 C G«ogf«piic«i Proj»cTi

172 parating them from South Georgia the blanks on the map are being filled.
12 l^e Seas
and the Oceans
Nearly three-quarters of the sur-
face of the earth
is covered by the

oceans. Beneath the waves there lies a

world as varied and thriving as that of
the continents and islands but, until
relatively recently,
it was a world
unknown and unexplored. Mariners
sailed over the ocean, divers pene-
trated the shallow coastal waters, but,
of the vast mass of ocean waters,
nothing was known. Immense devel-
opments in scientific research tech-
niques were necessary before man
could explore the depths of the sea.
We know today that the seabed is

as uneven as the land. Under the sea,

there are plains (basins), mountains
(seamounts), mountain chains (mid-

ocean ridges) the peaks of which
often appear as islands above the

surface and deep valleys (trenches)
with occasional even deeper declivi-
ties called deeps. The average depth
of the water on the continental
shelves —the part of the seabed ad-
joining most continents, and made
up of rocks similar to those on land
— is around 600 feet, but in the deep

ocean it is in the region of 15,(X)0

to 18,000 feet. In comparison, the

average height of the land is a mere
2760 feet.
Much of the ocean floor is covered
by a thick blanket of sediments,
deposited there over millions of years.
On the continental shelves, these
are mainly terrigenous sediments
(sediments from the land), but in the
deep ocean most are pelagic sediments
(sediments which fall to the seabed
from the surface waters). Pelagic
sediments are further subdivided
into oozes, formed from the remains
of animals and plants, and clays,
made up of inorganic material. From
I >
a study of the different layers of
sediment on the seabed, scientists
can learn much about the history of
the earth. Researches have also
shown that the undersea world is 16Cr

not always peaceful. Undersea vol-

canoes erupt violently, and land-
slides roar down undersea ridges, or deepest ocean, it is almost constant depth, pressure increases at a rate of
down the continental slopes into the at a few degrees above freezing 0.442 pounds per square inch, so that,
deep ocean, smothering marine life. point. Within these waters flow great at a depth of 30,000 feet, the pressure
The waters covering the undersea currents, distinguished one from is between 700 and 800 times as great

world are salt, but the degree of the other by the temperature and as at sea level. Sunlight penetrates
salinity varies from place to place. salinity of their waters, and by their only a few hundred feet, and below
At the surface, their temperature speed, size, and strength. that the ocean is dark.
varies too, but with depth it be- Under the sea, the pressure of the What of life in the undersea world?
174 comes more uniform until, in the water is immense. For every foot of Plants need sunlight to survive, and
sea plants are not found below the are at the same pressure as the sur- Today, as the world becomes in-
light barrier, but research has proved rounding sea.The animal life of the creasingly overcrowded, and the
that there is animal life even in the sea is generally divided into three natural resources of the land are ex-
very deepest spots in ocean,
the groups — nekton
(swimming organ- hausted, men are looking with ever
although the greater the depth, the isms), benthos (organisms living on increasing interest at the sea as a
fewer animals there are. The sea the seabed), and zooplankton (drift- source of life. Their visionary plans
creatures can survive at water pres- ing organisms). Another branch of carry into the future the work of their
sures that would soon crush a human plankton, phytoplankton, is made up —
predecessors the men by whom the
being, for the fluids in their bodies of minute drifting plants. oceans have been explored. 175
The Challenger Expedition

la 21
December 1872 -31 December
January 1874 - 31 December 1874

Antarctic circle _^
— — •—
k 1 January 1875 - 31 December 1875
— • Id 1 January 1876 - 24 May 1876 '
^^-^^iTTJrV a/
e Geographical PlDjedi ](^0° _^— ^._-^''-X:;U" \C

May 1876, a British warship, On the Challenger, Wyville Thomson Indiesand the Philippines to Hong
InH.M.S. Challenger, sailed up the led a scientific team which included Kong, then south to New Guinea and
English Channel toward Portsmouth. four naturalists, John Murray (1841- north again to Yokohama. In the
It was returning home after a 3^- 1914), Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, Pacific, Hawaii and other islands were
year-long circumnavigation of the Henry Moseley, and J. J. Wild, visited. Coasting southernmost South
earth, during which it had sailed and a chemist, J. Y. Buchanan. The America toward the end of 1875,
nearly 69,000 miles over the world's Challenger's commander was George the Challenger passed through the
oceans. The motive of its voyage Nares(1831-1915). Strait of Magellan, then, early in
to explore the depths of the sea. H.M.S. Challenger from
sailed 1876, from the Falkland Islands, it
The Challenger expedition was or- Portsmouth in December 1872 on the sailed for home.
ganized with the help of the British first, Atlantic, leg of its voyage. The voyage of the Challenger open-
Admiralty and the Royal Society, but Four traverses were made of the At- ed a new world for study, for with
its inception was largely due to lantic, then ship sailed from
the its voyage the science of oceano-

Charles W
yville Thomson ( 830- 1 882), 1 Cape Town Melbourne, pushing
for graphy was born. Although some
a naturalist who had dredged the sea- far enough south to encounter the bar- scientists had previously studied the
bed in the Atlantic at some depth, and rier of pack ice ofi" the shores of ocean, until the 1800"s their equip-
who wanted to dredge all the world's Antarctica. From Melbourne, its ment was primitive, and much work
176 oceans, to investigate deep-sea life. route lay via New Zealand, the East had to be based on conjecture. The
researches of the Challenger scientists Murray who first classified these A H.M.S. Challenger off Antarctica.
showed for the first time what the sediments as terrigenous or pelagic.
oceans were really like. At 362 sta- The deepest sounding made was creatures of the deep ocean could
tions (stops), soundings were made 28,850 feet near the Mariana Islands. survive immense water pressures, and
to determine the depth of the water, (The deepest recorded sounding today thus demonstrated that life was pos-
and the ocean bed was trawled to is 37,780 feet, in the Mindanao any ocean depth. Plants, how-
sible at
bring up specimens of life in the Trench near the Philippines.) Water ever, were shown to be nonexistent
depths. Ocean currents, the sediments temperature was measured by means below a few hundred feet. Studies
on the seabed, and the temperature of a thermometer recording only were also made of plankton, the
and composition of seawater were maximum and minimum tempera- "wanderers" of the sea.
investigated too. tures, and readings showed that it After the Challenger's return to
The soundings made from the remained constant at great depths. Britain,reports of the expedition's
Challenger showed that the physical Animals were brought to the sur- findings were compiled, reports that
features of the ocean floor are as face in the trawl net from down to ran to 50 volumes, so revolutionary
N aried as those of the land, although
16,500 feet— depths far below those was the work. These 29,500-page
thecontours in the ocean basinsare less where life had previously been sup- reports have been called the "oceano-
pronounced, owing to the deposition posed to exist. Through his experi- grapher's bible" for on them all future
of sediments on the seabed. It was ments, Buchanan proved how the study of the ocean would be based. 177
^_!^_^^Roof e ofF'P. R. S V,
tf Hardy & Kempl 1925-X.

Route of Mefeor i*th Spiessli part with Merzl 1925-7


TAe World beneath the Waves

Challenger expedition drew bottom at more than 33,000 feet, and Woods Hole ship Atlantis reveal-
back a long-closed curtain by ob- from that depth the trawl brought
ed much about the composition and
and accurate infor-
taining definite back living creatures strange and — volume of that "river in the sea"
mation about the depths of the sea. hitherto unknown species, which had The Gulf Stream Drift Mission
Its revolutionary discoveries inspired adapted themselves to the darkness planned for 1969 would, however,
new oceanographic researches by and pressure of the depths. carry out experiments impossible on
such men as John Murray, a naturalist Long before the birth of oceano- the Atlantis, for its researches were to
on the Challenger; Louis Agassiz, graphy, sailors had been familiar be conducted from under the sea.
professor of natural history at Har- with ocean currents, and in particular The was the Ber.
expedition's ship
vard; Agassiz' son Alexander; and with the Gulf Stream, whose cur- Franklin, mesoscaph (boat foi
Prince Albert of Monaco, a generous rent flowing east across the Atlantic medium depths) designed by Jacques
patron of oceanography, as well as a could delay ships sailing west. In Piccard (born 1922) to explore the
practical oceanographer. Their in- 1 930, the Woods Hole Oceanographic ocean at depths up to 2000 feet.
vestigations, and those of the oceano- Institution was founded at Cape Cod, In Piccard's month-long voyage,
graphers who followed them, covered Massachusetts, and as one of its his mesoscaph traveled with the Gulf
many different subjects — life in the first projects it planned an inves- Stream from West Palm Beach,
depths; seawater, its composition and tigation of the Gulf Stream. During Florida, to a point 360 miles southeast
movement; the seabed, and its the following years, the voyages of of Nova Scotia. Its six-man crew
importance to a study of the earth.
Early in the 1900"s, the Norwegian
oceanographer and fishery scientist
Johan Hjort made a number of
oceanographic expeditions on board
the Michael Sars, and in the same
years studies of edible fishes were car-
ried out by Johannes Schmidt. It was
Schmidt who, in 1922, on an expedi-
tion in the Dana, revealed the mi-
gration pattern of the eel, which
sw ims to the Sargasso Sea to spawn.
For Britain, a study of whales was
vital to the future of the British
whaling industry, and in 1925 an
expedition was sent to the South
Atlantic in the Discovery. The scien-
team under Stanley Kemp (1882-

1945) and Alister Hardy (born 1896)

carried out various researches, the
most important of which were an in-
vestigation of the species of whale,
and studies of whale migration and
of plankton, which most whales eat.
A German expedition on board the
Meteor was in the Atlantic at the
same time as the Discovery. Its main
object was to investigate the possi-
bility of extracting gold and silver
from the sea to pay Germany's war
debt, but in this it was unsuccess-
ful. However, under Alfred Merz
(7-1925), until his death in August
1925. and afterward under Captain
Spicss (dates unknown), the team
made numerousobservations, measur-
ing the depth, temperature, and the
\arious properties of seawater, and
st udyi ng the features of the ocean floor,
and the blanket of sediments that cover
it. Through their work, they contri-

buted more to basic understanding of

the ocean than any expedition before.
A vital question remained unan-
J-. "i T 14 July I9*7^v^
swered by all these oceanographic
researches. Was there, or was there PalmBwcf./
not, life in the deepest parts of
m.^— Route of the Ben Franklin
the sea? In 1950. a Danish expedition Iwith Jacques Piccard I

led by Anton Bruun (1901-1961) set

Position each day
out in the Galathea to find the an-
swer. In the Mindanao Trench in the
— Gulf Stream

Pacific, the Galathea trawled the ^^ O G»09f«phic»l PrO)Kt>

« €-- T\V»
measured and recorded every physical Another method used to study the
characteristic of the Gulf Stream, seabed is seismic-refraction, in which
and observed its animal life. They depth charges are used to create
also acted as guinea pigs for the energy. Some of the energy generated
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- by the explosions travels down to the
ministration (N.A.S.A.) to demon- seabed, and to the various layers of
strate how men would react to pro- sediment and rock beneath. From
longed confinement in a small space. each layer, an echo bounces upward,
Revolutionary new techniques have and these help geologists to judge the
today transformed the science of depth of the layers, their angle, and
oceanography, enabling more accu- even to deduce their composition.
rate and detailed studies to be made. This method was successfully used on
Depth is no longer measured with board the Vema, a research ship spe-
a weighted chain, but with an echo cializing in geophysical observations.
sounder, which bounces a pulse It was the Vema, with the aid of the
of sound ofl" the seabed. From the Precision Depth Recorder (which
time the pulse takes to descend and traces a constant outline of the sea-
return, depth can be calculated. bed), that charted the mid-ocean
Pulses of sound sent down not verti- ridge, a great chain of undersea
cally, but at an angle, bounce back mountains encircling the earth.
echoes from which a picture of the Cores had been obtained from the
ocean floor can be draw n. Dredging is seabed, but scientists wanted to
no longer the only means of obtaining probe deeper. Plans were laid to
O' C E A N
bottom samples, for holes can be drill a hole into the ocean floor
drilled into the seabed, and cores thousands of feet below the surface
of sediment draw n up intact. of the water, a hole so deep that
A geological core sampler was it w ould cut right through the earth's

first used in 1947-8 by the University crust. The preliminary drillings of

of Goteborg's expedition on the Project Mohole, as the venture was
Albatross, and cores of sediment known, were made in 1959,and led
extracted which were up to 65 feet to the building of the Glomar Chal-
long. Deposits settle so slowly on lenger, a ship designed especially Route of the Ga/afhea (with BruunI 1950-2

the seabed that it would have taken for underwater drilling. Since the S Geograptiical Profedj
several million years for the sedi- Glomar Challenger set out on its
ment blanket to attain that depth. voyage in 1968, it has obtained
first The purpose of the Galathea expe-
From the composition of such cores, hundreds of cores from the seabed. ditionwas to trawl at the deepest
and the depth of the layers of sedi- From a study of these cores, scientists points in the ocean, to discover
ment in them, scientists can learn are learning new and fascinating facts whether life existed there, and, if
much about the history of the earth. about the earth. so, to what extent. Its findings

proved conclusively that there are The Glomar Challenger was built sands of feet of water without an-
living things even at the bottom of as a deep-sea drilling
specifically choring because of its automatic
the ocean, and showed that they ship to obtain sediment cores from positioning system. This holds the
are especially adapted to life in the seabed at great depths. The ship Glomar Challenger in place directly
their dark and pressurized home. T is able to drill in many thou- over the hole being drilled.


I /A N' y^^^^^^n^^.J^
c el A/U

Route of the G/omar Cha//enger:

18-mooth Deep Sea Drilling Project August 1968-February 1970

30-month Deep Sea Drilling Project February 1970-August 1972

"^ '
O Gaographiul Projacts
^an in the Sea

Man's natural habitat is the earth. pressure as the water outside. By the canister was supplied from the
Without he cannot breathe,
air, 1500's, large diving bells were being surface by an airline.
and the depths of the sea were there- used for underwater descents, but it Nearly 80 years passed before the
fore long forbidden him. Yet he was was not until the end of the 1600's airline could be dispensed with. Then,
fascinated by the world under the that a method was invented of pump- in 1942-3, Jacques- Yves Cousteau
water, the world of "inner space". ing air into a bell at the same pres- (born 1910) developed the aqualung.
In classical times, the Greeks dived sure as the water outside. This Like the Rouquayrol-Denayrouze
for sponges, for mother-of-pearl, pushed down the water level in the device, it consisted of a mouthpiece
and coral, and divers were employed bell, meaning that divers could reach linked to an air canister, but the air
in surprise attacks in war. Some greater depths. Individual bells, link- canister contained compressed air,
Greek divers used short breathing ed by airlines to the main bell, were and a demand regulator ensured a
tubes to enable them to swim un- used for underwater work. constant air supply at the same pres-
detected underwater, and the Greeks One of the earliest practicable sure as the surrounding water. The
also invented a primitive form of diving suits was made in 1715 by John aqualung gave divers new freedom
diving bell. This was an air-filled Lethbridge, and by 1749 Lethbridge which they used to investigate and
bell, open at the bottom, which was had descended in it to 72 feet. The salvage wrecks, and explore ancient
lowered into the water, and into forerunner of the modern diving suit cities lying under the sea.
which the diver could poke his head was designed by Augustus Siebe. In The aqualung freed divers from the
to take a fresh breath. In an attempt 1819, Siebe produced his "open airline, it did not free them from
to provide divers with a constant dress", a helmet fed with pressurized danger. In 1870, the cause of decom-
air supply, the Renaissance artist air from the surface, and attached to a

pression sickness "the bends"
Leonardo da Vinci designed a diving jacket, which was open at the bottom which takes the form of pains in
helmet linked by an air tube with the to allow used air to escape. In 1837, the joints, paralysis, and even death,
surface. But his apparatus would not Siebe developed this into a full div- in divers whoascend too fast from
have worked below five feet, as vvater ing suit. A much simpler form of great had been explained,
pressure would then have prevented diving apparatus was invented by and thereafter the bends were usually
the lungs expanding to take in air. Benoit Rouquayrol and Auguste avoided by making a gradual ascent.
With the diving bell, however, there Denayrouze between 1860 and 1865. But with the invention of the aqua-
is no problem of water pressure, for It was a hard rubber mouthpiece, lung, new symptoms were felt by div-
as the water rises within the bell, linked to a canister of pressurized ers who descended deep. Nitrogen
182 the air is compressed to the same air carried on the diver's back. The narcosis

"the rapture of the depths"
— is experienced as a feeling of lead In 1948 Pic-
shot jettisoned.
drunkenness, which can make divers card's bathyscaph F.N.R.S.2

forget they are underwater, take out reached more than 4500 feet unman-
their mouthpieces, and drown. ned, and in 1954 the F.N.R.S.3
Nodiver can penetrate the ocean's attained 13,287 feet. In 1960, his
deepest reaches, and even before the by his son Jacques and
Trieste, piloted
invention of the aqualung, attempts Donald Walsh, reached 35,800 feet.
had been made to devise a machine Following the success of the bathy-
that could do so. The first successful scaph, other deep-sea ships have been
depth machine was the brainchild of designed, many with specific func-
William Beebe, a naturalist whose in- tions in mind. Some are rescue vehi-
terest in the ocean made him want to cles,intended to help submarines in
descend beyond the limits imposed by trouble, some are workboats, and
a diving suit. Beebe's bathysphere, some reconnaissance vessels, and even
which he built with Otis Barton, underwater "buses" have been plan-
reached 800 feet on its first dive ned. For the pioneers of underwater
in 1930, and in 1934 a record of exploration, and in particular
3028 feet was set up. In 1948, in a Jacques- Yves Cousteau, are no longer
new machine, the benthoscope, Bar- thinking simply of reaching great
ton reached 4462 feet. depths. Cousteau's latest projects all
The bathysphere and the bentho- involve man living under the sea.
scope were lowered into the sea on a Cousteau's Conshelf stations of A The aqualung {top) gives the div-
cable, and could only be moved by the 1960's were man's first under- er freedom to explore and work
that cable. The first free-floating water habitats. There, divers lived under the water. The bathysphere
"deep-sea ship" was Auguste Pic- and worked for weeks at a time. Sim- {center) is used for research at
card's bathyscaph. The cabin of the ilar were the U.S. Navy's Sealab depths that no diver could reach.
bathyscaph was attached to a float habitats, where men also lived deep Beaver IV {bottom) is a submersible
filled with lighter-than-water gaso- under the sea. For the future, built to operate at depths of up
line, and the machine carried lead shot Cousteau envisages great cities built to 2000 feet carrying out mainten-
as ballast. To descend, gasoline was under the water, and populated by a ance work on underwater wellheads
emptied from the float, and to ascend. new race of aquatic men. for the oil and gas industries. 183
13 "^e New Frontier

October 1957, the Soviet Union Egypt in the early days of civilization, placed the earth at the center of the
Inlaunched the earth's first artifi- and it may have been from the Egypt- universe. His concept was elaborated
cial satellite, Sputnik I. In April, ians that the Greeks first learned by Ptolemy, and belief in the Ptolem-
four years later, the first man flew astronomy. The Greeks discovered aic system, implying as it did man's
in space. But although the explora- that the earth rotates on its axis, and importance as center of the universe,
tion of the universe is a compara- that the moon revolves around the persisted until the Renaissance. Even
tively recent enterprise, man's interest earth and, in the 200's B.C., Aris- in the a.d. 150O's, when Copernicus
in the heavens can be traced back tarchus of Samos propounded the revived Aristarchus' theory, his "new"
thousands of years. theory that the earth and the other notion was at first disbelieved.
The first astronomical observations planets revolve around the sun. A Late in the 1500's, using a quad-
184 were made in Mesopotamia and in century later, however, Hipparchus rant, Tycho Brahe made the first ac-
/// 1590, Thomas Hood {dates un- were engraved by Augustine Ry titer.
known), mathematical lecturer to the Hood's charts show the constellations
City of London, published The use of and stars of the Northern and South-
the celestial globe in piano, set forth ern celestial hemispheres, but their
in two hemispheres. To accompany strange, pictorial form is far re-
and explain his work, he designed moved from the scientific detail of
two charts of the heavens, which a celestial chart of the present day.

u^ -p *• N <

curate measurements of the positions in the way they do, were laid down Tsiolkovsky applied the science of
of the stars and planets, and his con- by Isaac Newton. Newtonian laws of rocketry to space travel. His work
temporary Galileo adapted the tele- motion, as they are called, form the was theoretical, as was that of the
scope to observe the universe. Johan- basis of modern rocketry. German Hermann Oberth who, in
nes Kepler, a mathematics professor, Rockets were invented by the Chi- The Rocket into Interplanetary Space,
and Brahe's assistant, calculated the nese, who were using them as fire- published in 1923, discussed the tech-
orbit of Mars from Brahe's figures, works by the a.d. lOO's, and who by nical problems of space flight. It was
and went on to discover three laws the 1200's had developed them as left to the American Robert Goddard,
governing planetary motion. More weapons. Their use in warfare spread the "father of modern rocketry", to
fundamental laws of motion, showing to Europe, then, toward the end of build the first liquid-fuel rocket, the
why the bodies in the universe move the 1800's, the Russian Konstantin forerunner of today's space booster. 185
% the Moon-and beyond

When World War II broke out in 1939, Germany had been The story of man's journey to the
moon is a relatively short one, for
carrying out rocket research for a number of years. In 1937,
less than 10 years passed between
the Peenemiinde experimental rocketry station had been the first manned space flight and the
established and there, during the war, Wernher von Braun first lunar landing. Each space flight
and a team of scientists developed the V-2. The V-2 was a was a monument to technical achieve-
liquid-fuel rocket that was used against London and other ment and to human courage ; some were
also milestones on the way to the
targets. It was the first modern rocket, and its development
moon. The diagram below shows some
considerably advanced rocketry technique. T memorable space ''firsts".

Apollo 11 (United States). Astronauts

Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins. 16 July 1969.
First manned landing on the moon.

Apollo 8 (United States). Astronauts Borman, Lovell,

and Anders. 21 December 1968. First lunar orbit.
Gemini 10 (United States). Astronauts Young and Collms. 18 July 1966.

i II
Rendezvous and docking with

(Soviet Union).
a target rocket successfully achieved.

Cosmonauts Leonov and Belyayev. 18 March 1965.

;i First space walk made by Leonov.

Mercury 6 (United States). Astronaut Glenn. 20 February 1962. First American orbital spaceflight.
Mercury 3 (United States). Astronaut Shepard. 5 May 1961. First American spaceflight.

186 k Vostok I (Soviet Union). Cosmonaut Gagarin. 12 April 1961. First manned spaceflight.
A Edwin Aldrin walks on the moon.

After Germany's defeat, many nauts, Alexei Leonov (born 1934) and flight a similar test was made in lunar
Peenemunde scientists surrender- Pavel Belyayev (born 1925). During orbit. Then, on 16 July 1969, Apollo
ed to the Allies, and it was in the ser- their flight, Leono\ left the capsule 1 1 was launched. Neil A. Armstrong
\ ice of the Allies that they continued and "walked" in space. (born 1930) and Edwin E. .\ldrin, Jr.
their research. In the United States, The United States had announced a (born 1930) made man's first landing
Wernher von Braun and his team moon-flight program, which they call- on the moon, while Michael Collins
worked on missilesforthearmy. From ed Project Apollo, as early as 1960, remained in lunar orbit in the com-
these they developed a booster capable and the 1965-6 Gemini series of space mand module.
of putting a satellite into space. Both flights showed that astronauts could After the moon landing, N. A.S.A.'s
the United States and the Soviet survive flights long enough to take budget was cut, and the Apollo pro-
Union planned to launch satellites them moon. Gemini also per-
to the gram reduced from 10 flights to se-
during the International Geophysical fected the rendezvous and docking ven. All were successful, apart from
Year in 1957-8. The Soviet Union was maneuvers that would play a vital Apollo 13. During that mission, an
first w ith Sputnik I in October 957.1 part in lunar missions. Gemini 10, explosion damaged the service mod-
In January 1958. the United States manned by John \V. Young (born ule, the moon
landing had to be
successfully launched its first satel- 1930) and Michael Collins (born 930), 1 abandoned, and the astronauts were
lite. Explorer 1, and that same year was the first to achieve perfect dock- lucky to return to earth alive. On the
N.A.S.A. — the National Aeronautics ing, for although Gemini 8 linked up Apollo 15 mission, in July 1971, a
and Space Agency (now Administra- with its target, the docked capsule and lunar ro\er was used for the first time.
tion) —
was created. Two years later, target went into a perilous spin, and This self-propelled vehicle, especially
Wernher von Braun became director the flight had to be abandoned. designed for use on the moon, enables
of N.A.S.A."s George C. Marshall On 27 January 1 967, disaster struck astronauts to explore up to several
Space Flight Center. the American space program. During miles from their spacecraft.
On 12 April 1961, the Soviet Union a rehearsal for the first flight in In April 1971, the Soviet Union
launched Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968) the Apollo series, a fire started in boosted the 24-ton Salyut orbiting
into space in Vostok I. Less than a the space capsule, and astronauts laboratory into earth orbit. Salyut
month after this first manned space Gus Grissom, Edward White, and was initially unmanned, and four days
flight ever, the Americans' first man- Roger Chaffee were killed. Not until after its launch, Soyuz X, crewed by
ned space flight was made. Unlike October 1968 did N.A.S.A. consider three cosmonauts, rendezvoused with
Gagarin, however, .\lanB.Shepard, Jr. themselves ready for the first manned it. On this occasion, however, no
(born 1923) made only a suborbital Apollo flight— Apollo 7. In 1967 too, crew transfer took place. In June,
flight. Not until 1962 did John H. tragedy marked the Soviet space pro- Salyut was manned for 24 days by cos-
Glenn, Jr. (born 1921) become the gram when Vladimir Komarov was monauts from Soyuz XI, but all three
first American to orbit the earth. killed during reentry in his capsule, men died when their capsule depres-
Shepard's and Glenn's flights were Soyuz I. In October 1968, the Soyuz surized during reentry.
part of the American Mercury project, program was resumed, and in January With the U.S. cutbacks in space
which, in six flights between May 1969, Soyuz IV and V made the first spending, and the Soviet secrecy
1961 and May 1963, proved that man docking of two manned spacecraft. about their plans, future programs
could survive the unfamiliar condi- At Christmas 1968, in Apollo 8, are uncertain. And most existing pro-
tions of space. In 1962, meanwhile, Frank Borman (born 1928), James A. jects are for earth orbital flights,
the Soviet Union made group the first Lovell, Jr. (born 1928), and William rather than flights to the or moon
flight of the space age with Vostoks A. Anders (born 1933) became the planets. In 1973 program, the U.S.
III and IV. The following year, in first men to orbit the moon. During is to pioneer Skylab, an earth-orbiting

Vostok VI, Valentina Tereshkova be- the Apollo 9 flight, the separation and laboratory. Besides carrying out im-
came the first woman in space. In redocking of the lunar module, which portant experiments, Skylab might be
October 1964, the Soviet Voskhod would make the moon landing, and the precursor of space stations which
program began. Voskhod II, launched the command module, were tested in could provide a jumping-off"point for
in March 1965, carried two cosmo- earth orbit, and on the Apollo 10 manned exploration of deep space and 187
the solar system. The space shuttle, involve cooperation between the Man's joiinwy to the moon is short
a reusable rocket booster which United States and the Soviet Union in comparison with the vastness of the
N.A.S.A. hopes would place space an Apollo-Soyuz docking in 1975. solar system, but no manned flights
flight on asimilar footing to civil avia- Whatever its result, it seems certain to the planets are yet planned.
ion, couiu
tion, could be operational m
DC I'pcraiioiiai in the
inc that now there is the basic technology Unmanned probes have, however, been
1980"s. But perhaps the most impor- for manned space flight, men will con- sent to Mars, Venus, and Jupiter, and
ant project planned
tan is one that would tinue to push back the new frontier. a flight to Mercury is planned.
1 1

Throughout this reference section, italic type is used for map entries, Roman type for
Reference text entries, and bold type where map and occur on the same page.
text entries

Adelie Land, region, 170, 171, 173 Blue Nile, river, 127, 135 Columbus, Christopher, explorer, 38, 39,
Aelius Gallus, explorer, 20, 21 Blunt, Wilfrid &
Anne, explorers, 122, 123 40,41,42,43,68,77
African Association, 134 Bogle, George, explorer, 114 Condamine, Charles, Comte de la,
Ahaggar Mts., mountain ra., 135, 136, 137 Bojador, Cape, cape, 34, 35, 36, 39 explorer, 98,99, 100
Akkad, empire, 12 Bonpland, Aime, explorer, 98, 99, 100 Connecticut, river, 41, 78, 79, 80
Alarcon, Hernando de, explorer, 71 Borman, Frank, astronaut, 186, 187 Conquistadors, 58 et seq, 70
Alaska, region, 91, 107, 108, 109, 140, 149, Botany Bay, inlet, 146, 150, 151, 152, 153 Conshelf, underwater habitats, 183
168, 169 Bougainville, Louis, Comte de, explorer, Conti, Niccolo de, explorer, 48, 49, 51
Albert, L., lake, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133 148, 150 Cook, Captain James, explorer, 150, 151,
Albuquerque, Afonso d', explorer, 52, S3, Bouguer, Pierre, explorer, 98, 99 158, 159, 163, 170,777
111 Brahmaputra, river, 56, 112, 115, 117, 119; Cooper's Creek, river, 153, 755, 156

Aldrin, Edwin E., Jr., astronaut, 186, 187 see also Tsangpo Coppermine, river, 82, 166, 169
Alexander the Great, explorer, 18, 19 Braun, Wernher von, 186, 187 Cordoba, Francisco de, explorer, 60, 61
Alexandrina, L., lake, 153 Brendan, Saint, explorer, 26, 27 Coronado, Francisco de, explorer, 60, 63,
Almagro, Diego de, explorer, 64, 65, 66 Broughton, William, explorer, 149, 151 71,73
Almeida, Francisco de, 52, 53 Bruce, James, explorer, 127, 134 Corte-Real, Caspar, explorer, 39, 40, 41
Alvarado, Pedro de, explorer, 60, 61, 63, Brule, Etienne, explorer, 74, 75 Corte-Real, Miguel, explorer, 39, 41
65,66 Brunner, Thomas, explorer, 158, 159 Cortes. Hernando, explorer. 60, 6 1 , 62, 63,
Amadas, Philip, explorer, 78, 80 Bruun, Anton, oceanographer, 179, 180 66,67
Amazon, river, 39, 65, 66, 67, 92, 94, 95, 96, Buache, Philippe, cartographer, 163 Cosa, Juan de la, explorer & cartographer,
98, 99, 100, 102, 103; see also Rio Santa Buchan, David, explorer, 164 i», 41, 42, 43
Maria de la Mar Dulce Bukhara, 31, 108, 109, 110, 114, 118 Cossacks, explorers, 104, 108, 709
American Indians, 27, 68, 70, 74, 75, 76, Burckhardt, Johann, explorer, 120 Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, oceanographer,
77,78,82,83,84,88,90 Burke, Robert, explorer, 154, 156, 157 182, 183
Amundsen, Roald, explorer, 168, 169, 172 Burton, Sir Richard, explorer, 120, 28, 1 Covilham, Pedro de, explorer, 49
Amur, river, 29, 108,109 129 Craterus, explorer, 19
Andagoya, Pascual de, explorer, 64, 65 Busa, Elisei, explorer, 108, 109 Crozier, F.R.M., explorer, 166, 767, 170,
Anders, William A., astronaut, 186, 187 Byblos, 12, 13, 15 777
Anderson, Rudolph, explorer, 169 Bylot, Robert, explorer, 78, 79 Cuba, island, 38, 39, 40, 43, 61, 63, 71, 76,
Andrade, Antonio de, explorer, 112, 113 Byrd, Admiral Richard, explorer, 172 81,99
Arkansas, river, 60, 70, 1\,76, 84, 86, 87, Byron, John, explorer, 148 Cunha, Tristao da, explorer, 53
88,90 Cusco, 63, 64, 65, 66, 94
Armstrong, Neil, astronaut, 186, 187 Cabot, John, explorer, 39, 40,41, 43
Ascension I., island, 35, 148, 150, 176 Cabot, Sebastian, explorer, 39, 40, 41, 67 Damascus, 72, 13, 18, 22, 30, 48. 120, 727,
Assyria, empire, 12, 15 Cabral, Gongalo, explorer, 34, 35 722, 123
Astin Tagh, mountain range, 112, 115, 116, Cabral, Joao, explorer, 113 Dampier, William, explorer, 144, 145, 146,
117, 118,7/9 Cabral, Pedro, explorer, i9, 41 52, 53 , 147, 163
Atahualpa, Inca pretender, 64, 65 Cacella, Estevao, explorer, 113 Dardanelles, strait, 75, 18, 19, 28
Athabasca, L., lake, 82, 83, 166 Cadamosto, Alvise da, explorer, 34, 35, 36 Darling, river, 146, 152, 153, 755, 757
Austin, Horatio, explorer, 166, 167 Caesar, Julius, campaigns of, 20, 21 Darwin, Charles, explorer, 100, 707
Azevado, Francisco de, explorer, 113 Caillie, Rene, explorer, 134, 7i5, 136 Davis, John, explorer, 164
Azores, island group, 9, 14, 27, 34, 35, 39, Cajamarca, 64, 65, 66, 94, 98, 99 Denham, Dixon, explorer, 134, 135
40,44, 176, 181 Calicut, 37, 4S, 52,55,56 Deshnef, Semen Ivanov, explorer, 108, 709
Aztec: empire, 63; and Spanish, 60, 61 62 , California, Gulf of, gulf, 60, 70, 71,86, 88, Desideri, Ippolito, explorer, 113, 14 1

89,90 Dianous, Lieutenant, explorer, 136

Babylon, 12, 15.18, 19 Cambaluc, 29, 30, j; Dias, Bartolomeu, explorer, 35. 36, 37, 49
Back, Sir George, explorer, 166, 167 Cameron, Verney, explorer, 130, 132 Diaz, Melchior, explorer, 71
Baffin, William, explorer, 78, 79 Campbell, John, explorer, 130, 131 Discovery, ship, 772, 178, 179
Baffin Bay, bay, 78, 79, 164, 165, 167, 168, Canary Is., island group. 9, 14, 27, 28, 34, Doughty, Charles, explorer, 722, 123
169, 174 35, 39, 40, 44, 136, 150, 176, 178 Drake, Sir Francis, explorer, 55, 78, 144,
Baffin Island, island, 27, 39, 41, 78, 79, 82, Cano, Sebastian del, explorer, 45, 144, 145 145
164, 165, 167, 168, 169 Cao, Diogo, explorer, 35, 36, 37 Duveyrier, Henri, explorer, 136
Baker, Sir Samuel, explorer, 128, 129, 131 Cape Verde Islands, island group, 9, 34, 35,
Balboa, Vasco Niinezde, 61, 138 },(>,ll,39,4\,44. 150,176, 178 Eanncs, Gil, explorer, 34, 35, 36
Baldaya, Alfonso, explorer, 34, 35, 36 Cape York Pena., peninsula, 146, 150, 154, Easter 1., island, 7-^0, 148, 149, 150, 151
Baluchistan, region, 110, 111 155 East India Companies: Dutch, 55, 131, 145,
Bangweulu, Lake, seasonal lake, 129. 130, Cardenas, Garcia Lopez de, explorer, 71 146, 148; English, 55, 114
131,132. /ii Carnegie, David, explorer, 157 Edward, Lake, lake, 128, 729. 7iO, 132, 133
Baptista. Pedra, explorer, 130. 131 Carpentaria, Gulf of, gulf, 146, 152, 155, Egypt: civilization, 12, 13, 18, \24, 127;
Barents, Willem, explorer, 164 156 trade routes, 14
Barlow, Arthur, explorer, 78, 80 Carpini, Giovanni de P. de, explorer, 30, 31 Ekuhu, Maori guide, 158, 159
Barrow Str., strait, 165, 166, 167, 168 Carteret, Philip, explorer, 148 El Dorado, search for, 94, 95, 96
Barth, Heinrich, explorer, 134, 135, 136 Carthage, 14,20, 21, 124, 182 Emin Pasha, explorer, 128, 729. 132, 133
Bass, George, explorer, 152 Cartier, Jacques, explorer, 73, 74, 75 Entrecasteaux, Bruni d", explorer, 149, 151
Bass Str., strait, 146, 152, 153. 155 Carvajal, Caspar de, 94, 95 Eric the Red, explorer, 27
Bales, Henry, explorer, 100, 102 Cathay, country, 30, 31, 112 Ericson, Leif, explorer, 27
Bathurst Inlet, gulf, 166. /69 Chad, L., seasonal lake, 134, 135, 136, 137 Espiritu Santo I., island, 144, 145, 147
Baudin, Nicolas, explorer, 152 Challenger, ship, 176, 77, 179
1 Eyre, Edward, explorer, 154, 756, 157
Beatus of Valcavado, cartographer, 28 Champlain, Samuel de, explorer, 74, 75, 81 Eyre, L., seasonal lake, 146. 153, 154, 755,
Bell, Gertrude, explorer, 122, 123 Chancellor, Richard, explorer, 108, 109 757
Bellingshausen, Fabian von, explorer, 170, Chang Ch'ien, explorer, 22, 23 Eyre, Mt., mountain, 154, 756
171 Chesapeake Bay, bay, 41, 71, 74, 75, 79, 80,
Bellingshausen Sea, sea, 170, 171 779 Faeroc Is., island group, 17, 26, 27, 168
Belyayev, Pavel, cosmonaut, 186, 187 Chichester, Sir Francis, 6, 8, 9 Falkland Is., island group, 8. 39. 101, 148,
Benalcazaar, Sebastian de, explorer, 65, 66 Chirikov, Alexei, explorer, 109, 164 750, 170, 77/, 176, 178
Ben Franklin, research mcsoscaph, 179, 180 Christie, Charles, explorer, 1 10, 1 1 Fawcett, Jack and Percy, explorers, 102
Bent, Theodore & Mabel, explorers, 120 Cibola,60, 70, 71 Fertile Crescent, 12. 104
Bering, Vitus, explorer, 109, 164 Ciudad de los Reyes (modern Lima), 65, Fitch, Ralph, explorer, 56, 57
Bering Str., strait, 107, 109, 149, 150, 151, 66, 94 Flatters, Paul-Xavier, explorer, 136
165, \66,168. 169.174 Clapperton, Hugh, explorer, 134, 135 Flinders, Matthew, explorer, 146, 152
Beutlcr, August, explorer, 130. 3 1 Clark, William, explorer, 84, 85, 86 Florida, region. 38. 39. 61, 70, 71, 73, 81,
Bittcrroot Range, mountain range, 82, 84, Gierke, Charles, explorer, 148, 750, 151, 75« 91,179
85. 86. 87, Cod, C, cape, 41, 74, 75, 79, 80, 179 Forrest, Alexander, explorer, 154, 157
Blaeu, Willem, cartographer, 96, 107 Colenso, William, explorer, 158, 159 Forrest, John, 1st Baron Forrest of
Blaxland, Gregory, explorer, 152, 153 Collins, Michael, astronaut, 186, 187 Bunbury, explorer, 154, 157
Bligh, William, explorer, 150, \5\,158 Collinson, Sir Richard, explorer, 166, 767 Ft. Astoria, settlement, 82, 86, 89
Block, Adriaen, explorer, 78, 79 Colorado, river, 60, 70, 71 85, 86, 88. 89. 90
, Ft. Crevecoeur, settlement, 75, 76. 81
Blue Mts., mountain range, 152, 153 Columbia, river, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88. 89 90 Ft. Mandan, settlement, 84, 85, 87 189
Foureau, Fernand, explorer, 136, 137 Henday, Anthony, explorer, 82, 83 King, James, explorer, 750. 151, 75<S
Fox, Sir William, explorer, 158, 159 Hennepin, Louis, explorer, 75, 76 King William I., island, 164, 765, 166
Franklin, Sir John, explorer, 164, 166, Hennu, explorer, 13 Kintup (K.P.), explorer, 114. 115
167, 169 Henry the Navigator, 34, 36, 46 Kirk, Sir John, explorer, 131, /ii
Fraser, Simon, explorer, 83 Henson, Matthew, explorer, 168, 169 Kishen Singh (A.K.), explorer, 114. 115
Fraser, river, 82, 83, 86 Herbert, Sir Thomas, explorer, 110, 1 1 Kivu, Lake, lake, 128, 729
Fremont, John, explorer, 87, 88, 89, 90 Herbert, Wally, explorer, 168, 169 Klamath,river, 86, 59
Freyre, Emmanuel, explorer, 113, 1 14 Herjulfsson, Bjarni, explorer, 27 KokoNor, lake, 772, 113, 116,777, 118
Frobisher, Sir Martin, explorer, 78, 79, 162, Herkhuf, explorer, 13 Kolyma, 709
river, 108,
164 Herodotus, historian, 16, 107 Krapf, Johann, explorer, 128, 729
Frobisher Bay, gulf, 41, 78, 79, 165 Hillary, Sir Edmund, explorer, 172 Kunlun, mountain range, 772. 776. 119
Fuchs, Sir Vivian, explorer, 172 Hispaniola, island, 38. 71 ; see also La Kuruman, 7iO, 131, 7ii
Gabet, Joseph, explorer, 113, 1 14, 1 16 Hohnel, Baron Ludwig von. explorer, 128, Labrador, region, 27, 39, 40, 41, 75. 79, 83
Gagarin, Yuri, cosmonaut, 186, 187 129 Lacerda, Francisco de, explorer, 130. 131
Galathea, ship, 179, 180 Hondius, Henricus, cartographer, 107 Lachlan, river, 146. 152, 153, 755. 757
Galathea Deep, sea feature, 174, 181 Hondius, Jodocus, cartographer, 107 Ladrones, island group, 45, 740, 144, 148,
Gama, Vasco da, explorer, 35, 36, 37, 42, Honduras, Gulf of, gulf, 38. 61. 63 151 ; see also Mariana Islands
46,52 Hood, Thomas, mathematician, 185 La Espaiiola, island, 38, 40; see also
Gambia, river, 34, 35, 36, 127, 134. 135 Hormuz, 18. 31. 48. 52, 53, 57, 770. 1 1 Hispaniola
Ganges, river, 22, 23. 29. 48. 56. 112. 115. Horn, Cape, cape, 8. 39, 44. 92, 101. 145, Laing, Alexander, explorer, 134, 7i5
116 147, 151, /7/ Lamy, Major A., explorer, 7J6. 137
Gartok, 7/2, 113,7/5,776 Hornemann, Friedrich, explorer, 134, 135 Lancaster, Sir James, explorer, 55
Gaspe Pena., peninsula, 74, 75 Houghton, Daniel, explorer, 134, 135 Lancaster Sd., strait, 78, 79. 164, 765. 767.
Gastaldi, Giacomo, cartographer, 50 Houtman, Cornelius, explorer, 54, 55 168, 169
Gateshead I., island, 166, 767 Hovell, William, explorer, 153 Lander, John, explorer, 134, 7i5
Geesh, Springs at, 127 Hsuan-tsang, explorer, 22, 2i, 1 19 Lander, Richard, explorer, 134, 7i5
Genghis Khan, 29 Huascar, Inca emperor, 64 Lane, Sir Ralph, explorer, 78, 80
Georgian Bay, bay, 74, 76, 83 Hue, Evariste, explorer, 113. 114, 116 Leeds, William, explorer, 56. 57
Gibraltar, Strait of, strait,
1 3, 14, 15, 17, 20, Hudson, Henry, explorer, 73, 78, 79. 164 Leh, 772. 113, 115,776.119
22, 27, 34, 35, 175, 182; see also Pillars of Hudson, river, 41. 75. 78, 79. 80, 87 Leichhardt. Ludwig, explorer, 154
Hercules Hudson Bay, sea, 39. 41. 73, 75, 78, 79. 80, Le Maire, Jakob, 744. 145, 148, 163
Gibson, Alfred, explorer, 157 81,82,83, 164, /67,/69,/ 7-^ Lena, river, 108, 709. 765. 765
Gibson Desert, desert, 154, 157 Hudson's Bay Co.: formation, 75, 82; Lenz, Oskar, explorer, 136
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, explorer, 78, 80 territory, 81, 91; trade, 83 Leon, Juan Ponce de, explorer, 70, 77
Giles, Ernest, explorer, 157 Hudson Str., strait, 27. 39. 40, 41. 78, 79 Leonov, Alexei, cosmonaut, 186. 187
Glenn, John, astronaut, 186, 187 83. 164,165.167 Leopold II, L., lake, 132, 133
Glomar Challenger, ship, 180, 181 Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, Lewis, Meriwether, explorer, 84, 85. 86
Goa, 37, 48, 53, 56, 57 explorer, 98,99 Lhasa, 48. 112. 13, 1 14, 775. 116, 117,

Gobi, desert, 23, 31, 48, 112, 115, 116, 117, Hume, Hamilton, explorer, 152, 153 118, 119
118,119 Hunt, Wilson Price, explorer, 86, 87 Linschoten, Jan van, explorer, 54, 55, 164
Godin des Odonais, Isabela and Louis, Hwang Ho, river, 22, 23. 29. 31. 49. 112. Livingstone, Charles, explorer, 131, 133
explorers, 98,99 117.119 Livingstone, David, explorer, 131, 132, 133
Goes, Bento de, explorer, 112, 113 Lobo, Jeronimo, explorer, 127
Gomes, Diogo, explorer, 35, 36 Ibn-Batuta, Muhammad ibn' Abdullah, Long, George de, explorer, 765. 169
Good Hope, Cape of, cape, 9, 32, 35, 36, 37, explorer, 120, 134, 135 Long, Stephen, explorer, 86, 87
39, 44, 49, 54, 130, 131, 132, 147, 150, 163 Iceland, island, 17. 18, 26, 27, 39. 79, 162, Lop Nor, seasonal lake, 31, 116, 117, 1 18,
Gordon, Robert, explorer, 130, 131 165. 168. 178; see also Thule 119
Gore, John, explorer, 150, 151, 158 Inca: civil war, 64; empire, 63; war with Louisiade Archo., island group, 744. 746.
Gosnold, Bartholomew, explorer, 80 Spanish, 66 148, 150,151
Gosse, William, explorer, 157 Indus, river, 16, 19, 23. 29. 37. 48. 56. 111. Louisiana, territory, 76, 81, 84, 91
Graham Land, region, -^4, 170, 171, 111 J12. 114. 115. 116. 118. 119 Loulan, 119
Grand Canyon, gorge, 60, 70, 71 , 86, 89, 90 International Geophysical Year, 172 Lovell, James A., astronaut, 756, 187
Grant, James, explorer, 128, 129 Irish monks, missionary voyages, 26, 27 Lualaba, river, 729, 7iO, 131, 132, 133, 137
Great Basin, region, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90 Ives, Joseph, explorer, 90 Luapula, river, 132, 133
"Great Game'", Asia, 111, 116, 118 Lukuga, river, 128, 729. 7iO, 132, 133
Great Lakes, The, lakes, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81 Jamestown, 79. 80, 81 Luta Ngize, L., see Albert, Lake
Great Salt Lake, lake, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90 Jan Mayen, island, 164, 765. 168 Lyon, George, explorer, 134, 135
Greece: astronomical theories, 184; Jansz, Willem, explorer, 146
colonies, trade routes, 14; knowledge of Jenkinson, Anthony, explorer, 108, 709, Macao, 49, 53, 54, 148
world, 16; origins of civilization, 15 110. Ill McClintock, Sir Leopold, explorer, 66, 1

Gregory, Sir Augustus, explorer, 154, 156 Johansen, Frederic, 168. 169 767
Gregory, Frank, explorer, 154, 156 John Day, river, 86, 89 McClure, Sir Robert, explorer, 166, 767
Grenville, Sir Richard, explorer, 78, 80 Joliet, Louis, explorer, 75,
76 Macdonald, General Sir James, explorer,
Grey, Sir George, explorer, 154 Jones Brydges, Sir Harford, explorer, 770, 7/7,118
Grijalva, Juan de, explorer, 60, 61 111 Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, explorer, 83
Groseilliers, M. Chouart, Sieur de, Jones Sd., strait, 78, 79. 165. 167 Mackenzie, river, 82, 83, 166, 769
explorer, 75, 76, 82 Jose, Amaro,explorer, 7iO. 131 Macley, George, explorer, 153
Grueber, Johann, explorer, 113 Jourdain, John, explorer, 56. 57 Macomb, John M., explorer, 90
Guadeloupe, island, 38. 40 Joutel, Henri, explorer, 76 Macquarie, river, 152, 153, 155
Guanahani (San Salvador), island, 38 Juan Fernandez Is., island group, 145. 148, Madeira, island, 9. 14, 27, 34, 35, 39, 44,
Guatemala, region, 61, 63 149. 150 150
Guinea, Gulf of, gulf, 35, 36, 37, 39, 134, Magdalena, river, 65. 94, 98, 99
135, 136, /i 7, 175 Kagera, river, 128, 129. 132, 133 Magellan, Ferdinand, explorer, 44, 45, 138.
Gulf Stream, ocean current, 179, 180 Kalian Singh, explorer, 114. 115 144. 145, 163, 164
Gutierrez, Diego, cartographer, 67, 73 Kamchatka, pena., 109, 149, 151, 164, 165 Magellan, Str. of, strait, 39. 44. 45, 101,
Kane, Elisha, 166, /67 145, 148, 149.150
Hannibal, explorer, 20, 21 Karakoram, Mongol capital, 29, 30, 31. 48 Main Singh, explorer, 1 14. 1 15
Hanno, explorer, 15 Karakoram Ra., mountain ra., 1 16. 1 IS, 119 Malacca. 52, 53, 54
Hardy, Sir Alister, zoologist, 178, 179 Karlsefni, Thorfinn, explorer, 27 Malawi, Lake (Lake Nyasa), lake, 35. 128,
Hartog, Dirk, explorer, 146, 147 Kashgar, 2i.i/, 116. 118,//9 129.130. 131, 7ii, 136, 137
Hatshepsut, Queen, 13 Kashmir, region, 22, 2i, 1 1 1 1 1 , Malav Pena., peninsula, 11,23. 31, 48, 5\,
Haven, E.J. de, explorer, 166, 767 Kelsey, Henry, explorer, 82, 83 140, 143
Hawaiian Is., island group, 44, 140, 144, Kemp, Sir Stanley, oceanographer, 178. 179 Maldonado, Pedro, explorer, 98, 99
149. 150. 151, 176, 180: see also Sandwich Kennedy, Edmund, explorer, 154 Malheur Lake, lake, 86, 89
Islands Kenya, Mt., mountain, 128, 129. 133 Manning, Thomas, explorer, 114
Heaphy, Charles, explorer, 158, 159 Keymis, Lawrence, explorer, 95 Mariana Is., island group, 45, 740, 744,
Hearne, Samuel, explorer, 82, 83 Khabarov, explorer, 108, 709 148, 177; see also Ladrones
Hearsey, Hyder Jung, explorer, 114 Khotan,2i. 112, 775, //6, 117, 118,119 Mariana Trench, sea feature, 775
Hedin, Sven, explorer, //7, 1 18, 1 19 Kiiimane, 37, 5i, 7i7, 133. see also Markland, region, 27
Hellespont, see Dardanelles Quelimane Marquesas Is., island group, 740, 744. 145,

190 Helluland, region, 27 Kilimanjaro, mountain, 128, 729, 133 749,750.151

1 1 , 1 1

Marquette, Jacques, explorer, 75, 76 Noort, Oliver van, explorer, 54, 55 Quesada, Gonzalo Jimenez de, explorer,
Marsden, Samuel, explorer, 158. 159 Nordenskjold, Baron Nils, explorer, 765, 65. 66, 94, 95
Marshall Is., island group, 140, 144, 149, 169 Quiros, Pedro de, explorer, 744, 145, 163
150 Northeast Passage, 78, 108, 161, 162, 164, Quito, 63. 65. 66, 94, 98, 702
Martin, James, explorer, 128,729 169
Marziiq, 134, 135. 137 North Pole, 160, 161, 163, 164, 169; Radisson, Pierre Esprit, explorer, 75, 76, 82
Massalia, 74, 16, 17. 18.20 R. Mercator's Arctic Pole, 162 Rae, John, explorer, 166,767
Mawson, Sir Douglas, explorer, 172, 173 Northwest Passage, 78, 82, 145, 151, 161, Raleigh, Sir Walter, explorer, 78, 80, 95
Maya, empire, 63 162, 164, 166, 169 Raleigh, Walter, explorer, 95
Mecca, 22, 120. 727, 722, 123 Novaya Zemlya, islands, 108, 709, 162, Raynolds, William F., explorer, 90
Medina, MO, 121.123 164,765,765 Rebmann, Johannes, explorer, 128, 729
Melanesia, island groups, 140 Nyasa, Lake, lake, 1 28, 729, 7iO, 131, 133, Red, river, 60, 84, 86, 57, 55, 90
Mendana. Alvaro de, explorer, 144, 145, 136, 7i7.- see also Malawi. Lake Reenen, van, 7iO, 131
148. 151 Ricci, Matteo, missionary, 1 12, 113
Mercator, Gerardus, cartographer, 107, Ob, river, 29. 48, 108, 109, 162, 765 Richardson, James, explorer, 134, 7i5
141, 142, 162 Odoric of Pordenone, explorer, 48, 49 Richardson, Sir John, explorer, 166, 767
Mercator, Rumold, cartographer, 107, Ogden, Peter Skene, explorer, 86, 59 Rimell, Raleigh, explorer, 102, 70i
141, 142, 143, 162 Ojeda, Alonso de, explorer, 38, 41 42 , Riobamba, 65. 66, 95
Mertz, Xavier, explorer, 172, 173 Olid, Cristobal de, explorer, 60. 61 63 , Rio de la Plata, estuary, 39, 40, 44, 67, 96,
Merz, Alfred, oceanographer, 775, 179 Ommanney, Sir Erasmus, explorer, 166, 100,707
Mesopotamia, region, 12, 15 767 Rio Duvido, see Theodore Roosevelt
Messerschmidt, explorer, 109 Orange, river, 35. 36. 130. U\,133 Rio Grande, river, 60, 70, 84, 86, 55, 90
Meteor, ship, 178, 179 Orellana, Francisco de, explorer, 65. 66, 67, Rio Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce, river,
Micronesia, island groups, 140 94,95 94,95
Middleton. Sir Henry, explorer, 55 Orinoco, river, 38. 39. 65. 94, 95, 98, 99, 702 Ripon Falls, rapids, 128, 729, 132, 133
Mindanao Tr., sea feature, 175, 177, 179, Orville, Albert d', explorer, 113 Ritchie, Joseph, explorer, 134, 135
181 Ortelius, Abraham, cartographer, 73, 96, Roanoke I., island, 78,50
Minoans: exploration, 13; trade routes, 14 107, 126,127 Rockets, history & development, 185, 186
Miran. 119 Oswell, Cotton, explorer, 131, 133 Rocky Mountains, mountain chain, 52, 84,
Mississippi, river, J9, 47, 70,71, 74,75,16, Oudney, Walter, explorer, 134, 135 55, 86, 88, 90
80. SI, 82. 84, 85. 86, 87, 88, 91 Overweg, Adolf, explorer, 134, 7i5 Roggeveen, Jacob, explorer, 148
Missouri, river, 70, 76, 82. 84, 85, 86, 88, Rohlfs, Gerhard, 136
59,90 Paez, Pedro, explorer, 127 Roman Empire, 20, 24, 32, 46, 104, 1 19,
Mitchell, Sir Thomas,
explorer, 153 Paiva, Affonso de, explorer, 49 124,134
Moffat, Robert, explorer, 7iO, 131 Palmas, Cape, cape, 35, 36 Rome, 20, 21 , 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, 1 13, 752
Moluccas (Spice Islands), island groups, Pamirs, mountain range, 23, 31, 112, 114, Rondon, Candido, explorer, 102
45.49,51,54,55,740, 145 116. \1S,119 Roosevelt, Kermit, explorer, 102
Mongol Empire, 29, 30 Pampas, region, 92, 100, 707 Roosevelt, Theodore, explorer, 102
Monsoons: use by sailors, 22, 52 Panama, 64, 65. 94. 98, 750 Ross, Sir James C, explorer, 164, 166,
Montecorvino, John of, explorer, 30, 31 Panama, Isthmus of, region, 38, 61, 65, 92, 767, 170,777, 172
Montezuma, Aztec emperor, 61 63 , 145 Ross, Sir John, explorer, 164, 166, 767
Moorcroft, William, explorer, 114, 115 Parana, river, 39, 67, 707, 70i Ross Ice Shelf, 170, 777. 7 7i
Moscoso, Luis de, explorer, 71 Park, Mungo, explorer, 134, 7i5 Ross I., island, 777, 77i
Murchison, river, 147, 154, 156 Parry, Sir William, explorer, 164 Ross Sea, sea, 777, 112,173,175
Murchison Falls, rapids, 128, 729 Paterson, William, explorer, 7iO, 131 Rovuma, river, 128, 729. 7iO, 131, 7ii
Murray, Sir John, oceanographer, 176, Peary, Robert, explorer, 765, 169 Rub' al Khali, desert, 120, 727. 722. 123
177, 179 Peking, 57. 49, 112,113, 116,777, 118 Rubruck, William of, explorer, 30, 31
Murray, Mungo, explorer, 131, 133 Penny, William, explorer, 166, 767 Rudolf, Lake, lake, 128,729
Murray, river, 146. 152, 153, 755, 755, 757 Perouse, Jean de la, explorer, 148, 149, 151 Ruiz, Bartolome de la, explorer, 64, 65
Murrumbidgee, river, 152, 153, 755 Persia,empire, 19, i7,45, 108,770, 111, Rukwa, Lake, lake, 1 28, 729
Mweru, Lake, lake, 7iO, 131, 7ii 118, 120
Peru, country, 63, 66, 67, 100, 102, 145 Saavedra, Alvaro de, explorer, 744. 145
Nachtigal, Gustav, explorer, 136 Philby, Harry St. John, explorer, 722, 123 Sahure, explorer, 13
Nain Singh, explorer, 114, 115 Philippine Islands, island group, 45, 49, 54. St. Helena Bay, bay, 35, 36, 37
Naivasha, L.,lake, 128,729 140, 744, 145, 745, 757. 176, 777 St. Lawrence, river, 39, 41, 74, 75. 76, 79,
Nansen, Fridtjof, explorer, 168, 169 Phoenicia: 72, 74; voyages, 13, 14, 16 80, SI, S3, 87
Nares, Sir George, naval commander, 176 Piccard, Jacques, oceanographer, 179, 183 St. Louis, 84, 55. 87. 88, 90
Narvaez, Panfilo de, explorer, 70, 77 Pike, Zebulon, explorer, 86, 57 St. Vincent, Gulf, gulf, 152, 755
Natkusiak, explorer, 169 Pillars of Hercules, strait, 74, 77,- see also Salle, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la,
A'aM//7w5, submarine, 168, 169 Gibraltar. Strait of explorer, 75,76, 81
Nearchus, explorer, 19 Pinto, Fernao Mendes, explorer, 49, 53 San Diego, 57. 86, 55. 59, 90, 180
Neck, Jacob van, explorer, 54, 55 Pinzon, Martin, explorer, 38, 39 Sandwich Is., island group, 744, 749, 750;
Negro, river, 95. 99, 100, 103 Pinzon, Vicente, explorer, 38, 39, 94, 95 see also Hawaiian Islands
Nehsi, explorer, 13 Pitcairn I., island, 744, 148, 749, 750 Santa Cruz Is., island group, 744, 145, 147,
Newberry, John, explorer, 56. 57, 770, 1 1 Pizarro, Francisco, explorer, 64, 65. 66, 67 148,749,151
New England, region, 80 Pizarro, Gonzalo, explorer, 64, 65. 66, 94, Santa Fe, 8 1 86, 87, 55, 90

Newfoundland, island, 27, 39. 40, 41, 74, 95 Santa Fe (de Bogota), 65, 94
75. 78, 79,50, 81, «i. 9/ Planets, unmanned space probes to, 188 Santa Ysabel I., island, 744
New France, territory, 74, 81 Polo brothers, explorers, 30, 31 Save, river, 130, 131
New Guinea, island, 45. 49. 55. 140. 141, Polo, Marco, explorer, 30, 31. 32, 48, 49, Schmidt, Johannes, fishery scientist, 179
144. 145. 146, 147, 148. 151, 155, 176 51,107, 112, 138, 143 Schnitzer, Eduard, see Emin Pasha
New Hebrides, island group, 140, 144, 145, Polynesia, island groups, 140 Schouten, Willem, explorer, 744, 145, 163
147. 149. 151 Pond, Peter, explorer, 83 Schweinfurth, Georg, explorer, 128, 729
New Holland, region, 141. 146, 147, 148, Port Jackson, harbor, 746, 745. 1 50, 1 51 Scott, Robert, explorer, 172, 173
150,75/. 163 152, 75i,- see also Sydney Scylax, explorer, 16, 79
New Orleans, 76,81,84 Postnik, Ivanov, explorer, 108, 709 Segou, 134, 7i5
New Spain, Vice-Royalty, 63, 66, 70, 71 81 , Pottinger, Sir Henry, explorer, 7/0, 1 1 Sealab, U.S. Navy underwater habitats, 183
Newton, Sir Isaac, 185 Poyarkov, Vasily Danilovich, explorer, Selvas, region, 92, 94
New Zealand. 38, 140. 141, 143, 144, 146,
1 108, 709 Senegal, river, 34. 35, 36, 127, 134, 135. 136
147. 149. 150, 151, 159, 163, 170, 777, Priestley, Sir Raymond, explorer, 172, 77i Sequeira, Diego Lopez de, explorer, 53, 55
174. 176 Pr.Albert Sd., inlet, 166, 769 Shackleton, Sir Ernest, explorer, 172, 77i
Ngami, Lake, lake, 7iO, 1 3 1 , 7Ji Prince of Wales Str., strait, 166 Sheep Is., island group, 26, 27; see also
Niagara Falls, falls, 75, 76. 83 Przhevalski, Nikolai, explorer, 116, 777, Faeroe Is.
Nicolet, Jean, explorer, 74, 75 118 Shepard, Alan B., Jr., astronaut, 186, 187
Nicollet, J. N., explorer. 87. 88 Ptolemy, geographer, 16, 126, 138, Sherley, Sir Anthony, explorer, 770, 1 1
Niebuhr, Carsten, explorer, 120 141, 142, 184 Sherley, Sir Robert, explorer, 770, 1 1
Niger, river, i5.i6,i9. 124, 127,134,735, Punt, region, 13 Shetland Is., island group, 77. 23, 26, 27,
136 Pytheas, explorer, 16, 77, 18 165
Nile, river, 12, 13, 14, ]6, 18. 21 23.35. 37. . Shigatse, 7/2. 113, 114,775,776.118,119
49. 121. 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 131, 132, Qazvin,108, 7/0, 111 Shire, river, 7iO. 131, /ii
134, 7i5, 136 Quebrabasa Rapids, rapids, 7iO, 131, 7ii Shirwa, L., lake, 131, 7ii
Ninnis, B. E. S., explorer, 172 Quelimane(Kilimane), 131, 7ii Sibir, 108.709 191
Silk Route, 22, JO, \\9J23 Terra Australis, 73, 138, 141, 142, 143, 145, Venice, dominions, trade routes, 30, 31, 32,
Simpson, James Hervey, explorer, 90 146, 148, 150, 151, 163, 170 48, 108, 182
Smith, Jedediah, explorer, 86, 87, 89 Texas, state, 84, 86,57, 91 Veracruz, 70; see also Villa Rica de la Vera
Smith, John, explorer, 80 Theodore Roosevelt, river, 102, 70i Cruz
Snake, river, 82. 84. 85. 86, 88. 89. 90 Thesiger, Wilfred, explorer, 722, 123 Verde, C, cape, 34, 35, 36, 39, 44, 127
Socotra. island, 48. 53 Thomas, Bertram, explorer, 722. 123 Vespucci, Amerigo, explorer, 38, 39, 41, 42,
Solomon Is., island group, 140, 144. 145, Thompson, David, explorer, 83, 86 67
146. 148,749. 150,151,75/ Thomson, Joseph, explorer, 128, 729. 132 Victoria Falls, falls, 7iO, 131, 7ii
Soto, Hernando de, explorer, 71 Thorwald, explorer, 27 Victoria, Lake, lake, 35, 128, 729, 7iO, 132,
South Georgia, island, 750, 151, 170, 777, Thule, island, 16,77, \%,16,27 ; see also 133, 137
172,775 Iceland Vigneau, Nicolas, explorer, 74, 75
South Orkney Is., island group, 777, 772 Thyssen, Frangois, explorer, 147 Vikings, voya-ges and raids, 26, 27, 28, 38
South Pole, 143. 160, 161, 163, 170, 172 Tibesti Massif, mountain ra., 7i5, 136, 7i7 Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, 60, 61, 70
Spanberg, Martin, explorer, 109, 164 Tibet, country, J7, 104, 112, 113, 114, 115, Vinland, region, 27
Speke, John Manning, explorer, 128, 729 116, 117, 118,119 Virginia, region, 78, 80
Spencer Gulf, gulf, 746, 152, 75i. 154, 755, Tibet, Plateau of, mountain ranges, 772,
756 775.116,117, 118,119 Wadai, region, 136, 7i7
Spice Islands, see Moluccas Tien Shan, mountain range, 23, 31, 48, 112, Waikaremoana, L., lake, 755, 159
Spiess, Capt., oceanographer, 178, 179 115,116, 117, 118,779 Walker, Joseph Reddeford, explorer, 87, 59
Spitzbergen, is. group, 162, 164, 765, 168 Tierra del Fuego, island, 44, 67, 96, 100, Wallace, Alfred, explorer, 100, 70i
Spruce, Richard, explorer, 100, 702 707. 141, 145,777 Wallace, Herbert, explorer, 100, 103
Stadukhin, Mikhailo, explorer, 108, 709 Timbuktu, 134, 7i5. 136, 7i7 Wallis, Samuel, explorer, 148
Stanley, Sir Henry, explorer, 128, 729. 132, Tisisat Falls, rapids, 127 Warburton, Peter, explorer, 154, 756, 157
133 Tocantins, river, 102, 70i Warren, G. Kemble, explorer, 90
Stefanie, L.,lake, 128,729 Tonti, Henri de, explorer, 75, 76 Warwijck, Wybrand van, explorer, 54, 55
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, explorer, 169 Torrens, Lake, seasonal lake, 75i. 154, 755, Waymouth, George, explorer, 80
Stein, Sir Aurel, archeologist, 119 756. 757 Weddell, James, explorer, 170, 777
Storey, James, explorer, 56, 57 Torres, Luiz Vaez de, explorer, 144, 145 Weddell Sea, sea, 170, 777, 172, 174
Stormy Cape, cape, i5, i6, 37 see also
; Torres Str., strait, 55, 144, 145, 146, 148, Wells, Lawrence, explorer, 157
Good Hope, Cape of 150 Wellsted, James, explorer, 120, 123
Strahlenberg, Philipp, exploier, 109 Tristan da Cunha, island, 35. 176. 178 White, John, explorer, 80
Stuart, John, explorer, 153, 154, 756, 157 Tsangpo, river, 115, 777, 118, 779 White Nile, river, 127, 128, 729, 133, 135
Stuart, Robert, explorer, 86, 87 Tsaparang, 772, 113 White Sea, bay, 26, 108, 709
Stuhlmann, explorer, 128, 729 Tuamotu Is., island group, 140. 144, 145, Wild, Frank, explorer, 172
Sturt, Charles, explorer, 153, 157 749, 750 Wilkes, Charles, explorer, 170, 777, 172
Suchow,i7,112 Tumba,L., lake, 132 Wilkins, Sir Hubert, aviator, 172
Suetonius Paulinus, explorer, 20, 21 Tunhwang, i7, 775.119 Williams, William, explorer, 755, 159
Sumer, empire, 12 Turfan,2i. 772. 119 Willoughby, Sir Hugh, explorer, 108, 709,
Surat,5i,56, 57, 777 Turner, Samuel, explorer, 114 162, 164
Sutlej, river, 79, 776. 118 Wills, William, explorer, 154, 156, 157
Svarsson, Gardar, explorer, 27 Uaupes, river, 100,702 Wilson, Edward, explorer, 172, 77i
Sverdrup, Otto, explorer, 765. 169 Ujiji,128,729, 131, 132, 7ii Wyville Thomson, Sir Charles,
Sydney, 9, 150,755,777,757 Underwater exploration, 182, 183 oceanographer, 176
Sykes, Sir Percy, explorer, 770, 111 United States, country 63, 84, 86, 88, 91

Syra Orda, 30, 31 "Manifest Destiny" of nation, 68, 88, 96; Xavier, St. Francis, missionary, 49
spaceflights, 187, 188 Xenophon, explorer, 16, 19
Table Bay, bay, 7iO, 131, 750 Upper Klamath L., lake, 56. 59
Taklamakan Desert, desert, 23, 31. 112, Uruguay, river, 67, 707. 70i Yarkand, 31, 112, 775, 776, 118, 779
115.116.117, 118,119 Urville, Jules Dumont d', explorer, 170, 777 Yates, botanist, 100, 70i
Tanganyika, L., lake, 35. 128, 729, 7iO, Yellow Sea, sea, 29, 31
131,132, 7ii. 136, 757 Vaca, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de, explorer, 70, Yellowstone, river, 55, 56, 55, 89, 90
Tasman, Abel, explorer, 146, 755, 159, 163 77,83 Yemen, region, 120, 727, 722
Tasmania, island, 141. 144, 146, 148. 151, Valdivia, Pedro de, explorer, 65, 66 Yenisei, river, 108, 109, 765
152, 75i, 755, 159, 163, 777 Valparaiso, 66, 707, 145, 776 Yermak Timofeyev, explorer, 108, 709
Tasman Sea, sea, 8, 144. 146. 149, 152, 155, Vancouver, George, explorer, 148, 150, 151, Young, John W., astronaut, 756, 187
158 755 Younghusband, Sir Francis, explorer, 117,
Tassili-n'-Ajjer, mountain 7i7
ra., 135. 136, Van Diemen's Land, island, 141, 144, 146, 118
Teleki, Count Samuel, explorer, 128, 729 148, 151, 152, 163, 171; see also
Tenochtitlan, 60, 61 62, 63
, Tasmania Z, undiscovered city, 102, 70i
Tereshkova, Valentina, cosmonaut, 187 Varthema, Ludovico di, explorer, 49, 120 Zambezi, river, 35, 37, 130, 131, 7ii

photo Michael Holford, c Aldus Books; 88 James Jerome Hill Reference

Illustration Credits Library; 96-7 British Museum, photo John Freeman, c Aldus Books
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Jacket front: Martin Behaim's globe of
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Jacket hack: The first surface crossing of

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