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# 1. The metal rhodium has an FCC crystal structure.

## If the angle of diffraction for the (311) set of

planes occurs at 36.12o (first-order reflection) when monochromatic x-radiation having a
wavelength of 0.0711 nm is used, compute (a) the interplanar spacing for this set of planes, and
(b) the atomic radius for a rhodium atom.
a.)
nλ (1)(0.0711 nm)
d311 = = = 0.1147 nm
2sinθ 36.12°
2 (sin 2 )

a
R=
2√2
Solving for a:

## a = d311 √h2 + k 2 + l2 = (0.1147)√32 + 12 + 12 = 0.3804 nm

Therefore:
0.3804
R= = 0.1345 nm
2√2

2. Determine the expected diffraction angle for the first-order reflection from the (310) set of
planes for BCC chromium when monochromatic radiation of wavelength 0.0711 nm is used. The
atomic radiusof chromium is 0.1249 nm.
Since it is a BCC crystal, then a is computed as:
4R 4(0.1249 nm)
a= = = 0.2884 nm
√3 √3
Solving for d310 :

a = d311 √h2 + k 2 + l2

## 0.2884 = d311 √32 + 12 + 02

d310 = 0.0912 nm
Therefore, 𝞱 is equal to:
nλ 1(0.0711 nm)
𝜃 = sin−1 ( ) = sin−1 ( ) = 22.94°
2d310 2(0.0912 nm)
3. For which set of crystallographic planes will a first-order diffraction peak occur at a
diffraction angle of 44.53° for FCC nickel when monochromatic radiation having a wavelength
of 0.1542nm is used? The atomic radius of nickel is 0.1246 nm.

## Solving for dℎ𝑘𝑙 :

nλ (1)(0.1542 nm)
dℎ𝑘𝑙 = = = 0.2035 nm
2sinθ 44.53°
2 (sin 2 )

## Then, taking note of R and a relationship for FCC crystal:

a = dℎ𝑘𝑙 √h2 + k 2 + l2

## 2(0.1246 nm)√2 = (0.2035 nm) √h2 + k 2 + l2

Therefore:

√h2 + k 2 + l2 = 2.9998 ⋍ 3

By trial and error, the only three integers which are all odd or even, the sum of the squares of
which equals 3.0 are 1, 1, and 1. Therefore, the set of planes responsible for this diffraction
peak is the (111) set.

4. Calculate the number of vacancies per cubic meter in gold at 900°C. The energy for vacancy
formation is 0.98 eV/atom. Furthermore, the density and atomic weight for Au are 19.32 g/cmᶟ
and 196.6 g/mol, respectively.
Solving for number of vacancies:
Q𝑣 N𝜌Au (−Q𝑣)
N𝑣 = Ne(−kT) = e kT
AAu
Q𝑣
N𝑣 = Ne(−kT)
g
(6.023 x 1023 atoms/mol)(19.32 ) 0.98 eV/atom
= cmᶟ e(−8.62 x 10−5 eV/atoms−K (900+273 K))
196.6 g/mol
= 3.6558 𝑥 1018 𝑐𝑚−3 = = 3.6558 𝑥 1024 𝑚−3
5. What is the composition, in atom percent, of an alloy that contains 33 g copper and 47 g
zinc? The atomic weights of copper and zinc are 63.54 g/mol and 65.37 g/mol respectively.
First, we compute for the number of moles of each element:
mCu 33 g
nCu = = = 0.5194 mol
ACu 63.54 g/mol
mZn 47 g
nZn = = = 0.719 mol
AZn 65.37 g/mol
Now computing for the composition in atom percent of each:
nCu 0.5194 mol
C′Cu = 𝑥 100% = 𝑥 100% = 41.94 𝑎𝑡. %
nCu + nZn 0.5194 mol + 0.719 mol
nZn 0.719 mol
C′Zn = 𝑥 100% = 𝑥 100% = 58.06 𝑎𝑡. %
nCu + nZn 0.5194 mol + 0.719 mol

6. Calculate the number of atoms per cubic meter in aluminum. The density and atomic weight
of aluminum are 2.7 g/cm³ and 26.982 g/mol respectively.
Computing for the number of atoms:
23 g
NA 𝜌 (6.023 x 10 atoms/mol) (2.7 cm3 )
no. of atoms = =
A 26.982 g/mol
atoms atoms
= 6.05 x 1022 3
= 6.05 x 1028
cm m3

7. Gold forms a substitutional solid solution with silver. Compute the weight percent of gold
that must be added to silver to yield an alloy that contains 5.5 x 10^21 Au atoms per cubic
centimeter. The densities of pure Au and Ag are 19.32 and 10.49 g/cm3, respectively. Also, the
atomic weights for gold is 196.97 g/mol.
100
CAu =
NA 𝜌Ag 𝜌Ag
1+N A + 𝜌
Au Au Au

100
CAu = g g = 15.9 𝑤𝑡%
(6.023 x 1023 atoms/mol)(10.49 cm3) ( 10.49 cm3)
1+ − g
1021 atoms g (19.32 cm3)
(5.5 x ) (196.97 )
cm3 mol
8. Determine the ASTM grain size number if 30 grains per square inch are measured at
magnification of 250.

𝑀 2
NM ( ) = 2n−1
100
250 2
(30) ( ) = 2n−1
100

## log 187.5 = log 2 (n − 1)

log 187.5
+1=n
log 2
Therefore:
n = 8.551

9. Aluminum–lithium alloys have been developed by the aircraft industry to reduce the weight
and improve the performance of its aircraft. A commercial aircraft skin material having a
density of 2.47 g/cm3 is desired. Compute the concentration of Li (in wt%) that is required. The
densities of aluminum and lithium are 2.71 g/cm3 and 0.534 g/cm3, respectively.
Using the formula for average density:
100
𝜌ave =
CLi 100 − CLi
𝜌Li + 𝜌Al
Solving for CLi :
100𝜌Li (𝜌Al − 𝜌ave )
CLi =
𝜌ave (𝜌Al − 𝜌Li )
g
100 (0.534 cm3) (2.71 g/cm3 − 2.47 g/cm3)
= g g
2.47 cm3 (2.71 g/cm3 − 0.534 cm3)

= 2.38 𝑤𝑡. %
10. Atomic radius, crystal structure, electronegativity, and the most common valence are
tabulated, for several elements; for those that are nonmetals, only atomic radii are indicated.
Which of these elements would you expect to form the following with nickel:
(a) A substitutional solid solution having complete solubility
(b) A substitutional solid solution of incomplete solubility

## For complete substitutional solubility the following criteria must be met:

1) the difference in atomic radii between Ni and the other element ( R%) must be less than ±15%
2) the crystal structures must be the same
3) the electronegativities must be similar
4) the valences should be the same, or nearly the same.
Below are tabulated, for the various elements, these criteria.

a. Pt is the only element that meets all of the criteria and thus forms a substitutional solid solution
having complete solubility. At elevated temperatures Co and Fe experience allotropic
transformations to the FCC crystal structure, and thus display complete solid solubility at these
temperatures.

b. Ag, Al, Co, Cr, Fe, and Zn form substitutional solid solutions of incomplete solubility. All these
metals have either BCC or HCP crystal structures, and/or the difference between their atomic
radii and that for Ni are greater than ±15%, and/or have a valence different than 2+.