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TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET i OF iii

REV. NO. R0 R1 R2

ISSUE

INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN. INITIALS SIGN.

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APD. BY TKR Sd/- MLN/RL Sd/-/Sd/- DVL/RL

TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: CONTENTS

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET ii OF iii

CONTENTS

1.0 SCOPE 1

LINE SIZES IN POWER PLANTS

APPENDICES

REDUCED PORT VALVES

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TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET iii OF iii

REVISION STATUS

R0 23.09.1983 --

number changed.

vacuum lines included. Appendix-1 updated.

Motor efficiency included in Appendix -2

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 1 OF 23

1.0 SCOPE

This design guide indicates guidelines for selecting pipe sizes for various

services and procedures for calculating pressure drop due to friction in

piping systems.

The procedure indicated for calculating pressure drop is valid only for

single-phase flows of Newtonian fluids. Further, while strictly confined to

incompressible flows, flow problems of compressible fluids can also be

handled by the same procedure if the density variations are not

significant. When density variations are significant, the pipeline can be

broken up into sections short enough to keep the pressure drop per

section below 15% of the initial pressure for the section and the average

density may be considered for each section. Such a treatment of

compressible fluid flows is again valid only when the accelerational effects

are insignificant and do not contribute to the pressure drop. This

document does not apply to cooling water and such lines where Hazen-

Williams equation is used. The systems discussed in the guide generally

pertain to power plants. For condensate recovery line sizing refer M1-ME-

CL-552-005.

L Length of pipe m

Re Reynolds Number -

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 2 OF 23

h Head drop m

The size of a pipeline is related to the flow handled by the pipeline through

the continuity equation as under:

1

D =

4Mϑ

2

- Eq.3.1

Π 3600V

To determine the pipe size therefore, the volumetric flow Mϑ and the

velocity should be established.

4.1 In general, all possible operating modes of the plant, normal and abnormal

should be considered including planned and forced outages of equipment

or systems, thereupon, the design flow or flows should be established as

those which are critical from the point of view of system requirements

discussed subsequently.

It should be borne in mind that it is not the mass flow, which is important,

but the volumetric flow. High volumetric flows might occur inspite of the

mass flows being low when the specific volumes are large, as might be the

case during low loads.

4.2 In particular, the design flows considered should not be less than the

following requirements, as applicable.

blowers, turbines, boilers etc.

5.1 As can be seen from the continuity equation, the larger the velocity the

smaller is the pipe size and hence lower is the piping cost. However, the

selection of a suitable velocity is governed by the following system

requirements.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 3 OF 23

(a) The calculated pipe line pressure drop should be within the system

permissible limits

(b) Where the system permissible limits have not been pre-determined

and where the total cost of system is significant, the line sizes may be

determined by optimising the line drop with the system/equipment

parameters so as to result in least capitalised cost, which shall include

installed cost, running cost and maintenance or replacement costs.

5.1.2 NPSH

ensure that the NPSH requirements are less than available NPSH.

High line velocities lead to line erosion, particularly in case of wet steam

and water.

hammer or surge action.

5.1.5 Noise

high noise levels.

services and guidelines for selecting a suitable velocity from within the

range for preliminary line sizing. The procedure for line sizing is to first

select a preliminary size based on assumed velocity and then examine the

suitability of the selected size from the point of view of the various system

requirements discussed above. The smallest pipe size, which meets all the

system requirements, is the optimum size for the intended service.

6.1 The following table gives the recommended ranges of velocities for

commonly encountered fluids:

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 4 OF 23

(m/s)

1.0 Steam

1.1 Superheated steam 40 to 75

1.2 Saturated 20 to 40

steam/exhaust steam

1.3 Wet steam 20 to 30

2.0 Water

2.1 Pump suction 0.5 to 1.5

2.2 Pump delivery 1.0 to 3.0

2.3 Boiler feed discharge 3 to 6.0

2.4 City water 0.5 to 1.5

3.0 OIL

3.1 Heavy oil (heated) 1 to 2

3.2 Light oil 1 to 2

4.0 Gases

4.1 Compressed air 5 to 15

4.2 Fuel gas 10 to 30

5.0 Vacuum 100 to 200

6.2 The above table indicates ranges of velocity, which in some cases are

large. The following additional guidelines may be considered while

selecting a suitable value from the range.

6.2.1 For a given velocity, the pressure drop varies inversely with the pipe size.

Select lower values of velocities for smaller pipes.

6.2.2 When line pressures are low, select lower values of velocity to keep

pressure drop also low. Conversely, at high line pressures, higher

velocities should be acceptable.

6.2.3 In case of short pipe runs, pressure drops are generally inconsequential.

Hence, high velocities can be selected.

6.2.4 For superheated steam lines, the upper limit is from noise considerations.

In case of pipelines located outdoor, higher values of velocity are

acceptable. In case of indoor piping where background noise is generally

low, use an upper limit of 50 m/s for steam velocity.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 5 OF 23

expansion will introduce problem of flexibility. Use of high velocity would

keep pipe sizes down and minimise flexibility problems but may create

flow-induced vibrations.

6.2.6 Steam lines for intermittent service can be designed with relatively higher

velocities since higher noise levels can be tolerated for short durations. In

specific cases where pressure drop considerations are unimportant,

velocities in excess of 75 m/s upto 100 m/s may also be considered. For

exhaust steam lines higher velocities of about 100 m/s are acceptable.

forces governing a flow. It is calculated as:

3

10 ρVd

Re = - Eq. 7.1

µ

3

10 .Vd

Re = - Eq. 7.2

ϑµ

Viscosity of the gas / liquid / steam under consideration shall be taken from

the Handbook or Crane – ‘Flow of Fluids’.

When the Reynolds Number for a flow through a closed conduit is less

than 2000, the flow is said to be LAMINAR. When the Reynold’s number

exceeds 4000, the flow is called TURBULENT. In between the values of

2000 and 4000, the flow could be either laminar or turbulent depending

upon several factors. Such flows are called TRANSIENT flows.

64

f = - Eq.7.3

Re

mathematical relationship but is experimentally determined. It depends on

the Reynolds number (Re) of the flow, internal diameter of the pipe d, and

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 6 OF 23

the roughness of the inner wall of the pipe. This relationship is expressed

in the form of a chart called MOODY’s chart.

7.3.3 The friction factor for transient flows is indeterminate and has lower limits

based on laminar flow and upper limits based on turbulent flow conditions.

For purposes of design, transient flows are best treated as turbulent flows.

The pressure drop in a straight pipe due to frictional flow of a fluid is given

by the following generalised formula known as DARCY or FANNING

formula:

−4 2

10 fLV ρ

∆Ρ = - Eq. 7.4

2gd

−4 2

10 fLV

∆Ρ = - Eq. 7.5

2g ϑd

and this form is used in case of gas flows. These equations may be

rewritten to express the pressure drop as head of the liquid column.

2

fLV

h = - Eq. 7.6

2gd

The above expression is more commonly used in the case of liquid flows.

length of the pipe. Pressure drops across valve and fittings are

experimentally determined and are expressed in terms of velocity heads.

Thus, the pressure drop ‘h’ across a valve or fitting is obtained as

2

KxV

h= - Eq. 7.7

2g

Values of ‘K’ for commonly used valves and fittings are furnished in

Appendix-1. Use ‘K’ factor values furnished by supplier of valves/fittings

when available.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 7 OF 23

7.6 AGEING

While sizing pipelines for water service, the likely increase in pressure drop

with the ageing of the pipe due to increase in pipe roughness, encrustation

of pipe with scale, dirt, foreign matter etc. should be considered. The

extent of increase in pressure drop is difficult to predict with any accuracy.

However, inadequate allowances would result in shortfall in capacity at a

future date. On the other hand, excessive allowances result in over sizing

of piping which besides increasing piping costs could lead to pumps

operating at well above design capacities.

(b) Quality of water

(c) Proportion of friction drop to total system resistance

(d) Location of pipe – buried or above ground

smaller pipelines, since friction factor depends on relative roughness and

not on absolute roughness. Unfiltered water, corrosive/erosive water

would be far worse than clean, filtered water. It would be prudent to

provide for an increase over the calculated drop by a factor ranging from

1.1 to 1.4; the actual figure to be decided based on a judgement of the

actual conditions. An average figure of 1.25 may be considered for

average pipe sizes as encountered in power and process plants and

reasonably clean water.

7.7 FORMATS

Form 070 has been designed to carry out pressure drop calculations.

The total mass flow indicated in the form shall be established based on the

recommendations of Section 4.0 of this guide.

POWER PLANTS

power plant piping.

8.1.1 Where the boiler and turbine parameters are already fixed, the maximum

allowable pressure drop in the main steam line is also fixed. The main

steam pipe size is so selected as to ensure that the actual pressure drop is

about 90% of the maximum allowable pressure drop at maximum

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 8 OF 23

inlet.

8.1.2 It must be noted that the superheated steam output of the boiler will

normally be somewhat greater than the throttle flow of the turbine

corresponding to Valve Wide Open (VWO) condition. Where the

differential flow is tapped off the main steam piping for auxiliary steam

station, ejectors, etc., maximum flows as applicable for individual sections

must be considered for computing line losses.

8.1.3 In cases where the calculated value of the pressure drop is only marginally

in excess of the allowed pressure drop, negotiate with the boiler contractor

for a slight increase in the Super Heater (SH) outlet pressure before

considering increasing main steam line size.

8.1.4 In case of captive power plants, boiler output could be much higher than

turbine requirements in order to meet process steam requirements or to

cater to future expansion or both. Design flows of steam piping should be

established after taking into account these aspects.

8.1.5 Where boiler and turbine parameters are not fixed, the SH outlet pressure

is established after taking into account estimated line losses. The pressure

drop in the main steam piping generally varies between 5-7 percent of the

SH outlet pressure.

8.1.6 While computing the available pressure drop between boiler and turbine,

establish whether the boiler outlet pressure is at the outlet header or at the

contractual terminal point for supply. In case of turbines, establish whether

the turbine inlet pressure furnished by the turbine manufacturer includes

pressure drop across strainers, if any.

8.1.7 Besides piping and fittings, the important components to consider in the

calculation of pressure drop are the main steam stop valve and steam flow

nozzle (There may be two stop valves in each lead, one each at boiler

outlet and at turbine inlet). When no specific figures are available for the

pressure drop across the stop valve, a value of 0.3 kg/cm2 may be

assumed per valve of same nominal size as pipe. When no specific figures

are available for the irrecoverable pressure drop across main steam flow

nozzle, a value of 1 to 1.2 kg/cm2 may be assumed. In headered systems,

separate flow nozzles may be envisaged for boilers and turbines.

first stage pressure could also be used for steam flow indication and drum

level control. In critical cases, essentiality of flow nozzle for flow

measurement may be thoroughly studied.

8.1.9 For preliminary line sizing, a velocity of 50-60 m/s may be assumed.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 9 OF 23

8.2.1 Where the boiler and turbine parameters are already fixed the maximum

allowable pressure drops in the hot and cold reheat piping are also fixed.

The sizes of hot and cold reheat piping are so selected as to ensure that

the actual pressure drop is about 90% of the maximum allowable pressure

drop at maximum calculated or expected flows.

be tapped from cold reheat line to HP heater, for example. In such a case,

the flow between turbine outlet and tee off to HP heater would be greater.

8.2.3 It should be ensured that the total pressure drop in the reheat circuit is

equal to or less than the available drop in other operating modes as well.

For instance, when steam to top HP heater is taken from cold reheat line,

for the operating condition of top heater being out of service, flow in the

reheat circuit may be greater than for the condition all heaters being in

service, the turbine output being equal to rated value in both cases.

8.2.4 Where boiler and turbine parameters are not fixed or are not firm the sizing

of the cold and hot reheat piping should be carried out in parallel. The total

permissible pressure drop in the reheat circuits is available from the

turbine heat balance diagrams. It is generally about 10% of the absolute

pressure of steam leaving the high-pressure turbine. From this figure, the

drop across reheater must be deducted to obtain the maximum available

drop for the reheat piping. If reheater drop is not known or can be

specified, approximately 40-50 percent of the total drop in the reheat circuit

can be assumed to be the drop across the reheater. The balance is

suitably divided between the cold and hot reheat pipes in such a way as to

minimise cost. It is apparent that hot reheat piping is substantially costlier

than cold reheat piping. Further, due to higher temperatures, flexibility

problems are greater with hot reheat piping. Therefore, the size of the hot

reheat line should be kept as small as feasible.

Determine the line size and pressure drop. Establish the cold reheat line

size from the remaining pressure drop.

Pressure drop in the hot reheat piping could be between 2 to 4 times the

pressure drop in the cold reheat piping.

pressure drop calculation are:

(a) Strainer if any on hot reheat piping (check if strainer pressure drop is

already provided for by the turbine manufacturer in heat balance).

(b) Non return valve on cold reheat piping

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 10 OF 23

8.3.1 Where the turbine cycle parameters are already fixed, the sizes of

extraction piping should be selected so as to ensure that the pressure drop

in the piping is equal to or less than the allowable pressure drop between

turbine nozzle and extraction feed heater inlet nozzle at maximum flows.

8.3.2 It should be ensured that the line sizes selected are suitable for all

operating modes of the plant, viz. VWO, rated output, individual heater out

of service, lowest CW temperature, maximum make up, etc.

8.3.3 As the turbine output falls, the extraction flows decrease, but so also do

the extraction pressures. Check calculations for all modes of operation

including part load conditions to ensure that the line velocities do not rise

to prohibitive levels.

8.3.4 Where turbine cycle parameters are not finalised, a line drop of 3 percent

of extraction steam line outlet pressure at turbine at maximum extraction

flows may be assumed for purpose of line sizing.

pressure drop calculations are, isolating valves and extraction reverse

current valves. Pressure drop across isolating valves can be taken from

Appendix and the drop across extraction reverse current valves shall be

obtained from the Vendor.

8.4.1 The design flow for turbine bypass piping depends on the capacity of the

bypass station. Thus, the flow upstream of the HP and LP bypass

pressure reducing valves should equal the capacity of these valves. When

the desuperheating spray is introduced into the pressure reducing valves

for attemperation, the downstream design flow shall be equal to the

upstream design flow, plus the spray water flow. Where external

(independent) desuperheaters are used, the design flow downstream of

the pressure reducing valves upto the desuperheater is the same as the

upstream design flow. Design flow downstream of the desuperheater is

obtained by adding spray water flow to the upstream design flow.

8.4.2 The steam pressures upstream of the HP and LP bypass valves at the

design flows are the set pressures of the HP and LP bypass valves

respectively. The steam pressure downstream of the HP bypass valve is

equal to the set pressure of LP bypass valve plus the losses in the reheat

circuit. The steam pressure downstream of the LP bypass valve should be

ascertained from the Vendor (Turbine Vendor). Downstream pressure of

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 11 OF 23

the LP bypass valve is, in general, much greater than the condenser

pressure due to the drop across the steam throw-off device located inside

the condenser.

flows correspond to the superheater outlet and reheater outlet

temperatures of the boiler at an output equal to the bypass station

capacity. Normally, these temperatures also correspond to the superheater

and reheater outlet temperatures at boiler MCR output.

.

The temperature downstream of the HP and LP bypass valves where the

spray is introduced into the valve bodies and downstream of the

desuperheaters in case of external desuperheating is equal to the set point

of the respective temperature controller.

between the bypass valve and the desuperheater can be obtained from the

Mollier diagram by following an isenthalpic path.

8.4.4 Since the bypass valves are only in intermittent service, high velocities

corresponding to the upper limit of the range recommended in Section 6.0

of this guide may be assumed. In case of piping downstream of LP bypass

valves, due to the high mass flows and high specific volumes, the design

velocity can be increased upto 100 m/s if necessary to keep the pipe sizes

reasonable.

8.4.5 It is obvious that pressure drops in the pipeline are not a major

consideration in the sizing of the bypass piping.

8.5.1 The auxiliary PRDS station has two salient modes of operation based on

which it is sized :

(a) Cold start up of the TG unit. Here, although the mass flows are less

than the capacity of the PRDS station, boiler pressure is also low

resulting in high specific volume.

The sizing of the steam line to PRDS shall consider both the above modes.

8.5.2 Normal flow through the PRDS is much less than the rated capacity.

Velocity in the steam line to PRDS at design flow can be taken as high as

the upper limit of the recommended range.

8.5.3 Steam line downstream of the desuperheater upto the auxiliary steam

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 12 OF 23

selection of design velocities.

8.5.4 Steam lines from the header to individual consumers other than

deaerator/feed water tank should be designed so as to drop not more than

60 percent of the maximum allowed pressure drop at their design flows.

8.5.5 Steam line to deaerator should be designed for the following modes of

operation as applicable :

(b) Warm start of unit

(c) HP/LP bypass operation

(d) Normal operation of unit at full load

(e) Operation of unit at part loads

the line should be equal to the corresponding pegging pressure of the

deaerator.

8.6.1 On individual pump discharge lines, the design flow should be equal to the

rated capacity of the feed pump. On common discharge line to heaters

and economiser, the design flow should be the rated capacity of the feed

control valve.

8.6.2 In plant where no feed control valve is envisaged, the design flow of the

common line may be taken as 1.3 times the boiler MCR output.

8.6.3 The velocity in the feed water piping should be limited to 6 m/s at the

design flow.

8.7.1 For preliminary line sizing, use a line velocity of 1 to 1.5 m/s

8.7.2 The pressure drop in the suction piping shall be such as to meet the NPSH

requirements of the boiler feed pumps under all operating conditions,

steady state and transient.

Transient conditions are said to occur when the steam supply to deaerator

is not commensurate with the demand set by the inflows into the deaerator

and the pressure in the deaerator/feed water tank starts decaying as a

result. Such conditions can arise when the steam supply to the deaerator is

cut off or preheating of condensate in the low pressure heaters of the feed

cycle is stopped as might happen on a turbine trip out and turbine bypass

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 13 OF 23

8.7.3 From the point of view of steady conditions, larger suction line sizes lead to

lower line velocities and hence lower friction drops, thus lower improving

NPSH availability. On the other hand, lower line velocities lead to

increased residence time of the fluid in the suction piping and worsen the

NPSH availability under transient conditions. Since the suction strainer

accounts for a higher percentage of the total pressure drop, it is

recommended to install large suction strainers with high straining area/pipe

flow area ratios in order to minimise friction drop. The line sizes may then

be finalised to suit the transient operating conditions.

8.7.4 For optimum designs, the feed water tank elevation and the NPSH

requirements under steady state and transient operating conditions should

be studied in combination with the feed water tank storage capacity and

the suction line size.

8.7.5 When more than one feed pump is designed to be in operation at any time

(parallel operation of pumps), NPSH calculations shall be carried out for

the condition of one of the operating pumps having tripped and the standby

pump having failed to come into service.

8.8.2 For NPSH calculations, consider the maximum flow corresponding to the

capacity of a full open control valve in the pump delivery line.

8.8.3 In the case of more than one pump operating in parallel, NPSH

calculations shall be carried out for the condition of one of the operating

pumps having tripped and the standby having failed to come into service.

8.9.1 The most important consideration is to reduce the pressure drop in the

decantation header to negligible value so as to enable unloading of oil from

all wagons as nearly at an equal rate as possible.

8.9.2 Consider several header sizes and compute the total loss in the header for

each size. Select the size beyond which any increase in header size does

not result in any significant reduction in the pressure drop in the header.

8.9.3 Check the header size selected from the point of view of layout of piping

between wagon outlet and pump inlet. The layout shall be such as to result

in no high points in the system and header to slope towards pump suction.

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8.9.4 Although the flow in the header varies from section to section depending

on the number of wagons contributing to the header flow, adopt a uniform

size for the entire length of the header.

8.10.1 The line size for the delivery piping shall be selected after optimising

the installed cost of piping, valves, pumps and motors and the

pumping cost. Example for optimising pipe size on pump delivery is

given in Appendix-2.

8.10.2 While computing the pumping cost, it should be noted that the pumps

are in intermittent service.

8.11.1 The pressure drop in gas lines is generally large relative to the inlet or source

pressure and for these cases the Darcy equation will not give accurate results.

Weymouth formula, which is derived from isothermal equations, gives more

accurate results since the flow of gases in long pipelines closely approximates

isothermal conditions. The line size of fuel gas piping is done generally using

Weymouth formula.

-8

q’h = 2.61 x 10 * d 2.667 (P’ 1)2 – (P’2)2 * 288 -- Eq.8.1

S

g * Lm T

Where,

q’h - rate of flow in cubic metres per hour at metric standard

conditions

d - internal diameter of pipe, in mm

P’1 - source or inlet pressure in Newtons per square

metre (pascals) absolute

P’2 - terminal pressure in Newton per square metre (pascals)

absolute

S

g - specific gravity of gas relative to air = ratio of molecular

weight of gas to that of air

Lm - length of pipe, in kilometres

T - absolute temperature in kelvins

8.11.3 Gas line velocity to be maintained is indicated in table 6.1. Where the

pressure drop criteria determine the gas line sizing, velocity range closer to

lower limit of 10m/s to be adopted. For other cases, closer to 30m/s can be

maintained to economise the pipe line size.

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temperature variation. Hence, while calculating the gas line velocity average

density of gas to be taken considering the inlet and outlet pressure.

ρ = P’ -- Eq.8.2

RT

Where,

R – Individual gas constant = Ro / M in J/kg K

T --Temperature in Kelvins

Ro = 8314 J/kg-mol K

M -- Molecular weight of gas

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APPENDIX-1

1. PIPE FRICTION DATA FOR CLEAN COMMERICAL STEEL PIPE WITH FLOW IN ZONE

OF COMPLETE TURBULENCE

Friction Factor (fT) 0.027 0.025 0.023 0.022 0.021 0.019

Friction Factor (fT) 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.012

For connecting pipe sizes different from those listed above `K’ factor for valve &

fittings would be as follows:

da 4

Ka = Kb

( ) db

diameter of the connecting pipe

diameter of the pipe for which values of `k’ were

established.

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2. GATE VALVES

Wedge Disc, Double Disc or Plug Type

d1

d2

d2

d1

d2

0

d1

β < 1 and < 45O ……………………… K2 = Formula 5 ( β =

d2 )

β <1 and 45O < < 180 O

……… K2 = Formula 6

d2

d

2

d1

1

K = 100 fT K = 50 fT

for full disc lift = 35 υ for full disc lift = 60 υ

υ = Specific volume)

(υ

4. LIFT CHECK VALVES

β < 1 k2 = Formula 7 β2 υ

(fps) for full disc lift = 40β

K factors for other type of valves refer Appendix-A of ‘Flow of Fluids’ of Crane

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FITTINGS WITH REDUCED PORT

• Formula 1

θ

0.8(sin ) (1 - β 22 ) K1

K2 = 2 =

44

β β44

• Formula 2

θ

0.5(1 - β 22 ) (sin ) K1

K2 = 2 =

44

β β44

• Formula 3

θ

2.6 (sin ) (1 - β 22 ) 22 K1

K2 = 2 =

β44 β44

• Formula 4

(1 - β 22 ) 22 K1

K2 = =

β44 β44

• Formula 5

K1

K2 = + Formula 1 + Formula 3

β44

θ

K1 + sin [0.8(1 - β22 ) + 2.6(1 - β 22 ) 22 ]

K2 = 2

β44

ISSUE

R2

TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: APPENDIX

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 19 OF 23

• Formula 6

K1

K2 = + Formula 2 + Formula 4

β44

θ

K1 + 0.5 sin (I - β 22 ) + (1 - β22 ) 22

K2 = 2

β44

• Formula 7

K1

K2 = + β ( Formula 2 + Formula 4) When θ = 18000

44

β

K1 + β [0.5 (1 - β 22 ) + 2.6(1 - β 22 ) 22 ]

K2 =

β44

d1

β =

d2

( )

2

d1 a1

2

β = =

d2 a2

diameter.

Above formulae and data are taken from “Flow of Fluids” – Crane

(Technical paper No. 410)

Example for calculation of `K’ factor for valves with reduced port is enclosed in

Appendix - 3

ISSUE

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TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: APPENDIX

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 20 OF 23

d2

a2 a1

d1

If: < 45O ……………………. K2 = Formula 1

d2

a1 a2

d1

90O 45O

∝ K

Oo 2 fT

d 15o 4 fT

30o 8 fT

α 45o 15 fT

60o 25 fT

d

75o 40 fT

90o 60 fT

K = 30 fT K = 16 fT

ISSUE

R2

TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: APPENDIX

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 21 OF 23

OR BUTT-WELDING 90o ELBOWS 10. STANDARD TEES

K r/d K

1 20 fT 8 24 fT

1.5 14 fT 10 30 fT

2 12 fT 12 34 fT

3 12 fT 14 38 fT

r 4 14 fT 18 42 fT

6 17 fT 20 50 fT

The resistance co-efficient, KB for pipe bends Flow thru branch…K = 60 fT

other than 90 o may be determined as follows:

K= resistance co-eff.for one 90o bend (per table)

Inward Projecting Flush 0.00 * 0.5

r 0.02 0.28

0.04 0.24

0.06 0.15

d

d

0.10 0.09

0.15 & up 0.04

K= 0.78

. K=0.78 For K, see table * Sharp edged

Projecting Sharp-Edged Rounded

ISSUE

R2

TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: APPENDIX

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 22 OF 23

APPENDIX-2

1.0 DATA

l

(1+z) - 1

2.0 Capitalised Factor (c) = l

z (1+z)

25

(1+0.12) -1

= 25 = 7.843

0.12 (1+0.12)

=

energy cost (E) 75 x p x m

325 x ∆ H x 0.746 x 0.65 x 0.75 x 8760 x 7.843

=

75 x 0.8 x 0.85

= [159226 x ∆ H ]

4.0 CALCULATED ENERGY COST COST EVALUATED

SIZE

MLC E Rs (Lakhs) Rs (Lakhs) COST Rs (Lakhs)

NB 300 10.7 17.03 9.64 26.67

NB 350 6.75 10.75 11.81 22.56

NB 400 3.67 5.84 16.51 22.35

NB 450 2.14 3.4 20.73 24.13

NB 500 1.30 2.07 25.38 27.45

From the above it can be observed that the total evaluated cost for NB 400 is the lowest.

ISSUE

R2

TCE CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED SECTION: APPENDIX

TCE.M6-ME-590-406

DESIGN GUIDE FOR LINE SIZING SHEET 23 OF 23

APPENDIX-3

REDUCED PORT VALVES

152

102

CONNECTING PIPE

0

(6” NB x SH 80)

ID 146 mm

559

d1 102

β = = = 0.69 β2 = 0.48, β4 = 0.23

d2 146

(146-102)

θ 2 44 θ

tan = = ⇒ = 6.17

2 (559-152) 407 2

θ

sin = 0.11

2

K2 = Formula 5

θ

K1+sin [0.8(1-β2)+2.6(1-β2)2]

= 2

β4

8x0.015+0.11 [(0.8x0.52)+2.6(0.52) 2]

=

0.23

= 1.06

ISSUE

R2

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