solid mensuration

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solid mensuration

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SOLID MENSURATION

Lec 2

Outline of the Syllabus

I. Review of Plane Figures

II. Planes and Angles in Space

III. Polyhedrons and Prisms

IV. Pyramids

V. Prismatoids and Truncated Prisms

VI. Cylinders

VII. Cones

VIII. Spheres

References:

1. Solid Mensuration by Jay P. Enriquez, Sergio M. Ymas Jr., Reynaldo Jesuitas

2. Solid Mensuration by Jonathan B. Cabero, Donata D. Acula, Lorina G. Salamat, Antonina C. Sta.

Maria

Outline of the Syllabus

I. Review of Plane Figures

1. Mensuration Formulas of Triangles

2. Mensuration Formulas of Quadrilaterals

3. Mensuration Formulas of Other Regular Polygons

4. Mensuration Formulas on Ellipses and Circles

5. Mensuration of Formulas on Arcs Sectors on Circles

6. Mensuration of Formulas on Similar Figures

References:

1. Solid Mensuration by Jay P. Enriquez, Sergio M. Ymas Jr., Reynaldo Jesuitas

2. Solid Mensuration by Jonathan B. Cabero, Donata D. Acula, Lorina G. Salamat, Antonina C. Sta.

Maria

Review of Plane Figures

A. Mensuration Formulas of Other Regular Polygons

B. Mensuration Formulas on Ellipses and Circles

C. Mensuration of Formulas on Arcs Sectors on Circles

D. Mensuration of Formulas on Similar Figures

Review of Plane Figures

A. Regular Polygons (both equilateral & equiangular polygon)

1. Regular Hexagon (consists of

six equal equilateral triangles) r

P = 6s R=s

A = 3√3 s2 R

2 r = s√3 r = apothem

2

2. Regular Octagon (consist of eight equal isosceles triangles

P = 8s R= s

2 r

r = (√2 + 1) s

2 = √2 (2+ √2)

A = 2 (√2 + 1) s2 2

R

apothem - a line segment from the center to the midpoint of one of its sides

- line drawn from the center of the polygon that is perpendicular to one of its sides

Review of Plane Figures

A. Regular Polygons (both equilateral & equiangular polygon)

The area of any regular polygon can be calculated easily when the

number and length of its sides are given.

POLYGON NO. OF SIDES (n) AREA

Equilateral Triangle 3 0.433s2

Square 4 1.000s2

Regular Pentagon 5 1.720s2

Regular Hexagon 6 2.598s2

Regular Heptagon 7 3.634s2

Regular Octagon 8 4.828s2

Regular Nonagon 9 6.182s2

Regular Decagon 10 7.694s2

Regular Undecagon 11 9.366s2

Regular Dodecagon 12 11.196s2

Regular Pentadecagon 15 17.642s2

Review of Plane Figures

Convex Polygon of n Sides

Each interior angle of a regular polygon of sides

2

= (1- n

) 180 °

Sum of the interior angles = (n-2)180°

Sum of the exterior angles = 360 °

Ellipse

A = π ab a

a = semi-major axis

B = semi-minor axis b

Circle

A circle is a set of points equidistant from a fixed point within

the center.

πd2 Cr d = 2r

A= πr2 = =

4 2

C = 2πr = πd 2A

=

r

Review of Plane Figures

C. Arcs and Sectors on Circles

Important application of a radian measure

-Stated in an elementary theorem in geometry

“On a circle of radius r, a central angle ( an angle whose vertex is the center

of the circle) of θ radius intercepts an arc whose length is equal to the

product of θ and r.”

s = rθ, θ in radians

Equivalent formulas

θ = s/r , θ in radians

r = s/θ

Review of Plane Figures

Areas of Sectors of Circle

Sector

-a part of a circle between two radii with the given central angle

Area of a Circle

A = πr2 = 1 ( 2π ) r2 , where 2π is the angle for the

θ 2 complete circle

r

Area of a sector of a circle of radius r

A = 1 r2θ

2

θ – denotes the central angle of the circle in radian

measure

Review of Plane Figures

D. Similar Figures

If the corresponding angles in two figures are equal, it only means that

they have the same shape though not necessarily of the same size. Such

relation ships is called similar figures.

Two segments are proportional if there exists a positive integer

k, such that the length of one segment is k times the length of the other.

correspondence exists between the figures in such a way that every

segment in the first has a length that is k times that of its corresponding

segment in the other.

Example:

If length L1 = 12 and L2 = 18 then there L1

exists an integer k = 6 (common

factor)such that the ratio of the two L2

lengths is 2:3.

Review of Plane Figures

D. Similar Figures

Example:

i. ΔABC ~ ΔA’B’C

ii. rt. ΔCMN ~ rt. ΔCM’N’

C C

A’ B’ M’ N’

A B N

M

Two polygons are similar (~)

if their corresponding angles are equal and their corresponding sides are

proportional.

Review of Plane Figures

D. Similar Figures

A Example:

B’ E’ ABCDE ~ AB’C’D’E’

B E i. ABC = AB’C’

C’ D’

BCD = B’C’D’

BAE = B’A’E’

C D

ii. AB BC CD DE

= = =

AB’ B’C’ C’D’ D’E’

Planes and Angles in Space

A. Lines and Planes in Space

B. Locus

C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles

Planes and Angles in Space

A. Lines and Planes in Space

Plane

- A surface such that a straight line joining any two points in it lies

wholly in the surface

- Understood to be indefinite in extent, but usually represented by a

parallelogram lying in the plane

- May be designated by a single small letter at one vertex or two

capital letters at opposite vertices

A plane is determined by any one of the following conditions:

a. a line and a point not on the line

b. three noncollinear points

c. two intersecting lines

d. two parallel lines

Postulate 2.1.2.

If two planes intersect, their intersection is a line.

Planes and Angles in Space

A. Lines and Planes in Space

•Theorems on Perpendicular Lines and Planes

Theorem 2.1.1.

If a line is perpendicular to each of two other lines at their

point of intersection, it is perpendicular to the plane of the

two lines.

Theorem 2.1.2.

All perpendiculars to a line at a point lie in the plane, which is

perpendicular to the line at a given point.

Theorem 2.1.3.

At a given point on a line, only one plane perpendicular to the line can be drawn.

Theorem 2.1.4.

At a given external point, one and only one plane can be drawn perpendicular to a line.

Theorem 2.1.5.

Through a given point; there can be one and one plane perpendicular to a given plane.

Corollary 2.1.1.

The perpendicular line is the shortest line from a point to a plane.

Planes and Angles in Space

A. Lines and Planes in Space

•Theorems on Parallel Lines and Planes

A line and a plane are parallel if they cannot meet, far

they are produced. Some essential theorems on parallel lines

planes are as follows:

Theorem 2.1.6.

Two lines perpendicular to the same plane are parallel.

Theorem 2.1.7.

Any plane containing one of two parallel line is parallel to the

other.

Theorem 2.1.8.

If a line is parallel to a plane, the intersection of a plane with

any plane passed through the given line is parallel to the line.

Theorem 2.1.9.

Two planes perpendicular to the same line are parallel.

Theorem 2.1.10.

If a third plane intersects each of two parallel planes, the lines intersection

are parallel.

Planes and Angles in Space

A. Lines and Planes in Space

•Theorems on Parallel Lines and Planes

Theorem 2.1.11.

The line perpendicular to one of two parallel planes is

perpendicular to the other also.

Theorem 2.1.12.

If two intersecting lines are parallel to a plane, the plane

of these lines is parallel to that plane.

Theorem 2.1.13.

If two angles not in the same plane have their sides respectively

parallel and lying on the same side of the line joining their

vertices, they are equal, and their planes are parallel.

Planes and Angles in Space

Locus

Locus in three-dimensional space, as well as in two-dimensional

plane is defined

- geometric figure which contains only those points which

satisfies certain conditions that contain all such points.

• Locus in Plane

a. The locus of points at a given distance from

given point is a circle having the given point as

center and the distance as radius.

given line is a pair of lines parallel to the given

line and at same distance from it.

points is the perpendicular bisector of the line

segment, joining the two points.

Planes and Angles in Space

Locus

• Locus in Plane

d. The locus of points equidistant from the sides of an angle is a line, which is the

bisector of the angle

e. The locus of the vertex of a right triangle having a given hypotenuse is the circle

having the hypotenuse as its diameter.

Planes and Angles in Space

Locus

• Locus in Space

a. The locus of points at a given distance from a

given point is a sphere having the given point as

a center and the distance as radius.

given plane is a pair of planes parallel to a

given plane at the same distance from it.

Planes and Angles in Space

Locus

• Locus in Space

c. The locus of points equidistant from two

points is the plane, which is the perpendicular

bisector of the line joining the two points.

intersecting planes is the plane, which is the

bisector of the angle between them.

Planes and Angles in Space

Locus

• Locus in Space

e. The locus of the vertex of a right triangle having given hypotenuse is the sphere

having the hypotenuse as its diameter.

Planes and Angles in Space

C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles

• Dihedral Angle A

- the opening between two intersecting planes.

• Edge – the line of intersection CB of the plane D

edge

• Faces – the planes DC and AB face

face

B C

- Designated by its edge or by its two faces and its edge

Thus, the dihedral angle of the figure is designated by A

B

A-BC-D, or when no confusion arises, simply by BC.

C D

Planes and Angles in Space

C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles

• Dihedral Angle A

The plane angle of a dihedral angle is the angle

formed by two straight lines, one in each face, D

perpendicular to the edge at the same point.

B C

Adjacent dihedral angles are dihedral angles which

a have the same edge and a common face between them.

Example:

C-AB-D and D-AB-E are adjacent dihedral angles. C

D

B

A E

Planes and Angles in Space

C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles

• Dihedral Angle

Right dihedral angles

-when one plane meets another to form equal adjacent

dihedral angles

When one plane forms a right dihedral angle with

one another, the planes are perpendicular to each other.

- are dihedral angles that have the same edge and the

faces of one are prolongation of the faces of the other.

Planes and Angles in Space

C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles

• Polyhedral Angle

- A figure formed by three or more planes meeting at a common point

• Faces – are the intersecting planes

• Edges – are the lines of intersection of the faces

• Vertex – is the point of intersection of the edges

• Face angles – are the angles at the vertex formed by any two adjacent edges

• Dihedral angles of the polyhedral angle – are the dihedral angles formed

by the intersecting faces

• Section – formed if a plane cuts all faces of the polyhedral angle (but not at

the vertex) V

F E

A D

C

B

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