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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HUE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY
A COURSE OF ENGLISH
FOR STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Course designer: LEÂ THÒ THANH CHI
HUE – 12/2008
English for Specific Purposes
LÔØI MÔÛ ÑAÀU
“A course of English for students of agricultural engineering” là giáo trình tiếng Anh chuyên ngành có thể dùng làm tài liệu giảng dạy hoặc tài liệu tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành cơ điện nông nghiệp, ngành kỹ thuật cơ khí nông nghiệp của trường Đại Học Nông Lâm và Đại Học Sư Phạm (ngành kỹ thuật). Giáo trình này được biên soạn trên cơ sở sinh viên đã học qua chương trình tiếng Anh cơ bản; có vốn kiến thức cơ bản về ngữ pháp tiếng Anh và kiến thức cơ bản về các chuyên ngành liên quan đến cơ điện; sinh viên có nhu cầu phát triển kỹ năng đọc, viết và dịch tiếng Anh chuyên ngành cơ điện nông nghiệp. Do đó mục đích của giáo trình là: Giúp sinh viên làm quen với văn phong tiếng Anh khoa học kỹ thuật. Rèn luyện kỹ năng đọc hiểu các văn bản khoa học. Cung cấp cho sinh viên các từ, thuật ngữ chuyên ngành. Luyện thực hành viết và dịch một số cấu trúc ngữ pháp thường gặp. Với đối tượng của giáo trình là sinh viên năm thứ 3 trường Đại Học Nông Lâm Huế và thời lượng dành cho môn học là 60 tiết (4 đơn vị học trình), giáo trình này gồm 10 units và một số bài đọc thêm. Các bài text được trích dẫn hoặc phỏng theo các tài liệu khoa học nhằm đảm bảo tính xã thực của văn bản. Các bài tập ngữ pháp được biên soạn theo ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản và kết hợp các kiến thức chuyên ngành cơ điện cơ bản mà sinh viên đã được học. Việc biên soạn giáo trình này chắc chắn không tránh khỏi những khiếm khuyết. Chúng tôi mong nhận được góp ý xây dựng của độc giả và người học để giáo trình ngày càng hoàn thiện hơn. Lê Thị Thanh Chi
English for Specific Purposes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Part I: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Unit 1: Engineering – What’s it all about ? ……………… …….4 Unit 2: Engineering Materials ……………………………. …….10 Unit 3: Mechanisms ……………………………………….. …….15 Unit 4: Forces in Engineering …………………………….. …….24 Unit 5: The Electric Motor ………………………………... …….31 Part II: The Agricultural Machinery Unit 6: The Agricultural Tractor ………………………... …….39 Unit 7: Tractor Engines …………………………………... …….50 Unit 8: The Combine Harvester (A) …………………….. Unit 9: The Combine Harvester (B) …………………….. …….59 …….69
Unit 10: Farm Management ………………………………. …….77 Further reading Portable Generator............................................................. Engine Classification ........................................................ Connecting Rods and Crankshaft ..................................... The reel ………………………………………………….. Water Pumping System …………………………………. Mechanization in Sugarcane Production – Development of seed cane planter ……………………… References
English for Specific Purposes
PART I: ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIT 1: Engineering – What’s it all about ?
1. Read the following passage and find out how many branches of engineering are mentioned. Engineering is largely a practical activity. It is about putting ideas into action. Civil engineering is concerned with making bridges, roads, airports, etc. Mechanical engineering deals with the design and manufacture of tools and machines. Electrical engineering is about the generation and distribution of electricity and its many applications. Electronic engineering is concerned with developing components and equipment for communications, computing, and so on. Mechanical engineering includes marine, automobile, aeronautical, heating and ventilating, and others. Electrical engineering includes electricity generating, electrical installation, lighting, etc. Mining and medical engineering belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical. 2. Complete the blanks in this diagram using information from the text.
Engineering 1……… 2……….
3……. Automobile Aeronautical
3. Study these special words. They show some of the areas in which engineers work. Can you identify them? What kinds of engineers are concerned with these areas – electrical, mechanical or both? Beer brewery – planes - super highway – blocks of building – X ray machine Now read the following texts to check your answer. Match each text to one of the word or phrase above. Transport: cars, trains, ships and planes are all products of mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineers are also involved in support services such as roads, rail track, harbours and bridges. Food processing: Mechanical engineers design, develop and make the machines and the processing equipment for harvesting, preparing and preserving the foods and drinks that fill English for Specific Purposes
B table index contents book title manual price list of components college brochure job advertisement 5. In the United Kingdom you can …(1)… engineering at a college of further education or a university. 2. life-support systems. 6. Students / degree / last / years / in / work / end / study / universities / or / but (although) / takes B. heating. Institution of Electronics and Electrical Incorporated Engineers) 4. Building services: Electrical engineers provide all the services we need in our homes and places of work. Language study: deals with / is concerned with What is the link between column A and column B ? English for Specific Purposes 5 http://www. Most college courses …(2)… from one to two years. 4. Compare your answer with your partner. When you read. hospitals.5 the supermarket. 3.ebook. c. X-ray machines. 7. 8. including lighting. A Bachelor‟s degree …(11)… three to four years. Medical engineering: Body scanners. Others will have taken a diploma course at college. Energy and power: Electrical engineers are concerned with the production and distribution of electricity to homes. and the installation and maintenance of the equipment involved in these processes. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. refrigeration. …(5)… day-release courses are available for people who …(6)… in local engineering companies. h. finding a job pricing a component finding out how to do something choosing the best chapter to read looking for specific information on a topic learning about electrical equipment choosing a course looking for a specification a. A college will take …(4)… after four years of secondary school education. industry. Most university students will have completed six …(9)… of secondary school. b. A 1. …(10)… give degrees. Each gap represents one word. A Master‟s …(12)… requires a further year. University undergraduate course …(3)… engineering last from three to four years. Match one purpose to each kind of text. Most students study full-time.edu. and other high-tech equipment result from mechanical and electrical engineers combining with medical experts to convert ideas into life-saving and preserving products. colleges and schools. 5. ventilation. air-conditioning. f.vn . Students will be given a certificate …(7)… a diploma at the …(8)… of their course. g. e. and lifts. Fill in the gaps in this text with the words given below. it is important to have a clear purpose. offices. d. (Source: Adapted from Turning Ideas into Action. Here are some of the purposes you may have for reading the texts. and Engineering a career.
installation 7. We can show the link between them in a number of ways: 1. electronic 10.eer.edu. Look at these words. cables and switch-gear 5.ing Each syllable is pronounced separately. mechanical 4. communication and equipment 6.eer en. 3.ebook. For example: engine engineer engineering en. cars and trucks 9. aeronautical b. Mechanical engineering deals with machines.gine en. ventilation English for Specific Purposes 6 http://www. medical i. Word study: Word stress Words are divided into syllables. roads and bridges 3. air-conditioning 2.gin. marine a. power stations C. Match each item in column A with an appropriate item from column B and link the two in a sentence. Try to mark the stressed syllable. electrical 9. heating and ventilating c. Mechanical engineers deal with machines. civil f. body scanners 4.vn . 4. electronic g. Mechanical engineering is concerned with machines. but normally only one syllable is stressed.gin. 5. A good dictionary will show the stress syllables. Machines are the concern of mechanical engineers. install 6. 2. automobile e. electrical installation h. Column B lists things they are concerned with. 1. electricity generating d. machine 5. A B 1. We say „engine but engin‟eer. aeronautical 2. Mechanical engineers are concerned with machines.6 A mechanical electrical B machines electricity Column A lists a branch of engineering or a type of engineer. electricity 8. planes 8. That means it is said more slowly and clearly than the other syllables. machinery 3. ships 7.
power station: ngành kỹ thuật kỹ thuật dân dụng kỹ thuật cơ khí liên quan đến chuyển ý tưởng thành hành động sản xuất sự phát điện sự phân phối điện năng (thuộc về) hàng hải (thuộc) ngành hàng không sưởi và thông gió chế biến thực phẩm thu hoạch bảo quản bảo dưỡng. (l) By the time he arrived. (e) When I arrived.electricity generation: . (d) I (had) left before he came. (g) When it began to rain. it began to rain.mechanical engineering: . English for Specific Purposes 7 http://www.marine(n.food processing .putting ideas into action: .Engineering (n.0o0 --- LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Using adverb clauses to show time relationships: after before when (a)After she graduates. bảo trì (máy móc) trạm điện năng --. she will get a job. & adj. (k) As I was walking home. (b) After she (had) graduated.7 New words and expressions: .distribution of electricity: . (h) When I was in Chicago. Notice example (b) and (d).ebook. (notice the use of the While.deal with: .vn . I will ask him. (m) By the time he comes. he had already left. she got a job (c) I will leave before he comes.civil engineering: . we had already left. (f) When I got there.manufacture (v. I visited the museum.): .harvesting: .heating and ventilating: . While As By the time (j) While I was walking home.): . he was talking on the phone. it began to rain.): . I stood under a tree.edu.aeronautical(adj. as = during that time When = at that time (notice the different time relationship expressed by the tenses) A present tense. not a future tense is used in an adverb clause of time. (i) When I see him tomorrow.maintenance (n.preserving: . we will already have left.): .): . By the time = one event is completed before another event.
from beginning to end. I __________ to the beach whenever the weather was fine. Tonight I will go to bed after I ______________ my homework. we will leave. (x) I saw two plays the last time I went to New York. I have known Jim Bates since he ___________ ten years old. Jane‟s contact lens popped out while she basketball. We will have a big party when _____________. PRACTICE A. Pay attention to verb tenses. 7. 10. Whenever Mark __________ angry. 9. 5. 12. I‟m going to see a ballet. 4.edu. (p) We stayed there till we finished our work. As soon as. I ___________ here for four months. (v) Every time I see her. (r) Once it stops raining. Complete the following. A black cat ran across the road as I ____________ my car to work this morning. (w) The first time I went to New York. I _________ afraid of dogs. 2. Last night I went to bed after I _________ my homework. I say hello. By the time I leave this city. another event happens soon afterwards. 11. (t) I will never speak to him again so long as I live (u) Whenever I see her. (s) I will never speak to him again as long as I live. English for Specific Purposes 8 http://www. once = when one event happens. Be sure to reread your composition for errors before you __________ it in to the teacher tomorrow. his nose gets red. so long as = during all that time. Since = from that time to the present. (Notice the present perfect is used in the main clause) Until. we will leave. Ever since I was a child. till = to that time and then no longer (till is used primarily in speaking rather than writing) As soon as. 1.ebook. 6. Whenever = every time Adverb clauses can be introduced by the following: first The second time third last next Until till (o) We stayed there until we finished our work. the mail carrier _____ the mail. (y) The next time I go to New York. As soon as Once As long as So long as Whenever Every time The first time The last time The next time (q) As soon as it stops raining. but now I don‟t have time to do that because I have to study. 3. 8. I say hello.8 past perfect and future perfect in the main clause) Since (n) I haven‟t seen him since he left this morning.vn . I went to an opera. By the time I left my apartment this morning.
.................................. 8......... as long as I live............... I had already ................... 7.......edu.... . Pay attention to verb tense usage.............................. I‟m going to visit Mauna Loa... 14............. 2............ The last time I .. Just as I was falling asleep last night ..... Punctuate carefully.............................. when ........9 13.............. The next time I _________ to Hawaii...................................... 1............... B.................................................... I will be here until I ...................... 5.. I had fried chicken the last time I ___________ at that restaurant..... 6............ 3......................... the world largest volcano.......ebook..................o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 9 http://www.......vn ........ Just before I ...... I‟ll help you with your homework as soon as I ... Complete the following sentences.... --......... Whenever ......................... 4...................
ductile. tubing highly conductive. fairly with 0.10 UNIT 2: ENGINEERING MATERIALS A.vn . Brass (65% copper. saws 1. To scan quickly. you move your eyes up and down the columns until you find the word or words you want. 1. cooking utensils. ductile c. Can be work fittings. kitchenware English for Specific Purposes 10 http://www. Scan the table which follows to find a material which is: a.3% malleable. you must learn to ignore any information which will not help you with your task. corrosionresistant. ductile.edu. Thermoplastics ABS High impact strength & toughness. (iron with 0. stiff and brittle i. tough. durable and hard h. With scanning. Can be files. Safety helmets. ship 35% zinc) easily machined. Mild steel (iron High strength. engine components. cannot be hardened and carbon) tempered. tough & ductile. Scanning is the best strategy for finding information in a table. highly Aircraft. taps. it is important to practice reading tables. telephones. Good conductor. ductile and corrosion-resistant j. conductive. soft. tough e. castings. Very malleable. To scan a table. scratch-resistant f. Very corrosion-resistant. Valves. diagrams. car scratch-resistant. Casts well.7% to ductile and malleable. corrosion-resistant foil.ebook. poor corrosion General purpose resistance High carbon steel Hardest of the carbon steels but less Cutting tools such as drills. low cost. Electric wiring. conductive and malleable g.15% to 0. light & durable components. and graphs because so much information is represented in these ways. charts. electrical contacts hardened. malleable d. soft b. heat-resistant and chemical-resistant Materials Metal Aluminium Copper Properties Uses Light. Reading: Scanning tables In engineering.4% carbon) hardened and tempered. PCBs. you know before you read what sort of information you are searching for.
A material suitable for safety helmets g. strong. Adhesive. tough.Bearings.ebook. A plastic for car bodies j. hard. Scan the table to find: a. We can use the relative pronoun which in making definition of something. can Aircraft canopies. Plastics used for adhesives c.11 Materials Acrylic Properties Uses Stiff. hard. A plastic with very low friction f. and a good electrical Electrical fitting. wear-resistant. An alloy suitable for castings e. We can link these facts to make a definition of aluminium: 1+2 Aluminium is a light metal which is used to make aircraft. adhesives insulator Nylon Thermosetting plastics Epoxy resin Polyester resin Urea formaldehyde 2. castings lubricating for power tools High strength when reinforced. A metal suitable for a salt-water environment h. A metal for general construction use but which should be protected from corrosion i. self. clear. gears. boat and car bodies Stiff. Language study: 1. and the which-clause is known as the adjective clause in these cases. A metal used to make aircraft.edu. 2. The metal used for the conductors in printed circuit boards B. Good chemical and heat resistance Moulding. Steel which can be hardened d. encapsulation of good chemical & wear resistance electronic components Stiff. English for Specific Purposes 11 http://www. Choose the correct information in column B and C to describe the materials in column A. very durable. baths. can be formed double glazing easily Hard. Aluminium is used to make aircraft. Making definitions Study these facts from the table about aluminium: Aluminium is a light metal. hard. Use the table above to make definitions of each of the materials in column A. brittle. heatresistant. b. 1. be polished easily. brittle.vn .
allows heat or current to flow easily b. which is light. such as …. Nylon is used for motorized drives in cameras. such as pots. soft. They can be softened and moulded into useful articles.7% to 1.ebook. remains rigid at high temperatures c. Polyester resin is used for boat and car bodies. a thermoplastic 3. ABS is used for safety helmets. contains iron & 0. Note that the extra information is marked with commas or dashes: . becomes plastic when heated f.vn . Add this extra information to the following text about plastics. cylinder heads – and many items for the kitchen. Nylon is self-lubricating. Plastics can be moulded into plates. is used to make aircraft. formed by mixing other metals or elements h. 1. Because it has high impact strength. a thermosetting plastic B C a. and medical aids. 6. 8. Adding information to a text Study this sentence about aluminium Aluminium is used to make aircraft.15% to 0. 4. contains iron & 0. engine components. They have many applications in engineering. 7. high carbon steel 7. and many items for the kitchen. mild steel 4. 9.edu. ABS is a thermoplastic which is tough and durable. . There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. 2. which …. engine components – for example. English for Specific Purposes 12 http://www.for example. Acrylic is a clear thermoplastic. 10.12 A 1. an alloy 2. Polyester resin is hard and has good chemical and heat resistance. … . Thermoplastics soften when heated again and again. a conductor 5. 5. does not allow heat or current to flow easily d.3% carbon g. 3. consists of copper and zinc a metal a material an alloy 2. We can add extra information to the sentence like this: Aluminium. Thermosetting plastics set hard and do not alter if heated again. Acrylic is used for aircraft canopies and double glazing. an insulator 6. brass 8. car components. Plastics are synthetic materials. and ductile.4% carbon e.
salt-water environment: . Word study: Adjective Flexible Light Strong Properties of materials Noun flexibility lightness strength Study these examples of adjective and noun pairs for describing the properties of materials.edu.durable (adj.): dễ kéo sợi.stiff and brittle (adj.): . It is used where silent. Now fill in the gaps in this table with the missing adjectives and nouns Adjective ……….): . low-friction operation is required.circuit board: .): . dễ uốn dễ dát mỏng chống trầy xướt có tính dẫn điện bền cứng và giòn. tough soft rigid wear-resistant ……… hard Noun wind resistance ……… plasticity ……….): .. Acrylic can be formed in several ways.scratch-resistant (adj.corrosion-resistant (adj.friction (n. ……… ………. elastic ……. Nylons is a hard.): . It has a number of useful properties.): .): .13 it has application where sudden loads may occur.ductile (adj. tough thermoplastic. C.. New words and expressions: .malleable (adj.vn . durable. and has many uses. dễ gãy chống ăn mòn (kim loại) lực ma sát môi trường nước mặn bảng điện hợp kim English for Specific Purposes 13 http://www.): . Polyester resin is a thermosetting plastic used for castings.ebook. ……… brittleness ………. It is hard.alloy (n.conductive (adj.
an antibiotic / drug / cures bacterial diseases. an aquarium --. Definition formula: Term = Class + characteristics Example: Chemical energy is potential energy that is stored in gasoline. Which and that are most commonly used in science definitions. geology 6. (Frequently. 1. (term) (class) (characteristics) Relative clauses: A clause is a part of a sentence that contains a noun and a verb. or who. A giraffe is an animal. and it is obvious that the definition for each of the following words and test each one by reversing it. 3. For example. 4. use a dictionary. such as. 2. a diamond 7. cyclotron / apparatus / bombards the nuclei of atoms. and specific characteristics. a camera 2.14 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Using English to define Aristotle suggested that a good definition should include the general classification of a term plus the specific characteristics that differentiate the term from other members of its class. who. For example. an echo 8. lung / organ / breathing. that. we get an animal is an elephant. an x-ray 4. the characteristics appear as a relative clause beginning with which. calorie / unit / measures heat. 6. 7. catalyst / substance / speeds up but is not changed by a chemical reaction.edu. write a definition.ebook. where. photosynthesis / process / plants manufacture food. or where) Chemical energy = potential energy + that is stored in gasoline. An amoeba is a one-celled animal that constantly changes its shape. Formulating definitions: Using the information given in each series. that. food. Science definitions often include relative clauses containing the characteristics that distinguish an item from others in the class. a bridge 3. a butterfly 5. and oil. 5. If you need help. acoustics / science / sound. Creating definitions: A good way to see if the definition is complete is to reverse it. a virus 9. caffeine 10. a definition of a giraffe should include a classification. who is used when referring to people. an amoeba / one-celled animal / constantly change its shape. A giraffe is tall. 1. food and oil.vn English for Specific Purposes 14 . such as. Use the sentence patterns above to guide you. if we reverse an elephant is an animal. 8. A relative clause is one that begins with which.o0o -http://www. African animal with a very long neck.
and rollers involve rotary movement.15 UNIT 3: MECHANISMS A. pendulum 4. They provide the forces to press steel sheets into car body panels. To make our writing effective. 2. foot pump 5. They also make it possible to use escalators and lifts. persuade. How are car body panels formed? 8. Many mechanisms involve changing one kind of motion into another type. and open doors. to force plastic through dies to make pipes. Give an example of a device which can produce a linear movement? 7. Try to ignore any information which will not help you with your task. Move your eyes up and down the text until you find the word or words you want. Linear: The linear movement of a paper trimmer is used to cut the edge of the paper. cam Scan the text opposite quickly to find out which of these mechanisms are 2.ebook. we have to make sure our readers can follow our ideas. we use ideas. we may have to describe. For example. in all these forms of writing. argue. All mechanisms involve some kind of motion. turn taps.edu. Mechanisms play a vital role in industry. Now read the text to find the answer to these questions. explain.vn . while a cam converts the rotary motion of the engine into the reciprocating motion to operate the valves. Language study: 1. Reciprocating: The piston in a combustion engine reciprocates. They allow us to do simple things like switch on lights. 1. 1. What is the function of the crankshaft? 6. Reading: Scanning a text Scanning is the best strategy for searching for specific information in a text. Escalator Mechanisms are an important part of everyday life. The four basic kinds of motion are: Rotary: Wheels. One way of helping our readers is to make the links between the English for Specific Purposes 15 http://www. What does oscillating mean? 3. What does a cam do? 2. the reciprocating motion of a piston is changed into a rotary motion by the crankshaft. tap 3. How are plastic pipes formed? 4. What do mechanisms provide in industry? B. complain. travel in cars and fly from continent to continent. it is still mechanisms that deliver the power to do the work. Ways of linking ideas When we write. While many industrial processes have electronic control systems. Oscillating: The pendulum of a clock oscillates – it swings backwards and forwards. gears. etc. to lift large components from place to place. mentioned 1. What simple mechanisms in the home are mentioned directly or indirectly? 5.
moving stairs 4. Concrete beams have steel rods near the lower surface. escalator g. Friction is a nuisance in an engine. Mechanisms deliver the power to do work. But many terms will be quite different and you may not always remember them. It is used for safety helmets. 3. rotates b. Friction is sometimes a help. Show the links between these sets of ideas using appropriate linking words. sheets h. Match them. in your own language. goes in a line 7. Dealing with technical terms One of the difficult things about the English of engineering is that there are many technical terms to learn. 8.ebook. thin. 6.16 ideas in our writing. Sentence 6 contrasts with sentence 5. Copper is highly conductive. When this happens. 5. It is used for electric wiring. 4. swings backwards and forwards 8. or almost the same. What are the links between these pairs of ideas ? What words can we use to mark the links ? 1. 6. They play a vital role in industry. The foot pump is the class 2 lever. has a linear motion d. The upper surface of a beam is in compression. 7. converts e. We can link 1 and 2 like this: Mechanisms are important to us because/since/as they allow us to travel. It is self-lubricating. We can link 3 and 4 like this: Mechanisms deliver the power to do work so they play a vital role in industry. movement 6. Mass is measured in kilogram. The lower surface is in tension.vn . Concrete is weak in tension. 5. It is often a hindrance. flat pieces 3. 4. Sentence 2 is a reason for sentence 1. you will have to use whatever English you know to make your meaning clear. 2.edu. large. The load is between the effort and the fulcrum. 2. Nylon is used for bearings. motion f. 3. Weight is measured in newtons. They allow us to travel. Newer terms may be the same. goes up and down English for Specific Purposes 16 http://www. therefore they play a vital role in industry. We can link 5 and 6 like this: Friction is sometimes a help but it is often a hindrance. Friction is essential in brakes. Mechanisms deliver the power to do work. goes round and round 5. Sentence 4 is a result of sentence 3. 1. The technical terms in column A are similar in meaning to the more general English in column B. oscillates a. Mechanisms are important to us. 2. A B 1. ABS has high impact strength. reciprocates c. changes 2.
. a spring balance 12.. ……………….. a gas burner 9.17 C. What new relationships can you find in the example below? Rewrite each compound to show the relationship.. …………. steel sheets 2.. …………. ………………. ………………... ………………. a plastic tube 14.. carbon blocks 2. …………. is made of ………………. Word study: Noun and Noun compounds We can use adjectives to describe an object in greater detail. For example: light electric light a motor steel gears an electric motor stainless steel helical gear We can also use nouns. Put each of these examples in the correct column. For example: light laser light a motor steel gears an air motor carbon steel titanium gears Many relationships are possible in noun compounds. a power tool 3... 4. 1. a ball bearing 6. a diesel boat 10. ………………......ebook.. ……………….. For example: an air motor a motor which uses air carbon steel steel which contains carbon titanium gears gears made of titanium 1. ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… contains ………………. carbon fibre 7. a circuit board 13. ………….. magnesium alloy Uses …………… …………. For example: a foot pump a pump which is operated by foot a ribbon cable a cable which is like a ribbon English for Specific Purposes 17 http://www. aluminium alloy 5.. a concrete beam 8.edu.. a plastic pipe 15.. ………….. ………………. roller bearings 11.vn . ………….
ebook.tap (n. disc wheel 3.): .continent (n.vn . College lecturer 7.o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 18 http://www.swing backwards and forwards: .hindrance (n.): .stainless steel: .): .escalator (n. strain gauge a lever for operating gears 6.steel sheet: .industrial processes: .concrete beam: .): .pendulum (n.): .make it possible: .oscillating (n. Safety helmet 10.rotary motion: .): . chain wheel 2. Boiler thermostat 9.edu.play a vital role: .a spring balance: .self-lubricating: con lắc cầu thang cuốn vòi nước trục cam làm cho có thể châu lục đóng/giữ một vai trò quan trọng qui trình công nghiệp hệ thống điều khiển bằng điện tử (chuyển động) dao động (chuyển động) thẳng (chuyển động) tới lui chuyển động quay tấm thép điểm tựa dầm làm bằng bê-tông thép không gỉ cân lò xo đung đưa lui tới trở lực tự bôi trơn --.linear (n.): .cam (camshaft) (n.fulcrum (n.electronic control system: .): . Toe-clip 8. foot brake 4.18 a gear lever 1.): .reciprocating: . a hand throttle 5. Aircraft engineer New words and expressions: .
edu. (not speak quiet) I was disappointed that I did so badly on the test. Why do you always look so serious? She speak perfect English. Comparison Look at these examples: . Adjectives and adverbs Look at these examples: Our vacation was too short – the time passed very quickly. Please be quiet. especially be: something or how something happens: Tom is a careful driver. (not a carefully driver) We didn‟t go out because of the heavy rain. Cheaper and more expensive are comparative forms.) tell us about a about a noun. etc. The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident. It‟s cheaper. Taking the train is more expensive than driving. (= he seemed sad.Don‟t take the train. (= he looked at me in a sad way) C. etc.Should I drive or take a train ? . .ebook. Compare these sentences with look: Tom looked sad when I saw him. I was disappointed that my test results were so bad. Adjective or adverb ? * Adjectives (quickly/careful.) tell us * Adverbs (quickly/carefully. (not did so bad) Why don‟t you ever take me seriously? She speaks English perfectly. After comparatives you can use than: It‟s cheaper to drive than to take a train.You should drive.19 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS A.vn . Tom drove carefully along the narrow road. etc. for example: friendly B. It‟s more expensive. (not drove careful) We didn‟t go out because it was raining heavily (not raining heavy) Please speak quietly. his expression was sad) Tom looked at me sadly. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -ly: quickly seriously lively Not all words ending in –ly are adverbs. We use adjectives before nouns verb. English for Specific Purposes 19 http://www. An adverb tells us how somebody does and after some verbs. Adjective: Adverb: quick serious careful quiet carefully elderly lonely heavy quietly bad heavily silly lovely badly Quickly and seriously are adverbs. * We also use adjectives after the verbs look/feel/sound/taste/smell/seem. Some adjectives end in –ly too.
.. Tom is the same age as Brian..20 The comparative form is –er or more .. three time as . * You can use –er or more .. You can use as . quiet clever narrow shallow The exam was difficult – more difficult than we expected.. I got here as fast as I could. (but not so . Can we go somewhere quieter / more quiet? The adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms: Good/well => betterbad/badly => worse Comparison with as . You can have as much as you want.. I used to play more often. pretty – prettier ... fast – faster. please ? Tom isn‟t as old as he look. We use –er for short words (one syllable): cheap –cheaper. for longer words (two syllables or more): more serious..) in positive sentences and questions: Example: I‟m sorry I‟m late. http://www.. The exam was easy – easier than we expected.. but it isn‟t so cold as yesterday. (= It wasn‟t as crowded as usual. (than) is similar to not as . more quietly...You‟re more patient than me... There‟s plenty of food.. more expensive We also use –er for two syllable words that We use more.) It‟s not warm. early – earlier. (= Tom is older than he is. (as): I spent less money than you. Can you send me the money as soon as possible.ebook. etc.vn far => farther/further English for Specific Purposes 20 ....) You can also use twice as . as ..edu... Can you walk a little more slowly ? I‟d like to have a more reliable car.. Gas is twice expensive as it was a few years ago. as. Less . for adverbs that end in –ly: more slowly.. end in –y (-y => -ier) more carefully lucky – luckier. as . Or Ann makes the same salary as me.. as. easy – easier. We say the same as (not the same like): Ann‟s salary is the same as mine.. large – larger We use more . with some two-syllable adjectives. ( = I didn‟t spend as much money as you.... you‟re older than me.... more often. Last night I went to bed earlier than usual. Their house is about three times as big as ours. especially: simple Example: It‟s too noisy here. Can you walk a little faster ? I‟d like to have a bigger car. I don‟t play tennis much these days.as. more seriously..) The shopping mall was less crowded than usual.
There was a ___________ change in the weather. (colorful/colorfully) 7. It doesn‟t look _________. English for Specific Purposes 21 easy – easiest hard – hardest most expensive most boring most difficult http://www. I think you behaved very _____________. They‟re _____________ made (bad/badly) 9. (terrible/terribly) 4. That was the most boring movie I‟ve ever seen. Linda likes wearing _____________ clothes.. Put in the right word. we use –est for short words and most for longer words.These pants started coming apart after I wore them only once. He arrived unex______________. (serious/seriously) 2.) long – longest hot – hottest but most famous good – best These adjectives are irregular: bad – worst far – farthest/furthest We normally use the before a superlative (the longest / the most famous. She fell and hurt herself quite _____________.edu. Everybody at the party was ___________ dressed. (sudden/suddenly) 5.ebook. (safe/safely) 10. 2. Don‟t go up that ladder..vn . He looked at me _____________ when I interrupted him. 5. It was one of the nicest in the hotel. (colorful/colorfully) 6.) Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. (bad/badly) 8. (not of the hotel) ________________________ PRACTICE I. We didn‟t go out because it was raining h___________. II. We waited pat_______. Our team lost the game because we played very ba___________. Superlatives. 1. The superlative form is –est or most . (angry/angrily) III. 1. In general. etc. Nobody knew Steve was coming to see us. 4. but we didn‟t complain. Complete the sentences with adverbs.) What is the longest river in the world? (not of the world) We had a great room. Why does he always come to see me at the worst possible moment ? After superlative we use in with places (town. Rewrite these sentences so that they have the same meaning. (The rules are the same as those for the comparative. I found an apartment quite ea________. The first letters of each adverb are given. etc. The driver of the car was _____________ injured. buildings.21 D. 3. (selfish/selfishly) 3. Kelly is _____________ upset about losing her job. 6. Mike stays in shape by playing tennis reg__________. We had to wait for a long time. I had no trouble finding a place to live.
....... He‟s a very rich man.................. (cheap) 2..............) or a comparative (-er or more ....... It‟s a very good college............. 3......... the gallery............................ The station was nearer than I thought........ 1........... There were fewer people at this meeting than at the last one............. The United State is very large. 4............................................. He ... You and I both have dark brown hair... Sally and Kate are both 22 years old.... Your hair .edu..... I .............. My ...... Tom‟s birthday is April 5................ You don‟t ................................. My birthday is April 5. 5... It‟s one ..... I arrived at 10...... Jack isn‟t . It .. 6...................... Her hair isn‟t as long as it used to be................ It was ..... I go out less than I used to.. It‟s ................ 1. 3........) 1.. Sally is ...............................vn ........... than all the other hotels in the town. Complete the sentences....... the world....................... It ............................ There weren‟t ....... He‟s a very dangerous criminal............... my life......... The station wasn‟t .. 4....................................... the year...................... You ...... Jack is younger than he looks............................ 4. She‟s a very intelligent student... We stayed at ...... (large) English for Specific Purposes 22 http://www.. It‟s a very nice room....................................................................25 and so did you.....22 1....cheaper.. It was a very bad experience........ It‟s a very cheap restaurant........... She used to .................................................................. 5... It .............. 3....................................ebook........ 7................... hotel in town........... I don‟t ..................... (cheap) 3.......... Use a superlative (-est or most ... 2................ the hotel....... my life........ 2.............. It‟s a very valuable painting.. Use a superlative (-est or most ...... the country... Write sentences using the same as............... the town......... but Canada is ________________.. He‟s one of ... 8..... 7................................... I know them better than you do....) + a preposition........... VI.......... She . IV.... Complete the sentences .......... I didn‟t spend as much money as you.................... V.............the cheapest............. 10.......... It‟s a very happy day.... too..... Spring is a very busy time for me... the state.. the class... 6........ 2..... It‟s ....... 9. Our hotel was .....
It was an awful day. It was ______________ days of my life. but he looks ___________ today. ______________ is 14 years old. (enjoyable) 10. What‟s _______________ river in the world ? (long) 5. We had a great vacation. (high) 9. (comfortable) 11. I prefer this chair to the other one. Everest is _______________ mountain in the world.o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 23 http://www. and Mrs. (happy) 6.vn .edu. (old) --.23 4. He was a little depressed yesterday. It‟s _________________. (bad) 7. It is ___________ than any other mountain. What is _____________ sport in your country ? (popular) 8. What‟s ______________ way of getting from here to the bus station? (quick) 12.ebook. It was one of the _____________ vacation we‟ve ever had. Mr. Brown have three daughters.
That is the gravity force. Here are some of the words it contains. so the magnitude of B and W must be the same. Mass is measured in kilograms. Since the ship is in equilibrium. we must look at the forces on the ship (Fig.edu. This property provides a way of measuring force. Friction is a help in some circumstances but a hindrance in others. Firstly. The text you are going to read is called Forces in Engineering. W. Do not start to read a text immediately. being a force. acts upwards. equals the weight of the block. acts downwards. R. One way to help you reading is to think about the words which might appear in the text. whereas weight.1).vn . F1. B. The buoyancy force. Which words might appear in a text with the title Forces in Engineering ? 1. Forces in engineering To solve the ship problem. Another very important force in engineering is the one caused by elasticity. there is its weight. then there is the reaction.ebook. Springs exert more force the more they are stretched. is measured in newtons. It is the friction force. The weight on the balance pulls the spring down. The block in Fig. normal to the plane. R and W have a resultant force trying to pull the box down the slope. A good example of this is a spring. and gravity. the spring pulls up to oppose that weight. It is important to get the distinction between mass and weight absolutely clear.2 has a weight of 10 newtons. it is important to think about what you are going to read before you read. Reading: Predicting As you learn in unit 1. Weight is the force on that object due to gravity. the unit of force. W. Mass is the quantity of matter in an object. and that is friction. The weight. The title might help to focus your thoughts. the gravity force. We have looked at the buoyancy.24 UNIT 4: FORCES IN ENGINEERING A. Let us examine the forces on the box (Fig. To give equilibrium. Use the information in the text to check the explanation you made above. F. English for Specific Purposes 24 http://www. A spring balance can be calibrated in newtons. elasticity. that stop it sliding down. There is a fourth force important in engineering. Can you explain the links between each word and the title of the text? weight magnitude buoyancy resultant equilibrium Newton elasticity gravity Now read the text.3). acting up the slope. This upward force. W. the resultant force is zero.
Springs exerts more force the more they are stretched.vn . A word replaces a whole sentence or clauses. Apply a gradually increasing force to the balance. This property provides a way of measuring force. Pull the block along so that it moves at a steady speed. Engineers reduce friction by using very highly polished materials and by lubricating their surfaces with oil and grease. 5. In this extract. Note the force required to maintain movement. A good example of this is a spring. Springs exerts more force the more they are stretched becomes this property With which earlier expressions do the words in italics link ? Join them as in the example above. Note the force at which the block just begins to move. They also use ball bearings and roller bearings because rolling objects cause less friction than sliding ones. Language study: 1. Attach a spring balance to one end of the block. Larkin and L. Another very important force in engineering is the one caused by elasticity.ebook. A word replaces an earlier expression. note how each expression in italics links with an earlier expression. Grammar links in texts One of the ways in which sentences in a text are held together is by grammar links. A repeated noun becomes a pronoun. 4. The Penguin Book of the Physical World) 2. 1. 2. Springs becomes they. Sometimes these links cause problems for readers because they cannot make the right connection between words in different parts of a text Study these common grammar links: 1.25 B. 3.edu. 2. 3. English for Specific Purposes 25 http://www. 6. Friction in machine is destructive and wasteful. It causes the moving parts to wear and it produces heat where it is not wanted. The present passive: Study these instructions for a simple experiment on friction. Bernbaun (eds. Forces in engineering becomes one. (Source: S.). Place a block of wood on a flat surface.
lực nổi lực đàn hồi sự cân bằng lực trọng trường lực tương đương.. conduct 8. A block of wood …1… on a flat surface.buoyancy force: . Complete the blanks. A spring balance is attached to one end of the block.o0o --- New words and expressions: . Exchanger …………. control B.calibrated (adj. 3.resultant force: .): . (This experiment show that the force required to overcome static friction is greater than the force required to overcome sliding friction) C. We form the present passive using is/are + past participle Complete this description of the experiment using the present passive. Nouns …………. được xác định sự khác biệt dốc --. A gradually increasing force …3… to the balance. The force required to maintain movement …6… The two forces …7… It is found that the first force is greater than the second..): . 9.): English for Specific Purposes 26 http://www.): . Use a dictionary to check any spellings which you are not certain about.ebook. we write: A block of wood is placed on a flat surface. Compare the two forces. radiate 10. Word study: Verbs and related nouns Each of the verb in column A has a related noun ending in –er or –or in column B. A spring balance …2… to one end of the block.gravity (n. The force at which the block just begins to move …4… The block …5… along at a steady speed. ………. resist 5.elasticity force: .vn .): . 6. ………….slope (n..refrigerator (a noun) A. …………. charger ………….edu. This description uses the present passive.distinction (n. When we describe this experiment. For example: refrigerate (a verb) . evaporator …………. ………. ………. …………. generate 7.26 7. tổng lực được chuẩn hóa. compress 4..equilibrium (n. Verbs 1. condense 2.
Emma phoned somebody. wants to play soccer. and plural subjects take plural verbs. A verb must match its subject in number..vn . Basic Subject-Verb Agreement My friend is/was/has/does .. we use did: Did you sell your car? How did the accident happen? But do not use do/does/did if who/what / which is the subject of the sentence. along with his students. we usually put the first auxiliary verb (AV) before the subject (S).. My friends are/were/have/do . When the subject and verb are split: The teacher.. Frequently Asked Question Typed A.edu.What happened to you last night? (not what did happen) . we use do/does: Do you live near here? What time does the movie begin? In simple past questions. => => Who did Emma phone? Who phoned Emma? More examples: .ebook. ? Who do you want to speak to? Which job has Jane applied for? What was the weather like yesterday? Where are you from? Subject –Verb Agreement. English for Specific Purposes 27 http://www. Somebody phoned Emma.Who wants something to eat? (not who does want) .Which bus goes downtown? (not which bus does go) Note the position of prepositions in questions beginning Who/What/Which/Where .. S + AV AV + S Will Tom be here tomorrow? Have you been working hard? What can I do for you? Tom will => Will Tom? You have => Have you? I can => Can I? The house was => was the house? When was the house built? In simple present questions.27 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Making Questions In questions. singular subjects take singular verbs. The institute that helps them is financially supported by the government..
..... Not only John but his parents want to help us.. B.. http://www.. ........ ----------------------------------------- PRACTICE I... A number of my friends are from China.. (how long / married?)........ the noun in the of-phrase determines the number of the verb... Either he or his pupils are going to help us... a group of.....In Vancouver......... 3.................(where / from?) . (where /live / now?).......... .. Several cars were damaged in the accident. English for Specific Purposes 28 .. (look at his answers before you write the questions) 1. 4.... a number of...... F..vn ..... Mathematics is my favorite subject.. etc.28 The instructor. both.ebook. etc.... distance.edu... G.. or not only A but (also) B. Ten dollars is too much for a drink..... . the verb must agree with B in number... more than one. and weight.. C..From Toronto originally.. Physics has been studied for many centuries... When the subject is an expression of time.. Note: When these expressions initiate a subject..... a couple of.. Two-thirds of them are students...... a few..... When a subject consists of a proper noun or a branch of learning ending in -s: The United State has a population of over 265 million people. Twenty miles is too long a way to walk in a day. has welcomed the school‟s decision of the uniform...... price. (married?). Twenty minutes is not enough time for me to get there.. E...... many a..Twelve years....... Note: In these cases...... When a subject begins with either A or B. More than one person has applied for that position... When a subject contains expressions like every.. Ask Joe questions...... D. as well as his students... Every girl and boy was upset because of the outcome. When a fraction or its equivalent initiates a subject: Two-thirds of the land has been sold. several.... Note: The number of a subject is not affected by a phrase or clause that separates the subject from its verb...Yes.... neither A nor B... 2....... each............ Many countries have joined the European Union..... When a subject contains expressions like many of.
.. Not only the teacher but the students __________ opposed to the new uniforms.......... (what / wife / do?). 4... D...... ...... is B.. Each book _________ unique illustrations.................. Two thirds of the land __________ already been sold... 4. . were B............ will D. or shapes............................ are .......... A......... Something happened..... III.... Choose the best word or phrase that best completes the sentence. is A.They‟re 4...... Am C....................... ..................... have D..... 8........... quantities.... 3.... ......................... are D.. Make questions with who or what... is C.... haves D.. having C........ 10...... very much........... 1.............. The people _________ lining up to get on the train........ (children?)... 5... together with his crew members......... ________ cats as faithful as dogs? A.... ........ is B.......... Something fell on the floor.. be A.................. was D..........................Yes........... has B.............. was A. . 5......... has C....... ................ 7... will A................ Each of our products ___________ guaranteed for sixty years. ...................... 8.... become D............ is B... 6.... 6.... is B...................... 9...... be A.......... are C......... 1.. 7..... three boys.... 7...... II.......... I borrowed the money from somebody............ Is B.... is being 6.. Mathematics ________ the study of numbers.... ....... Be A.. ..................... (how old / they?)...... I fell over something............... 3.... I‟m worried about something.. .... Are D.... to be B......... 2.... has C..... 9..She‟s a police officer. ... The book belongs to somebody...............ebook....... is being 2............................. and 9......... 7.. are B... becomes D....................... The captain...........vn ...................... English for Specific Purposes 29 http://www......... are C...... Diane told me something........... _________ struggling to control the ship........Yes............................. A number of researchers ___________ expected to attend the conference...... have A........29 5............... Somebody gave me the key.. ......... 8................ This word means something..... Somebody lives in that house.....edu... gets C... (she / like her job?).... are C..............................
by C. takes C. he __________ arrived by now. take D. do D. Three hours ___________ too short a time for us to talk about this matter. to 11.vn . have B. to be C. are B. were wearing D. for --------------------------------------- English for Specific Purposes 30 http://www.ebook. would have D. B. are D. had C. 15. was wear A. 14. has A. which ______ not a small amount of money.edu. There were plenty of people who _________ black. wearing C.30 10. Could you __________ me a big favor? 12. was wearing B. otherwise. is A. offer A. 13. is D. A. with B. His daughter is married __________ a doctor. make B. He must have missed the train. work C. be A. He is earning ten dollars an hour.
The armature Paragraph 1 ……… ……… ………. which can run on direct current or alternating current. like poles – for example. Once again the attraction and repulsion between it and the field magnet make it turn. Currents flow to and from the commutator through small carbon blocks called brushes. and then the other. As a result. When electricity flows around the armature wire. As the armature turns. It is a universal motor. like the one showed in Fig. one end becomes a north pole and the other a south pole. The motor shows in Fig. and unlike poles attract each other. depending on which way the current is flowing around the loop (see Figure 1). called an armature. Then the current is reversed so the north pole of the armature magnet becomes the south pole.vn . If you put two magnets close together. Electromagnets e. In a simple electric motor. so the direction of the current keeps being reversed. known as the field magnet. depending on your reading purpose. the iron becomes an electromagnet (see Figure 2). It is called an electromagnet. A electric current running through a wire produces a magnetic field around the wire. If an electric current flows around a loop of wire with a bar of iron through it. two north poles – repel each other. a. 1 is for a washing machine. Reading: Skimming In Unit 2 you studied scanning – locating specific information quickly. Why the armature turns d. The commutator c. ……… In an electric motor. This can drive all sorts of machines. ………. You can then decide which parts of the text are worth reading in more detail later. and therefore its magnetic poles keeps being reversed. The armature continues turning as long as the direction of the current. its north pole is close to the south pole of the field magnet. English for Specific Purposes 31 http://www. 2. first one half of the commutator comes into contact with the brush delivering the current. This strategy is called skimming. an electric current and magnetic field produce a turning movement.edu. Effect of putting magnets together f. What electric motors are used for b. The first one has been done for you.31 UNIT 5: THE ELECTRIC MOTOR A. the iron becomes magnetized. Another useful strategy is reading a text quickly to get a general idea of the kind of information it contains. The attraction and repulsion between the pole of this armature magnet and the poles of the field magnet make the armature turn. the ends of the armature wire are connected to different halves of a split ring called a commutator. is placed between the north and south poles of a stationary magnet.ebook. from wrist-watches to trains. To reverse the direction of the current. Skim this text and identify the paragraphs which contain information on each of these topics. 1. a piece of iron with loops of wire round it.
One of the description does not match any of the diagrams. b.(The diagrams are in the correct sequence. Then electric contact is broken because of the gap in the commutator. Its north pole is attracted by the south pole and repelled by the north pole of the field magnet. Match each of these diagrams with the correct description a. English for Specific Purposes 32 http://www. c. the magnetic poles in the armature change while those of the field magnet remain constant. the armature becomes an electromagnet.32 (Source: adapted from „Inside out: Electric Motor‟. When an universal motor is run on direct current. but the armature keeps turning because there is nothing to stop it. c or d. Education Guadian) 2. When the current flows.edu.ebook. b.vn . but the descriptions are not.) a. The armature turn a quarter of a turn.
transfer rotation from the motor.33 d. Current is supplied to the motor through carbon blocks called brushes.vn . Match each of these motor components to its function. dismantle a piece of equipment into its main parts. Describing components Now study this description of the motor A simple dc motor consists of a field magnet and an armature. The loop is connected to the commutator. We can describe the function of an electric motor in this way: An electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. To write a description. When the commutator comes back into contact with the brushes. drive shaft 6. Describing function Try to answer this question: „What does an electric motor do ?‟ When we answer a question like this.ebook. converts electromagnetic energy to rotation d. armature 2. brushes 4. Its poles are reversed and the turn continues. bearings 3. field windings Function a. we describe the function of something. you need to use language to: 1. create an electromagnet field c. Component 1. We can emphasize the function like this: The function of an electric motor is to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. supply current to the armature 2. Language study: 1. b. current flows through the armature in the opposite direction.edu. support the drive shaft f. and then describe its function in a sentence. The armature is made up of a loop of wire and a split ring known as a commutator. The armature is placed between the poles of the magnet. reverses the current to the armature e. commutator 5. B. These expression will help: AA consists of Is made up of Is composed of X and Y English for Specific Purposes 33 http://www.
): .direct current: . In areas where the power supply fluctuates. Word study: Verbs with –ize /-ise Study these statement: The rotor is magnetized. What does it mean? Can you say it another way? We can rewrite this statement as: The rotor is made magnetic. The former ……. for sensitive equipment a device to make the voltage stable is required.attract (v. Of two coils. The coils ……… of a number of loops of wire.armature (n. New words and expressions: . 1. Some cars are fitted with a security device which makes the engine immobile. Manufacturers seek to keep costs to a minimum and profits to a maximum. a primary and a secondary. 2. Companies may make their operation more rational by reducing the variety of products they make. U.alternating current: . locate components: The armature is placed between the poles.carbon blocks / brushes: cổ ghóp lõi sắt.ebook. C.): . 3. Use the following words to complete the text: Are made up / is placed / is composed / consists A transformer ………. 4. 4.): .vn .o0o --34 English for Specific Purposes http://www.and T.34 2.a loop of wire: .electromagnet (n. connect components: The loop is connected to the commutator.. name components: Carbon blocks known as called brushes.edu. Verbs ending in –ize / -ise have a range of meanings with the general sense of „make + adjective‟ Rewrite these sentences replacing the phrases in italics with appropriate –ize/-ise.commutator (n. 3.): .): .repel (v. on the leg of the T. Most companies have installed computers to control their production line.shaped pieces are used. 5.the direction of the current: . The coils are wound on a former which is mounted on a core. phần ứng nam châm điện từ trường dòng điện một chiều dòng điện xoay chiều cuộn dây điện đẩy hút chiều dòng điện chổi than --.magnetic field: . The core ……… of thin pieces of soft iron.
The electric current is fed to the output terminals or sockets. is in a fixed position and shaped like a broad ring. It is started by pulling a cord. when the piston descends. The cycle is completed by the exhaust stroke. What is the function of the crankshaft? 5. the air inlet valve opens and a mixture of air and petrol is sucked in through a carburetor. One set. What are its main parts? 2. The crankshaft extends directly to an alternator. This mini-explosion pushes the piston back down. The rotor makes about 3. What are the four strokes called? 4. electricity generators can be small enough to hold in the hand. What do both stator and rotor have? 6.vn English for Specific Purposes 35 . the armature windings. Education Guardian) Questions: 1. The valve closes. The engine runs on petrol. What does the engine run on? 3. the piston rises on the compression stroke and a spark within the upper chamber ignites the mixture. and some domestic appliances. Nowadays. The piston ascends on the compression stroke with both valves closed and ignition takes place at the top of the stroke. which consists of two main sets of windings – coils of insulated copper wire wound closely around an iron core. The rotor is magnetized and as it spins round. The gas generated by the burning fuel expands rapidly. is wound on the rotor which is fixed to the rotating crankshaft. and an alternator. and as it rises again the fumes formed by the ignition are forced out through the exhaust valve. The power or expansion stroke follows.ebook. Portable generators are made up of two main parts: an engine. forcing the products of combustion out through the exhaust valve. the piston descends on the intake stroke. Larger versions provide emergency power to hospitals and factories. This creates a spark inside which ignites the fuel mixture.edu. driving the piston down. What is the difference between stator and rotor? http://www. as the piston ascends once more.000 revolutions per minute. during which the inlet valve is open. In a typical four-stroke engine. which powers the equipment. (Source: Adapted from „Inside out: Portable generator‟. both valves remaining closed. The four-stroke cycle In the four-stroke cycle. This cycle is repeated many times per second. television. This type of generator can produce a 700 watt output. The moving piston makes the crankshaft rotate at great speed.35 Further reading: Portable generator Although most electricity comes from power stations. which convert motion into electricity. power can also be generated by far smaller means. The other set. enough to operate lights. called stator windings. The cycle then repeats itself. electricity is generated in the stator windings through the process of electromagnetic induction.
allow them to do it. hear. smell. regret. deny. hate. His manager allowed him to go home. Gerunds: A gerund is the –ing form of a verb. stop. and it remained on) I forgot turning the light off.ebook. continue. enjoy. allow. I forgot to turn the light off. Use objective case pronouns with an infinitive. decide. The following common verbs allow both a to-infinitive form and an –ing form. He let Tom go home. approve of. mind. like. see. I forgot that I had done that. complain about. Use an –ing form after the following common verbs: avoid. A. pretend. English for Specific Purposes 36 http://www. care about. (= I didn‟t turn it off. B. tell. Use a to-infinitive after the following common verbs plus their object: advise. feel like. concentrate on. start. Choosing Subjects A. love. However. Use a to-infinitive after the following common verbs: agree. prefer. regret. Use a possessive pronoun with a gerund. confess to. stand/can‟t stand. force.36 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Gerunds and Infinitives Infinitives: An infinitive is the base form of a verb with to preceding it. He denies eating the cake. He dreamt about eating a hamburger. expect him to help her. imagine. forbid. C. make. expect. They are: attempt. expect. happen. tend. He hates to run. The following common verbs allow both a to-infinitive form and an –ing form. give up.) Note: The choice of a to-infinitive or an –ing form depends on the meaning. forget. It is used as a noun. can‟t help. want. let him go. find. Choosing Between Infinitives and Gerunds A gerund is always used when a verb is followed by a preposition: admit to. Use an infinitive without to after the common following verbs plus their object: have. promise. argue about. He decided to go home. neglect. let. begin. believe in. feel. He hates running. (= I actually turned it off. postpone. Sentences with either form will have the same meaning.edu. They apologized for being late. manage.vn . B. try. their meanings are different in each case: remember.
will move D. buy A. (waiting) 5. They can‟t afford _________ out very often. so we decided __________ for a walk. When I‟m tired. 6.vn . I would like ___________ by your office on my way home. will want D. to-infinitive or –ing form. (bark) 8. wants B. There was a lot of traffic.37 enjoy their singing. I seldom forget __________ my teeth before going to bed. We‟ve got a new computer in our office. to stand C. I haven‟t learned how _____ it yet. Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentences.edu. They are considering __________ to Atlanta. dropping C. I wish that dog would stop _________. Nobody dared ________ anything. (have) II. buying C. (say) 10. we can easily watch the airplanes __________off. to want C. to brush B. 1. mind my smoking. (go) 3. brushed D. It was a nice day. stood 2. They politely asked me ___________ in another place. 5. Some more verbs followed by –ing finish avoid consider involve quit postpone deny risk practice Some more verbs followed by to-infinitive admit miss offer decide hope deserve attempt mean delay imagine promise agree plan aim afford manage intend threaten refuse arrange learn need fail -----------------------------------------------------PRACTICE I. Who does she ________ to take care of her ? A. I enjoyed ___________ TV. I can‟t afford _________ a new car. so I suggested _________ dinner early. (watch) 2. It‟s driving me crazy. (use) 7. bought D. I‟m not in a hurry. 1. will drop D. English for Specific Purposes 37 http://www. brush A. drop A. to move B. but we managed _________ to the airport in time. It‟s relaxing. to buy B. We were hungry. I don‟t mind __________. (go) 6. Since we live by an airport. They don‟t have much money. move A. brushing C. 4. standing D. 7. moving C. (call) 9. to drop B. want A. Our neighbor threatened _________ the police if we didn‟t stop the noise. (get) 4.ebook. We were all afraid to speak. Put the verb into the correct form. stand B. 3.
discuss A. Now we are going to _____________ about our plans for next year. say A. allow A.edu. Nobody is opposed __________ your suggestion. Mother ___________ me clean the floor with a mop. to D. tell B.ebook. hear A. to allow B. deformed C. heard C. told D. at B. allowing C. Please keep me __________ as to his whereabouts. have heard D. will take D. forced C. will drive D. to drive B. My son is not very good at _________ yet. They were heard ___________ goodbye to their friends. drive A. hearing B. interred A. with 8. 11. 15. take A. talk C. 9.vn . on ---. be saying D. informed B. 13. 10. saying B.o0o ---- C. 12. reformed D. We think __________ him to have access to the Internet is a bad idea. made B. allowance D. be taking C. 14.38 A. say D. got A. English for Specific Purposes 38 http://www. said C. I‟m looking forward to __________ from you soon. driving C. to take B.
vn .39 PART II: THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY …………………………………………………………………………………. A tractor can do the work of numerous horses. 2 This power is being used to produce food for the nations of the world and there is no more important task than this. such as drilling seed. Unit 6: General THE AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR 1 The importance of agricultural tractors in the world today should never be underestimated. 1) 7 These tractors are sometimes referred to as “crawlers” and are usually tractors with a large horse-power and capable of doing very heavy work. of course. 3 As more and more food production is required to feed the ever-increasing world population. say. a great amount of progress has been made in developing a machine capable of operating efficiently a very wide range of implements and machines. and do this work in the same time. and no longer run in the furrow when ploughing. there is a very small track-laying tractor of no more than 6 h. and of man. Heavy Wheeled Tractors 8 Not only track-laying tractors are used for the heavy work on farms. but it is not unusual for tractors to work around the clock when relief drivers are available. Tractor Types 4 The present-day tractor is a most useful machine.edu. therefore the tractor is designed to be able to do this task whilst at the same time being amply powered for the many other field tasks it is required to do. capable of supplying its power to numerous farm tasks. 6 The type of tractor used on the land depends on the type of work to be done. etc. but run on top in the same way as a crawler tractor. top dressing. On the other hand. haulage. Great areas of land will yet be brought into food production and the tractor will supply the necessary power for the work. without having to be rested to recover from fatigue. The driver. Very large fourwheel-drive tractors are now common which are capable of pulling up to twelve furrow ploughs with engines of up to 500 h. Provided reasonable attention is given to its lubrication and it is kept supplied with fuels. Yet. These large tractors may be equipped with twin wheels all round. They also carry out very heavy cultivation. spraying. the last 20 years. Track-Laying Tractors (Fig. for the many heavy and time-consuming tasks carried out on land. The most power absorbing of these tasks is usually the basic cultivation of land. and in particular during. Many devices have been incorporated in the mechanism of the tractor for this purpose.or six.p. the numbers of tractors used will increase to meet the demand.furrow plough or for heavy cultivation. English for Specific Purposes 39 http://www..ebook. will require his rest. it will work on indefinitely. 5 During the years since the First World War. they may be used for pulling a five. (horse-power) which is used for work on market gardens.p. On farms. They provide a great source of power which has almost entirely replaced the power of horse.
11 Most tractors nowadays are powered by internal combustion engines. General-purpose Tractors (Fig. 2. A track-laying tractor. although they may vary slightly between one make and another as regards detail of construction.vn .ebook.2) 9 The general-purpose tractor is a wheeled tractor and the lighter type may be powered by an engine of about 40 h.p. Either one or both of these types may be used on most farms and they are the most common type used today. Fig.edu.p. English for Specific Purposes 40 http://www. A General-purpose tractor Two-wheeled Tractors 10 Another type of tractor to be found on many small holdings and market gardens is the hand-operated.1. This type is powerful enough to do light cultivation and is steered by a walking operator. which. whilst the other type may have an engine of 100 h.40 Fig. operate on the same basic principles.
Which farm task uses most tractor power? 5.41 The Internal Combustion Engine 12 The tractor‟s power is used for doing work in the field and also for driving stationary machines. . VOCABULARY: In this section you should use your dictionary to help you answer the questions about the text. Pergamon Press I. The power unit must be considered first. Where is the smallest track-laying tractor used? 7. Why will the number of tractors increase? 4. produced by the burning of fuel within the engine. What words have the same meaning as: taking a lot of time. Different types of fuel are used in the different types of tractor engines but this does not alter the basic operation. Then answer the following questions: 1. Which is the commonest type of tractor? 9. COMPREHENSION CHECK: Now read the text carefully. 1. 14 In any internal combustion engine there are a number of essential parts which are so arranged that a basic series of events occur. 13 The power. What does the tractor need to work on indefinitely? 3. What source of power have tractors largely replaced? 2.vn . Basic Farm Machinery. What does the internal combustion engine change? II. looking up any new items in a dictionary or reference book. and diesel fuel is used in compression ignition engines. This series of events is usually known as the operating cycle and most tractor engines operate on what is known as the four-stroke cycle. The fuels used are petrol or propane for spark ignition. is changed into mechanical energy. How are most tractors powered? 10. is transmitted through various mechanisms until it reaches the rear wheels which rotate. This text was taken from SHIPPEN et al. tiredness get better thought too little of completely without any time limit English for Specific Purposes 41 http://www. What do heavy wheeled tractors and track-laying tractors have in common? 8.ebook. These mechanisms will be explained in later chapters. which is produced by the engine. Look at paragraphs 1 -3 again.edu. On what basis is the type of tractor chosen for use? 6. 15 The internal combustion engine is a form of heat engine and the name “heat engine” is given to it because heat energy.
15 again. Look at paragraphs 12 .g. Can you explain the words: heavy cultivation market garden 4. Look at paragraph 10 .11 again. Which words correspond to the definitions: general laws shown in the working of machines direct the course of a machine a small area of land usually farmed by the owner or tenant himself a little bit 7. Look at paragraph 7 again.vn . What words have the opposite meaning to : unable to not enough taken out of 3. Look at paragraph 9 again.6 again. English for Specific Purposes 42 http://www. Look at this table: Tractor system hydraulic system rear power take-off shaft drawbar General purpose tractor Function raises and lowers implements. Can you explain the words: plough furrow 5.ebook.g.edu.42 a great many 2. seeders and sprayers pulls trailers and implements. GRAMMAR: 1. Look at paragraphs 4 . The rear power take-off shaft is used for driving implements. What words have the same meaning as: sent through change turn in a circle not moving III. e. What word has the opposite meaning to: heavier 6. controls depths of ploughs and harrows drives implements e. Look at paragraph 8 again. harvesters Now look at the following sentences and answer the questions: The rear power take-off shaft drives implements.
.... Active We improve the fertility of the soil. The fruit encloses the seeds.. whereas the harrow . For this purpose the hydraulic system is used. whereas ..... a) What is the hydraulic system used for? b) What is the function of the draw-bar? 2.......... and are often omitted in scientific writing. 5... 4. b) The plough lifts the topsoil and turns it over.. Look at these sentences: The function of the draw-bar is to pull implements whereas the hydraulic system is used for raising and lowering them.. write down the passive version of the following active sentences.. Look at these sentences: The tractor can raise and lower implements. Then combine the passive sentences you have written following the clues provided. Now complete the following sentences: a) The plough .... Make similar sentences contrasting the functions of the seeder and the harrow.43 The function of the rear power take-off shaft is to drive implements... Leguminous plants should be ploughed under.. Now write six similar sentences using the table in exercise 1. Now....... The impersonal passive Examine the following active and passive sentences. English for Specific Purposes 43 http://www.... Look at the table below: Implement Plough Harrow Sprayer Seeder Harvester Function lifts the topsoil and turns it over breaks up the topsoil and prepares it for seeding applies herbicides....... 3.vn .. Note that the words in brackets are optional.. and sowing the seed.... and note the verb form of each passive sentence. fungicides and insecticides to the crop make a furrow and sows the seed cuts forage and lifts root crops Now ask and answer questions containing the words used for and function. and the harvester and the plough......ebook. We should plough under leguminous plants Passive The fertility of the soil is improved The seeds are enclosed by the fruit...........edu.
. to break down carbohydrates.ebook. it . they . from the soil by the roots and from carbon dioxide which . 5.. 10. the whole root of harmful weeds such as docks . A: The human body requires small quantities of several minerals. We can define a soil as having an individual profile. A: The plant manufactures food from chemical substances present in the soil & air. English for Specific Purposes 44 http://www.g. 6. Thus. by a heavy compact soil. as having an individual profile. Therefore. A: The fruit encloses the seeds. the structure . instead of . The fruit protects them while they are developing... 2. P: A unit called a soil profile .. 8. A: Ploughing „turn in‟ the whole surface of a field.. lightly. P: Food is . P: Small quantities of several minerals which are .while they are developing.. 3. P: Since soil structure . to describe soils.edu..... When we wish to compare two soils. Consequently. So when we wish to compare two soils.. A: The tiny root hairs absorbed water and mineral. we examine their profiles. 7. The leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air. A: Soil texture influences all aspects of root development. P: Oxygen . P: All aspect of root development . A: Too much cultivation destroys the soil structure. their profiles . The plant uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates... A pasture phase under grass can improve the structure. by the fruit.... The human body obtains these minerals from plants. by the plant from chemical substances which ..... by too much cultivation. They deposit the pollen on the stigmas of the other flower... and each soil can thus ... by the human body . 4.44 E... A: We can use a unit called a soil profile to describe soils... 1. in by the plant and . P: Some roots . 9. by the wind and insects from one flower to another. from plants...vn . a physical barrier to root growth . to reproduce the species. the power of absorption is increased by an increase in the number of root hairs. P: Water and mineral are absorbed by the tiny root hairs.. by soil texture.. on the stigmas of the other flower. A: The plant takes in oxygen. The roots take in chemical substances from the soil. We should remove the whole root of harmful weeds such as docks instead ploughing them in lightly... A: We can use some roots to reproduce the species... A: Wind and insects transfer pollen from one flower to another.. An increase in the number of root hairs increases the power of absorption. A heavy compact soil creates a physical barrier to root growth.. P: The seeds . For example.. by a pasture phase under grass. from the air by the leaves.. P: When pollen ...
. and .): .holdings (n..kept supplied with fuels: .): ...): đánh giá thấp nguồn năng lượng công việc mất nhiều thời gian sự mệt nhọc được cung cấp nhiên liệu đầy đủ có sẵn trồng trọt cơ bản máy kéo bánh xích mã lực phối hợp luống cày tiến hành.rear power-take-off shaft: .basic cultivation: .): .seeder (n. to the air.): .incorporated: .be under-estimated: .mechanical energy: .ebook.harvester (n.the internal combustion engine: .hydraulic system: .vn ..furrow plough: .. and the soil .harrow (v. P: The whole surface of the field „.the four-stroke cycle: .source of power: .carry out: ...): .fatigue (n.available (adj.a track-laying tractor: .horse power: .): ..general-purpose tractor: ..detail of construction: .‟ by ploughing.absorption (n. and . thực hiện máy kéo đa năng khu đất nhỏ chi tiết cấu tạo những nguyên tắc cơ bản động cơ đốt trong chu kỳ vận hành chu kỳ bốn thì nhiệt năng cơ năng hệ thủy lực trục thu công suất sau bừa máy gặt kết cấu đất sự thẩm thấu cây họ đậu máy gieo hạt máy phun thuốc (trừ sâu) English for Specific Purposes 45 http://www. with the result that weeds .time-consuming task: ..heat energy: .edu. New words and expressions: .basic principles: ..sprayer (n.the operating cycle: .soil texture: .): .leguminous plants: .45 It buries and kills the weeds It loosens and exposes the soil to the air.
a two -cycle engine. (3) piston connection. This is the simplest and most common arrangement.ebook. that is. Note that each piston is single-acting. a horizontal pin within the piston is encircled by the upper end of the connecting rod. single-acting engines. for short. Engines are also built with horizontal cylinders. at the upper end of a vertical engine.edu. that is. An engine which needs four strokes to complete one cycle is a four-stroke cycle engine or. The construction is complicated. Double-acting engines use both ends of the cylinder and both faces of the piston to develop power on the up-stroke as well as on the down-stroke. double-acting engines are built only in large and comparatively lowspeed units. with all cylinders arranged vertically in line. A cylinder-in-line arrangement. thus making it much more rigid. (c) opposed-piston. It is also used in some large. Piston connection: The piston may be connected to the upper end of the connecting rod either directly ("trunk piston" type) or indirectly ("crosshead" type). This construction is used for engines having up to 12 cylinders. with two connecting rods attached to each crankpin. it becomes difficult to make a sufficiently rigid frame and crankshaft with an inline arrangement. Single-acting engines use only one end of the cylinder and face of the piston to develop power. Thus. the piston fastens to a vertical piston rod whose lower end is attached to a sliding member called a "crosshead". In trunk-piston engines. with a stiff crankshaft. This working space is at the end away from the crankshaft. The crosshead carries a crosshead pin which is encircled by the upper end of the connecting rod. Operating cycle: Diesel and gas-burning engines can be divided into two groups based on the number of piston strokes per cycle. it develops power with only one face of the piston. There are two crankshafts. a four-stroke engine. The combustion space is in the middle of the cylinder between the pistons. (5) method of fuel injection. generally to power motor-ships. the upper pistons drive one. This is a English for Specific Purposes 46 http://www. (b) V-arrangement. In crosshead-type engines. (4) cylinder arrangement. in a few cases with three cylinders. permits reducing the engine length by almost on-half. it is called a two-stroke cycle engine or. either four or two. Also. (c) flat and (d) radial. Cylinder arrangement: The four basic cylinder arrangements of a diesel or gas burning engine are: (a) cylinder-in-line. the engine becomes quite long and take up considerable space. The v-arrangement. slow-speed. usually one or two. This by far the most common construction.vn . An opposed-piston engine has cylinders in each of which two pistons travel in opposite directions. and (6) speed. the lower pistons drive the other. therefore. This more complicated construction is required in double-acting engines. a two-cycle engine fires twice as often as a four cycle engine. If it need only two strokes to complete a cycle. If an engine has more than eight cylinders. Piston action: An engine's piston action may be classified a (a) single action (b) double-action. which slides up and down in guides. It also costs less to manufacture and install.46 Further reading: Engine Classification The engine can be classified in the following several ways: (1) operating cycle(2) piston action. for short.
. the most common angles being between 400 and 750 (a complete circle is 3600). All diesel and gas-burning engines may be divided into three classes according to speed: low-speed. Automotive diesel engines often run faster than 1. Method of fuel injection. as many as twelve cylinders have been made to work on a single crankpin. buses and rail cars..fuel injection: .divide into .200 rpm. The connecting rods of all the pistons work on a single crankpin.ebook. In a radial engine.47 common arrangement for engines with eight. twelve and sixteen cylinders. By attaching the connecting rods to a master disk surrounding the crankpin. but the great majority of other engines run between 350 and 1.a sufficiently rigid frame: .o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 47 http://www. medium-speed and high-speed engines. động cơ chạy ga xylanh thẳng hàng sườn đủ cứng động cơ hình sao --.trunk-piston engine: . and the angle between the banks may vary. A flat engine is a v-engine with the angle between the banks increase to 180*. Cylinder lying in one line are called a "bank". được dựa trên hành trình piston gọi tắt. New words and expressions: . in manufacturing practice.edu.radial engine: sự phun nhiên liệu chia thành . Speed. Flat engines are also called "opposed-cylinder" engines.gas-burning engine: .cylinder-in-line: . all the cylinders are set in a circle and all point toward the centre of the circle. Such a radial engine occupies little floor space. This arrangement is used where there is little head room.200 rpm and are termed medium-speed engines. from 300 to 1200. which rotates around the centre of the circle. : ... Air injection was commonly used on early diesel engines but with the development of solid-injection systems the air-injection engine is rapidly disappearing. : ..piston stroke: . để ngắn lại cách xa so với động cơ piston nối trực tiếp nhiều đến mức động cơ đốt bằng khí.vn . Diesel engines are divided into air-injection engines and solid or mechanical injection engines. Air-injection engines use a blast of highly compressed air to blow the fuel into the cylinder. as in trucks..be based on .by far: .for short: .(be) away from: .
by Mark Twain is important information. The “by phrase” is included only if it is important to know who performs an action. English for Specific Purposes 48 http://www. Usually the passive is used without a “by phrase” . (a). Someone was making the coffee when I walked into the kitchen. My sister‟s plane will arrive at 10. In (a) : Rice is grown in India by people. (active) (f) This rug was made by my aunt. usually the active is used. by farmers. (b) Our house was built in 1980. Keep the same tense. The mail carrier had already delivered the mail by the time I left for school this morning. (d) Life on the Mississippi was written by Mark Twain. 9. 8.48 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Using the passive Example: (a) Rice is growing in India. Jim‟s daughter drew that picture. (e) My aunt made this rug. as in (e). Include “by phrase” only if necessary. People grow corn in Iowa. 11. In sentence (a) it is not known or important to know exactly who grows rice in India. 1.e. In (d). by someone. Is professor Rivers teaching that course this semester? 12. This rug was made by my mother. The passive may be used with the “by phrase” instead of the active when the speaker/writer wants to focus attention on the subject of a sentence.vn . An accident happened at the corner of Fifth and Main.35. The judges will judge the applicants on the basic of their originality. (some of the verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed). (no change) 3. Translators have translated that book into many languages. Someone stole my purse. The passive is most frequently used when it is not known or not important to know exactly who performs an action. PRACTICE Change the following active sentences to passive sentences if possible. 2.ebook. (b) and (c) illustrate the most common use of the passive. Someone made this antique table in 1734. 10.edu. (c) The olive oil was imported from Spain. => Corn is grown in Iowa. My son drew this picture. Peter came here two months ago. When did someone invent the radio? 13. 5. 6. If the speaker/writer knows who performs an action. 7. In (f) the focus of attention is on two rugs. without the “by phrase”. 4.. i.
17. you will ruin the negatives. After the concert was over. When is someone going to announce the results of the contest? 15. They have already built the new elementary school. hundreds of fans mobbed the rock music star outside the theater.vn .49 14.edu. Ever since I arrived here. They are going to build the new hospital next year.O0O --- English for Specific Purposes 49 http://www. I have been living in the dormitory because someone told me that it was cheaper to live there than in an apartment. 16.ebook. 18. If you expose a film to light while you are developing it. --.
and when the valve closes. The movement of these parts in relation to each other makes possible the operating cycle. exhaust valve closed. horizontal. each cylinder with its piston. to travel up and down. the crankshaft will also turn and this will cause the piston. or is single. A four-cylinder engine crankshaft with connecting rods and pistons 1 Tractor engines are usually four-cylinder engines but it is not uncommon for them to have six cylinders. the valves will also move up and down. etc. 2 Whether an engine is vertical. The mixture is then ignited and expands rapidly. two and three cylinders are also used. connecting rod and valves. 3 From Fig. The basic cycle still takes place independently in each cylinder of the engine. which is free to move in the cylinder.ebook. Figure 1 shows a crankshaft with pistons and connecting rods for a four-cylinder engine. inlet valve open. This downward movement of the piston creates a partial vacuum inside the cylinder causing fuel/air mixture to rush in through the inlet valve passage. The piston moves down . The induction stroke. The thrust is sufficient to keep the crankshaft turning so that the piston also continues to move up and down. 4 This in fact is just what happens in the engine.vn . and the expansion produces a downward thrust to the piston which in turn causes the crankshaft to rotate. therefore the fuel is trapped inside the cylinder. English for Specific Purposes 50 http://www. one.edu. 1. Because the gear wheel on the crankshaft is in mesh with the gear on the camshaft. the flywheel and crankshaft will again turn and in doing so will also operate the camshaft and valves. If a thrust is applied to the top of the piston. When the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke the inlet valve closes to prevent any escape of the fuel.50 UNIT 7 : TRACTOR ENGINES Fig.2 it will be seen that if the flywheel is turned. 6 No. These are known as Spark Ignition engines. .or multi-cylinder. does not alter the method in which it operates. Fuel / air mixture comes into the cylinder when the inlet valve is open. which means that in a multi-cylinder engine. The Four-stroke Cycle (Spark Ignition) 5 Engines that are designed to run on petrol or propane require an electric spark to ignite the fuel / air mixture.should be considered as an independent mechanical unit. 1. the mixture is compressed by the piston moving up.
The compression stroke. e. This spark immediately sets fire to the mixture which burns and expands. the exhaust valve is closed.g.ebook.vn . slightly concave. the inlet valve is closed. This upward movement compresses the fuel/air mixture into a small space at the top of the cylinder. a spark is arranged to take place across the points of a spark plug which protrudes partly inside the combustion space. the cycle starts again with a fresh charge of fuel / air mixture being taken into the cylinder. The exhaust stroke. this provides the power. only one does the work. and the thrust of the power stroke keeps the crankshaft turning so that these strokes can take place. 11 Of the three strokes in operating cycle. 9 No. 2. A stroke is one movement from top dead centre to bottom dead centre or vice versa. the inlet valve is closed. This upward movement pushes the burnt gases out through the exhaust valve outlet and to the atmosphere. 10 At the end of the exhaust stroke.51 Fig. the exhaust valve is open. 7 No. 8 No. and in doing so forces down the piston. When the piston is at the top of the compression stroke with both valves closed. English for Specific Purposes 51 http://www. The piston moves up the cylinder again. 4. 3. A section through a single-cylinder engine showing the relative position of the working parts. This is the third stroke which is the power stroke. 2. This space is usually provided by having the underside of the cylinder head suitably shaped.edu. The other three strokes make the power stroke possible. The power stroke. The piston moves up.
Look at par. Look at par.52 I. Are these statements correct or incorrect ? * A fuel/air mixture enters the cylinder when the valves closed. 7 again. Look at par. Look at par. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * Engines which use petrol or propane are called Spark Ignition Engines. or 6 cylinders. 2 again . Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * The engine part which stops fuel escaping is the piston. Look at par. 4. COMPREHENSION CHECK : 1. 8. 4. 5 again. * The piston moves up and down because the crankshaft keeps turning. 6 again. Look at par.vn . 3 again. 3. 6. * Tractor engines can have 1. 4 again. Are these statements correct or incorrect ? * Tractor engines never have six cylinders. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * The method in which an engine works depends on the number of cylinders. 7.edu. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? English for Specific Purposes 52 http://www. 2.ebook. 3. Look at paragraph 1 again. Look at par. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * The fuel/air mixture is compressed into the piston. 5.8 again. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * Both the pistons and the valves move up and down. 2.
Gudgeon pin . Look at par. Listen to the lecturer.Connecting rod . Plants which produce fruits can be classified in many ways. He is going to tell you about the main parts of an internal combustion engine. 2.Crankshaft .Camshaft -------------------------------------------------------. The pineapple is a perennial which grows at a low level.vn . like this : Weeding is a task that consumes a great deal of time. 3.53 * The mixture is ignited when both valves are closed. . VOCABULARY.11 again. Shorten the following sentences without changing their meaning. 1. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * The crankshaft is turned by all four strokes in the operating cycle. Look at par.edu.Cylinder block .10 . II.ebook.Cylinder liner .Valve springs ------------------------------------------------------------- III.Piston . GRAMMAR: 1. Then look at the parts below and write down the letters that correspond to the different parts. Is this statement correct or incorrect ? * Burnt gases escapes because of an upward movement.Valves . English for Specific Purposes 53 http://www. 9.Cylinder head . A. Weeding is a time-consuming task. Using compound adjectives with participles for describing. You use a tractor which lays tracks in market gardens.9 again. 10.
ebook. Some plants are plants which pollinate themselves. 6. 3. 5. it was not suitable for root crops. 1. 6. 6. 9. Most watermelon are of the type which has a red flesh. (a) The soil was dry so the seed could not germinate.54 4. 9. Or The soil was too dry for the seed to germinate. The Muturu is a breed of cattle that has short horns.edu. (b) The soil was heavy and clayey and. The banana is a herbaceous plant which grows fast. 3. Rewrite the following sentences using too and make any other changes that are necessary. Shorten the following sentences without changing their meaning. The soil profile was so shallow that it could not give the roots sufficient anchorage. it was unsuitable for root crops. Cucurbita is a squash which has a fine grain. like this: Lettuce is a crop which is harvested by hand. it was not possible to produce a healthy crop. 2. Lettuce is a hand-harvested crop. The soil particles are fine so the water cannot percolate easily through the soil. 8. Soil aeration was inadequate and consequently the plant could not receive a proper supply of oxygen. Lettuce is an annual plant which has a swallow root. B. 8. the plant could not produce a good top growth. Some kinds of celery branch themselves. 4. The pineapple has leaf bases which are shaped like funnels. 5. 5. Expressions of degree: too and enough A. 4. Farmers must feed a world population which is increasing all the time. The first two have been done for you. Or The soil was too heavy and clayey to be suitable for root crops. The papaya is a plant which has a single stem. Celery is a crop which is propagated from seed. 10. As a result of the land being waterlogged. 7. 7. 10. The tsetse fly is an insect which carries disease. Hawaii is an area that produces pineapples.vn . Snap bean is a crop which has large seeds. 2. A spade is an example of a tool which is operated by hand. 2. 1. The mango is a tree which bears fruits. English for Specific Purposes 54 http://www. As the root system was poorly developed. Some crops must be transported in cars which are cooled by ice. Because the soil was compact. as a result.
8.an independent mechanical unit: đơn vị cơ học độc lập English for Specific Purposes http://www. . 4. (light and sandy) = The soil was not light and sandy enough to be suitable for root crops.crankshaft (n. It was dark and as a result photosynthesis could not take place.four-cylinder engine: . 8.create a partial vacuum: .the induction stroke: .the power stroke: . 2. 7. The current was swift so that the silt would not be deposited.combustion space: .The soil was too heavy and clayey to be suitable for root crops.cylinder head: . . 6. (wet) = The soil was not wet enough for the seed to germinate.55 7. B.): .protrude (v. 1.the compression stroke: .spark plug: . Well-developed.a downward thrush: .the exhaust stroke: .spark ignition engine: .connecting rods: . Deep. Slow.vn .ebook. động cơ bốn xy-lanh thanh truyền động thay đổi bánh đà ăn khớp với lực đẩy xuống hỗn hợp nhiên liệu/khí nén trục khuỷu động cơ đánh lửa tạo ra một khoảng chân không bộ phận thì nạp nhiên liệu thì nén thì sinh công thì xả bu-gi đánh lửa nhô ra buồng đốt điểm chết trên/dưới nắp xy-lanh chốt nối van lò xo --.edu. Examples: . coarse.valve springs: 3.gudgeon pin: . 5.o0o --55 New words and expressions: . Now look at the sentences you have written and rewrite them using not + adjective + enough.The soil was too dry for the seed to germinate.compressed (adj. Bright. Well-drained.alter (n.): .): .flywheel (n.fuel/air mixture: .top/bottom dead centre: . using the adjective given for each sentence.): . Loose. Adequate.): .be in mesh with: .
webs. crankpin.Do you know the woman talking to Tom? . or cheeks that connect the journals and crankpins together.edu. It consists of main bearing journals. The crankshaft therefore must be adequately strong and wear-resistant.ebook.56 Further reading: Connecting Rods and Crankshaft The connecting rods link the pistons with the crankshaft and transmit to it the loads arising from the combustion gas pressure taken by the pistons. since the hollow interior of each crankpin also acts as an oil supply duct for big end lubrication and as a centrifugal oil cleaner. We use -ing phrases to say what somebody (or something) is/was doing at a particular time: Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (the woman is talking to Tom) http://www. and a starting crank jaw (ratchet) or bolt. --. The crankshaft is either forged from a high-quality steel or cast in a high-strength iron.The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital. The periodic gas pressure and inertia forces taken by the crankshaft may cause it to suffer wear and bending and torsional strains. and therefore. the crankshaft gear is carried on the rear end of the shaft. In operation. The small end of the connecting rod is made in the form of a continuous eye into which bronze bush 2 is pressed so as to provide an interference fit. fan drive-pulley.vn English for Specific Purposes 56 . a nose(front end).o0o --- LANGUAGE IN FOCUS -ing and -ed phrases Example: . The open end (or end where angular blind holes are necessary to clear counterbalance weights) are sealed by screw plug. Mounted between the crankshaft pulley and gear is oil slinger that throw oil away from the crankshaft front bearing seal. In V-type engines. In some engines. whereas the big end of the rod is split into two halves with the upper half integral with the rod shank and the lower half in the form of detachable cap. The crankshaft front end carries one or two gears for driving the valve mechanism and also other engine mechanisms. With the crankshaft rotating. it must be adequately strong and rigid and light in weight as well. and a shank (rear end). the heads being known as the connecting rod big end and small end and serving to attach the rod to the crankpin and the gudgeon pin of the piston respectively. the crank webs. The crankpins are bored hollow in order to reduce the crankshaft inertia. each crankpin has two connecting rods assembled on it. it also drive various engine mechanisms and components. mechanical impurities (wear products) contained in the oil inside the hollow crankpins settle in the crankpin interior walls under the action of centrifugal forces. The main bearing journals and crankpins are induction hardened to improve their wear resistance. Drilled diagonally through the crank webs are oil holes to supply oil to the crankpins. the connecting rod is subjected to both gas pressure and inertia loads. Connecting rods are generally fabricated from a high-quality steel in the form of a bar with ring-shaped heads at its ends. or attached separately to. Shank. and therefore the crankpin here are longer than in in-line cylinder engines. or blade 3 of the connecting rod is provided with an I-cross section to give the rod maximum rigidity with the minimum of weight. Counterbalance weights 12 necessary for balancing the crankshaft are either formed integrally with. The crankshaft takes the downward thrusts of the pistons and connecting rods when the fuel-air mixture is burned in the cylinders and changes these thrusts into torque which is transferred to the drive line of the automobile.
............ Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with “t”? -ed phrases have passive meaning: The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.ebook..... (the bell was ringing) .............................. (a bell is ringing) When you are talking about things (and sometime people).................. you can use an –ing phrase to say what something does all the time..... (The factory employs 500 people) .................. still there: We‟ve spent almost our money.. A man was arrested by the police........... A new factory has just opened in town.... Make one sentence from two.....) The police never found the money stolen in the robbery................ Make one sentence from two... We only have a little left........... The taxi broke down.............. The road connecting the two towns is very narrow.. (The taxi was taking us to the airport) ....... 4... (the boy was injured in the accident) Some of the people invited to the party can‟t come................. 5........... (the money was stolen) We can use left in this way....................edu.... (the man was sitting next to me on the plane) ......................................vn ............ (police are investigating) Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting) I was awaken by the bell ringing..... English for Specific Purposes 57 http://www............. Is there anybody waiting? There was a big red car parked outside the house..... not just at a particular time. 2....... -ed phrases after there is/there was. (they have been invited) Most of the good made in this factory are exported......... I have the large bedroom overlooking the garden.. I didn‟t talk much to the man........... with the meaning not used..................... We often use -ing...................................... 1........ etc....................... I was awaken by the bell..... . At the end of the street there is a path... 3............ (The path leads to the river) ... II...................................57 Police investigating the crime are looking for three men............................ He was released yesterday.... Each time make an –ed phrase. (the goods are made .... Use the information in parentheses to make an -ing phrase............. 1.. There were some children swimming in the river.................... PRACTICE I..........
.................................... (no one / live / in it) ... 4.................................. The accident wasn‟t serious................................. The train was full....... (nobody / injure) ........ We were the only guests at the hotel.......? III....................... 5......... 3...................... 4..... There were a tree __________ down in the storm last night.......................... 3........ (a lot of people / travel) .....58 2....o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 58 http://www.... 6..................... The ............... A number of suggestions were made at the meeting.................. A man was investigated by the police................ 5... etc............. I can hear footsteps.......... That house is empty....edu.......................... What was his name? What was the name ... The school offers English courses in the evening......................... 6.............ebook... (nobody else / stay there) .... I was awaken by a bell ___________..... A few days after the interview........... IV.................................... Somebody _________ Jack phoned while you were out....... 7........................... Most of them were not very practical.... 2...... A lot of the people _____________ to the party cannot come................. The piece of paper was blank...... (nothing / write / on it) ........... Life must be very unpleasant for people ______________ near busy airports............................ (a course / begin / next Monday) ....... 7....... 8....................... (someone / come) .................................. 2... --........................ The waiting room was empty except for a young man___________ by the window _________ a magazine. 1. Use the words in parentheses to make sentences using there is/ there was.... 4........... Most of the suggestions ........................... I received a letter ___________ me the job....................... Look! The man ___________ the red car almost hit the person _______________ newspapers on the street corner...... 3..........vn ....... Some paintings were stolen from the museum............... They haven‟t been found yet. Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs in the correct form: blow drive invite live name offer read ring sell sit 1........
It is usually quite easy to manoeuvre and work in the field because all the controls used to operate it are close to the driver. In this country such wide cutter-bars can present problems when it is necessary to move the combine from field to field down narrow country lanes. shaft. but this is not excessive. driven combine. whilst in the other tractor hauls and drives the combine by the p.59 UNIT 8: THE COMBINE HARVESTER (A) 1 The combine harvester is used to harvest all types of grain and seed crops and its use has relieved farmers of much of the burden of harvest. This is much worse when crop conditions are very dry. he finds it no more difficult to drive than his tractor. 6 Self-propelled combines are made in widths of cut ranging from about 4 . Fewer acres of crops are now left to perish in the fields. but it has enabled farmers to rescue crops which otherwise may have been lost. 3 Its use results in a big reduction of time and layout required to harvest a given crop because one man.o. Combine will work in quite damp conditions.o. The combine cuts and threshes the grain in one operation. or at the most two men only. most of which are created by weather conditions. 5 The tendency today is towards the use of the self-propelled type because of certain advantages that it has over the other two. or any of the other work associated with harvesting when the binder is used.edu.16m (5 20 ft). English for Specific Purposes 59 http://www. It has not taken all the problems out of harvesting. and when he becomes acquainted with them. It is more or less a self-contained unit propelled and having the threshing mechanisms powered by its own engine. This means that it is not necessary to provide a tractor to drive it and/or pull it. Other labour is required to transport the grain to the farmstead. are needed to operate the machine. engine-driven combine. the tractor hauls the machine which is driven by an engine. However. The width of cut of these types generally does not exceed 560 cm (7 ft) but this does not mean that their output is necessarily lower than a larger-cut self-propelled combine. but where the conditions are not ideal. In one. Combine output depends more on the capacity of the threshing and cleaning mechanism within the machine than on width of cut it will take. Probably the worst hazard confronting the driver of a self-propelled combine is the constant cloud of dust surrounding him whilst he is working with the machine. This is not true. There is no stooking. 2 The combine was first developed for use in countries where the climate is more suitable for grain production and it was said that the climate in such countries as the British Isles is totally unsuitable for its use. they must be used in conjunction with a grain drier where the grain can be dried to a safe moisture content for storage.t. and 965 cm (12 ft) of cut is a common size. it is possible to have fitted to a combine. an airconditioned cab which considerably alleviated the dust problem. stacking.ebook. 7 Of the other two types of combines the main difference is the way in which they are driven but in both cases a tractor is required to haul the combine. (c) self-propelled combine. the latter being used on the great grain-growing areas in such countries as Canada.vn . (b) tractor-drawn. Combine types 4 Three main types of combines are available and these are : (a) tractor p.t. carting.
provided that the mechanisms are properly maintained.edu. The cutter-bar 9 The cutting mechanism on a combine harvester is the same as that on a binder. 11 The height of the cutter-bar is adjustable vertically by mechanical or hydraulic control and it is usually arranged so that the whole cutter-bar bed and reel rises and lowers as a complete unit.vn . Furthermore.60 Combine layout 8 The combine harvester can be described as a mobile threshing machine because it differs little from the stationary thresher except that a crop is fed into a combine much more evenly and continuously as it move forward. The mower is another machine which employs this method. consisting of a finger bar and reciprocating knife. A section through a combine harvester. but it is better to avoid cutting this undergrowth if at all possible. The knives used on combines and binders operate at a slower speed than the mower knife because the dry straw crop is easier to cut than a swath of grass. This method of cutting crops has been used for many years now and. Reference should be made to this in conjunction with the following text in unit 4 Fig. Very often it is found necessary to use a smooth edged knife on a combine if there is a lot of green undergrowth to be cut. Figure 1 shows the various working parts of a typical self-propelled combine and the flow of the crop through it. 1. it is normal practice to use a serrated edged knife on machine cutting straw crops whilst the mower uses a smooth edged knife. The drive to the crank pulley is usually by a V-belt and this should be kept correctly tensioned to prevent any loss of knife speed. English for Specific Purposes 60 http://www. 10 Figure 2 shows methods used to provide knife movement. it is satisfactory.ebook.
something difficult or troublesome to do 2. Look at paragraph 3 again. Look at the first paragraph again. Basic Farm Machinery.Pergamon Press I..vn English for Specific Purposes 61 . Has the combine solved all the problems of harvesting ? 2. What is the main difference between type (a) and (b) ? 7. COMPREHENSION CHECK: 1. How must they be used in damp climate ? 4. Look at paragraph 2 again. What does combine output depend on ? 8.save . What danger does the driver of a self-propelled combine face ? 6.61 Fig. How do you adjust a cutter-bar ? II. Can a combine work in damp climate ? 3.carting .made .made it possible for. What words have the same meaning as: . What work does a binder eliminate ? 5.ebook. What word has the opposite meaning to : .stacking http://www. separated from 3.without. 2.stooking . Can you explain the words: . Methods of providing knife movement Text and illustration from SHIPPEN et al. VOCABULARY: 1. What does Figure 6 show in addition to the parts ? 9.edu. What do a mower and a combine have in common ? 10.
like a saw . Look at paragraph 4 and 5 again. is a network of spaces or channels.plants etc.having a toothed edge. which may be filled with air or water or both. The pore space. lying after it has been cut .pull 7. English for Specific Purposes 62 when http://www.line 2: latter. A long.vn . Look at paragraph 9 again. The watermelon is usually considered to have originated in Africa. Today they grow watermelons worldwide. The amount of water which is then retained by the soil is called the field capacity * The clauses in italics define the kind of water: they are defining relative clauses.ridge of wheat. Until recently only seeded types were on the market. GRAMMAR: 1. Active or Passive voice ? Change the following sentences into passive or active voice 1. They are harvested by hand and loaded on trucks or trailers. Look at paragraph 6 again and say what this word refers to: III.kept in good working order . 2.move about .be more than one . Can you explain what is meant by: . 7. warm growing season is required for watermelons. growing at a lower level than the crop 9. 6. 5.. What word has the opposite meaning to: .horizontally .the flow of the crop 8. 4. 3. The first Europeans were growing this kind of vine in the Mississippi Valley they arrived there. but seedless cultivars have now been introduced. Look at paragraph 10 and 11 again.edu. Look at paragraph 8 again. grass etc. Defining and non-defining relative clauses Look at these: The water which can be taken up by the plant roots is called the available water. What words have the same meaning as: . What words correspond to these definitions: .familiar with .ebook. 2.danger .facing 5. What words have the same meaning as: . They harvest watermelons when they are mature but not overripe.62 4. 6. Look at paragraph 7 again.
The amount of humus formed is greatest from plants. These chemical substances are known as fungicides. E. clay and organic matter. They are separated from the rest of the sentences by commas. past participle. The quantity of fertilizer required for rice cultivation partly depends on the variety of rice used. Organic matter is broken down most rapidly in warm.edu. 5. Short-form relative clauses Relative clauses often appear in a shortened form. Rice varieties with short erect leaves respond well to high level of fertilizer. 7. stems etc. The quantity of fertilizer or manure depends on the fertility of the soil and the nutrients. * Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into a single sentence.g. The relative pronoun and the form of verb to be can be omitted and with. English for Specific Purposes 63 http://www.ebook.g. Soil texture determined by the amount of silt. Use the relative clauses to combine each pair of sentences into a single sentence. Banana is usually considered a fruit in the United States. * Here the clauses in italics gives us additional information about the pore space and fertilizer. Then shorten the relative clauses. The weeds and stubble are ploughed in during cultivation. is a nitrogenous fertilizer. Fertilizer or manure is required for rice cultivation.63 Nitrogenous fertilizers. Urea. The amount of water depends on a number of factors. Rice varieties having short erect leaves respond well to high level of fertilizer. the -ing form of the verb. straw). Soil texture is the characteristic of soil. A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material. The soils are well limed and well aerated. The topsoil or the surface soil is a layer about 8-45 cm deep. moist soils. Fungi attack the aerial parts of the crop. This material is usually made up of leaves or grass cutting. Plants have a lot of strengthening (lignified) tissues (e. Fungi can be controlled by means of chemical substances. A leguminous crop is plough under. 8. adjective or noun may be used instead. 6. 3. the substance in human and animal urine. 10. Banana is a starchy staple in many tropical regions of the world. 4. In each case say whether the relative clause is defining or non-defining: 1.vn . The amount of water is required for irrigation. sand. strengthen plant tissues. 9. The nutrients are released from the rooted weeds and stubble. 2. Most of the plant roots are found in the topsoil. Common nitrogen fertilizers suitable for rice are ammonium sulphate & urea. They are non-defining relative clauses. which have nitrogen as the main food element. A leguminous crop will add as much nitrogen to the soil per acre as 3 to 10 tons of farmyard manure. the leaves. 3.
o. Nematodes are small worms in the soil that enter plant roots. Fungi are microscopic organisms.smooth edged knife . the leaves. A compost is a mixture of partly broken down material. 3. driven combine: . máy gặt liên hợp tự đẩy thao tác trở nên quen thuộc với cabin có gắn máy điều hòa (nhiệt độ) được giảm bớt máy đập/tuốt (lúa) cố định thanh cắt dao cắt (chuyển động qua laị) máy cắt cỏ dao phẳng dao răng cưa trục tời http://www. 2.self-propelled combine: .t.the cutter bar: . They are usually transmitted by means of insects. This fertilizer contains nitrogen.excessive (adj.tractor p.): .vn . 4. 6. They are found in the soil.serrated edged knife: .edu. The types of disease organisms are fungi and bacteria.become acquainted with: . Viruses are very small organisms. New words and expressions: . quá nhiều máy gặt được lái bằng máy kéo có p.safe moisture content: . đầu máy kéo .ebook. engine-driven combine: máy gặt bằng động cơ. 8. 7.): . They attack the roots of plants and they cause root rot and wilt. It is essential to understand the materials. Another fertilizer is urea. 9.the combine harvester: . 5. Such a soil has a pH value of 6. Fungi attack the aerial parts of the crop.5 or more.reciprocating knife: . This material is usually made up of leaves or grass cutting. particularly in the tropics.): . These growths are known as hyphae.64 1. 10. They cause serious losses in some crops. Compound fertilizers are multiple nutrient materials.t.manoeuvre (v. These organisms produce thread-like growths. Fungi can be controlled by means of chemical substances. These chemical substances are known as fungicides.mower (n. A soil will contain quite a high proportion of calcium.o.tractor-drawn. They supply two or three plant nutrients simultaneously.stationary thresher: .crank pulley: English for Specific Purposes 64 máy gặt đập liên hợp được dùng kết hợp với độ ẩm an toàn quá lớn. stems etc. The materials are available to the farmer to maintain the supply of minerals in the soil.air-conditioned cab: .be used in conjunction with: .alleviated: .
. is a doctor. * When we are talking about things. they are non-defining relative clauses.edu.) in these clauses My English teacher. and “the Grand hotel” The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing. Brad told me about his new job. That is more usual than which. Relative clause A clause is a part of a sentence.. In these types of relatives clauses. we use who for people and which for things (you can not use that).vn . We use comma (.. You can use that (instead of who). which Ann recommended to us.People who live in London . In these sentences. who comes from Texas. (“who lives next door” tells us which woman) .. A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means: . We already know which thing or person is meant: “my brother Jim”. English for Specific Purposes 65 http://www. who lives in Houston. But sometimes you must use which in non-defining relative clause (as the next part) * Look at these examples: My brother Jim. who (not that) speaks French and Italian. works as a tourist guide. Brad told me about his job. Whom can be used when it is an object. But you can not use that in non-defining relative clauses (as the next part). the relative clauses do not tell us which person or thing the speaker means.The woman who lives next door . The machine that broke down has now been repaired. loves computers. We use who instead of she/he/they: An architect is some one who designs buildings. John . We stayed at the Grand hotel. which (not that) he‟s enjoying it very much. (“who live in London” tells us what kind of peole) * We use who in a relative clause when we talking about people (not things). “Brad‟s new job”. we use that or which in a relative clause: Where the cheese that/which was in the refrigerator ? I don‟t like stories that/which have unhappy endings. which he‟s enjoying very much.65 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Relative clauses Look at this example: The woman who lives next door is a doctor.ebook. What was the name of the man who lent you the money ? Anyone who is interested in the job must apply before next Friday.
.............. PRACTICE I..) I met a man whose sister knows you....... 2... A girl was injured in the accident.........vn .................... Choose the most appropriate ending from the box and make it into a relative clause...... Whose is used in relative clauses instead of his/her/their: A widow is a woman whose husband is dead..... The book is about a girl _____________________............... English for Specific Purposes 66 http://www....... ...... ... 3. It runs every half hour...... ........ 4...........................edu...... They have now been released......... A waitress served us.... The girl who was injured in the accident is now in the hospital............ This morning I met somebody (who/that) I hadn‟t seen for ages........... II.......................... He told me you were away. A man answered the phoned......... We stayed at the hotel (that/which) Ann recommended................ She is now in the hospital............. It has now been rebuilt....................... Use who/that/which: 1................................ Whom is unusual in this type of clauses....... (her husband is dead................................. (but we can leave out who/which/that when it is the object in defining relative clauses............ A bus goes to the airport. ...... Make one sentence from two.. ........ We cannot leave out who or which in this type of clauses... .............ebook............................ whom (or who) I haven‟t seen for ages........... Barbara works for a company ______________________............. She was very impolite and impatient...... Complete the sentences............. he invented the telephone it makes washing machines she runs away from home it give you the meanings of words they are never on time it won the race they stole my car it can support life they were on the wall it cannot be explained 1. 5.. A building was destroyed in the fire...66 This morning I met Ann..... 2............ Some people were arrested..... 6..... (his sister knows you...............................) Where can be used in a relative clause to talk about a place: The hotel where we stayed wasn‟t very clean................. I recently went back to the town where I was born......................
They are contained in the nucleus of an atom. III. A dictionary is a book ______________________________. 9. 6. The police have caught the men ____________________. It is over seven miles high. 2.ebook. It has a gravitational pull so powerful that nothing.Nitrogen makes up 80 per cent of the air. not even light. 7. 6. 5. What was the name of the horse ______________________. odorless gas. 8. 4. It seems that Earth is the only planet ______________________.edu. They are simple forms of plant life. 3. Alexander Graham Bell was the man ____________________________.Protons are positively charged particles. 4. 7. It is a hormone produced by the pancreas. 10. A mystery is something _____________________________. I don‟t like people ___________________________. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences to produce a one-sentence definition with a relative clause: 1.Marine biologists are scientists. What happened to the pictures ______________________. -------------------------------- English for Specific Purposes 67 http://www.The most abundant forms of life on earth are bacteria.A black hole is an area in space.67 3. They study animals and plants that live in the sea. can escape.Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes. 5.The stratosphere is a portion of the atmosphere.vn . It is a colorless.
3. Alteration is usually brought about by fitting the different size of reel-drive sprocket. The purpose of the reel. the reel must pull it into the cutter-bar for cutting and feeding into the combine. One other important adjustment is necessary and this is to be able to move the reel forward and backward if necessary. is used and there are few badly laid crops that it cannot effectively pull into the combine. Their uses. Generally.ebook.68 IV. On the other hand. Where the crop is not standing well. The usefulness of this is when a crop is laid forward away from the cutter-bar. Adjustments for different crop conditions. It is not fitted with tines for pulling in laid crops. provided that it is correctly set. FURTHER READING: THE REEL The purpose of the reel is twofold. An hydraulic or mechanical control may be provided to make this adjustment. * Put questions about: 1. The other type of reel is known as a bat reel and its use is restricted to crops in good standing condition. It should be just low enough to have a steadying action on the crop. This type of reel has spring tines fitted to it which can be set at an angle if necessary. the reel must steady it against the cutter-bar whilst it is being cut. if the reel speed is too slow the crop will be pushed forward by the cutter-bar and fall beneath it.vn . a fairly standard type of reel. If it is set too low. the reel must not strike the crop any more than necessary otherwise grain will be shed out of the ears and on the ground. It is also necessary to be able to raise and lower the reel whilst the combine is working and this is done so that it can be held in its correct position according to the height of the crop. and may be in a tangled and flattened mass.edu. the straw will be carried around on the reel bars and tines. known as the pick-up reel. The speed at which the reel rotates can therefore be altered to suit the volume of crop. To provide for different crop conditions. 2. English for Specific Purposes 68 http://www. For example. This will happen if the reel speed is too fast. Different types of reel. certain adjustments can be made to the reel. 4. Where a crop is standing well.
all the grain may not pass through and some may be shaken out over the rear of the combine.edu.vn . and the grain that comes from the straw walkers. extends from the grain pan and is adjustable so that the size of aperture can be increased or decreased. so from the grain pan this mixture of trash and grain passes through a cleaning unit. If it is set too close. Anything larger will not pass through and will be shaken rearward to fall into the returns auger trough. By doing this. also blow out the seed. This trash must be separated from the grain. English for Specific Purposes 69 http://www. Such material as broken heads will go to the returns auger. referred to as the grain sieve. the force of air required to keep the sieves clear when combining wheat would. The top sieve. For example. Grain and trash pass from the grain pan on to this sieve and the aim in setting this sieve is to set it at such a position as will allow all the grain to fall through it. if it is set too wide. this is not always the case and in some instances an adjustable sieve may be fitted. 6 Whilst the grain is moving over these sieves a constant blast of air is being blown up and through them. excessive trash may go through it with the grain. Fig. when combining grass seed. 5 The grain sieve must be of such size as to allow the grain only to pass through and down the grain auger.69 UNIT 9: THE COMBINE HARVESTER (B) The Grain Pan 1 The grain is threshed out of the ears by the drum and concave. The purpose of this is to prevent the majority of the trash from settling on the sieves. weed seeds. and an air blast which can be directed up and through these sieves. whilst on the other hand. 2 Whilst the grain falls through the concave and on to the pan there is also a large quantity of trash that come through with it. all come through mixed with the grain. However. Chaff. The purpose of the grain sieve is to carry out further separation of grain from trash should any trash have come through the chaffer sieve. etc.. whilst heavy trash is shaken rearward and out of the combine. The cleaning unit.ebook. often referred to as the chaffer sieve. 7 The force of the air blown through can be varied and this is necessary because the weights of different grains and seeds vary. The Cleaning Unit 3 This consists of two sieves which also have a rearward shaking motion. 4 The bottom sieve. the sieves are kept clear and the grain can fall through readily. 1. short ends of straw. falls on the grain pan which is situated beneath the concave. This grain pan usually takes the form of a stepped plate occupying the full width of the cleaning unit and it also has a rearward shaking motion. is usually a sieve full of holes of a given size and is therefore not adjustable.
it passes through a rotating screen which takes out any weed seeds that may have escaped the cleaning unit. The tank can be unloaded into trailers either whilst the combine is stationary or working.45 cm (15 . The Grain Tank 13 Grain from the grain elevator is put into a tank built on to the combine and which is usually of sufficient size to hold between 1500 and 1750 kg (60 . Additional Attachments 15 Various devices can be fitted to combines for use in different crops and crop conditions. The Augers 11 The auger beneath the grain sieve transfers the grain.70 bushels).vn . the usual method is to reduce the inlet through which the fan draws the air.18 in. to an elevator which elevates it to either a grain tank or to a cleaning and bagging platform. In some instances it may be possible to alter the speed at which the fan rotates by fitting a different size of pulley wheel to the fan shaft.) in front of the cutter-bar. a bagging platform is provided where a man is employed sacking the grain as it is being combined. 16 Grain lifters are used when the crop has been badly laid down by the weather and they help to lift it so that it can be cut and pulled in by the reel. Also. Often. 17 Dividers of some form or other are normally fitted to the outside of the cutter-bar and their purpose is to push through the crop ahead of the cutter-bar. which at this stage should be quite free of any trash. separating the crop which is being cut from that which is standing. This is done by adjustable blanking-off plates. These lifters fit on to the cutter-bar fingers and project 38 . before the grain is sacked. the wide sieve setting will ensure that the grain can easily pass through. 9 Sieves and air blast must be set in conjunction with each other to suit a particular crop and wherever possible combining should be carried out with as much air blast as possible and with the sieves set as wide as possible. 12 The returns auger transfers any broken unthreshed heads and the like to another elevator which elevates these to a position where they can either be returned to the threshing drum for rethreshing or put back over the clean unit. and it is usual to use one per foot length of cutter-bar. approx. or by a variable-speed pulley. These dividers can be fitted with extensions for use in laid crops. The spreader may take the form of a horizontal rotating disc positioned beneath the straw outlet. 18 Straw spreaders may be fitted to the rear of the combine to spread the straw across the field as it leaves the straw walkers. English for Specific Purposes 70 http://www. This is done by a clutch-operated auger put in and out of drive by the combine operator.edu. In some cases the returns may be taken to a separate unit entirely where rethreshing is carried out if necessary and the grain is then passed back over the cleaning unit.ebook.70 8 To alter the air blast. 10 This will ensure that little trash is allowed to settle on the sieves and anything lighter in weight than the grain is blown out. This usually amounts to about half an hour‟s combining. Cleaner and Bagger 14 Where a grain tank is not used.
71 19 Chopper spreaders may be fitted at the straw outlet. Look at paragraph 2 again. This text was taken from SHIPPEN et al. Look at paragraph 15 to 21 again. What words have the same meaning as : towards the back taking up located 2. Look at paragraph 9 and 10 again.edu. Can you explain the word: bushel 9. The crop is cut by a mower so that the seed can ripen in the swath and later the swath is picked up by this attachment which passes it into the combine for threshing. Can you explain the words: trash chaff 3. 21 Grain loss-monitors may be fitted to provide the operator with a guide to the combines performance. Is this statement correct or incorrect: You won‟t get much trash on the sieves if they are set as wide as possible with a strong air blast. Are these statements correct or incorrect: The chaffer sieve is another word for the grain pan. 10. Look at paragraph 11 and 12 again. Heavy trash will always pass through the chaffer sieve. peas and trefoil seed. 20 Windrow pick-up attachments are used to pick up crops that have previously been cut by a mowing machine. They consist primarily of acoustic chambers attached to the end of the straw walkers and sieves. Any increased reading shows an increased loss of grain and vice versa.ebook. Look at paragraph 14 again. when straw leaving the combine is chopped into very short lengths and spread over the field. Look at paragraph 13 again. Grain falling on these sensors has a percussion effect which creates an electrical impulse. Look at paragraph 6 to 8 again. The returns auger trough does not receive grain. This is often done to harvest such crops as grass seed. 7..vn . Look at paragraph 3 again. Look at paragraph 5 again. Basic Farm Machinery. this in turn is relayed to a control panel and displays a reading which compares with the original setting. Pergamon Press I. Note down the purpose of having http://www. Is this statement correct or incorrect : 5. Look at the first paragraph again. Is this statement correct or incorrect: You do not use both a grain tank and a bagging platform at the same time. What word has the opposite meaning to: drops down 8. Which of these additional attachments would be English for Specific Purposes 71 ---------------------- 4. a constant air blast 6. COMPREHENSION CHECK: 1.
II. Its purpose in doing this is to provide the plant with food and energy for growth and reproduction. and potash. Rewrite the sentences in Exercise B using the new structure in order to/so as to +infinitive and the passive form as in the above example. 2.g. A plant uses sunlight. The object of doing this is to enable them to live more than one season. If a soil is very acid we can spread lime on it. 5.Some verbs in English are followed by the infinitive. 9.ebook. In countries with inadequate rainfall we irrigate the land. The reason for this is to make up for lack of natural rainfall. GRAMMAR: 1. We apply inorganic materials to the soil. 3.vn English for Specific Purposes 72 . 6. We cut ditches at certain intervals between the crops. Our aim in doing this is to encourage plant growth. We should add fertilizers or manure to the soil. 4. carrots and parsnips store food. Our purpose in doing this is to remove surface water. Our object in doing this is to increase the supply of one or more of the essential nutrients such as nitrogen. Our purpose in doing this is to correct the acidity. = Irrigation is needed in order to/so as to make up for lack up natural rainfall. Our aim in doing this is to improve the physical condition of the soil and to keep up its humus content. Expressing purpose: in order to + infinitive / so as to + infinitive E. The roots of plants such as sugar beet. = Ditches are cut at certain intervals between the crops to remove surface water Rewrite the following sentences using the passive forms of the main verbs as in the example above. 8.g We need irrigation. http://www. A plant transforms water and carbon dioxide into sugar and starch in the presence of light. Our object in doing this is to supply enough moisture for satisfactory plant growth. The reason for this is to remove surplus water from the fields. 3. We add bulky materials to the soil like animal or green manure. The purpose in using it is to combine carbon dioxide with water to form carbohydrates. Infinitive or verb-ing? Do you remember ? . 10. 2. phosphorous.72 of most use in your country ? Say which of these attachments you think would be most useful to a typical farmer and why. Expressing purpose: to-infinitive E. The reason for this is to prevent them from silting up. 1. „to‟: I want to finish my essay today.edu. Tile drains may be laid in or on the land. We should keep ditches as straight as possible and on an even gradient. 7.
........ Andrew needed his notes immediately 6.Some verbs can take both „to‟ and -ing... m...... I‟m sorry. the football match on Saturday.. the demonstration...... different kinds of fertilizer...... h..... he decided to wait a. n.. what the lecturer is saying.... 1. so and because.... I remember (= recall) meeting his brother last year. You must avoid (spill) .vn ...... . What machine do we use (plough) .....drum (n....... about cereal crops. „from‟....... Robert has not return them Now arrange your sentences into a sensible paragraph. Tomorrow I intend (discuss) . 4...): . .......... chemicals on your hands........... until midnight last night. k.... f...... using and........................... after....... d.. Robert could not attend b.......... I‟ve forgotten (bring) ..... this did not please Andrew very much 4.... he had waited for an hour e. my essay...... Would you mind (explain) . he arrived at the canteen 3. the field ? e..... I am looking forward to (study) ....... Try (understand) . Sickness prevented him from (attend) . but their meaning sometimes changes: He remembered (= did not forget) to bring his book..grain pan: trống đập lòng máng/máng trống chảo thóc English for Specific Purposes 73 http://www............ but................. I didn‟t stop (work) .... Robert was not there f.73 . The lecturer began (talk) .. Joining sentences Match the following clauses together.........concave (n.Others are followed by the -ing form: I enjoy playing football......Verbs followed by a particle like „in‟... He suggested (watch) ....edu. last night Andrew lent Robert his lecture notes 5.... agriculture..): ... that word up in your dictionary. that again ? I........ebook. the next evening he needed them 2.......... Try (look) ... etc...... b... he went to the canteen to look for Robert d... when..... Now complete the following sentences: a.... c... g.. are followed by the -ing form: He insisted on going to a film last night....... New words and expressions: ....... Robert finally arrived c...
sieve (n.inadequate rainfall: .): .): .inorganic materials: .surplus water: .adjustable: .control panel: .clutch-operated: .o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 74 http://www.even gradient: . khoảng cách luồng hơi liên tục ngăn ngừa cỏ/rác nâng lên thùng đựng hạt được điều khiển bằng bộ ly hợp màn quay khoang có độ vang bộ cảm ứng tác động gõ xung điện bảng điều khiển con mương nước lượng mưa không đủ phân bón (hóa học) phân chuồng phân xanh điều chỉnh độ chua (của đất) các chất vô cơ nước thừa độ dốc ngang nhau lượng mùn --.): .edu.vn .acoustic chambers: .): .): .electrical impulse: .prevent (v.): .separated: .): .aperture (n.): .the grain tank: .humus content: chuyển động rung về phía sau được tách ra bộ phận làm sạch sàng/rây có thể điều chỉnh được lỗ.elevate (v.sensors (n.ditch (n.): .a rearward shaking motion: .74 .to correct the acidity: .trash/chaffer (n.green manure: .percussion effect: .ebook.a constant blast of air: .rotating screen: .fertilizer (n.a cleaning unit: .manure (n.
I want to keep warm. f. We use so that + clause for purpose.. 4. 5.. B a. A 1. To . I had to go to the bank. He wore glasses and a fake beard so that nobody would recognize him.edu. c.They gave us some money to buy some food. and to . so we had to sit on the floor. 6.. b. Note that you can say “for somebody to do something”: So that .We shouted to warn everybody of the danger.“ To mail a letter. 3. She‟s learning English so that she can study in Canada... There weren‟t any chairs for us to sit on. e. . 2. I‟m wearing two sweaters.vn . What would you like for dinner? Let‟s go to the café for coffee.. I needed to get some money. I shouted to warn people of the danger. (or to cut bread) What is this switch for? What did you do that for? You can use for –ing to say what the general purpose of the thing is. I wanted to report that my car was stolen. I want to go to Canada.ebook.“Why did you go out?” . English for Specific Purposes 75 http://www. d. is also possible You can use What . I wanted to warn people of danger.. Example: 1..I need a few days to think about your proposal. I‟m saving money.” .. I went to the hospital. I had to have an operation. We use to + verb I‟m going to Spain to learn Spanish (not for learn. for? To ask about purpose: PRACTICE I. Leave early so that you won‟t miss the bus.75 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS We use to infinitive to say why somebody does something (= the purpose of an action): . . . I shouted. Use a sentence from Box A and a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence. I called the police. We use for + noun I‟m going to Spain for a vacation.A friend of mine called to invite me to a party.. The knife is only for cutting bread. not for learning) What would you like to eat? (not for eat) Let‟s go to the café to have coffee. For .
.................... I need somebody ____________ me...... III. ............................... We need a bag _____________ these things in........................... please......................................... 2. 1... “Would you like something ____________?” 5. 4....................................... She didn‟t want to be disturbed....................................... 7...... I can‟t do all this work alone.......... Complete these sentences using an appropriate verb... I hurried so that I wouldn‟t be late...................... Write sentence with so that: 1..... The door .......... 4....... I didn‟t have enough time ________________ the newspaper today........... 5................ I hurried....................... We didn‟t want to be cold........ 10......... --.. 3............... I saw Kelly at the party. but we didn‟t have a chance ______________ to each other. We want to be able to start the meeting on time. I slowed down........................................... II... I don‟t have anything nice ______________........ The man spoke very slowly....... Please .... 2......... .. The president has a team of bodyguards ____to protect____ him......................... 6....” English for Specific Purposes 76 http://www..... 3.... ........... There will be a meeting next week ________________ the problem..... She locked the door. I didn‟t have the energy __________..76 2.................... I ........ 9.o0o --“ Yes....................ebook....... I need some new clothes................. 3.................. A cap of coffee..... 6................. 5........................ 4.......................................... ........edu...................vn .............................. I wish we had enough money ________________ a new car...... ..... He wanted me to understand what he said..... I came home by taxi...................................... We wore warm clothes....... The man .... Please arrive early.......... 6..... 8.............. I wanted the car behind me to be able to pass... We wore ................. I didn‟t want to be late..
The difference is due to management. Financing covers not only borrowing money and the related questions of when. but they are nevertheless important. and how of purchasing inputs and selling commodities. where. provides the management. What exactly is management? What do managers do ? what is the difference between management and labor ? what knowledge and skills are needed to become a better manager ? Farm and ranch management There are some differences in the management of a farms or ranch and a management of a non-farm business corporation. When one person performs both the management and labor functions. Why the difference? Observation and analysis often lead to the same conclusion. The manager „make‟ or „break‟ a business. Reading text: Management is the key ingredient.77 UNIT 10: FARM MANAGEMENT I. For example.vn English for Specific Purposes 77 . but several common http://www. These differences are not readily apparent when definitions of business management and farm and ranch management are compared. It is generally easy to separate corporation employees who are managers from those who provide the labor necessary to produce a product or provide a service. Production differences include the choice of agricultural commodities to be produced and how they are produced.ebook. In a corporation. This does not mean that management was not important in the past. On a typical farm or ranch. These differences in management can show up in three areas: production. one individual or a family group sets the goals. However in agriculture which is highly mechanized. the board of directors sets policies and goals and hires managers to achieve them. Brain are more important than brawn. and the products or services produced.edu. there is a danger that the immediate need for labor to perform some task will place management in a secondary role. management takes on a new dimension and importance. There are many different textbook definitions of farm and ranch management. There is risk to be considered in all three areas – how farm managers adapt to and handle this risk can have a major impact on profit. This makes it difficult to separate the management activity from labor because the same individuals are involved and both tasks may be performed at the same time. How often have you heard these or similar statements or read them in farm magazines? They all emphasize an important factor in the operation of a farm or ranch in today‟s world. and operates with large amounts of borrowed capital. and how much. but also the entire area of how to acquire the resources necessary to produce agricultural commodities. If management is so important. Management is important. Why do some farmers make more money than others? Why do some farm businesses grow and expand while others struggle to maintain their current size? Good or bad luck can not explain all the differences observed in the profitability of farms and ranches even among those which have about the same amount of land and capital available. marketing and financing. we must ask even more questions. and performs much or all of the labor required. Marketing includes the when. where. a farmer may be mentally planning a marketing strategy or developing next year‟s cropping program while operating a tractor or combine. type of business. Other differences include the relationship between labor and management and the setting of goals. Farm business records from many states show the top one-third of the farm to be highly profitable while the bottom one-third are often operating as a loss. The obvious differences are in size. Differences here are reflected in different prices paid and received. with management decisions postpones or delayed. uses many technological innovations.
This broad definition contains several important points. 7. then. Second. and capital among alternative and usually competing uses. some mention of the organization and operation of the farm or ranch business is included in many definitions. this definition specifically identifies decisions and decision making as part of the management process. II. What words respond to the definitions: a measurement of any sort something new that is introduced physical strength money with which the business is started or expanded English for Specific Purposes 78 http://www. This allocation process forces the manager to identify goals and objectives to guide and direct the decision making.edu. Vocabulary: 1. 9. Look at the first paragraph again. 8. First. 3. as being a decision-making process. 2. Comprehension questions: 1. 6. One of the more concise definitions is „Farm management is concerned with the decisions which affect the profitability of the farm business‟. The decision are concerned with allocating the limited resources of land. labor. it identifies profitability as a major objective of the business but not necessarily to the exclusion of other objectives.ebook. While this definition is somewhat long. the following definition will be adopted: farm and ranch management is the decision-making process whereby limited resources are allocated to a number of production alternatives to organize and operate the business in such a way as to attain some objective(s). Other farm management texts contain alternative definitions but with many of the same concepts or ideas. Also some mention is made of goals or objectives.vn . 4. it does identify most of the characteristics of the management activities found on farms and ranches. Farm and ranch management can be thought of. 5. There is usually some reference to decisions or decision making as being part of management process. 10.78 points run through all of them. or a more specific goal such as profit maximization may be identified as being an important end to which the management effort is directed. It is a continual process because of the continual changes taking place in our economy and in an individual business. Why has farm management taken on a new dimension and importance ? Does luck account for the success or failure of farms ? What factor does account for the success or failure of farms ? In what three areas does the farm manager face risks ? What is different between a farm and a business corporation ? Why is it difficult to separate management and labor on a farm ? What danger does a farmer who is both manager and worker face ? What ideas do most definitions of farm management have in common ? How does the writer think of farm management ? Why does this process go on all the time ? III. Finally. In this text. This may be done in general terms.
Look at par. Make sentences from the following notes. does reach. 3. Look at par. 3. Think whether you should use the infinitive or the –ing form after the verbs. What words have the opposite meaning to: minor exclude selling lending ignorance 4. I / enjoy / listen / music. 5. 2 again. 9. 4. easy to understand put off until the later date 5. What words have the same meaning as: carries out.edu. Look at par. English for Specific Purposes 79 http://www. 4 again. 10. 6. He / not mind / work / weekends. A good farmer / try / set / objectives. at the moment working 3. What words have the same meaning as: keep present. Look at par. 5. 7. 2. giving as a share or for a purpose choice between two or more things by which IV. Peter / prevent / harvest / his crop / bad weather.vn . What words correspond to these definitions . Eg: –ing form or the infinitive ? He admitted taking my book but He agreed to lend me his book. He / want / spend / more time / study.ebook. The rain / not stop / fall / until yesterday evening.79 something that is said 2. attain employs in the mind very clear. 1. Grammar: A. he /suggest / read / chapter 5 / before / we / go / lecture. 6 again.
technological innovation: . It / no use / leave / your work / last minute. B.maintain (v.be due to: .): . 11.): .ebook.ranch (n.major objective: . He / forget / hand in / his essay / yesterday. 10.80 8.brawn (n. . Complete 4.characteristic (n. 9.): .): .allocation (n. 12. choose an –ing form. 1.apparent (adj. 13.vn . Make nouns from the following adjectives. Comparable 8. Divisible New words and expressions: .management (n.o0o --- LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Participial forms Form of participles: -ing and –ed A.the operation of a farm: .edu. There / nothing / that shop / worth / buy.the setting of goals: . I / expect / grow / more vegetables / next year. Hard 10.): sự quản lý cơ bắp việc điều hành một trang trại trại chăn nuôi sự đổi mới kỹ thuật vốn vay mượn duy trì có lợi nhuận do bởi các mặt hàng nông sản việc đặt ra mục tiêu cá nhân rõ ràng sự phân phối mục đích chính đặc điểm --. I / miss / watch / college football match / last week.): .individual (n. using –ness or –ability.): . Suitable 7. If a noun modified by a participle is the agent. Useful 5. Profitable 6.the tiring game (game is the agent of tiring) . 14. He / hope / get / good results / his examinations.borrowed capital: .an exciting speech (speech is the agent of exciting) English for Specific Purposes 80 http://www.): .agriculture commodities: .profitable (adj. Wet 9. I / not want / risk / fail / my exams. Responsible 3. Dry 2.): .
.... Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.......... surprised Everybody was surprised that he passed the exam....ebook.. An –ing form can be used when one action occurs during another action.. An –ing clause can be an explanation of its main clause.... 5........... Jim was playing tennis.......... (etc... = I‟m not interested in my job any more.. Margaret was driving to work yesterday. ..... he went to bed early....... I was watching TV.... Two kids got lost.. B. PRACTICE I....vn ........... 4..... They were hiking in the woods. An –ing form can be used when two things occur at the same time.) (the –ed adjective tells you how somebody feels about the job) interested Julia is very interested in politics......edu................. She had an accident........the bored audience (audience is NOT the agent of boring) Participle clauses A.. = My job makes me depressed.............. 2..the tired players (players is not the agent of tiring) .. surprising It was quite surprising that he passed the exam.... 3...... . choose an –ed form... C... disappointing The movie was disappointing.... He suddenly went out shouting..... The man slipped............. Feeling tired.. = I‟m always tired when I get home after work.... If a noun modified by a participle is NOT the agent...... disappointed We were disappointed in the movie. I fell asleep.. ................ She hurt herself cooking dinner. He hurt his arm......... ........... He was getting off the bus.....81 B.... Compare adjectives ending in –ing and –ed: boring interesting My job is tiring satisfying depressing = I‟m bored with my job....... English for Specific Purposes 81 http://www.. .... Make one sentence from two using an –ing phrase: 1.. We expected it to be much better............... = I‟m satisfied with my job.. We expected it to be much better.. (the –ing adjective tells you about the job) Compare these sentences: interesting Julia thinks politics is very interesting.
.................................................................................................. 6. I felt tired. So I went to bed early. .......................................................................................... 7. I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat. .......................................................................................................... 8. She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country. ................................................................................................... 9. I didn‟t know his address. So I wasn‟t able to contact him. .................................................................................................. 10. Sarah had traveled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries. ........................................................................................................... 11. The man wasn‟t able to understand English. So he didn‟t know what I wanted. .............................................................................................................................. 12. We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn‟t afford to stay in a hotel. .............................................................................................................................. II. Choose the correct word: 1. I was disappointing / disappointed in the movie. I had expected it to be better. 2. Are you interesting / interested in soccer? 3. The soccer game was quite exciting / excited. I had a great time. 4. It‟s sometime embarrassing / embarrassed when you have to ask people for money. 5. Do you get embarrassing / embarrassed easily? 6. I had never expected to get the job. I was really amazing / amazed when it was offered to me. 7. She has learned really fast. She has made astonishing / astonished progress. 8. I didn‟t find the situation funny. I was not amusing / amused. 9. It was a terrifying / terrified experience. Everybody was very shocking / shocked. 10. Why do you always look so boring / bored? Is your life really so boring / bored?
English for Specific Purposes
Further reading: WATER PUMPING SYSTEM Experimental study of the vertical-axis sail-wing
A simplified wind powered water pumping system is essential and suitable to the people in developing countries. It should be simple in design and should be made from indigenous and low cost materials, so it is cost effective and feasible for introduction to farmers. For this purpose, sail-wing windmills are the most suitable types. There are two types of sail-wing windmills. One is a horizontal-axis wind rotor and the other is a vertical-axis one. In order to determine the optimum design configuration of the rotor, various model tests were carried out in a wind-tunnel. The effects of design parameters on the aerodynamic performance of the rotor were experimentally determined. The parameters were the shape of the sail and the number of sails. On the basis of experimental studies in a wind tunnel, a full-scale windmill was fabricated. Its design has four sails of rectangular shape. Experimental studies were carried out to clarified the water discharge capability and starting characteristics of this V-axis sail-wing water pumping system. The results of the experiment show that the V-axis sail-wing water pumping system has selfstarting characteristics and the capability to pump up 25 l/m of water at 6 m/s velocity. By contrast, the Savonius-type water pumping system could pump up only 13 l/m of water at the same wind velocity. Thus it can be concluded from the performance that V-axis sail-wing windmill is suitable for water pumping systems. (adapted from the report of DEI, CHANDRAand USHIYAMA at the international workshop on AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION-CURRENT STATUS AND ISSUES OF PRIORITIES, 1998)
1. Why is this kind of water pumping system suitable for farmers in developing countries ? 2. Where do the model tests take place ? 3. How many sails has the windmill got ? What shape are they ? 4. What is the purpose of the experimental studies ? 6. The advantage of the V-axis sailing water pumping system in comparison to the Savonius-type . --- o0o ---
MECHANIZATION IN SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION - DEVELOPMENT OF SEED CANE PLANTER Sugar cane is one of the sweet source producing crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Sugar cane is grown as one of the main crops in south-east islands of Kagoshima and Okinawa which locate the most southern part of Japan, and contributed to the development of regional agricultural industries. Recently, the number of farmers decreased in sugar cane production region and the cultivated area or the yield of sugar cane tends to decrease. For sugar cane production, many kinds of operations are required such as tilling, planting, weed control, applying pesticide, harvesting, leaf stripping and conditioning. The mechanization of each operation has been demanded and tilling, maintenance of the field and harvesting operation have been mechanized, and the working hour has gradually decreased while the growing area per farm household has increased in these several years. But the seed-cane planting has not mechanized which shares nearly 20% of the whole working hours for sugar English for Specific Purposes
cane production. Therefore, to develop the full automatic seed-cane planter, a prototype machine was developed and the planting performance was evaluated.
The first step for planting sugar cane is to prepare the seed-cane which is cut from the stem in the length of 20 to 30 cm generally containing two buds. After tilling and making groove on field, seed-canes are put horizontally at the bottom of the groove and covered with soil at the depth of around 20 to 30 cm. Some parts of the seed-cane planting operation is mechanized as the one or two additional operator should ride on a planting machine which is called semi-automatic planter. The aiming of this research is to develop a full automatic seed-cane planter with any additional operator. This system enables to operate all of the planting procedure such as tilling soil, seed-cane planting, covering soil and mulching by one operator who is driving a tractor. This research may contribute to the establishment of the mechanized sugar cane production from planting through harvesting. In this research, a feeding mechanism of two buds-seedcane was developed and evaluated. With the results obtained in a laboratory test, field tests were carried out mounting the developed system behind tractor and rotary tiller.
Materials and methods
The seed-cane variety used in this test was Nco310 and the 20 cm seed-cane were cut from the sugar cane stem of 150 to 180 cm length. The average diameter of the seed-canes was 2.1 cm and weight was 77.3 g. The schematic diagram of the tested seed-cane feeding mechanism is shown in the Fig. below. The seed-canes are kept in hopper which can hold 500 seed-canes and are shaken by the board for the smooth feeding to the rotating roll. The seedcane are fed downward by a couple of rolls (20cm diameter and 30cm length) to the groove conveyor and then carried to the planting outlet. At the lower end of the shaking board, 12 links of chains are attached to assist the smooth feeding of seed-canes. The board was shaken by a cam attached on roll shaft and they shook 3 times per one rotation of the roll. The roll was made of urethane rubber. A guide plate was mounted under the roll to ensure seed-canes filling in conveyor groove. The under cover of the conveyor was supported by coil spring. The outlet height was designed to be 30cm from the bottom regarding the conventional planting method. A VS motor was used for driving the roll and the conveyor at laboratory experiment. (adapted from the reports at the International Workshop of Agricultural Mechanization Current Situation and Issues of Priorities, 1998)
1. Where is sugar cane grown ? Do you know anywhere in Vietnam growing sugar cane as one of the main crops ? 2. What kinds of operation are required in sugar cane production ? Which operation has not been mechanized ? 3. How are seed-canes planted in the groove ? 4. How are seed-canes fed to the groove ? What assist the smooth feeding of seed-canes 5. What was the roll made of ?
English for Specific Purposes
 Allen, J.P.B. & Windowson, H.G. (1974), English in Focus: English in Agriculture, OUP, Oxford.  Bates, M. & Dudley-Evans, A. (1976), Nucleus: General Science, Longman.  Barden, H. & Parrish (1987), Plant Science, McGraw-Hill.  Buckett (1980), Introduction to Livestock Husbandry, Pergamon Press.  Candlin, C.N. (1984), “Syllabus Design as a Critical Process” in Language Learning and Education, C.J.Brumfit (ed.), 1984a.  Carroll, B.J. (1980), Testing Communicative Performance, Pergamon.  Chitravelu, N. (1980), “English for Special Purposes Project” in ELT Documents 107, British Council.  Close, R.A. (1965), The English We Use for Science, Longman.  Coffey, B. (1980), “English for Academic Purposes”, Paper presented at the Regional Language Centre (R.E.L.C), Singapore, Seminar, March 1980.  Coffey, B. (1984), “ESP-English for Specific Purposes” in Language Teaching Vol.17, No.I, January 1984, Cambridge University Press.  Crymes, R.H. (1978), The Developing Art of TESOL: Theory and Practice in C.H. Blatchford and J. Schachter, Washington D.C.  Denny, S. ,Kerr, L., Phillips, M., Shettlesworth, C. (1985), Agriculture, Nucleus, Longman.  Ewer, J.R & Latorre, G. (1967), “Preparing an English Course for Students of Science” in English Language Teaching Journal, Vol. 21, 3, 1967, pp.221 - 229.  Ewer, J.R. & Latorre, G. (1969), A Course in Scientific English, Longman.  Ewer, J.R. (1971), “Further Notes on Developing an English Programme for Students of Science and Technology” in English Language Teaching, Vol. 15, No. I, 1971, pp. 65 - 70.  Ewer, J.R. & Hughes-Davies, E. (1972), “Further Notes on Preparing an English Programme for Students of Science and Technology” in English Teaching Journal, Vol. 26, 3, 1972, pp. 269 - 273.  Halliday, M.A.K., McIntosh, A. & Strevens, P. (1964), The Linguistic Sciences and language Teaching, London, Longman, pp. 190.  Halliday, M.A.K. (1969), “Existing Research and Future Work” in Language for Special Purposes, CILT Reports and Papers No. I, CILT, 1969.  Herbert, A.J. (1965), The Structure of Technical English, Longman.  Holliday, A. & Cooke, T. (1988), “An Ecological Approach to ESP”, ELT Journal, Vol. 42/2, April 1988, Oxford University Press.  Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A. (1989), English for Specific Purposes: A LearningCentred Approach, CUP, Cambridge.  Huxley, P. & Van Housten, H. (1997), Glossary for Agroforestry, International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, English Press, Nairobi, Kenya.
English for Specific Purposes
and Mountford. “The Need for Close Integration of Components in ESP Programs” in The ESP Journal.  Mackay. (1978). R. H. No. “Some Linguistics and Functional Aspects of an English Course for Students in Agriculture”.P.H. (1976). R. 28 . S.v). J. June 1984.11983. “A Note On Language Skills”.  Jordan. in CILT Reports and Papers No. (1984). R. “Identifying the Nature of the Learner‟s Needs” in Mackay. Paper presented at Dartmouth House.C. Vol. L. Oxford: Pergamon.  Van Ek.D. (1977). W.21 . Paper Delivered at the 4th Annual Seminar of Association of Professors of English in Iran. P.  Munby.  Rudebject.M. Kerr. British Council. 1977). pp. (1972).17th March 1974. Lewis Publishers. (eds. & Mountford.) (q. & Denny. and Grymes. pp. Guiding Learning Agroforestry.A.ICRA. (1999). Pergamon Press. London. (1981).  Widdowson.  Waters. 6th ed.  Mackay. Issues in ESP. J. A. (1977). 15 . Introduction to Crop Husbandry.  Lockhart & Wiseman (1988).  Mackay. R.2. “English for Specific Purposes: Criteria for Course English for Specific Purposes 86 http://www.  Munby. & Fernandes. P. C. Newburry House. C. & Palmer.  Widdoson. J.59. in Cowie and Heaton.ebook. English for Specific Purposes.  Joy & Wibberley (1979). K. Language for Specific Purposes: Program Design and Evaluation. 58 . in Holden (ed. P.vn . Collins ELT: London and Glasgow. (1978). Identification of Problems and Needs: a Student Profile. R. J.L. J. (1977). (1980).86  James. ESP: The Current Position. ICRA. Buck.  Robinson.edu. R.  Phillips.20. J. “The Helpful EST Teacher” in ELT Documents 112. 13 15.. (1981).. (1982). Pergamon Press. A. 14th .. (1981). Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural System.8..G.  Mc Donough.G. (eds) on TESOL‟ 76 TESOL.  Morrow.22.  Smith. “The Authenticity of Language Data”. (1999). CRC Press LLC. in Fanselow. E. (1998). Washington D.32.R. September 1972. (1978). (1975).v. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.C.F. (1983). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cassel  Lassoie.V.  Robinson. A Tropical Agriculture Handbook. (1974). “The Promise and Perils of Computerized Instruction”.  Mackay. ESP in Perspectives . Longman. Pergamon Press.) (q.L. E. How Agroforestry is Taught in Southeast Asia. 12 . R. “Authentic tests and ESP”. Bogota.  Rudebject. pp. F. & Del Castillo. “Processing Profiles of Communicative Needs” in the British Council. A. pp.37.G.A Practical Guide. pp. British Council. Threshold Level English. M. J.. H. Shettesworth. R. pp. (1984).
C. Syllabus Design in General Education.J. in English for Academic and Technical Purposes: Studies in Honor of Louis Trimble.vn . Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching.).ebook. (1987). English for Specific Purposes 87 http://www. . (1984). E. Selinker. J. (1987).  Yalden. V.  Yalden. Tarone.  Yates. & Hanzel. J. UK: Cambridge University Press. Pergamon Press.edu.87 Design". L. 1984a. Newburry House. Agricuture.St.J. (eds.Brumfit. in C. Canbridge.
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