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# Second Law of Thermodynamics in Isochoric Process

by

A Research Paper

at

## October 11, 2017

This research discusses the Second Law of Thermodynamics or also known as Entropy in
its Isochoric Process. The Laws of Thermodynamics describe the relationships between thermal
energy, or heat, and other forms of energy, and how energy affects matter.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is about the quality of energy. The Second Law of
Thermodynamics can be stated in several equivalent ways, one of which states that as energy is
transferred or transformed, more and more of it is wasted. Second Law of Thermodynamics also
states that there is a natural tendency of any isolated system to degenerate into a more disordered
state. Greater the disorder, greater the entropy. The Entropy for gas is greater than that for solid
and liquid. More complex structures have greater entropy. Heat energy flows spontaneously from
a hot object to a cold object but not vice versa. It is impossible to construct a heat engine which is
100% efficient. Thus, a heat engine can convert some of the input heat into useful work, but the
rest must be exhausted as waste heat. The entropy of an isolated system never decreases. It can
only stay the same or increase.

## An Isochoric Process is a thermodynamic process in which the volume remains constant.

Therefore, W = P ∆𝑉 = 0 and Q = ∆𝑈.

In applying the Second Law of Thermodynamics in Isochoric Process, the researcher found
that:

dQ
dQ = CVdT ; dS =
T

dQ = TdS

TdS = CvdT

CvdT
dS = T

S2 T2
dT
∫ dS = Cv ∫
T
S1 T1

𝑇2
𝑆2 − 𝑆1 = Cvln
𝑇1

𝑇2
∆S = Cvln
𝑇1