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TCE.M6-ME-590-406
DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET i OF iii

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING

FILE NAME: M6ME406R2.DOC


REV. NO. R0 R1 R2
ISSUE
INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN.

PPD. BY RS Sd/- VS Sd/- MSR

CHD. BY BVR Sd/- DP Sd/- VS


R2
APD. BY TKR Sd/- MLN/RL Sd/-/Sd/- DVL/RL

DATE 23.09.1983 28.04.2000 27.05.2003

TCE FORM NO. 020R2


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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET ii OF iii

CONTENTS

SL. NO. TITLE SH. NO.

1.0 SCOPE 1

2.0 UNITS & SYMBOLS 1

3.0 CONTINUITY EQUATION 2

4.0 DESIGN FLOW 2

5.0 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 2

6.0 RECOMMENDED RANGE OF VELOCITIES 3

7.0 CALCULATION OF PRESSURE DROP 5

8.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTION OF 7


LINE SIZES IN POWER PLANTS

APPENDICES

1. VALUES OF RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS 16

2. EXAMPLE FOR OPTIMISING PIPE SIZE 22

3. EXAMPLE FOR CALCULATING K FACTOR FOR 23


REDUCED PORT VALVES

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REVISION STATUS

REV. NO. DATE DESCRIPTION

R0 23.09.1983 --

R1 28.04.2000 Document completely revised and document


number changed.

R2 27.05.2003 Sizing of fuel gas lines and velocity range for


vacuum lines included. Appendix-1 updated.
Motor efficiency included in Appendix -2

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1.0 SCOPE

This design guide indicates guidelines for selecting pipe sizes for various
services and procedures for calculating pressure drop due to friction in
piping systems.

The procedure indicated for calculating pressure drop is valid only for
single-phase flows of Newtonian fluids. Further, while strictly confined to
incompressible flows, flow problems of compressible fluids can also be
handled by the same procedure if the density variations are not
significant. When density variations are significant, the pipeline can be
broken up into sections short enough to keep the pressure drop per
section below 15% of the initial pressure for the section and the average
density may be considered for each section. Such a treatment of
compressible fluid flows is again valid only when the accelerational effects
are insignificant and do not contribute to the pressure drop. This
document does not apply to cooling water and such lines where Hazen-
Williams equation is used. The systems discussed in the guide generally
pertain to power plants. For condensate recovery line sizing refer M1-ME-
CL-552-005.

2.0 UNITS AND SYMBOLS

Symbol Description Unit

M Mass flow kg/hr

D Internal Diameter of pipe m

ϑ Specific volume of fluid m3/kg

V Velocity of fluid m/sec

ρ Density of fluid kg/m3

µ Absolute viscosity of fluid Centipoise

G Acceleration due to gravity m/sec2

L Length of pipe m

f Friction factor (Darcy) -

Re Reynolds Number -

∆P Pressure drop kg/cm2

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Symbol Description Unit

h Head drop m

K Resistance coefficient of valve or fitting -

3.0 CONTINUITY EQUATION

The size of a pipeline is related to the flow handled by the pipeline through
the continuity equation as under:
1

D = 
4Mϑ 
2

- Eq.3.1
 Π 3600V 

To determine the pipe size therefore, the volumetric flow Mϑ and the
velocity should be established.

4.0 DESIGN FLOW

4.1 In general, all possible operating modes of the plant, normal and abnormal
should be considered including planned and forced outages of equipment
or systems, thereupon, the design flow or flows should be established as
those which are critical from the point of view of system requirements
discussed subsequently.

It should be borne in mind that it is not the mass flow, which is important,
but the volumetric flow. High volumetric flows might occur inspite of the
mass flows being low when the specific volumes are large, as might be the
case during low loads.

4.2 In particular, the design flows considered should not be less than the
following requirements, as applicable.

4.2.1 System heat and/or mass balance diagrams.

4.2.2 Rated capacities of connected equipment such as pumps, compressors,


blowers, turbines, boilers etc.

4.2.3 Rated capacities of control valves, flow-limiting orifices, etc.

5.0 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

5.1 As can be seen from the continuity equation, the larger the velocity the
smaller is the pipe size and hence lower is the piping cost. However, the
selection of a suitable velocity is governed by the following system
requirements.

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5.1.1 Pressure Drop

(a) The calculated pipe line pressure drop should be within the system
permissible limits

(b) Where the system permissible limits have not been pre-determined
and where the total cost of system is significant, the line sizes may be
determined by optimising the line drop with the system/equipment
parameters so as to result in least capitalised cost, which shall include
installed cost, running cost and maintenance or replacement costs.

5.1.2 NPSH

Where applicable, the pipeline velocities and sizes shall be such as to


ensure that the NPSH requirements are less than available NPSH.

5.1.3 Pipe Line Erosion

High line velocities lead to line erosion, particularly in case of wet steam
and water.

5.1.4 Water Hammer & Surge Pressures

High line velocities result in significant pressure increases due to water


hammer or surge action.

5.1.5 Noise

High line velocities in case of piping carrying compressible fluids lead to


high noise levels.

5.2 Section 6.0 indicates recommended ranges of velocities for various


services and guidelines for selecting a suitable velocity from within the
range for preliminary line sizing. The procedure for line sizing is to first
select a preliminary size based on assumed velocity and then examine the
suitability of the selected size from the point of view of the various system
requirements discussed above. The smallest pipe size, which meets all the
system requirements, is the optimum size for the intended service.

6.0 RECOMMENDED RANGE OF VELOCITIES

6.1 The following table gives the recommended ranges of velocities for
commonly encountered fluids:

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Sl. No. Fluid Recommended velocity range


(m/s)
1.0 Steam
1.1 Superheated steam 40 to 75
1.2 Saturated 20 to 40
steam/exhaust steam
1.3 Wet steam 20 to 30
2.0 Water
2.1 Pump suction 0.5 to 1.5
2.2 Pump delivery 1.0 to 3.0
2.3 Boiler feed discharge 3 to 6.0
2.4 City water 0.5 to 1.5
3.0 OIL
3.1 Heavy oil (heated) 1 to 2
3.2 Light oil 1 to 2
4.0 Gases
4.1 Compressed air 5 to 15
4.2 Fuel gas 10 to 30
5.0 Vacuum 100 to 200

6.2 The above table indicates ranges of velocity, which in some cases are
large. The following additional guidelines may be considered while
selecting a suitable value from the range.

6.2.1 For a given velocity, the pressure drop varies inversely with the pipe size.
Select lower values of velocities for smaller pipes.

6.2.2 When line pressures are low, select lower values of velocity to keep
pressure drop also low. Conversely, at high line pressures, higher
velocities should be acceptable.

6.2.3 In case of short pipe runs, pressure drops are generally inconsequential.
Hence, high velocities can be selected.

6.2.4 For superheated steam lines, the upper limit is from noise considerations.
In case of pipelines located outdoor, higher values of velocity are
acceptable. In case of indoor piping where background noise is generally
low, use an upper limit of 50 m/s for steam velocity.

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6.2.5 In case of high temperature and high-pressure steam piping, pipe


expansion will introduce problem of flexibility. Use of high velocity would
keep pipe sizes down and minimise flexibility problems but may create
flow-induced vibrations.

6.2.6 Steam lines for intermittent service can be designed with relatively higher
velocities since higher noise levels can be tolerated for short durations. In
specific cases where pressure drop considerations are unimportant,
velocities in excess of 75 m/s upto 100 m/s may also be considered. For
exhaust steam lines higher velocities of about 100 m/s are acceptable.

7.0 CALCULATION OF PRESSURE DROP

7.1 REYNOLDS NUMBER (Re)

It is a dimensionless number representing the ratio of inertial and viscous


forces governing a flow. It is calculated as:

3
10 ρVd
Re = - Eq. 7.1
µ

3
10 .Vd
Re = - Eq. 7.2
ϑµ

Viscosity of the gas / liquid / steam under consideration shall be taken from
the Handbook or Crane – ‘Flow of Fluids’.

7.2 TYPE OF FLOW

When the Reynolds Number for a flow through a closed conduit is less
than 2000, the flow is said to be LAMINAR. When the Reynold’s number
exceeds 4000, the flow is called TURBULENT. In between the values of
2000 and 4000, the flow could be either laminar or turbulent depending
upon several factors. Such flows are called TRANSIENT flows.

7.3 FRICTION FACTOR (f)

7.3.1 For laminar flows, friction factor is defined by POISEUILLE’s law as

64
f = - Eq.7.3
Re

7.3.2 In case of turbulent flows, the friction factor cannot be expressed as a


mathematical relationship but is experimentally determined. It depends on
the Reynolds number (Re) of the flow, internal diameter of the pipe d, and
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the roughness of the inner wall of the pipe. This relationship is expressed
in the form of a chart called MOODY’s chart.

7.3.3 The friction factor for transient flows is indeterminate and has lower limits
based on laminar flow and upper limits based on turbulent flow conditions.
For purposes of design, transient flows are best treated as turbulent flows.

7.4 PRESSURE DROP IN STRAIGHT PIPES

The pressure drop in a straight pipe due to frictional flow of a fluid is given
by the following generalised formula known as DARCY or FANNING
formula:

−4 2
10 fLV ρ
∆Ρ = - Eq. 7.4
2gd

−4 2
10 fLV
∆Ρ = - Eq. 7.5
2g ϑd

In the above equations, the pressure drop is expressed in units of kg/cm 2


and this form is used in case of gas flows. These equations may be
rewritten to express the pressure drop as head of the liquid column.

2
fLV
h = - Eq. 7.6
2gd

The above expression is more commonly used in the case of liquid flows.

7.5 PRESSURE DROP IN VALVE AND FITTINGS

In equations 7.4 to 7.6, the pressure drop is expressed as a function of the


length of the pipe. Pressure drops across valve and fittings are
experimentally determined and are expressed in terms of velocity heads.
Thus, the pressure drop ‘h’ across a valve or fitting is obtained as

2
KxV
h= - Eq. 7.7
2g

Where ‘K’ is defined as the resistance coefficient of valve or fittings.


Values of ‘K’ for commonly used valves and fittings are furnished in
Appendix-1. Use ‘K’ factor values furnished by supplier of valves/fittings
when available.

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7.6 AGEING

While sizing pipelines for water service, the likely increase in pressure drop
with the ageing of the pipe due to increase in pipe roughness, encrustation
of pipe with scale, dirt, foreign matter etc. should be considered. The
extent of increase in pressure drop is difficult to predict with any accuracy.
However, inadequate allowances would result in shortfall in capacity at a
future date. On the other hand, excessive allowances result in over sizing
of piping which besides increasing piping costs could lead to pumps
operating at well above design capacities.

The allowance to be provided depend on the following factors:

(a) Size of pipe


(b) Quality of water
(c) Proportion of friction drop to total system resistance
(d) Location of pipe – buried or above ground

Obviously, very large pipelines would be affected to a lesser extent than


smaller pipelines, since friction factor depends on relative roughness and
not on absolute roughness. Unfiltered water, corrosive/erosive water
would be far worse than clean, filtered water. It would be prudent to
provide for an increase over the calculated drop by a factor ranging from
1.1 to 1.4; the actual figure to be decided based on a judgement of the
actual conditions. An average figure of 1.25 may be considered for
average pipe sizes as encountered in power and process plants and
reasonably clean water.

7.7 FORMATS

Form 070 has been designed to carry out pressure drop calculations.

The total mass flow indicated in the form shall be established based on the
recommendations of Section 4.0 of this guide.

8.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTION OF LINE SIZES IN


POWER PLANTS

The following specific guidelines should be considered in the design of


power plant piping.

8.1 MAIN STEAM PIPING

8.1.1 Where the boiler and turbine parameters are already fixed, the maximum
allowable pressure drop in the main steam line is also fixed. The main
steam pipe size is so selected as to ensure that the actual pressure drop is
about 90% of the maximum allowable pressure drop at maximum

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calculated or expected flow between superheater outlet and HP turbine


inlet.

8.1.2 It must be noted that the superheated steam output of the boiler will
normally be somewhat greater than the throttle flow of the turbine
corresponding to Valve Wide Open (VWO) condition. Where the
differential flow is tapped off the main steam piping for auxiliary steam
station, ejectors, etc., maximum flows as applicable for individual sections
must be considered for computing line losses.

8.1.3 In cases where the calculated value of the pressure drop is only marginally
in excess of the allowed pressure drop, negotiate with the boiler contractor
for a slight increase in the Super Heater (SH) outlet pressure before
considering increasing main steam line size.

8.1.4 In case of captive power plants, boiler output could be much higher than
turbine requirements in order to meet process steam requirements or to
cater to future expansion or both. Design flows of steam piping should be
established after taking into account these aspects.

8.1.5 Where boiler and turbine parameters are not fixed, the SH outlet pressure
is established after taking into account estimated line losses. The pressure
drop in the main steam piping generally varies between 5-7 percent of the
SH outlet pressure.

8.1.6 While computing the available pressure drop between boiler and turbine,
establish whether the boiler outlet pressure is at the outlet header or at the
contractual terminal point for supply. In case of turbines, establish whether
the turbine inlet pressure furnished by the turbine manufacturer includes
pressure drop across strainers, if any.

8.1.7 Besides piping and fittings, the important components to consider in the
calculation of pressure drop are the main steam stop valve and steam flow
nozzle (There may be two stop valves in each lead, one each at boiler
outlet and at turbine inlet). When no specific figures are available for the
pressure drop across the stop valve, a value of 0.3 kg/cm2 may be
assumed per valve of same nominal size as pipe. When no specific figures
are available for the irrecoverable pressure drop across main steam flow
nozzle, a value of 1 to 1.2 kg/cm2 may be assumed. In headered systems,
separate flow nozzles may be envisaged for boilers and turbines.

8.1.8 Subject to turbine manufacturer’s confirmation, measurement of turbine


first stage pressure could also be used for steam flow indication and drum
level control. In critical cases, essentiality of flow nozzle for flow
measurement may be thoroughly studied.

8.1.9 For preliminary line sizing, a velocity of 50-60 m/s may be assumed.

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8.2 REHEAT STEAM PIPING

8.2.1 Where the boiler and turbine parameters are already fixed the maximum
allowable pressure drops in the hot and cold reheat piping are also fixed.
The sizes of hot and cold reheat piping are so selected as to ensure that
the actual pressure drop is about 90% of the maximum allowable pressure
drop at maximum calculated or expected flows.

8.2.2 Consider maximum flows as applicable to individual sections. Steam may


be tapped from cold reheat line to HP heater, for example. In such a case,
the flow between turbine outlet and tee off to HP heater would be greater.

8.2.3 It should be ensured that the total pressure drop in the reheat circuit is
equal to or less than the available drop in other operating modes as well.
For instance, when steam to top HP heater is taken from cold reheat line,
for the operating condition of top heater being out of service, flow in the
reheat circuit may be greater than for the condition all heaters being in
service, the turbine output being equal to rated value in both cases.

8.2.4 Where boiler and turbine parameters are not fixed or are not firm the sizing
of the cold and hot reheat piping should be carried out in parallel. The total
permissible pressure drop in the reheat circuits is available from the
turbine heat balance diagrams. It is generally about 10% of the absolute
pressure of steam leaving the high-pressure turbine. From this figure, the
drop across reheater must be deducted to obtain the maximum available
drop for the reheat piping. If reheater drop is not known or can be
specified, approximately 40-50 percent of the total drop in the reheat circuit
can be assumed to be the drop across the reheater. The balance is
suitably divided between the cold and hot reheat pipes in such a way as to
minimise cost. It is apparent that hot reheat piping is substantially costlier
than cold reheat piping. Further, due to higher temperatures, flexibility
problems are greater with hot reheat piping. Therefore, the size of the hot
reheat line should be kept as small as feasible.

To start with, assume a velocity of 60 m/s in the hot reheat piping.


Determine the line size and pressure drop. Establish the cold reheat line
size from the remaining pressure drop.

Pressure drop in the hot reheat piping could be between 2 to 4 times the
pressure drop in the cold reheat piping.

8.2.5 Besides piping and fittings, important components to be considered in the


pressure drop calculation are:

(a) Strainer if any on hot reheat piping (check if strainer pressure drop is
already provided for by the turbine manufacturer in heat balance).
(b) Non return valve on cold reheat piping

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(c) Emergency attemperator in cold reheat piping, etc.

8.3 EXTRACTION STEAM PIPING

8.3.1 Where the turbine cycle parameters are already fixed, the sizes of
extraction piping should be selected so as to ensure that the pressure drop
in the piping is equal to or less than the allowable pressure drop between
turbine nozzle and extraction feed heater inlet nozzle at maximum flows.

8.3.2 It should be ensured that the line sizes selected are suitable for all
operating modes of the plant, viz. VWO, rated output, individual heater out
of service, lowest CW temperature, maximum make up, etc.

8.3.3 As the turbine output falls, the extraction flows decrease, but so also do
the extraction pressures. Check calculations for all modes of operation
including part load conditions to ensure that the line velocities do not rise
to prohibitive levels.

8.3.4 Where turbine cycle parameters are not finalised, a line drop of 3 percent
of extraction steam line outlet pressure at turbine at maximum extraction
flows may be assumed for purpose of line sizing.

8.3.5 Besides piping and fittings, important components to be considered for


pressure drop calculations are, isolating valves and extraction reverse
current valves. Pressure drop across isolating valves can be taken from
Appendix and the drop across extraction reverse current valves shall be
obtained from the Vendor.

8.4 TURBINE BYPASS PIPING

8.4.1 The design flow for turbine bypass piping depends on the capacity of the
bypass station. Thus, the flow upstream of the HP and LP bypass
pressure reducing valves should equal the capacity of these valves. When
the desuperheating spray is introduced into the pressure reducing valves
for attemperation, the downstream design flow shall be equal to the
upstream design flow, plus the spray water flow. Where external
(independent) desuperheaters are used, the design flow downstream of
the pressure reducing valves upto the desuperheater is the same as the
upstream design flow. Design flow downstream of the desuperheater is
obtained by adding spray water flow to the upstream design flow.

8.4.2 The steam pressures upstream of the HP and LP bypass valves at the
design flows are the set pressures of the HP and LP bypass valves
respectively. The steam pressure downstream of the HP bypass valve is
equal to the set pressure of LP bypass valve plus the losses in the reheat
circuit. The steam pressure downstream of the LP bypass valve should be
ascertained from the Vendor (Turbine Vendor). Downstream pressure of

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the LP bypass valve is, in general, much greater than the condenser
pressure due to the drop across the steam throw-off device located inside
the condenser.

8.4.3 The temperatures of steam upstream of HP & LP bypass valves at design


flows correspond to the superheater outlet and reheater outlet
temperatures of the boiler at an output equal to the bypass station
capacity. Normally, these temperatures also correspond to the superheater
and reheater outlet temperatures at boiler MCR output.
.
The temperature downstream of the HP and LP bypass valves where the
spray is introduced into the valve bodies and downstream of the
desuperheaters in case of external desuperheating is equal to the set point
of the respective temperature controller.

In case of external desuperheating, the temperature of the pipe section


between the bypass valve and the desuperheater can be obtained from the
Mollier diagram by following an isenthalpic path.

8.4.4 Since the bypass valves are only in intermittent service, high velocities
corresponding to the upper limit of the range recommended in Section 6.0
of this guide may be assumed. In case of piping downstream of LP bypass
valves, due to the high mass flows and high specific volumes, the design
velocity can be increased upto 100 m/s if necessary to keep the pipe sizes
reasonable.

8.4.5 It is obvious that pressure drops in the pipeline are not a major
consideration in the sizing of the bypass piping.

8.5 AUXILIARY STEAM PIPING

8.5.1 The auxiliary PRDS station has two salient modes of operation based on
which it is sized :

(a) Cold start up of the TG unit. Here, although the mass flows are less
than the capacity of the PRDS station, boiler pressure is also low
resulting in high specific volume.

(b) Operation of the PRDS at rated capacity

The sizing of the steam line to PRDS shall consider both the above modes.

8.5.2 Normal flow through the PRDS is much less than the rated capacity.
Velocity in the steam line to PRDS at design flow can be taken as high as
the upper limit of the recommended range.

8.5.3 Steam line downstream of the desuperheater upto the auxiliary steam

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header should be considered as handling wet steam for purposes of


selection of design velocities.

8.5.4 Steam lines from the header to individual consumers other than
deaerator/feed water tank should be designed so as to drop not more than
60 percent of the maximum allowed pressure drop at their design flows.

8.5.5 Steam line to deaerator should be designed for the following modes of
operation as applicable :

(a) Cold start of unit


(b) Warm start of unit
(c) HP/LP bypass operation
(d) Normal operation of unit at full load
(e) Operation of unit at part loads

In each case, the pressure downstream of the pressure control valve on


the line should be equal to the corresponding pegging pressure of the
deaerator.

8.6 BOILER FEED DISCHARGE PIPING

8.6.1 On individual pump discharge lines, the design flow should be equal to the
rated capacity of the feed pump. On common discharge line to heaters
and economiser, the design flow should be the rated capacity of the feed
control valve.

8.6.2 In plant where no feed control valve is envisaged, the design flow of the
common line may be taken as 1.3 times the boiler MCR output.

8.6.3 The velocity in the feed water piping should be limited to 6 m/s at the
design flow.

8.7 BOILER FEED PUMP SUCTION PIPING

8.7.1 For preliminary line sizing, use a line velocity of 1 to 1.5 m/s

8.7.2 The pressure drop in the suction piping shall be such as to meet the NPSH
requirements of the boiler feed pumps under all operating conditions,
steady state and transient.

Transient conditions are said to occur when the steam supply to deaerator
is not commensurate with the demand set by the inflows into the deaerator
and the pressure in the deaerator/feed water tank starts decaying as a
result. Such conditions can arise when the steam supply to the deaerator is
cut off or preheating of condensate in the low pressure heaters of the feed
cycle is stopped as might happen on a turbine trip out and turbine bypass

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station coming on line.

8.7.3 From the point of view of steady conditions, larger suction line sizes lead to
lower line velocities and hence lower friction drops, thus lower improving
NPSH availability. On the other hand, lower line velocities lead to
increased residence time of the fluid in the suction piping and worsen the
NPSH availability under transient conditions. Since the suction strainer
accounts for a higher percentage of the total pressure drop, it is
recommended to install large suction strainers with high straining area/pipe
flow area ratios in order to minimise friction drop. The line sizes may then
be finalised to suit the transient operating conditions.

8.7.4 For optimum designs, the feed water tank elevation and the NPSH
requirements under steady state and transient operating conditions should
be studied in combination with the feed water tank storage capacity and
the suction line size.

8.7.5 When more than one feed pump is designed to be in operation at any time
(parallel operation of pumps), NPSH calculations shall be carried out for
the condition of one of the operating pumps having tripped and the standby
pump having failed to come into service.

8.8 CONDENSATE PUMP AND HEATER DRAIN PUMP SUCTION PIPING

8.8.1 Line size selection is based on NPSH requirements of the pumps

8.8.2 For NPSH calculations, consider the maximum flow corresponding to the
capacity of a full open control valve in the pump delivery line.

8.8.3 In the case of more than one pump operating in parallel, NPSH
calculations shall be carried out for the condition of one of the operating
pumps having tripped and the standby having failed to come into service.

8.9 FUEL OIL DECANTATION PUMP SUCTION PIPING

8.9.1 The most important consideration is to reduce the pressure drop in the
decantation header to negligible value so as to enable unloading of oil from
all wagons as nearly at an equal rate as possible.

8.9.2 Consider several header sizes and compute the total loss in the header for
each size. Select the size beyond which any increase in header size does
not result in any significant reduction in the pressure drop in the header.

8.9.3 Check the header size selected from the point of view of layout of piping
between wagon outlet and pump inlet. The layout shall be such as to result
in no high points in the system and header to slope towards pump suction.

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8.9.4 Although the flow in the header varies from section to section depending
on the number of wagons contributing to the header flow, adopt a uniform
size for the entire length of the header.

8.10 FUEL OIL DECANTATION PUMP DELIVERY PIPING

8.10.1 The line size for the delivery piping shall be selected after optimising
the installed cost of piping, valves, pumps and motors and the
pumping cost. Example for optimising pipe size on pump delivery is
given in Appendix-2.

8.10.2 While computing the pumping cost, it should be noted that the pumps
are in intermittent service.

8.11 FUEL GAS PIPING


8.11.1 The pressure drop in gas lines is generally large relative to the inlet or source
pressure and for these cases the Darcy equation will not give accurate results.
Weymouth formula, which is derived from isothermal equations, gives more
accurate results since the flow of gases in long pipelines closely approximates
isothermal conditions. The line size of fuel gas piping is done generally using
Weymouth formula.

8.11.2 Weymouth formula

-8
q’h = 2.61 x 10 * d 2.667 (P’ 1)2 – (P’2)2 * 288 -- Eq.8.1
S
g * Lm T

Where,
q’h - rate of flow in cubic metres per hour at metric standard
conditions
d - internal diameter of pipe, in mm
P’1 - source or inlet pressure in Newtons per square
metre (pascals) absolute
P’2 - terminal pressure in Newton per square metre (pascals)
absolute
S
g - specific gravity of gas relative to air = ratio of molecular
weight of gas to that of air
Lm - length of pipe, in kilometres
T - absolute temperature in kelvins

8.11.3 Gas line velocity to be maintained is indicated in table 6.1. Where the
pressure drop criteria determine the gas line sizing, velocity range closer to
lower limit of 10m/s to be adopted. For other cases, closer to 30m/s can be
maintained to economise the pipe line size.

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8.11.4 Density of gases are more sensitive to pressure variations as compared to


temperature variation. Hence, while calculating the gas line velocity average
density of gas to be taken considering the inlet and outlet pressure.

8.11.5 Density of gas (ρ) at any given pressure(P’) is calculated as below:

ρ = P’ -- Eq.8.2
RT

Where,

P’ – Pressure in Newtons per square metre (pascals) absolute


R – Individual gas constant = Ro / M in J/kg K
T --Temperature in Kelvins
Ro = 8314 J/kg-mol K
M -- Molecular weight of gas

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APPENDIX-1

VALUES OF RESISTANCE CO-EFFICIENTS

1. PIPE FRICTION DATA FOR CLEAN COMMERICAL STEEL PIPE WITH FLOW IN ZONE
OF COMPLETE TURBULENCE

Nominal size ½" ¾" 1" 1¼" 1½" 2"


Friction Factor (fT) 0.027 0.025 0.023 0.022 0.021 0.019

Nominal size 2½",3" 4" 5" 6" 8-10" 12"-16" 18"-24"


Friction Factor (fT) 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.012

Above factor is based on the following schedule numbers:

Class 300 & below Schedule 40

Class 400 & 600 Schedule 80

Class 900 Schedule 120

Class 1500 Schedule 160

Class 2500 (Size ½ to 6”) XXS

Class 2500 (Size 8” & above ) Schedule 160

For connecting pipe sizes different from those listed above `K’ factor for valve &
fittings would be as follows:

da 4
Ka = Kb
( ) db

Where subscript a defines `K’ and `d’ with reference to internal


diameter of the connecting pipe

b defines `K’ and `d’ with reference to internal


diameter of the pipe for which values of `k’ were
established.

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2. GATE VALVES
Wedge Disc, Double Disc or Plug Type
d1

d2

d2

d1

d2
0

If: β = 1, = O ……………………………… K1 = 8fT

d1
β < 1 and < 45O ……………………… K2 = Formula 5 ( β =
d2 )
β <1 and 45O < < 180 O
……… K2 = Formula 6

3. SWING CHECK VALVES


d2
d
2

d1
1

K = 100 fT K = 50 fT

Minimum pipe velocity (fps) Minimum pipe velocity (fps)


for full disc lift = 35 υ for full disc lift = 60 υ
υ = Specific volume)

4. LIFT CHECK VALVES

If β = 1 k 1 = 600 fT Minimum pipe velocity


β < 1 k2 = Formula 7 β2 υ
(fps) for full disc lift = 40β

K factors for other type of valves refer Appendix-A of ‘Flow of Fluids’ of Crane
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5. FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING “K” FACTORS FOR VALVES AND


FITTINGS WITH REDUCED PORT

• Formula 1

θ
0.8(sin ) (1 - β 22 ) K1
K2 = 2 =
44
β β44

• Formula 2
θ
0.5(1 - β 22 ) (sin ) K1
K2 = 2 =
44
β β44

• Formula 3

θ
2.6 (sin ) (1 - β 22 ) 22 K1
K2 = 2 =
β44 β44

• Formula 4

(1 - β 22 ) 22 K1
K2 = =
β44 β44

• Formula 5

K1
K2 = + Formula 1 + Formula 3
β44

θ
K1 + sin [0.8(1 - β22 ) + 2.6(1 - β 22 ) 22 ]
K2 = 2

β44

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• Formula 6

K1
K2 = + Formula 2 + Formula 4
β44

θ
K1 + 0.5 sin (I - β 22 ) + (1 - β22 ) 22
K2 = 2

β44

• Formula 7

K1
K2 = + β ( Formula 2 + Formula 4) When θ = 18000
44
β

K1 + β [0.5 (1 - β 22 ) + 2.6(1 - β 22 ) 22 ]
K2 =
β44

d1
β =
d2

( )
2
d1 a1
2
β = =
d2 a2

Subscript 1 defines dimensions and coefficient with reference to the smaller


diameter.

Subscript 2 refers to the larger diameter.

Above formulae and data are taken from “Flow of Fluids” – Crane
(Technical paper No. 410)

Example for calculation of `K’ factor for valves with reduced port is enclosed in
Appendix - 3

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6. SUDDEN AND GRADUAL CONTRACTION

d2
a2 a1

d1
If: < 45O ……………………. K2 = Formula 1

45O < < 180O …….. K2 = Formula 2

SUDDEN AND GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT


d2

a1 a2
d1

If: < 45O ……………………. K2 = Formula 3

45O < < 180O ……. K2 = Formula 4

7. MITRE BEND 8. STANDARD ELBOWS


90O 45O
∝ K
Oo 2 fT
d 15o 4 fT
30o 8 fT
α 45o 15 fT
60o 25 fT
d
75o 40 fT
90o 60 fT

K = 30 fT K = 16 fT

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9. 90o PIPE BENDS AND FLANGED


OR BUTT-WELDING 90o ELBOWS 10. STANDARD TEES

K r/d K
1 20 fT 8 24 fT
1.5 14 fT 10 30 fT
2 12 fT 12 34 fT
3 12 fT 14 38 fT
r 4 14 fT 18 42 fT
6 17 fT 20 50 fT

Flow thru run……..K = 20 fT


The resistance co-efficient, KB for pipe bends Flow thru branch…K = 60 fT
other than 90 o may be determined as follows:

KB = (n-1)(0.25*3.14*fT*r/d + 0.5K) + K where n = number of 90 o bends


K= resistance co-eff.for one 90o bend (per table)

11. PIPE ENTRANCE r/d K


Inward Projecting Flush 0.00 * 0.5
r 0.02 0.28
0.04 0.24
0.06 0.15
d
d

0.10 0.09
0.15 & up 0.04

K= 0.78
. K=0.78 For K, see table * Sharp edged

12. PIPE EXIT


Projecting Sharp-Edged Rounded

K= 1.0 K= 1.0 K= 1.0

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APPENDIX-2

EXAMPLE FOR OPTIMISING PIPE SIZE

1.0 DATA

System : CONDENSATE PUMP DISCHARGE

Sizes Considered : NB 300, 350, 400, 450 & 500

Flow (Q) : 1170 Tonnes / Hr = 325 Kg/Sec.

Energy Cost (x) : 65 Paise / KWHR

Plant load factor (f) : 0.75

Plant life (l) : 25 Years

Interest rate considered per annum (z) : 12 %

Pump Efficiency ( p) : 0.8

Motor Efficiency ( m) : 0.85

Period ( y ) : 8760 hours ( 1 year )

l
(1+z) - 1
2.0 Capitalised Factor (c) = l
z (1+z)
25
(1+0.12) -1
= 25 = 7.843
0.12 (1+0.12)

3.0 Capitalised Pumping Q ∆ H 0.746 x f y c


=
energy cost (E) 75 x p x m
325 x ∆ H x 0.746 x 0.65 x 0.75 x 8760 x 7.843
=
75 x 0.8 x 0.85
= [159226 x ∆ H ]

PIPE ∆H CAPTILAISED PIPE INSTALLED TOTAL


4.0 CALCULATED ENERGY COST COST EVALUATED
SIZE
MLC E Rs (Lakhs) Rs (Lakhs) COST Rs (Lakhs)
NB 300 10.7 17.03 9.64 26.67
NB 350 6.75 10.75 11.81 22.56
NB 400 3.67 5.84 16.51 22.35
NB 450 2.14 3.4 20.73 24.13
NB 500 1.30 2.07 25.38 27.45

From the above it can be observed that the total evaluated cost for NB 400 is the lowest.

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APPENDIX-3

EXAMPLE FOR CALCULATING `K’ FACTOR WITH


REDUCED PORT VALVES
152
102

CONNECTING PIPE
0
(6” NB x SH 80)
ID 146 mm

559

d1 102
β = = = 0.69 β2 = 0.48, β4 = 0.23
d2 146

(146-102)
θ 2 44 θ
tan = = ⇒ = 6.17
2 (559-152) 407 2

θ
sin = 0.11
2

K1 = 8fT ; f T = 0.015 For NB 6" (150) PIPE

K2 = Formula 5

θ
K1+sin [0.8(1-β2)+2.6(1-β2)2]
= 2
β4

8x0.015+0.11 [(0.8x0.52)+2.6(0.52) 2]
=
0.23

= 1.06

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