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SUMMER CIRCUITSCOLLECTION

12V-to-24V Converter 034


BF494
BF450 BUZ11
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BF451
BUZ20
R3 R1 R2 R4 R5 R6
C5 L2
1k2

68k

68k

1k2

2k2

3k3
1000µ
16V 65µH

C B G S
T3 T4
R10 E D
6k8
D3
T5
SB560

*
C2 2x D2 BF494 L1
270p BC557 BAT85
T8
K1 C1 K2
+12V R8 +24V
470p 1k
C3
T2 33p T1 T6
0 0
BUZ11
≤ 3A3 BUZ20
2x T7
BF494 C7 C6 C4
BF451

R7 R9 470µ 470µ 100n


D1
35V 35V
BC547
15k

4k7

10V

500mW
014025 - 11

G. Baars
014025-1

This DC-to-DC converter delivers a maxi-


H1

H4

C3 C2 C1
R8

R6
R5

R2
R3

R1
R4
D2

T7 T3 T4
mum power of about 36 watts at an effi-
ciency of 90%. Apart from a modern FET and
R10

a Schottky diode, this circuit is comprised


R7

R9
D1

T5 T2 T1
C6
entirely of familiar and inexpensive parts. In
T6
spite of this, the specifications are excellent:
D3 L1

L2
– Efficiency: approx 90%
2

– Ripple voltage: max. 10 mV


0 K1
– Output current: max. 1.5 A
C5 C4
1-520410 T8 K2 0 – Switching frequency: 40 kHz
C7
H3

H2

ROTKELE )C(
– Input voltage: 12 V
– Output voltage: 24 V regulated

The switching element is a fast power FET


(T8). This FET has a relatively high input
capacitance and is switched on and off by a
push/pull stage consisting of two RF transis-
tors (T5/T6). Schottky-diode D2 increases
turn-off speed even further, which is crucial
here because we are aiming to obtain the
highest possible efficiency.
The switching signal is provided by a sim-
ple multivibrator, which is also made from
014025-1 two RF-transistors (T1/T2). Difference ampli-
(C) ELEKTOR
fier T3/T4 has been added to obtain a regu-

70 Elektor Electronics 7-8/2001


SUMMER CIRCUITSCOLLECTION

lated output voltage of 24 V. COMPONENTS LIST 10 mm dia., no core


L2 is an off the shelf 5 A suppressor choke with a self- L2 = 65 µH/5 A suppressor
inductance of 65 µH. L1 is part of the output filter, the pur- Resistors: coil (ring core)
R1,R2 = 68kΩ
pose of which is to eliminate RF noise. This is an air-cored Semiconductors:
R3,R4 = 1kΩ2
coil, which you can easily make yourself by winding 25 R5 = 2kΩ2 D1 = zener diode 10V
turns of 0.5 mm dia. enamelled copper wire around a R6 = 3kΩ3 500mW
10 mm diameter drill. Because of the high efficiency, the R7 = 15kΩ D2 = BAT85
dissipation of T8 remains smaller than about 3.6 W so a R8 = 1kΩ D3 = SB650 (PBYR745)
R9 = 4Ωk7 T1,T2,T5 = BF494
modest heatsink of about 10 K/W will suffice. It is advisable T3,T4 = BC557
R10 = 6kΩ8
that the 12 V input supply includes a fast fuse, rated about T6 = BF450 (BF451)
3.5 A. Capacitors: T7 = BC547
Considering that the duty cycle has a substantial effect on C1 = 470pF T8 = BUZ11 (BUZ20)
the efficiency, a second capacitor (C3) has been added in C2 = 270pF
C3 = 33pF Miscellaneous:
parallel with C2. The optimum setting can be determined K1,K2 = PCB terminal
C4 = 100nF
by varying this additional capacitor. C5 = 1000µF 16V radial block, lead pitch 5mm
The remaining components are not at all critical. Any 5 A C6,C7 = 470µF 35V radial Heatsink, e.g., Fischer
suppressor choke will work for L2, any 5 A Schottky-diode ICK35SA (Dau
for D3 and just about any power MOSFET for T8 (BUZ10, Inductors: Components)
L1 = 25 turns 0.5 dia. ECW, PCB, order code 014025-1
BUZ20, BUZ100).
(014025-1)

Active PC Loudspeaker 035


P. Lay +12V
R3
120k
C3 C4
With the well-known TDA2030V integrated R2
120k

power amplifier in the Pentawatt package, it 220µ 25V 220n

is easy to ‘activate’ a PC loudspeaker or D1


IC1
upgrade the quality of an inexpensive active L C1
5
1 1N
loudspeaker. The TDA2030 combines ease of 4 4004
C7
2µ2
use with low levels of harmonic and 63V 2
D2 R4 2200µ
25V LS1
crossover distortion, and it is also incorpo- 3
100k

TDA2030 1N
rates short circuit and thermal overload pro- 4004
tection. P1a R5 R6
4...8Ω
No creative brilliance is needed to arrive at
4k7

1Ω5

R1
the circuit shown in Figure 1, which is prac- C2
120k

47k C5 C6
tically the same as the standard application 22µ 40V
2µ2 63V 330n
circuit for single-supply operation as shown
in the device data sheet from its manufac- to right channel 014039 - 11

turer, ST Microelectronics:
http://us.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/
docs/1458.pdf . the amplifier in the high frequency range. The load is con-
The two resistors R1 and R3 set the operating point of the nected via the output electrolytic capacitor C7. In the data
amplifier, and the non-inverting input is biased via R2. The sheet, you can see which parameters change if you ‘play
audio signal reaches the power opamp via C1. The gain is around’ with the values of the resistors and capacitors.
determined by the ratio of R5 to R4. Capacitor C5, like C1, Any individual speaker with an impedance of 4 to 8 Ω or a
affects the lower roll-off frequency. The two diodes protect multi-way loudspeaker can be connected to the output. The
the IC against positive and negative spikes in the output maximum achievable power is 6 to 12 W, so a heat sink with
signal. The RC network C6/R6 ensures stable operation of a thermal resistance of 8.3 K/W to 4.2 K/W is mandatory.
(014039-1)

7-8/2001 Elektor Electronics 71