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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BELGAUM-590 018

DISSERTATION
on
“EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF WATER-CEMENT
RATIO ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT OF POND ASH REPLACED
CONCRETE”
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of Degree

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
CIVIL STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
by
NAVEEN KUMAR B M
1SJ11CSE12

Under the guidance of

INTERNAL GUIDE EXTERNAL GUIDE


Dr. G Narayana Prof. Bharathi Ganesh
Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department Global Academy of Technology
S.J.C Institute of Technology

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


S.J.C.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
P.B.NO. 20, B.B ROAD, CHICKBALLAPUR -562101
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Completion of any task is very much incomplete without thanking the persons responsible
for its great success.
I express my sincere gratitude to Byravaikya Paramapoojya Jagadguru, Padma Bhushana
Sri Sri Sri Dr. BALAGANGADHARANATHAMAHA SWAMIJI, for his blessings.
I also express my deep sense of sincere gratitude to Parama Poojya Jagadguru Sri Sri Sri
NIRMALANANDANATHA MAHASWAMIJI , President, Adichunchanagiri Maha
Samsthana Math.
My thanks are due, for Dr. T. MunikencheGowda, Principal, SJC Institute of Technology
Chickaballapur and also the management for providing the required facilities for the
execution of the project.
I am immensely grateful to external guide Prof. Bharathi Ganesh, Department of Civil
Engineering Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore for her constant involvement,
discussions, valuable guidance and suggestions throughout project work which enabled me
to complete dissertation work.

I thank Internal guide Dr. G Narayana, Professor and Head, Department of Civil
Engineering, SJC Institute of Technology , Chickaballapur for his guidance during this
work. He has been very kind and helpful to me during the entire course of the study.
My sincere thanks to Dr. H. Sharada Bai, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, UVCE,
Bangalore University, Bangalore for her timely guidance during the project work.

My heartfelt thanks are due for their timely support in respect of this dissertation work in the
form of sponsoring materials Cement, Admixture, Pond Ash. Dr. V.Ramachandra, Vice
President- Technical, Ultratech Cement Ltd Bangalore, Mr. Dileep. S. Rangaraj
Regional Sales Manager, BASF Const. Chemical Pvt Ltd. , Mr. Shreedhar Revankar,
Asst. Manager – Tech services, BASF Const. Chemical Pvt Ltd. , Mr. Mrithyunjaya, Chief
Engineer – Civil, RTPS – Raichur , Mr. A.Chandrashekhar, Executive Engineer – Mech,
RTPS – Raichur.
I am very much thankful to Sri.Hattiappa and Sri.Kumara Swamy, Concrete lab, Civil
Engineering Department, S JC Institute of Technology for helping us in the laboratory.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the faculty members, Department of Civil Engineering, S J C


Institute of Technology, Chickaballapura for their kind support.

I am much more grateful to my Parents, Friends and All Well Wishers who have helped me
directly or indirectly for the successful completion of this Project.

I owe all I have learnt and the resulting success to the above mentioned people and
express my happiness in being associated with them.

NAVEEN KUMAR B M

1SJ11CSE12

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ABSTRACT

Title: Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Strength


Development of Pond Ash Replaced Concrete
Common river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from natural resources.
Also large scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. In such a situation
the pond ash can be an economical alternative to the river sand. Pond ash can be defined as
residue and by-product of thermal power plant stations to form fine particles less than 4.75 mm.
Usually, Pond ash is used in a large scale for manufacturing of bricks. This study reports the
results of some experimental studies on the use of pond ash as Fine Aggregate (FA) in concrete.
Superplasticiser is used to obtain the workability of concrete with lower water cement ratio. The
pond ash is replaced by 100 % weight in concrete as replacement of Fine Aggregate.
Experiments were carried out to determine the compressive strength of pond ash replaced
concrete in comparison with those of conventional concrete made with natural river sand as fine
aggregate.
This experimental work consisting of study of pond ash concrete i.e concrete with pond ash as
fine aggregate in it, replacing natural river sand fully by weight. The fresh property and
compressive strength of pond ash concrete for 3 cement contents is taken up to study the effect
of changing w/c on the compressive strength of mixes. Pond ash from Raichur Thermal Power
Station (RTPS), Raichur, Karnataka, is selected for the study.
The samples of pond ash from Raichur Thermal Power Plant – RTPS was collected as per IS
6491 - 1972. Detailed Characterization of pond ash and all other materials used for the
investigation was carried out as per relevant codes of practice. Design of concrete mix based on
the material properties as per IS10262 -2009 was done and design mix was arried by extensive
trials with only sand as fine aggregate (Normal Mix – NC) and design mix with only pond ash as
fine aggregate i.e,. PARC - replacing sand with for pond ash fully by weight. The workability of
fresh concretes – NC and PARC was studied using slump test as per IS: 1199 – 1959 for the
required slump and casting of specimens as per the standard procedures. Study the compressive
strength of the NC and PARC mixes for three cement contents of 415, 375 and 350 kg/m3 by
varying the water cement ratio – w/c ratio from 0.45 to 0.36 at curing periods of 3, 7, 28, 56 and
90 days.

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ABBREVIATIONS

 RTPS - Raichur Thermal Power Station

 PARC - Pond Ash Replaced Concrete

 NC – Normal Concrete

 LBD - Loose Bulk Density

 RBD - Rodded Bulk Density

 CA - Coarse Aggregate

 FA - Fine Aggregate

 fck – Characteristic Compressive Strength

 f´ck - Target mean compressive strength

 s- Standard deviation N/mm²

 SEM - Scanning Electron Microscopy

 XRD - X-ray Diffraction Analysis

 CR1 - The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength

 CR2 - The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength

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INDEX

Sl No CONTENTS PAGE NO.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-9
1.1 General 1-2
1.2 Alternative Materials for Fine Aggregate 2
1.2.1 Crushed Rock Powder 2-3
1.2.2 Recycled Concrete Aggregates 3

1.2.3 Fly Ash 3


1.2.4 Pond Ash 3-6
1.3 Materials used for Concrete 6
1.3.1 Cement 6
1.3.2 Aggregate 6
1.3.3 Water 6
1.3.4 Admixtures 6
1.3.4.1 Mineral Admixtures 7-8
1.3.4.2 Chemical Admixtures 8-9
1.4 Present Study 9

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 10-19

3.0 AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION 20-22


3.1 General 20
3.2 Aim and Objectives of the Present Investigation 20-21
3.3 Scope of the Work 21
3.4 Parameters of the Study 21-22
3.5 Report Organisation 22
INDEX

4.0 CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS AND MIX


DESIGN PROCEDURES 23-48
4.1 General 23
4.2 Characteristics of Materials of Concrete 23
4.2.1 Cement 23
4.2.1.1 Tests on Cement 23
4.2.2 Aggregate 23
4.2.2.1 Fine Aggregate 23-24
4.2.2.1.1 Tests on Aggregate 24-26
4.2.2.2 Coarse Aggregate 26-27
4.2.2.3 Pond Ash 27-30
4.3 Superplasticizer 30
4.4 Dosage 30
4.5 Water 30
4.6 Mix Proportioning Procedures 31
4.6.1 Requirements of Concrete Mix Design 31-32
4.6.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of mix proportions 32
4.6.2.1 Compressive Strength 32
4.6.2.2 Workability 32
4.6.2.3 Durability 32
4.6.2.4 Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregate 32
4.6.2.5 Grading and Type of Aggregate 32-33
4.6.2.6 Quality Control 33
4.6.3 Mix Design Procedures 33
4.6.3.1 Definition 33
4.6.3.2 Principal Factors Considered in Concrete Mix Design 33
4.6.4 Data for Mix Proportioning 33-34
4.6.5 Process of Concrete Mix Design 34
4.6.6 Mix Proportions 34
4.6.6.1 Target Mean Compressive Strength for Mix Proportioning 34-35
INDEX

4.6.6.2 Water-Cement Ratio 35


4.6.6.3 Water Content 35-36
4.6.6.4 Use of Water Reducing Admixture 36-37
4.6.6.5 Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Proportion 37
4.6.6.6 Combination of Different Sizes of Coarse Aggregate Fractions 37
4.6.6.7 Estimation of Fine Aggregate Proportion 37
4.6.6.8 Trial Mixes 37
4.6.6.8.1 Trial Mix No.1 38
4.6.6.8.2 Trial Mix No.2 38
4.6.7 Mix Design – Specimen Calculation as per IS:10262-2009 38-40
4.7 Details of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test and its Size and
Shape
41
4.7.1 Size and Shape of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test 41-42

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS AND


DISCUSSION
43-62
5.1 Introduction 43
5.2 Fresh Properties of PARC and NC 43
5.2.1 Workability of Concrete 43
5.2.1.1 Slump Test 43-46
5.2.1.2 Discussion on Slump Test 46
5.2.2 Flow Test 46-48
5.2.2.1 Discussion on Workability of Mixes 49
5.3 Compression Strength Test 50
5.3.1 Size of Test Specimens 50
5.3.2 Cube Moulds 50
5.3.3 Compacting 50
5.3.3.1 Compacting by Hand 50
5.3.2.2 Compacting by Vibration 51
INDEX

5.3.4 Curing 51-52

5.3.5 Results of Compressive Strength Test 52-60


5.3.6 Discussions on Results – Compressive Strength 61-62

6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK 63-64

6.1 Conclusions 63
6.2 Scope for Future Study 64
REFERENCES 65-68
PHOTO GALLERY 69-73
LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate 25
Table 4.2 Grading Zones for Fine Aggregates 26
Table 4.3 Physical properties of Fine Aggregate 26
Table 4.4 Properties of Coarse Aggregates 27
Table 4.5 Physical properties of Coarse aggregate 28
Table 4.6 Chemical Properties of Pond Ash 28
Table 4.7 Maximum Water Content per Cubic for Nominal Maximum Size of
Aggregate 36
Table 4.8 Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for
different zones of fine aggregate 36
Table 4.9 Mix Proportion for M25 Grade Concrete 40
Table 4.10 Details of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test for Pond Ash
Replaced Concrete 41
Table 4.11 Details of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test for Normal
Concrete 42
Table 5.1 Results of Slump Test 45
Table 5.2 Results of Flow Test 48
Table 5.3 Compressive Strength of NC and PRC Mixes for 0.45 W/C ratio at
different Cement Contents 52
Table 5.4 Compressive Strength of NC and PRC Mixes for 0.42 W/C ratio at
different Cement Contents 53
Table 5.5 Compressive Strength of NC and PRC Mixes for 0.40 W/C ratio at
different Cement Contents 53
Table 5.6 Compressive Strength of NC and PRC Mixes for 0.38 W/C ratio at
different Cement Contents 53
Table 5.7 Compressive Strength of NC and PRC Mixes for 0.45 W/C ratio at
different Cement Contents NC (W/C ratio=0.36) 53
Table 5.8 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (W/C ratio=0.45) 55
Table 5.9 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
LIST OF TABLES

NC (W/C ratio=0.42) 56
Table 5.10 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (W/C ratio=0.40) 56
Table 5.11 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (W/C ratio=0.38) 56
Table 5.12 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (W/C ratio=0.36) 56
Table 5.13 The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2)
(W/C ratio=0.45) 57
Table 5.14 The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2)
(W/C ratio=0.42) 57
Table 5.15 The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2)
(W/C ratio=0.40) 57
Table 5.16 The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2)
(W/C ratio=0.38) 58
Table 5.17 The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2)
(W/C ratio=0.36) 58
Table 5.18 Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of NC mix at
w/c of 0.45 58
Table 5.19 Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of NC mix at
Cement Content of 350 kg/m3 59
Table 5.20 Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of PARC mix
at Cement Content of 350 kg/m3 60
LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1.1 Recycled Concrete Aggregates 3
Fig.1.2 Thermal Power Plant 4
Fig.1.3 Storage Lagoons 4
Fig.1.4 Ash Pond Sample 4
Fig 1.5 Schematic Representation-- Method of Fly Ash Transfer 5
Fig 1.6 Raichur Thermal Power Stations (RTPS) 6
Fig 4.1 River Sand 24
Fig 4.2 Tests on Pond Ash & Natural Sand 24
Fig 4.3 Particle Size Distribution Curve - Fine Aggregates- Sand 25
Fig 4.4 Coarse Aggregate 26
Fig 4.5 XRD Graph – Pond Ash from RTPS 29
Fig 4.6 SEM Image of Pond Ash Sample from RTPS 30
Fig 5.1 Workability of Fresh Concrete by Slump Test 44
Fig 5.2 Slump of NC mixes at Different Cement Contents 45
Fig 5.3 Slump of PARC mixes at Different Cement Contents 46

Fig 5.4 Flow Table Apparatus 47

Fig 5.5 Flow Rate of NC Mixes at Different Cement Contents 48


Fig 5.6 Flow Rate of PARC Mixes at Different Cement Contents 48
Fig 5.7 Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.45 54
Fig 5.8 Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.42 54
Fig 5.9 Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.40 54
Fig 5.10 Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.38 55
Fig 5.11 Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.36 55

Fig 5.12 Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of


Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45 59
Fig 5.13 Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of
Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45 59
Fig 5.14 Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of
Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45 60
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 5.15 Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of 60


Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
Energy generation is increasing day by day due to rapid industrialization. Energy generation
through thermal power plants is very typical now days. In India around 160 MT fly is
produced and only 40% of that is being utilized in different sectors. Balance fly ash is being
disposed over land. Currently around 65000 acres of land is occupied by fly ash. It needs one
acre of land for ash disposal to produce 1MW electricity from coal. The worldwide
requirement of construction aggregate is estimated to be more than 40 billion MT and more
than 3 billion MT of raw materials is required for cement production.
Pond ash is the by-product of thermal power plants, which is considered as a waste material
and its disposal is a major problem from an environmental point of view and also it requires a
lot of disposal areas. Actually, there are three types of ash produced by thermal power plants,
viz. (1) fly ash, (2) bottom ash, and (3) pond ash. Fly ash is collected by mechanical or
electrostatic precipitators from the flue gases of power plant; whereas, bottom ash is
collected from the bottom of the boilers. When these two types of ash, mixed together, are
transported in the form of slurry and stored in the lagoons, the deposit is called pond ash.
With environmental concerns, it becomes very important to consume this waste. On the other
hand, ecological balance is disturbed due to rapid consumption of natural sand as fine
aggregate in conventional concrete. Fly ash and pond ash utilization helps to reduce the
consumption of natural resources.
Safe and economic disposal of industrial waste including coal ash from thermal power plants
continues to remain a cause of concern to the industrial societies. Alternative use of these
waste products in civil engineering applications, extensively researched and widely adopted
in continental Europe and America, is steadily being realized in developing countries
including India. Nearly 73% of India’s total installed power generation capacity is thermal-
based, of which coal based generation is 90%, the remaining comprising diesel, wind, gas
and steam. The 85 utility thermal power stations in India, besides the several captive power
plants, use bituminous and sub-bituminous coal and produce large quantities of fly ash. The
thermal power stations in India at present generate nearly 125 million ton of coal ash every

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

year, out of which only about 15% is presently utilized in cement, concrete, bricks and
geotechnical applications.
The high ash content of Indian coal (30-50%) is contributing to these large volumes of fly
ash. As a general practice in India, fly ash and bottom ash are mixed with water and
transported to ash ponds. The ash thus deposited in pond is called as Pond Ash (PA).The
World Bank has cautioned India that by 2015, land disposal of coal ash would call for about
1000 square kilometers. The ash ponds cause severe respiratory and other ailments, visual
and aesthetic problems in almost all the major industrial cities in India. Hence, there is a need
to effectively use this pond ash. In the present investigation, the possibility of partial
replacement of natural sand (NS) with pond ash as well as total replacement of natural sand
with pond ash and crushed sand (CS) in making concrete is studied. Utilization of pond ash
can result not only in reducing the magnitude of the environmental problems, but also to
exploit pond ash as a raw material for value added products and conserve traditional
materials.
It reduces use of natural resources and offset traditional materials thus conserving non
renewable natural resources contributing to sustainable construction and allowing for the
recovery of both energy and material from selected waste.
Hence this experimental work is taken up to use Pond ash in concrete as a full replacement to
sand and to study its Compressive Strength of concrete with Pond ash as a constituent. Pond
ash from Raichur Thermal Power Station (RTPS), Raichur, Karnataka, was selected for the
study.
1.2 Alternative Materials for Fine Aggregate
Alternative Materials for Fine Aggregate are as follows:
1. Crushed Rock Powder
2. Recycled Aggregates
3. Fly Ash
4. Pond Ash
1.2.1 Crushed Rock Powder
Crushed Rock Powder is a chemically inert material having 4.75mm and downsizes particles.
Its major constituent is silica (60% to 80% of Sio 2), it is a waste product obtained in

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

abundance at quarries where stone couches are used to produce 30mm, 20mm, 10mm and
downsize coarse aggregates, which is also a constituent of concrete.
1.2.2 Recycled Concrete Aggregates
Construction materials are increasingly judged by their ecological characteristics. Concrete
recycling gains importance because it protects natural resources and eliminates the need for
disposal by using the readily available concrete as a fine aggregate source for new concrete.

Fig 1.1: Recycled Concrete Aggregates

Recycling of concrete is a relatively simple process. It involves breaking, removing and


crushing of existing concrete into a material with a specified size and quality. (Fig 1.1)
1.2.3 Fly Ash
Fly ash is a fine powder, produced as the byproduct of the combustion of coal in
thermoelectric power plants. With the high temperature reached in combustion (1500ºC), the
mineral impurities which accompany coal melt and are carried by the fumes or smoke in the
form of liquid drops. During fast cooling to 200º C these drops, upon leaving the combustion
area, solidify in the form of round particles and are partly agglomerated.
On the average 15% ash is obtained from the combustion of coal consisting of large granules
which precipitate on the bottom of the combustion chamber and the other part (80-85% of the
total) is carried away by the flue gases, from which it is separated in the filter, and this is the
part that makes up the fly ash. Fly ash produces concrete with a characteristic dark grey
colour. However if lighter shades are required as in the case of pre cast concrete elements,
limestone fillers can be used.
1.2.4 Pond Ash
In India most of the thermal power stations use wet process of disposal. The fly ash is
collected in storage hoppers through electro static precipitators (ESP) coarse particles are is

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

mixed with water to from slurry and slurry is transported through pipes for disposal in large
ponds or dykes is referred to as pond ash.
The use of coal for power generation results in production of nearly 100 million Tonne of
waste per year. In Indian Situation (Dr S.K. Gupta, 9 Jan ’11, Deminar 2011), of all power
stations built in the next 3 years, 65% will be thermal power stations(Fig.1.2), utilising
domestic coal in 75% of them. Coal will remain the “King” for the production of power in
the near future, because it is still the cheapest source of energy and, hence, more fly ash:
nearly 20 million Tonne fly ash will be produced per year.
When pulverized coal is burnt in a dry, bottom boiler, about 80 percent of the unburnt
material or ash is entrained in the flue gas and is captured and recovered as fly ash. The
remaining 20 percent of the ash is dry bottom ash, a dark gray, granular, porous, material that
is collected in a water-filled hopper at the bottom of the furnace.
Discarded bottom ash is either land filled or sluiced to storage lagoons (Fig.1.3). The
lagooned bottom ash is usually combined with fly ash. This blended fly ash and bottom ash
are referred to as pond ash (Fig.1.4). Approximately 30 percent of all coal ash is handled wet
and disposed of as pond ash.

Fig.1.2: Thermal Power Plant Fig.1.3: Storage Lagoons Fig.1.4: Ash Pond Sample

Most of the Thermal Power Stations in India use wet method of collection of fly ash. The
World Bank has cautioned India that by 2015 disposal of coal ash would require 1000 square
km. or one meter square of land per person.

The disposal of such large quantity of fly ash has occupied thousands hectares of land which
includes agricultural and forest land too. While there has been a constant increase in the
utilization of fly ash (from 3%in 1993 to 30% in 2010) yet the unutilized fraction is also
growing considerably. This has grave environmental consequences. A lot still needs to be
done. Substitution of raw materials / constituents with alternatives is an important eco
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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

efficiency driver and is need of the hour. It reduces use of natural resources and offset
traditional materials thus conserving non renewable natural resources contributing to
sustainable construction and allowing for the recovery of both energy and material from
selected waste, a step called co-processing. Ponded Ash, one such material can be
conveniently used to replace fine aggregate to a significant extent in cement and concrete.

Characterization of Pond ash helps in assessing the extent of its suitability as Fine Aggregate
in terms of its physical, chemical, mineralogical & morphological properties. Some of the
engineering properties are of particular interest when pond ash is used as an aggregate in
concrete, being very close to the range of natural resources.

It has been observed from various studies that properties of pond ash differ significantly
according to the type and source of coal, performance of generating facility, variation in
collection, disposal & storage methods, temperature of coal burning, peak load demand in
thermal stations and few other issues. It will be relatively coarser particles and since the
dissolvable alkalies have been washed with water, its pozzolanic reactivity is low and hence
it is not preferred as part of replacement for cement in concrete. Schematic representation of
Pond Ash generation is as shown in Fig1.5.

Fig 1.5: Schematic Representation-- Method of Fly Ash Transfer

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These micro-sized particles consist primarily of silica, alumina and iron. Massive generation
of pond ash by thermal power plants has become a major cause of concern for people living
in and around thermal power plants.
So an effort is made in this experimental work so as to reduce the burden on environment and
also to contribute to sustainable construction by reducing the dependency on Natural River
Sand as constituent in concrete.

Fig 1.6: Raichur Thermal Power Stations (RTPS)

1.3 Materials used for Concrete


Conventional concrete generally contain cement, aggregates, and water, with the addition of
chemical and mineral admixtures in different proportions.
1.3.1 Cement - Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the basic Portland cement and is best
suited for the use in general concrete construction. It is of three types, 33grade, 43grade and
53grade. Birla 53 grade cement is used in the present experimental study.
1.3.2 Aggregate - Sand, natural gravel and crushed stone are mainly used as aggregate.
Aggregate of size (10 to 12) mm is desirable for structures having congested reinforcement.
However the maximum size of aggregate for structural concrete is generally limited to
20mm.
1.3.3 Water - Potable water conforming to IS 456-2000 can be used for the manufacturing of
concrete.
1.3.4 Admixtures - Admixtures are the materials in the form of powder or fluids that are
added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete
mixes. The most common types of admixtures are
i. Mineral Admixtures
ii. Chemical Admixtures
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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

1.3.4.1. Mineral Admixtures


These are inorganic materials (Malhotra 1886) that also have pozzolanic or latent hydraulic
properties. These very fine-grained materials are added to the concrete mix to improve the
properties of concrete (mineral admixtures), or as a replacement for Portland Cement
(Blended Cements).
Fly Ash – The explanation is given in 1.2.4
Silica fume - Silica fume is the byproduct from the reduction process of very pure quartz into
metal silicon in arc furnaces for the production of silicon or ferrosilicon . This material is
characterized by a very high silica content (normally over 90%), particle with size varying
from 0.5 to 5 µm, a very high specific surface area (upto 25 to 30m2/gm) and has a non
crystalline structure. Hence it has a marked pozzolanic activity and may be used in
pozzolonic cement. Silica fume is in fact an artificial pozzolana, that is a material capable of
combining at ambient temperature with calcium hydroxide to produce water insoluble
compounds very similar to those obtained by the hydration of portland cement.
The addition of silica fume to concrete combined with use of super plasticizers, results in two
major effects -
 The first regards typical behaviour as a filler, due to the very small size of the
particals, optimizing the particle size distribution of the fines.
 The second is the pozzolonic effect, i,e the capacity to react with the calcium
hydroxide present in high quantities in Portland cement, producing calcium hydroxide
silicate with excellent binding characteristic
The combination of these effects results in the development of very high strength. The
combination of the filler and the pozzolonic effects also ensures that the porosity is not only
reduced in volume but also in size, there by making the cement paste less permeable and
therefore assuring greater durability.
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS or GGBS) - GGBS is a by-product of
the manufacture of steel in a blast furnace. It is formed simultaneously with iron when cooled
rapidly it produces a non-metallic product that can be ground and used as an SCM
(Secondary Cementitous Material) in concrete. Slag has a coarse texture in comparison to
that of Portland cement, and a much slower hydration reaction. However, in the presence of

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

activators, such as Portland Cement, it will behave as hydraulic cement with characteristics
similar to Portland cement.
The slower hydration reaction of slag means that concrete made from slag-based cements
exhibit lower heat of hydration than concretes made from Portland cements. This property
can be used for good effect to control thermal cracking in large element concrete pours such
as in raft footings, dam spillways and retaining structures. Slag also has many other
beneficial properties in the hardened concrete, including enhanced durability.

High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM) - HRM produces concrete with strength and durability
similar to concrete made with silica fume. While silica fume is usually dark gray or black in
color, high reactivity metakaolin is usually bright white in color, making it the preferred
choice for architectural concrete where appearance is important.

1.3.4.2. Chemical Admixtures - Super plasticizer (Whiting1979) is an essential component


of concrete to provide necessary workability. The new generation super plasticizers termed
Poly-Carboxylated Ethers (PCE) is particularly useful to get high workability and strength.
Superplasticiser is used to ensure high workability and reduce the water powder ratio. Super
plasticizers are polymers that can interact physically and chemically with cement particles.
The superplasticizer can be classified into four grades, which are commercially available in
market. They are
i. Poly Acrylic based Superplasticiser
ii. Poly Carboxylic Ether Based Superplasticiser
iii. Sulphonated Melamine Formaldehyde based Superplasticiser.
iv. Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde based Superplasticiser.
i. Poly Carboxylic Ether based Superplasticizer (PCE) - is a new generation SP that is
based on polymer chemistries originally developed in Japan. PCE Superplasticizer represent
a major breakthrough in concrete technology as they can provide up to 40% reduction of
water and impart tremendous workability that can be extended without the undesirable
effects on retardation and segregation. PCE Superplasticizer have the added flexibility of
being able to be modified, either by alternating the molecular structure, by grafting other
polymers onto the basic trunk polymer (main chain), by blending with polymers or other
suitable chemical, or a combination of these possibilities, to match specific performance

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1

requirements for a given application. Examples of such modifications include adjustments to


properties like setting time, Slump retention, water reduction and drying shrinkage.
1.4 Present Study
The present study involves in assessing the compressive strength of pond ash replaced
concrete for different cement contents with varying w/c ratio, the details of which are
presented in aim and scope of the study in chapter 3 and its details are presented in
subsequent chapters.

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 GENERAL
This chapter includes the detailed review of literature on the use of Pond ash in
concrete as a partial to full replacement to sand and to study its Mechanical Strengths of
concrete with Pond ash as a constituent.

A number of studies have been carried out to understand the mechanical properties of
concrete with Pond ash as constituent material.
The experimental investigations on “Effect of Bottom Ash as Replacement of Fine
Aggregate in Concrete” by Aggarwal P, Aggarwal Y. & Gupta S.M. in the year 2007
presents the experimental investigations carried out to study the effect of use of bottom ash
(the coarser material, which falls into furnace bottom in modern large thermal power plants
and constitute about 20% of total ash content of the coal fed in the boilers) as a replacement
of fine aggregates. The various strength properties studied consist of compressive strength,
flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. The strength development for various
percentages (0-50%) replacement of fine aggregates with bottom ash can easily be equated to
the strength development of normal concrete at various ages. It has been concluded that the
workability of concrete decreased with the increase in bottom ash content due to the increase
in water demand, which is incorporated by increasing the content of Super plasticizer.

The density of concrete decreased with the increase in bottom ash content due to the
low specific gravity of bottom ash as compared to fine aggregates. Compressive strength,
splitting tensile strength and Flexural strength of fine aggregates replaced bottom ash
concrete specimens were lower than control concrete specimens at all the ages. The strength
difference between bottom ash concrete specimens and control concrete specimens became
less distinct after 28 days. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and Flexural
strength of fine aggregate replaced bottom ash concrete continue to increase with age for all
the bottom ash contents.
The experimental investigations on “Effect of High Levels of Fines Content on
Concrete Properties” by Amnon Katz & Hadassa Baum in the year 2006, this paper tells
about effect of high levels of fines content on concrete properties. The content of fines
(particles smaller than 0.075 mm [No. 200] mesh) in aggregates used for the production of

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
concrete is generally limited by most standards worldwide. In the current study, the effect of
the addition of fines to normal-strength concrete at levels of up to 227 kg/m3 (383 lb/yd3)
was studied in concrete mixtures prepared with constant workability. It was found that as
long as workability can be controlled by reasonable amounts of admixture, the addition of
fines improves concrete strength by as much as 30%, somewhat reduces the carbonation rate,
and slightly increases the volume changes of fresh and hardened concrete. When high
dosages of admixture were required to maintain workability due to the presence of large
amounts of ultra-fine particles (less than ~5 micron), properties of the concrete were
seriously affected.

The experimental investigations on “A study on characterization and use of Pond Ash


as fine aggregate in Concrete” by Arumugam K, Ilangovan R & James Manohar D in the
year 2011 focuses on the possibility of using pond ash in varying percentage as fine
aggregate substitute in cement concrete. During the combustion of pulverized coal at the
thermal power station the product formed are bottom ash, fly ash and vapours. There bottom
ash is that part of residue which is fused into particles and is collected at the bottom of the
furnace. The distribution between bottom ash and fly ash fraction is a function of burner
type, type of coal and the type of boiler bottom (wet or dry). The above study is to be
discussed with the workability and compressive strength of concrete and is to be compared
with standard concrete.

The density of concrete reduces with the increase in percentage of pond ash. The
compressive strength of concrete with pond ash increases with increased curing period. The
split tensile strength of concrete with pond ash increases up to the addition of 20% ash sand
replacement. The flexural strength of concrete with pond ash increases upto the addition of
20% ash sand replacement.

While the pond ash is used the workability is reduced. For obtaining the required workability,
super plasticizers are added while preparing the concrete. The more pond ash to be added the
more super plasticizers are required to be added for obtaining the required workability. 6.
With increasing replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash the average density of concrete
shows linear reduction due to lower specific gravity.

The paper titled “Compaction Characteristics of Pond Ash” by Ashis Kumar Bera,
Ambarish Ghosh & Amalendu Ghosh in the year 2007 focuses on the study on compaction

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
characteristics of pond ash. Three different types of pond ash have been used in this study.
The effects of different compaction controlling parameters, viz. compaction energy, moisture
content, layer thickness, mold area, tank size, and specific gravity on dry density of pond ash
are highlighted herein. The maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of pond ash
vary within the range of 8.40–12.25 kN/m3 and 29–46%, respectively. In the present
investigation, the degree of saturation at optimum moisture content of pond ash has been
found to vary within the range of 63–89%. An empirical model has been developed to
estimate dry density of pond ash, using multiple regression analyses, in terms of compaction
energy, moisture content, and specific gravity. Linear empirical models have also been
developed to estimate maximum dry density and optimum moisture content in the field at any
compaction energy. These empirical models may be helpful for the practicing engineers in
the field for planning the field compaction control and for preliminary estimation of
maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of pond ash three types of pond ash
have been chosen to investigate the effects of compaction energy, moisture content, specific
gravity, tank/mold size, and compacted layer thickness on compaction characteristics of pond
ash. Based on the present experimental results, empirical models have been developed to
estimate dry density and also maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, which
may be helpful for the field compaction control.

The research work carried out on “Strength Performance of Pond Ash Concrete” by
Bang R.S, Ghugal Y.M. & Pateriya I.K in the year 2012 refers to utilize pond ash as fine
aggregate with natural sand for sustainable development of concrete industry in India.
Eighteen concrete matrices were designed with 25 and 50 percent pond ash by replacing
natural sand as fine aggregate and test specimens were prepared for compressive, flexural
and split tensile strength. The concretes of M20, M30 and M40 grades with 25 percent pond
ash and 75 percent crushed sand shows compressive strength at 28 days curing 23.49, 14.68
and 9.93 percent higher than the conventional companion mixes respectively. For these
mixes the flexural strength was 11.11, 7.30 and 4.88 percent higher and split tensile strength
was 4.93, 8.57 and 8.33 percent higher than their conventional companion mixes
respectively. The strength development was observed up to 365 days. This investigation
shows a wide scope for utilizing pond ash as fine aggregate in concrete. This study will result
in contribution towards twin objectives of waste disposal and natural resource conservation
together.

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
The paper titled “Study of Pond ash (BTPS) use as A Fine Aggregate in Cement
Concrete” by Bhangale P. P & Nemade P. M, in the year 2013 have conducted an
experimental study of the possibility of utilizing this pond ash in the construction industry,
especially in concrete and from view of sand becoming scare & contaminated with harmful
chemicals & pond ash accumulation posing environmental problems, replacement of sand by
pond ash in concrete attempted without compromising on strength. Pond ash sample was
procured from Bhusawal Thermal Power Station (BTPS). Characterization of pond ash
sample was carried out and results indicated that pond ash sample can be tried as fine
aggregate in concrete. The density of concrete reduces with the increase in the percentage of
pond ash the compressive strength of concrete with pond ash increases with increased curing
period. The maximum compressive strength occurs at the same percent of CA/FA which
have shown the best workability in the mixes with paste volumes, w/c ratios and different
levels of replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash. Mixes having higher fine aggregate
percent shown strength comparable to maximum strength observed at later ages. However,
mixes with lower fine aggregate percent shown lower strength at all ages. Such reduction in
strength can be attributed to the formation of voids/pores due to lack of enough fines.
Considering the compressive strength criteria and cost of concrete, the replacement of fine
aggregate with pond ash is feasible and the variation of strength of pond ash concrete in
comparison to reference concrete lies within ± 10% up to the age of 28 days for various
mixes.
The paper titled the experimental investigations on “Effective utilization of pond ash
for sustainable construction – need of the hour” by Bharathi Ganesh, Sharada Bai H &
Nagendra R, in the year 2011 focuses on the use of pond ash - a waste material in
construction industry to address the crucial issues concerning the shortage of (depleting)
naturally available raw materials for construction, will prove to be a stimulus to industry to
sustain the growth of the industry, reduce the demand for large area of disposal of thermal
power plant waste, most importantly, reduce its environmental impact with proper utilization
of huge quantity of waste in construction industry. Research works carried out worldwide,
show that pond ash has good potential for use in constructions as a suitable sustainable
material. This paper deals with the engineering properties such as shape, gradation, texture,
physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of pond ash, and its applications as a
sustainable material in construction industry, to bring in environmental & economic benefits.

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
The experimental investigations on “Characterization of Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate
in Concrete” by Bharathi Ganesh, H. Sharada Bai, R. Nagendra & B.K. Narendra in the
year 2012 focuses on the characterization by means of analysis of engineering properties of
Pond Ash as fine aggregate in concrete. Properties such as specific Gravity, fineness,
gradation, texture, physical and chemical characteristics of Pond Ash samples collected from
Raichur Thermal Power Station as per standard sampling procedure were evaluated and
compared with that of Natural Sand. Pond Ash is finer in size and hence the water demand is
more in comparison with natural river sand. Utilisation of Pond Ash is proved as a
sustainable material as Fine Aggregate in concrete constructions to bring in environmental &
economic benefits.
The research work carried out on “Behaviour of Concrete with Pond Ash – Thermal
Power Plant Waste as Constituent – Durability Perspectives” by Bharathi Ganesh, Sharada
Bai H, Nagendra R & Netravathi K S, in the year 2012 refers to suitability of Pond Ash
from Mettur Thermal Power Station at different replacement levels as Fine Aggregate in
concrete. Detailed characterization of Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate and concrete design mix
for M30 grade was arrived as per relevant codes of practice. Studies on its compressive
strength and durability properties were carried out and behaviour is compared with control
concrete specimens.
Pond ash has lower specific gravity (1.76) which is less than that of Sand (2.63). As the
replacement level increases workability decreases for same water content resulting in
harshness of the mix increases which results in reduction in workability and resulting in
increased demand for dosage of admixture. Since pond ash contributes to increased surface
area of Fine Aggregate, it demands for slightly increased water content or increased dosage
of admixtures.

Pond ash samples satisfy grading limits of nearly Zone IV, more finer particle content in
pond ash may help in achieving improved packing density, resulting in slightly higher
compressive strength than Normal Concrete at lower replacement levels. Additional strength
of concrete made with pond ash replacement may be due to the fact that even pozolanity of
pond ash may contribute to the strength. As the replacement level of pond ash increases
compressive strength increases upto 25℅. At 25℅ replacement level, strength is maximum
and is comparable to normal concrete, indicating optimum level of replacement of sand by
pond ash as fine aggregate. Very low Sorption or Initial Surface Absorption of concrete

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
indicates good packing with less pores in it. This may be due to the fact that increase in fines
reduces the voids and hence decreases the sorption as well as initial surface absorption. All
concrete mixes satisfied the durability requirement imposed by the relevant durability
parameter.

The experimental investigations on “Experimental Study on Combined Effect of Fly


Ash and Pond Ash on Strength and Durability of Concrete” by Haldive S.A & Kambekar
A. R, in the year 2013 presents the experimental investigation of concrete produced using
fly ash, pond ash (PA) and OPC53 grade. An attempt has been made to for various
parameters like compressive strength, water permeability and rapid chloride penetration test
(RCPT). Results of the laboratory investigation conclude that the performance of concrete
made up of combination of fly ash and pond ash is superior to that of Ordinary Portland
Cement concrete.

Water permeability of fly ash and pond ash concrete is less than OPC concrete; it would be
impermeable in aggressive condition As pond ash added in fly ash concrete, value of RCPT
increases, particularly at 20% pond ash. Overall fly ash and pond ash can be replaced by 20%
and 10% as a partial replacement to cement and river sand in concrete respectively. This can
be concluded from compressive strength, water permeability and RCPT.
The experimental investigations on “Pond Ash: Opportunities for Eco-Friendly
Material (As Fine Aggregate) In Green Concrete” by Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Gaurav Patel
& Umrigar F S in the year 2013 focuses on the observation of test in concrete withpond ash
as partial replacement for fine aggregate. The compressive strength of concrete with pond ash
increases with an increased curing period. The flexural strength of concrete with pond ash
increases up to the addition of 20% ash sand replacement. Use of pond ash in concrete can
save the thermal industry disposal costs and produce a ‘greener’ concrete for construction.
Environmental effects from wastes and residual amount of cement manufacturing can be
reduced through this research. A better measure by a innovative supplementary cementitious
Construction Material is formed through this research.

The experimental investigations on “Effect of Coal Bottom Ash as Sand Replacement


on the Properties of Concrete with Different W/C Ratio” by Kadam M.P. & Patil Y.D. in
the year 2013 have conducted an experimental study of coal bottom ash as fine aggregates in
place of sand was used and compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength,

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
Modulus of Elasticity, Density and water permeability are studied. The natural sand was
replaced with coal bottom ash by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%,
and 100% by weight, as water absorption of bottom ash was more so that quantity of water
was increased to achieve 100 mm slump. The results shows that the compressive strength,
split tensile strength and flexural strength decreased as the percentage of replacement coal
bottom ash increased as compared to controlled concrete. In this work slump was kept
constant 100 ± 10 mm. To achieve the required slump water quantity was increased as
percentage replacement increased. It was observed that up to 30% replacement the results of
compressive, flexural, split and water permeability test are approximately same as that of the
controlled concrete.

The compressive strength for 7, 28, 56 and 112 days was increased up to 20% replacement
and after that compressive strengths were decreased from 30% to 100% replacement. The
split tensile strength was increased at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days for 10% to 30% replacement
and after that it was decreased for remaining replacement.

The flexural strength was increased for 10 %, 30 % replacement and after that it was
decreased. The densities of hardened concrete linearly decreased as the replacement ratio of
bottom ash was increased from 10% to 100% as compared to controlled concrete.

It was found that the Modulus of Elasticity decreased in accordance with an increase in
replacement of natural sand by bottom ash. The modulus of elasticity of reference concrete
was 32.20 × 103 N/mm2. The modulus of elasticity for 10 % replacement was increased by
1.55 % to 1.24% for 10% and 20 % replacement respectively. It is found that the
permeability up to 30 % replacement, decreased and after that permeability was increased
from 60 % to 100 % replacement.
The paper titled “A Study on the Fundamental Properties of Concrete Incorprating
Pond-Ash in Korea” by Lee bong Chun, Kim Jin Sung, Kim Tae Sang & Chae Seong Tae
in the year 2008 focuses on the increase of power consumption due to industrial
development, the generation of coal ash has been growingly tremendously.
Also environmental concerns over its disposal have been raised. In order to examine the
usability of coal ash as an aggregate for concrete, the mechanical properties and durability of
concrete using pond-ash was analyzed in terms of pond ash content (10, 20, 30 wt.%) as a
part of fine aggregate. The results of the study indicates that slump and air content heavily

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
depended on the site of generation, and this might greatly influences on the content of fine
particles of the ash. It is also shown that its freezing and thawing resistance tends to be
relatively lower than that of plain, which requires comprehensive examination over next few
years on the absorptiveness and properties of mixed water of the ash collected from each
disposal. It has been concluded in this study to utilize pond-ash as fine aggregate for
concrete.
The paper titled “Use of Ponded Fly Ash as Part Replacement of Fine Aggregate in
Mortar and Concrete” by Mangaraj B.K and S.Kirshnamoorty, in the year 1994, this paper
tells about use of ponded fly ash as part replacement of fine aggregate in mortar and concrete
The wet method of disposal of fly ash in a mixture with bottow ash results in a material that
is probably more suitable for use as find aggregate rather than as a cement replacement.
Experimental studies have been conducted principally on the flow of mortars and workability
of concrete wherein a part of the fine aggregate was replaced with ponded fly ash upto 30
percent. With some adjustment in the water content of mix, and taking advantage of the
pozzolanicity of fly ash, it is possible to use ponded fly ash in concrete as the replacement of
sand upto 30 percent, without loss of strength or workability.

The paper titled “Engineering Properties of Cement Containing Pond Ash” by


Milind P. Bhamare, Yogesh N. Bafna & Arun K. Dwivedi in the year 2012 focuses on
utilize pond ash as cement replacement and change in engineering properties of cement
containing pond ash. A thermal power plants converts energy rich fuel into electricity and
heat. Coal produced electricity takes about 80 % of the total power generated in India. The
coal based power plant generates a huge amount of ash. The generated ash contains about 20
percent Pond ash and 80 percent fly ash of the total ash generated. Fly ash is been recycled as
an alternative to cement while pond ash is being disposed off. Pond ash requires huge area ,
water and energy to dispose itself off so recycling of the pond ash is indeed required. This
paper concentrates on utilization of pond ash as a cement replacement.

Pond ash should be utilized by identifying its qualities which greatly depends on the particle
sizes. From the examination on pond ash used for cement replacement it can be inferred that
the normal consistency of cement defer according to the percentage pond ash. From the
examination on the pond ash incorporated cement, it can be inferred that the pond ash acts as
retarder & increases the initial setting time of the cement paste.

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LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
It is observed from the analysis of the compressive strength results that as the pond ash
percentage increases in the cement paste the compressive strength decreases due to low
pozzolanic property of the pond ash.

The paper titled “The Properties of Special Concrete Using Washed Bottom Ash
(WBA) as Partial Sand Replacement” by Mohd Syahrul Hisyam bin Mohd Sani,
Fadhluhartini bt Muftah, & Zulkifli Muda in the year 2010 presents the use of Washed
Bottom Ash (WBA) as fine aggregate in special concrete. The WBA is a waste material that
is taken from electric power plant and the source material is called as bottom ash.

To substitute the amount of carbon usage in concrete the bottom ash was utilized and fully
submerged in water for 3 days to produce as WBA with low carbon composition. The aim of
the study is to investigate the feasibility and potential use of washed bottom ash in concreting
and concrete applications. The results of the physical and chemical properties of WBA were
discussed. Different concrete mixes with constant water to cement ratio of 0.55 were
prepared with WBA indifferent proportions as well as one control mixed proportion. The
mechanical properties of special concrete with 30% WBA replacement by weight of natural
sand is found to be an optimum usage in concrete in order to get a favorable strength and
good strength development pattern over the increment ages.
The research work carried out on “Reproportioning of Aggregate mixes for optimal
workability with pond ash as fine aggregate in Concrete” by Ranganath.R.V,
V.B.Bhattacharjee & S.Krishnamoorthy in the year 1999 examines the workability and
compressive strength of concrete, in which pond ash has been incorporated as a part of
replacement of fine aggregate. The results of the investigation show that workability is
optimal for a particular coarse aggregate (CA) to fine aggregate (FA) ratio of a given mix of
constant paste volume for both reference and pond ash concretes. Workability of the pond
ash concrete reduces with the increase in percentage of fine aggregate replacement.
However on Reproportioning the CA/FA ratio of the mixes, workability can be restored to a
large extent. It is also shown that reproportioned mixes of optimal workability also
correspond very nearly to least voids mixtures and hence result in higher compressive
strength.The results of the tests show that workability and compressive strength are best for a
particular CA/FA ratio of a given mix of constant paste volume. The pond ash utilized
concretes also show similar behaviour in terms of their workability and compressive strength.
The paper titled “Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Pond Ash” by Singh H.P.,
Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 18
LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 2
Maheshwari B.K., Swami Saran & Paul D.K. in the year 2008 focuses on Pond ash
obtained from thermal power plants or similar plants which use the coal as a fuel, has spread
over a large area of land in the country like India. A challenging task is to improve these
areas for further construction of civil engineering structures like buildings, roads etc.
Keeping this in view the studies on pond ash have been taken up. Pond ash is a very fine,
non-plastic and loose material dumped over the ground usually for a height of 10 to 30 m.
Such types of materials are normally susceptible to liquefaction.
The aim of this paper is to study the liquefaction behavior of pond ash obtained from a
particular thermal power plant of India. The samples of pond ash obtained from top 5 m were
prepared at a relative density of 20%. The tests were conducted on small Shake Table in the
laboratory at different accelerations varying from 0.1g to 0.5g, keeping the frequency of
dynamic load constant.

The paper titled “ Recovery and Utilization of Pond Ash” by Thomas F. Edens in the
year 1999 focuses on the increased inventories of ash not meeting Ready Mix Concrete C-
618 specifications, utilities are constantly looking for new opportunities to utilize high LOI
ash or recover the carbon. In 1994, Santee Cooper, a state owned electric utility located in
South Carolina, recognized the need to look for ways to increase utilization of coal
combustion products and/or recover the carbon through one of the various carbon removal
processes. The fly ash markets in concrete and cement are traditional what utilities and ash
marketers would prefer because of the volume and revenue associated with it. Realizing that
a strong commitment to ash marketing was necessary, management decided to dedicate
someone to oversee the ash utilization program.
The paper titled “Compaction and Permeability Study of Pond Ash Amended with
Locally Available Soil and Hardening Agent” by Virender Kumar in the year 2004, this
paper tells about compaction and permeability study of pond Ash amended with locally
available soil and hardening agent. The problem of disposing pond ash can be reduced by
utilising it in large quantities in various engineering works. In the present study, the
possibility of using a locally available fine grained soil to improve the compaction and
permeability properties of pond ash has been investigated experimentally.
Apart from this, the effect of carbonic aluminates salt (CAS) as a hardening agent when
added to pond ash-soil matrix has also been investigated. It has been found that it is possible
to use pond ash as a landfill liner when small quantities of fine grained soil.

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AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3

AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION

3.1 General
Concrete contains River sand as the most commonly used Fine aggregate in many parts of
the world. The huge demand for concrete has made this natural resource to get impoverished.
On one side extraction of river sand in excess has conspicuous environmental impacts, on the
other side, large quantity of coal ash is being produced every day in Thermal Power Plants,
leading to many environmental problems. It is of prime importance to carry out research
works on the feasibility of using alternative materials like Pond Ash, a waste by product and
its suitability for potential utilization in concrete constructions, which can replace sand fully
as an alternative construction material contributing to sustainability and reducing burden on
environment.
Concrete is the most used construction material across the world. A lot of material as
aggregate goes in to concrete. It is the time to address many issues related to concrete
construction such as shortage of depleting natural river sand, use of substandard material like
filtered sand available in the market and also cost of concrete production. However,
information available replacing sand by pond ash as fine aggregate in concrete is still
insufficient to gain the confidence of user. Strength of concrete is controlled by many
factors, including w/c ratio. Hence this study is taken up to assess the effect of w/c ratio on
the strength of pond ash replaced concrete to explore more information about the behaviour
of concrete with pond ash as fine aggregate in it.

3.2 Aim and Objectives of the Present Investigation


This experimental work consisting of study of pond ash concrete i.e concrete with pond ash
as fine aggregate in it, replacing natural river sand fully. The fresh property and compressive
strength of pond ash concrete for 3 cementious contents is taken up to study the effect of
changing w/c on the compressive strength of mixes . Pond ash from Raichur Thermal Power
Station (RTPS), Raichur, Karnataka, is selected for the study.
The main aim of the experimental study is to encourage the usage of pond ash, thermal
power plant waste as fine aggregate in concrete to reduces use of depleting natural resources

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AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION CHAPTER 3
and offset traditional materials thus conserving non renewable natural resources contributing
to sustainable construction and allowing for the recovery of both energy and material from
selected waste.

The main objectives of this study are


i. To enhance the effective utilization of pond ash.
ii. To reduce the use of natural resources and offset traditional materials thus conserving
non renewable natural resources
iii. To contribute to sustainable concrete construction and
iv. To allow the recovery of both energy and material from thermal power plant waste.

3.3 Scope of the Work


The scope of the work consists of
 Collection of sample of pond ash from Raichur Thermal Power Plant – RTPS as per IS
6491-1972.
 Detailed Characterization of pond ash and all other materials used for the investigation as
per relevant codes of practice.
 Design of concrete mix based on the material properties as per IS10262 -2009 and
calculation of design mix with only sand as fine aggregate (Normal Mix – NCM) and
design mix with only pond ash as fine aggregate i.e,. PRCM - replacing sand with for pond
ash fully by weight. The details of parameters considered and cement contents are
presented in sec.3.4.
 Studying workability of fresh concretes – NCM and PRCM using slump test as per IS:
1199 – 1959 for the required slump and casting of specimens as per the standard
procedures.
 Study the compressive strength of the mixes for three cement contents of 415, 375 and 350
kg/m3 by varying the water cement ratio – w/c ratio from 0.46 to 0.38 at curing periods of
3, 7. 28, 56 and 90 days.

3.4 Parameters of the Study


The parameters considered for the study are presented in details as follows

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AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION CHAPTER 3
1. Samples of Pond Ash are collected from different pits from Ash Pond II of Raichur
Thermal Power Stations (RTPS), Raichur, Karnataka, India. Pond ash is used as fine
aggregate replacing sand 100 % by weight.
2. The ratio of Fine Aggregate (FA) to Coarse Aggregate (CA) of 60:40 and ratio of CA
20mm: 12.5mm of 50:50 is selected to achieve maximum packing density.
3. Three cement contents of 415, 375 and 350 kg/m3 are considered to assess compressive
strength of concrete mixes.
4. Quantity of water is varied to get w/c ratio of 0.45, 0.42, 0.40, 0.38, 0.36 for each cement
content of 350kg/m3, 375kg/m3 and 415 kg/m3.
5. The dosage of plasticizer is varied from 0.8 - 1.2 % (8-12ml) per kg of cement content for
the mixes to get the required slump of concrete mix.
6. Assessment of compressive strength of mixes at curing periods of 3days, 7days, 28days,
56days & 90days.

3.5 Report Organisation


The sequence of dissertation report is as follows.
Chapter 1 includes Introduction.
Chapter 2 includes the detailed Literature review on the publication on the related area of
study.
Chapter 3 includes Aim and Scope of the Present Investigation.
Chapter 4 includes the initial work of detailed Characterisation of Materials and Mix Design
Procedures

Chapter 5 includes the Experimental Procedures, Results and Discussion as provided in the
relevant IS codes.
Chapter 6 includes Conclusions based on the discussions on the study and Scope for Future
Work.
References.

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CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN PROCEDURES CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4
CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN
PROCEDURES
4.1 General
The initial part of dissertation work after collection of sample is detailed characterization of
materials used for the study. This chapter includes the details of sample collections of
materials used for the investigation, characterization of materials, analysis, mix design based
on its characteristics as per relevant codes of practice.
4.2 Characteristics of Materials of Concrete
The following are the details of the materials used for concrete mix, properties of the
materials and mix proportions.
4.2.1 Cement
Ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade from the local market was used and tested for
physical and chemical properties as per IS: 4031 – 1988and found to be conforming to
various specifications as per IS: 12269-1987.
4.2.1.1 Tests on Cement
1. Normal consistency: 34%

2. Initial setting time: 40 min

3. Final Setting time: 660 min

4. Compressive strength
7 days: 37 N/mm²
14 days: 47 N/mm²
28 days: 53 N/mm²
5. Specific gravity: 3.15
6. Fineness: 5%
4.2.2 Aggregate
4.2.2.1 Fine Aggregate

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In the present investigation fine aggregate is natural sand from local market is used.
The physical properties of fine aggregate like specific gravity, bulk density, gradation and
fineness modulus are tested in accordance with IS :2386.

Fig 4.1: River Sand


4.2.2.1.1 Tests on Aggregate

Fig 4.2: Tests on Pond Ash & Natural Sand

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Weight of fine aggregate sample taken = 1000g.


Table 4.1 Fineness Modulus of Fine Aggregate

Weight of Cumulative
Cumulative Cumulative
aggregate weight
I.S.Seive % of weight % of weight Remarks
retained in retained in
Size retained retained
gms gms

10mm 0 0 0 100
4.75mm 0 0 0 100
2.36mm 10 10 1 99 Zone II
1.18mm 197.5 207.5 20.75 79.25
600µ 371 578.5 57.85 42.15
300µ 353 931.5 93.15 6.85
150µ 68.5 1000 100 0

Fineness Modulus of Fine Aggregate = 272.75/100 = 2.7275 = 2.72

Particle Size Distribution Curve


120.0

100.0

80.0
% Finer

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
0.1 1 10
Sieve Size in mm

Fig 4.3: Particle Size Distribution Curve - Fine Aggregates- Sand

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Table 4.2: Grading Zones for Fine Aggregates


Percentage Passing for
IS Sieve
Grading Grading Grading Grading
Designation
Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV
10 mm 100 100 100 100
4.75 mm 90 – 100 90 – 100 90 – 100 95 – 100
2.36 mm 60 – 95 75 – 100 85 – 100 95 – 100
1.18 mm 30 – 70 55 – 90 75 – 100 90 – 100
600 micron 15 – 34 35 - 59 60 – 79 80 – 100
300 micron 5 – 20 8 – 30 12 – 40 15 – 50
150 micron 0 – 10 0 - 10 0 – 10 0 – 15

Table 4.3: Physical Properties of Fine Aggregate


Property Result
Fineness modulus 2.72
Specific gravity 2.613
Bulk density (Kg/m³)

Loose 1585
Compact 1690

4.2.2.2 Coarse Aggregate


Coarse aggregate of size 20mm and 12.5mm passing conforming to specifications IS
383:1970 and also to testing requirement as per IS 2386 - 1963 Part I were used for the
present investigation. The properties of Coarse Aggregates are tabulated in Table 4.4

Fig 4.4: Coarse Aggregate

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Table 4.4: Properties of Coarse Aggregates


Coarse Aggregate
Sl No. Properties
20mm 12.5mm
3
1 Loose Bulk Density, kg/ m 1283.14 1315.49
2 Rodded Bulk Density, kg/ m3 1463.82 1558
3 Specific Gravity 2.72 2.70
4 Sieve Analysis
Sieve Sizes % Passing % Passing
80mm 100 100
40mm 100 100
20mm 96.1 100
12.5mm 6.9 98.3
10mm 0.4 75.6
4.75mm 0 2.3
Pan 0 0
Gradation Nominal Size Well Graded

4.2.2.3 Pond Ash


Pond Ash samples are obtained from Ash Pond II of RTPS as per the standard procedure
0
mentioned in IS 6491 - 1972. These samples are oven dried at 100 C and detailed
characterization is carried out as Fine Aggregate in Concrete as per relevant IS Codes of
Practice.
a. Physical Characteristics of Pond Ash
Pond Ash is a fine-grained material consisting of particles of different shapes. The colour of
Pond Ash is ranging from cream to dark grey. Characterization of Pond Ash consists of
determining its physical properties such as specific gravity, fineness and grain size
distribution etc., chemical properties, comparing these properties and parameters with that of
Natural Sand as Fine Aggregate.
The detailed characterization of Pond Ash from different pits such as specific gravity, LBD,
RBD, water absorption, fineness modulus are investigated and are included in table 4.5.

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Table 4.5: Physical Properties of Typical Sample of Pond Ash

Results of RTPS Requirements as per


Test conducted Typical sample IS 3812-2003
Part-1 Part-2
Specific gravity 2.02 - -
Finess-specific surface
in m2/kg Blain’s Air
178.0 320 ≥ 200
permeability method
Soundness by auto
clave test expansion of
0.024 ≤ 0.8 ≤0.8
specimen’s percent
Reside 45 micron sieve
95.0 ≤ 34 ≤34
percent (max)
LBD 913

RBD 1054
Zone Close to Zone IV
b. Chemical Properties – Pond Ash Chemical Properties The chemical composition of pond
ash shows that the major constituents in it are silica, alumina and Iron oxide. Further, silica
and alumina present in a reactive form (glass) are responsible for the early reaction, Loss of
Ignition, which mainly represents unburnt carbon, is another parameter which has been
accepted by most researchers as having deleterious effects in concrete.

Table 4.6: Chemical Properties of Pond Ash


Test Conducted Results of a RTPS Requirements as
Raichur Sample per IS:3812:2003
Silicon dioxide (Si0 2) plus Aluminium
oxide (Al2O3) plus iron oxide (Fe203), 93.70 > 70
percent by mass, (Minimum)
Silicon dioxide (Si02), percent by mass,
(Minimum) 60.08 ≥ 35
Magnesium oxide (MgO), percent by
mass, (Maximum) 0.71 ≤5
Total sulphur as sulphur trioxide (SO3),
percent by mass, (Maximum) 0.40 ≤3
Loss of Ignition, percent by mass,
(Maximum) 0.60 ≤5

c. Mineralogical Characteristics of Pond Ash - X- Ray Diffraction Analysis


X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of pond ash samples from RTPS presented in fig.4.6
show the presence of four crystalline phases in significant amount, namely quartz, mullite,

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magnesite and hematite. There is a definite phase separation based on particle size for the
glass and carbon particles. Carbon is abundant in coarser fractions. The most abundant phase
in each sample is glass.
The reactivity of the fly ashes is related to the non crystalline phase or glass. XRD
examination shows that silica is present partly in the crystalline form of quartz and in
combination with the alumina as mullite.

Fig.4.5 - XRD Graph – Pond Ash from RTPS

d. Morphological Studies – SEM Micrographs


SEM examination on pond ash samples is shown in fig.4.5 at magnification 1000µm. It is
observed that the pond ash particles are angular, rough textured and are porous. Pond ash
samples have more number of particles of size smaller than 75 µm as compared to that in
natural river sand. SEM analysis of pond ash samples represents a mixture of irregularly
shaped and lumped particles containing few glassy spheres having smooth surface and
irregularly shaped particles, relatively coarser having vesicular texture. Spherical particle
content less in RTPS sample indicates presence of coarser particles. It also shows glued
particles with pores in it.

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CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN PROCEDURES CHAPTER 4

Fig. 4.6 SEM Image of Pond Ash Sample from RTPS

4.3 Superplasticizer
The super plasticizer used in concrete mix makes it highly workable for more time
with much lesser water quantity. It is observant that with the use of large quantities of finer
material (fine aggregate + cement + pond ash ) the concrete is much stiff and requires more
water for required workability hence, in the present investigation RHEOBUILD is used as
water reducing admixture.

4.4 Dosage
The optimum dosage is best determined by site trails with the concrete mix, which
enables the effect of workability as a guide, the rate of addition is in the range of 0.8-1.2%(8-
12ml) per kg of cement content for the mixes.

4.5 Water
This is the least expensive but most important ingredient of concrete. The water,
which is used for making concrete , should be clean and free from harmful impurities such as
oil, alkali, acid, etc., in general, the water, which is fit for drinking should be used for making
concrete.

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4.6 MIX PROPORTIONING PROCEDURES


The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative
amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required strength, durability and
workability as economical as possible, is termed the concrete mix design. The proportioning
of ingredient of concrete is governed by the required performance of concrete in 2 states,
namely the plastic and the hardened states. The property of workability therefore becomes of
vital importance. The compressive strength of hardened concrete which is generally
considered to be an index of its other properties depends upon many factors, e.g. quality and
quantity of cement, water and aggregates, batching and mixing, placing, compaction and
curing. The cost of concrete is made up of the cost of materials, plant and labor. The
variations in the cost of materials arise from the fact that the cement is several times costly
than the aggregates, thus the aim is to produce as lean a mix as possible. From technical point
of view the rich mixes may lead to high shrinkage and cracking in the structural concrete,
and to evolution of high heat of hydration in mass concrete which may cause cracking. The
actual cost of concrete is related to the cost of materials required for producing a minimum
mean strength called characteristic strength that is specified by the designer of the structure.
This depends on the quality control measures, but there is no doubt that the quality control
adds to the cost of concrete. The extent of quality control is often an economic
compromise, and depends on the size and type of job. The cost of labour depends on the
workability of mix, e.g., a concrete mix of adequate workability may result in a high cost of
labour to obtain a degree of compaction with available equipment. Standard procedure of mix
proportioning is,
1) DOE method of concrete mix design
2) ACI method of mix design
3) IS recommended method of concrete mix design
4.6.1 Requirements of Concrete Mix Design
The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning of mix
ingredients are:
a) The minimum compressive strength required from structural consideration
b) The adequate workability necessary for full compaction equipment available

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c) Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to give adequate


durability for the particular site conditions
d) Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to temperature cycle in
mass concrete.
4.6.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of mix proportions
4.6.2.1 Compressive Strength
It is one of the most important properties of concrete and influences many other
properties of the hardened concrete. The mean compressive strength required at a specific
age, usually 28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ration of the mix. The other
factor affecting the strength of concrete at a given age and cured at a prescribed temperature
is the degree of compaction. According to Abraham’s law of fully compacted concrete is
inversely proportional to the water-cement ratio.
4.6.2.2 Workability
The degree of workability required depends on three factors, the size of the section
to be concreted, the amount of reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used. For
the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible parts, the concrete
must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable
amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel sections. The desired workability
depends on the compacting equipment available at the site.
4.6.2.3 Durability
The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive environmental conditions.
High strength concrete is generally more durable than low strength concrete. In this situation
when the high strength is not necessary but the conditions of exposure are such that high
durability is vital, the durability requirement will determine the water-cement ratio to be
used.
4.6.2.4 Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregate
In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is the cement requirement
for a particular water-cement ratio, because the workability of concrete increases with
increase in maximum size of the aggregate. However, the compressive strength tends to
increase with the decrease in size of aggregate.
4.6.2.5 Grading and Type of Aggregate

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The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions for a specified workability
and water-cement ratio. Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used. Very lean
mix is not desirable since it does not contain enough finer material to make the concrete
cohesive. The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-cement ratio for the
desired workability and stipulated water-cement ratio. An important feature of a stationary
aggregate is the uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing different size
fractions.
4.6.2.6 Quality Control
The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the variations in test results.
The variation in strength results from variations in the properties of the mix ingredients and
lack of control of accuracy in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing. The lower the
difference between the mean and minimum strengths of the mix lower will be the cement
content required. The factor controlling this difference is termed as quality control.
4.6.3 Mix Design Procedures
4.6.3.1 Definition
Concrete mix design is the process of proportioning various ingredients such as
cement, cementitious materials, aggregates, water and admixtures, if used, in the most
optimal manner so as to produce a concrete at minimal cost having specified properties of
workability and homogeneity in the green state and durability in the hardened state.
4.6.3.2 Principal Factors Considered In Concrete Mix Design
1. Workability for transporting and placing of concrete in position (pumping or any
other method) and its compaction with the given compacting equipment. Workability is
specified in terms of slump.
2. Characteristic strength of concrete.
3. Type of cement and its strength at 28 days.
4. Minimum, grade of concrete, minimum cement content and maximum w/c ratio
from considerations of durability of concrete for given exposure condition.
5. Aggregate grading, shape, size and surface texture.
All ingredients are proportioned by weight per unit volume of concrete.
4.6.4 Data for Mix Proportioning
The following basic data are required for concrete mix proportioning:

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1. Grade Designation: Minimum grade of concrete to be designed for the type of


exposure condition of the structure under consideration.
2. Type of cement, viz., Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement
(PPC), Portland Slag Cement (PSC) etc.
3. Maximum nominal size of aggregate to be used, viz., 40mm, 20mm and 12.5mm.
4. Minimum cement content (Table 3, 4, 5 and 6 of IS 456:2000)
5. Maximum water cement ratio (Table 3 and 5 of IS 456:2000)
6. Degree of workability desired.
7. Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing.
8. Early age strength requirements, if required
9. Type of aggregate viz. Granite, Basalt, Natural River Sand, Crushed Stone Sand etc.
10. Maximum cement content.
4.6.5 Process of Concrete Mix Design
1. Concrete mix proportions are arrived based on guidelines of mix proportioning
methods, past experience or published data and information obtained on the properties of the
constituent materials that are actually used in making the concrete.
2. Small-scale trial mixes, usually in a laboratory are made and tested using the
materials that will be used on site.
3. Full-scale site trials are carried out before construction begins.
It is always advisable to design the trial mixes with those materials that will be used on the
job so that the adjustments can be easily understood and implemented in the field.

4.6.6 Mix Proportions

Design mix concrete is preferred to nominal mix. Mix is designed following the
stipulations laid down in IS 456:2000 with respect to minimum cement content, maximum
water to cement ratio and minimum grade of concrete for various exposure conditions and
guidelines.
The step-by-step mix proportioning procedure is as follows:
4.6.6.1 Target Mean Compressive Strength for Mix Proportioning
f´ck = fck + 1.65(S)
Where,
f´ck = Target mean compressive strength at 28 days,

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fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days,


S = Standard deviation N/mm2
Standard deviation shall be calculated for each grade of concrete using at least 30 test
strength of samples (taken from site) when a mix is used for the first time. In case sufficient
test results are not available, the values of standard deviation may be assumed for
proportioning the mix in the first instance. As soon as sufficient test results are available,
actual standard shall be calculated and used to proportion the mix properly.
4.6.6.2 Water-Cement Ratio
It is preferable to establish relationship between compressive strength and free water-
cement ratio. If such a relationship is not available, maximum water-cement ratio for various
environmental exposure conditions given in IS 456:2000 may be taken as a starting point.
Any water-cement ratio assumed based on the previous experience for a particular grade of
concrete should be checked against the maximum values permitted from the point of view of
durability and lower of the two shall be adopted.
4.6.6.3 Water Content
The quantity of water considered per cubic meter decides the workability of the mix.
Use of water reducing chemical admixtures in the mix helps to achieve increased workability
at lower water contents. Water content given in IS 10262-2009 is the maximum value for a
particular maximum nominal size of aggregate (angular) which will achieve a slump in the
range of 25mm to 50mm. depending on the performance of an admixture (confirming IS
9103:1999) which is proposed to be used in the mix, a minimum of 20% of water reduction
shall be considered in case of superplasticiser. Use old Poly Carboxylic Ether (PCE) based
superplasticiser results in water reduction up to 30%. Water content per unit volume of
concrete is required to be reduced with aggregate size increase, use of rounded aggregates,
reduction in water-cement ratio and slump. Water content per unit volume of concrete is
required to be increased when there is increased temperature, cement content, fine aggregate
content and water-cement ratio.
Reduction in water content can be made in following cases:
 For sub angular aggregates, the water estimate can be reduced by 10kg.
 For gravel with crushed particles, the water content can be reduced 20kg.
 For rounded gravel, the water content can be reduced by 25kg.

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For higher workability (other than 25mm to 50mm) the required water may be established by
trial or an increase by about 3% for every additional 25mm slump or alternatively by use of
chemical admixtures confirming to IS 9103:1999.
Table 4.7: Maximum Water Content per Cubic for Nominal Maximum Size of
Aggregate
Nominal maximum
Maximum water
SL No. size of
content, Kg
aggregate, mm
1. 10 208
2. 20 186
3. 40 165
Note: These quantities of mixing water are for use in computing cementitious material
contents for trial batches.
4.6.6.4 Use of Water Reducing Admixture
If use of chemical water reducing admixture is permitted for the job in hand in
proportioning of the mix, reduction in assumed water content shall be made depending on the
type of admixture. Water reducing admixtures will usually decrease water content by 5 to
10% and super-plasticizer decrease water content by 20% and above at appropriate dosages.
The high-range, retarding, superplasticising admixture for concrete shall be MasterRheobuild
1125, a sulphonated naphthalene polymer based formulation having slump retaining
capabilities. The product shall comply with IS: 9103 and shall be of type G when tested to
ASTM C-494. The product shall have average relative density of 1.24 at 25 oC.
Table 4.8: Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for different
zones of fine aggregate
Nominal Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for
maximum different zones of fine aggregate(for w/c ratio=0.5)
size
of aggregate, Zone IV Zone III Zone II Zone I
mm
10 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44
20 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
40 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69

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Volumes are based on aggregate in saturated surface dry condition


Note: Volume coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate needs to be changed at the
rate of +/-0.01 for every +/- 0.05 change in water-cement ratio.
4.6.6.5 Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Proportion
Table 5.3 of the IS 383-1970 gives volume of coarse aggregate for unit volume of
total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate for a water-cement ratio of 0.5 which
requires to be suitably adjusted for other water-cement ratios. This table is based on ACI
211.1-1991 “Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass
Concrete”. Aggregates of essentially the same nominal maximum size, type and grading will
produce concrete of satisfactory workability when a given volume of coarse aggregate per
unit volume of total aggregate is used. It can be seen that for equal workability, the volume
of coarse aggregate in a unit volume of concrete is dependent on nominal size, water-cement
ratio and grading zone of fine aggregate.
4.6.6.6 Combination of Different Sizes of Coarse Aggregate Fractions
Coarse aggregate from stone crushers are normally available in two sizes viz., 20mm
and 12.5mm. Coarse aggregates of different sizes can be suitably combined to satisfy the
gradation requirements (cumulative percent passing) of Table 2 in IS 383:1970 for the given
maximum nominal size of aggregate.
4.6.6.7 Estimation of Fine Aggregate Proportion
In the steps mentioned above, all the ingredients of concrete are estimated except the
coarse and fine aggregate content. These quantities are determined by finding out the
absolute volume of cementitious material, water and chemical admixture; by dividing their
mass by their respective specific gravity, multiplying by 1/1000 and subtracting the result of
their summation by unit volume. The value so obtained is the volume of total aggregate.
Volume of coarse aggregate for unit volume of total aggregate is already estimated in step V.
the contents of coarse and fine aggregate per unit volume of concrete are determined by
multiplying with their specific gravities and multiplying by 1000.
4.6.6.8 Trial Mixes
The calculated mix proportions shall be checked by means of trial batches as follows:
The concrete for trial mixes shall be produced by methods of actual production. Ribbon type
mixer or pan mixer are required to be used to simulate the site conditions where automatic
batching and pan mixers are used for the production of concrete.
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4.6.6.8.1 Trial Mix No.1: Workability in terms of slump of the trial mix shall be carefully
observed for freedom from segregation, bleeding and for finishing properties. If the measured
slump of trial mix no.1 is different from targeted value, trial mix no.2 shall be carried out as
explained below.
4.6.6.8.2 Trial Mix No.2: The water and/or admixture content shall be adjusted suitably in
the Trial Mix No.1 with this adjustment; the mix proportion shall be recalculated keeping the
free water cement ratio at the pre-selected value. With this trial more or less the stipulated
value of slump will be obtained. In addition two or more trial mixes shall be made with water
content same as trial mix no.2 and varying the free w/c ratio by +/-10% of the preselected
value.
4.6.7 Mix Design – Specimen Calculation as per IS:10262-2009
I. Design Stipulations for Mix Proportioning
a. Grade designation – M25
b. Type of cement - OPC 43 grade, IS 8112
c. Max. Nominal size of aggregate - 20 mm
d. Minimum cement content - 320 kg/m3
e. Maximum water cement ratio - 0.45
f. Workability - 100 mm slump
g. Exposure condition – Severe (for reinforced concrete)
h. Degree of supervision – Good
i. Maximum cement content - 450 kg/m3
II. Test Data for Materials
1. Cement
 Grade - OPC 43 grade

 Sp. Gravity - 3.145

2. Coarse Aggregate - 20 mm
 Sp. Gravity – 2.68

 Water Absorption – 0.75%.

3. Coarse Aggregate - 12.5 mm

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 Sp. Gravity – 2.65

 Water Absorption – 0.9%

1. Target Strength of Mix Proportioning


fck1 = fck + 1.65 s
Where fck1 = target average compressive strength at 28 days
fck = characteristic compressive strength at 28 days =25MPa
s = standard deviation =5 N/mm2
Therefore target Mean strength = 25+1.65 x5 = 33.25 N/mm2
2. Selection of W/ C Ratio
From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water cement ratio = 0.45 (Severe exposure)
3. Selection of Water Content
From Table 4.6, IS 456:2000 maximum water content = 186 lit (for 25 to 50 mm slump
range) for 20 mm aggregate.
Estimated water content for 100 mm slump = 186 + 6/100 x186 = 197 lit.
When Super Plasticizer is used, water content can be reduced up to 20%
Hence, the arrived Water Content =197×0.8=157.5 lit.
4. Calculation of Cement Content
Water cement ratio = 0.45
3 3
Cement content = 157.5/0.45 =350 kg/m >320 kg/m (minimum cement content), Hence
OK
5. Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate Content
From Table 4.7 weight of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and
fine aggregate (Zone II) for water-cement ratio of 0.50=0.62
As the water-cement ratio is lowered by 0.05, the proportion of volume of coarse aggregate
is increased by 0.01 (at the rate of - / + 0.01 for every + 0.05 change in water-cement ratio).
Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for Water-cement ratio of
0.45= 0.6316
6. Mix Calculations
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows
a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3

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b) Volume of cement
= mass of cement/specific gravity of cement x 1/1000
3
= [350/3.145] x [1/1000] = 0.11128 m
c) Volume of water = [157.5/1] x [1/1000] = 0.1575 m3
d) Volume of Chemical admixture 1.2% by mass of cementitious material
= 4.20/1.19×1/1000=0.0049m3
e) Volume of all in aggregates = a – (b + c + d)
= 1 – (0.11128+ 0.1575+.0049) = 0.7265 m3
f) Weight of coarse aggregates:
Weight = 0.7265 x 0.6316×2.68×1000 = 1229.73kg
g) Weight of fine aggregates
Weight = 0.7265×0.3684×2.63×1000 = 703.90kg
7. Final Mix for M25 Grade Concrete
Cement = 350 kg/m3
Water = 157.5 kg/m3
Fine aggregate = 703.90kg/m3
Coarse aggregates = 1229.73 kg/m3
Water cement ratio = 0.45
The details of Mix of M25 grade of concrete and their Final Mix ratios are given in Table
4.9.
Table 4.9 - Mix Proportion for M25 Grade Concrete

Weight of Material in Kg/m3 of Concrete and Mix Ratio

Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water

350 703.90 1229.73 157.5


1 2 3.51 0.45
375 697.31 1218.22 157.5
1 1.8 3.24 0.45
415 684.52 1195.88 157.5
1 1.649 2.88 0.45

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4.7 Details of Specimens for the Study


4.7.1 Size and Shape of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test
The size of specimen cast for Compressive Strength Test is 150×150×150 in ‘mm’ and its
shape is Cube.
Table 4.10 Details of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test for Pond Ash
Replaced Concrete

Cementitious Water/ No. of Specimens casted at


Sl Details of Mix curing period in days of
content in Cement
No Specimen Designation
kg/m3 ratio 3 7 28 56 90
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
1 (150×150×150) 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
350 C350S0P100
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
2 (150×150×150) 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
375 C375S0P100
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
3 (150×150×150) 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
415 C415S0P100
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
Total numbers
45 45 45 45 45
of Specimens

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CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN PROCEDURES CHAPTER 4

Table 4.11 Details of Specimens Cast for Compressive Strength Test for Normal
Concrete
Sl Details of Cementitious Mix Water/ No of Specimens casted at
No Specimen content in Designation Cement curing period in days of
kg/m 3
ratio 3 7 28 56 90
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
1 (150×150×150) 350 C350S100P0 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube C375S100P0 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
2 (150×150×150) 375 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
0.45 3 3 3 3 3
Cube 0.42 3 3 3 3 3
3 (150×150×150) 415 C415S100P0 0.40 3 3 3 3 3
mm 0.38 3 3 3 3 3
0.36 3 3 3 3 3
Total numbers 45 45 45 45 45
of Specimens

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 42


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the experimental methods and procedures carried out to assess fresh
properties of both Pond Ash replaced Concrete PARC and Normal Concrete NC mixes in
terms of its slump and flow test. The result of the tests, discussion on the results of PRC
mixes in comparison with NC at different cement contents. It also presents the result of
compressive strength test at curing periods of 3, 7, 28, 56 & 90 days.

5.2 Fresh Properties of PARC and NC Mixes


Fresh properties of PARC and NC mixes are assessed using slump test and flow test and the
codal procedure of the test, results and discussions on the tests are presented in the
subsequent sections as follows.
5.2.1 Workability of Concrete
The behavior of green or fresh concrete from mixing up to compaction depends mainly on
the property called “workability of concrete”. Workability of concrete is a term which
consists of the following four partial properties of concrete namely, mixability,
transportability, mouldability and compactibility. In general terms, workability represents the
amount of work which is to be done to compact the compact the concrete in a given mould.
The desired workability for a particular mix depends upon the type of compaction adopted
and the complicated nature of reinforcement used in reinforced concrete. A workable mix
should not segregate. Hence the workability of concrete is a composite property.
The measurement of workability is done by Slump Test and Flow Test.
5.2.1.1 Slump Test
Slump test is used to determine the consistency of concrete mix of given proportions. The
procedure of Slump test as per IS: 1199 – 1959 is as follows. The apparatus used for
conducting slump test are iron pan to mix concrete, slump cone, spatula, trowels, tamping rod
and graduated cylinder.
Procedure

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

i) The internal surface of the slump cone is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat
of oil.
ii) The slump cone is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface.
iii) The slump cone is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete, each
approximately to one-fourth of the height of the slump cone.
iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are
distributed evenly over the cross section)
v) After the top layer is rodded, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel.
vi) The slump cone is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the
vertical direction.
vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of
the subsided concrete is measured.
viii) This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.

Fig 5.1: Workability of Fresh Concrete by Slump Test

Reporting of Results
The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during the
test. Any slump, which collapses or shears off laterally, gives incorrect result and if this
occurs, the test should be repeated with another sample. If in the repeat test also, the
specimen shears, the slump should be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared,
should be recorded.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 44


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.1: Results of Slump Test

Cement Content
Admixture
w/c Slump in ‘mm’
Dosage in
in ‘kg/m3’ ‘ml/kg’
ratio NC PARC
0.45 82 64
0.42 78 58
350 0.40 74 52
0.38 71 45
0.36 67 41
0.45 85 69
0.42 82 61
375 8-12 0.40 77 55
0.38 74 50
0.36 70 48
0.45 89 75
0.42 86 66
415 0.40 81 60
0.38 78 55
0.36 73 50

100 Slump vs. w/c ratio


Slump value in 'mm'

80
60 415Kg/m³
40 375Kg/m³

20 350Kg/m³

0
0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.45
w/c ratio

Fig 5.2: Slump of NC mixes at Different Cement Contents

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 45


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

80 Slump value vs. w/c ratio

Slump value in 'mm'


60
415Kg/m³
40
375Kg/m³
20 350Kg/m³

0
0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.45
w/c ratio

Fig 5.3: Slump of PARC mixes at Different Cement Contents

5.2.1.2 Discussion on Results of Slump Test


From the results of workability of PARC and NC mixes, measured using slump test, the
following observations were made.
1. The slump of PARC mixes is less than that of slump of corresponding NC mixes.
2. Dosage of admixture is varied from (8-12)ml to get the required workability.
3. Slump of PARC mixes at higher w/c ratio of 0.45 was 64, 69, & 75mm
respectively for cement contents of 350,375 & 415kg/m³ respectively
4. As the w/c ratio of PARC & NC mixes were reduced, slump of the mixes also
showed reduction in slump values, as expected.
5. Higher the cement contents, better is the workability measured in terms of slump of
mixes. This trend of behavior of PARC mixes is found similar to that of NC mixes

5.2.2 Flow Test


Flow test is conducted as per the standard procedure of IS, Flow test is a laboratory test,
which gives an indication of the quality of concrete with respect to consistency, cohesiveness
and the proneness to segregation. In this test, a standard mass of concrete is subjected to
jolting. The spread or the flow of the concrete is measured and this flow is related to
workability. Figure shows the details of apparatus used. It can be seen that the apparatus
consists of flow table, about 76 cm. in diameter over which concentric circles are marked. A
mould made from smooth metal casting in the form of a frustum of a cone is used with the
following internal dimensions. The base is 25 cm. in diameter upper surface 17 cm. in
diameter and height of the cone is 12 cm.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 46


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Fig 5.4: Flow Table Apparatus


The table top is cleaned of all gritty material and is wetted. The mould is kept on the centre
of the table, firmly held and is filled in two layers. Each layer is rodded 25 times with a
tamping rod 1.6 cm in diameter and 61 cm long rounded at the lower tamping end. After the
top layer is rodded evenly, the excess of concrete which has overflowed the mould is
removed. The mould is lifted vertically upward and the concrete stands on its own without
support. The table is then raised and dropped 12.5 mm 15 times in about 15 seconds. The
diameter of the spread concrete is measured in about 6 directions to the nearest 5 mm and the
average spread is noted. The flow of concrete is the percentage increase in the average
diameter of the spread concrete over the base diameter of the mould.
Flow in percentage = [(Spread diameter in cm – 25) / 25] x 100
The value could range anything from 0 to 150 per cent.
A close look at the pattern of spread of concrete can also give a good indication of the
characteristics of concrete such as tendency for segregation.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 47


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.2: Results of Flow Test


Cement Content Admixture w/c Flow value in ‘%’
in ‘kg/m3’ Dosage in ‘ml/kg’ ratio NC PARC
0.45 89 75
0.42 86 66
350 0.40 81 60
0.38 78 55
0.36 73 50
0.45 112 100
0.42 110 88
375 8-12 0.40 108 80
0.38 104 68
0.36 102 62
0.45 104 90
0.42 98 76
415 0.40 94 66
0.38 92 58
0.36 88 48

120 Flow value vs. w/c ratio

100
80
Flow value in '%'

60 415Kg/m³
40 375Kg/m³
350Kg/m³
20
0
0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.45
w/c ratio

Fig 5.5: Flow Rate of NC Mixes at Different Cement Contents

Flow value vs. w/c ratio


120
100
Flow value in '%'

80
60 415Kg/m³
375Kg/m³
40
350Kg/m³
20
0
0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.45
w/c ratio

Fig 5.6: Flow Rate of PARC Mixes at Different Cement Contents

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 48


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

5.2.2.1 Discussion on Flow Test Result


From the results of flow test, following observations were made.
1. Workability in terms of flow of mixes is higher for NC mixes and it is lower for a
PARC mixes in comparison with NC mixes. This may be due to the irregular shape of pond
ash particles in PARC mix which makes the mix more viscous, increases friction and hence
reduces the flow.
2. As the w/c ratio of the mix at a particular cement content was reduced, the flow of
concrete is also reduced. The flow was maximum at higher w/c ratio of 0.45 for cement
content of 375 kg/m3.
3. There was no pattern behavior observed in terms of flow in both PARC and NC
mixes at different w/c ratio, when the cement content was increased from 350 to 375 &
further to 415 kg/m3 showing mixed trend of flow in both PARC and NC mixes with
reference to its cement contents.

From the discussions on the flow test results, it may be concluded that, workability flow of
PARC mixes is slightly lesser than that of NC mixes and flow rate decreases corresponding
to the reduction in the w/c ratio as expected.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 49


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

5.3 Compressive Strength Test


The compressive strength test was conducted as per IS : 516 – 1959, Reaff 1999.
5.3.1 Size of Test Specimens
Test specimens cubical in shape shall be of 15 × 15 × 15 cm. If the largest nominal size of
the aggregate does not exceed 2 cm, 10 cm cubes may be used as an alternative.
5.3.2 Cube Moulds
The mould shall be of 150 mm size conforming to (IS:10086-1982), In assembling the
mould for use, the joints between the sections of mould shall be thinly coated with mould oil
and a similar coating of mould oil shall be applied between the contact surfaces of the bottom
of the mould and the base plate in order to ensure that no water escapes during the filling.
The interior surfaces of the assembled mould shall be thinly coated with mould oil to prevent
adhesion of the concrete.
5.3.3 Compacting
The test specimens shall be made as soon as practicable after mixing, and in such a way as to
produce full compaction of the concrete with neither segregation nor excessive laitance. The
concrete shall be filled into the mould in layers approximately 5 cm deep. In placing each
scoopful of concrete, the scoop shall be moved around the top edge of the mould as the
concrete slides from it, in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within
the mould. Each layer shall be compacted either by hand or by vibration as described below.
After the top layer has been compacted, the surface of the concrete shall be finished level
with the top of the mould, using a trowel, and covered with a glass or metal plate to prevent
evaporation.
5.3.3.1 Compacting by Hand: When compacting by hand, the standard tamping bar shall be
used and the strokes of the bar shall be distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section
of the mould. The number of strokes per layer required to produce specified conditions will
vary according to the type of concrete. For cubical specimens, in no case shall the concrete
be subjected to less than 35 strokes per layer for 15 cm cubes or 25 strokes per layer for 10
cm cubes. For cylindrical specimens, the number of strokes shall not be less than thirty per
layer. The strokes shall penetrate into the underlying layer and the bottom layer shall be
rodded throughout its depth. Where voids are left by the tamping bar, the sides of the mould
shall be tapped to close the voids.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

5.3.3.2 Compacting by Vibration: When compacting by vibration, each layer shall be


vibrated by means of an electric or pneumatic hammer or vibrator or by means of a suitable
vibrating table until the specified condition is attained.
5.3.4 Curing
The test specimens shall be stored in a place, free from vibration, in moist air of at least 90
percent relative humidity and at a temperature of 27° ± 2°C for 24 hours ± ½ hour from the
time of addition of water to the dry ingredients. After this period, the specimens shall be IS :
516 – 1959 marked and removed from the moulds and, unless required for test within 24
hours, immediately submerged in clean, fresh water or saturated lime solution and kept there
until taken out just prior to test. The water or solution in which the specimens are submerged
shall be renewed every seven days and shall be maintained at a temperature of 27° ± 2°C.
The specimens shall not be allowed to become dry at any time until they have been tested.
This clause deals with the procedure for determining the compressive strength of concrete
specimens.
Procedure
i. Specimens stored in water shall be tested immediately on removal from the water and
while they are still in the wet condition.
ii. Surface water and grit shall be wiped off the specimens and any projecting fins
removed.
iii. Specimens when received dry shall be kept in water for 24 hours before they are taken
for testing.
iv. `The dimensions of the specimens to the nearest 0.2 mm and their weight shall be
noted before testing.
v. The bearing surfaces of the testing machine shall be wiped clean and any loose sand or
other material removed from the surfaces of the specimen which are to be in contact
with the compression platens.
vi. In the case of cubes, the specimen shall be placed in the machine in such a manner that
the load shall be applied to opposite sides of the cubes as cast, that is, not to the top
and bottom.
vii. The load shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of
approximately 140 kg/sq cm/min until the resistance of the specimen to the increasing
load breaks down and no greater load can be sustained.
Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 51
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

viii. The maximum load applied to the specimen shall then be recorded and the appearance
of the concrete and any unusual features in the type of failure shall be noted.
The measured compressive strength of the specimen shall be calculated by dividing the
maximum load applied to the specimen during the test by the cross-sectional area, calculated
from the mean dimensions of the section and shall be expressed to the nearest kg per sq cm.
Average of three values shall be taken as the representative of the batch provided the
individual variation is not more than ± 15 percent of the average. Otherwise repeat tests shall
be made.
5.3.5 Results of Compressive Strength Test
Results of compressive strength test of different PARC & NC mixes at different w/c
ratio are presented in table 5.3 to5.7. The ratio CR1 & CR2 of different PARC & NC mixes
are presented in table 5.8 to 5.17, where CR1 & CR2 are calculated as follows.

PARC - Pond Ash Replaced Concrete


NC - Normal Concrete

Table 5.3: Compressive Strength of PARC and NC Mixes for 0.45 w/c ratio at Different
Cement Contents

Compressive Strength in MPa for NC Compressive Strength in MPa for PARC


Cement Mixes at Different Cement Contents for Mixes at Different Cement Contents for
w/c
Content Curing Period in Days Curing Period in Days
ratio
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 16.37 19.87 26.29 28.65 28.84 11.48 14.79 22.08 24.07 24.51

0.45 375 20.90 27.60 39.48 42.83 43.65 16.64 22.75 33.95 36.67 37.69
415 27.17 34.52 49.91 50.23 50.44 22.51 27.83 40.93 43.38 44.2

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 52


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.4: Compressive Strength of PARC and NC Mixes for 0.42 w/c ratio at different
Cement Contents

Compressive Strength in MPa for NC Compressive Strength in MPa for PARC


Cement Mixes at Different Cement Contents for Mixes at Different Cement Contents for
w/c
Content Curing Period in Days Curing Period in Days
ratio
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 17.77 22.90 31.67 32.69 33.70 13.25 16.62 25.97 27.79 28.35
0.42 375 23.69 30.60 44.98 44.35 45.49 18.35 25.55 35.98 38.14 39.58
415 27.60 35.07 51.80 54.49 54.62 23.22 28.38 42.99 46.43 46.86

Table 5.5: Compressive Strength of PARC and NC Mixes for 0.40 w/c ratio at different
Cement Contents
Compressive Strength in MPa for NC Compressive Strength in MPa for PARC
Cement Mixes at Different Cement Contents for Mixes at Different Cement Contents for
w/c
Content Curing Period in Days Curing Period in Days
ratio
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 20.21 24.34 35.90 36.95 38.19 15.99 18.9 29.08 31.41 31.7
0.40 375 23.75 32.35 46.02 45.89 46.83 20.75 24.53 37.74 40.38 41.13
415 29.15 36.66 51.16 54.11 53.10 24.2 30.8 44 46.2 47.08

Table 5.6: Compressive Strength of PARC and NC Mixes for 0.38 w/c ratio at different
Cement Contents
Compressive Strength in MPa for NC Compressive Strength in MPa for PARC
Cement Mixes at Different Cement Contents for Mixes at Different Cement Contents for
w/c
Content Curing Period in Days Curing Period in Days
ratio
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 20.20 25.72 37.29 38.95 40.16 16.21 19.27 30.58 32.72 33.64
0.38 375 24.62 33.59 47.55 48.26 48.56 19.97 27.16 39.94 42.33 42.73
415 31.51 37.00 55.96 58.10 59.18 24.91 32.44 47.01 50.3 51.71

Table 5.7: Compressive Strength of PARC and NC Mixes for 0.36 w/c ratio at different
Cement Contents

Compressive Strength in MPa for NC Compressive Strength in MPa for PARC


Cement Mixes at Different Cement Contents for Mixes at Different Cement Contents for
w/c
Content Curing Period in Days Curing Period in Days
ratio
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 20.43 27.35 39.72 43.70 42.64 16.92 21.9 32.17 35.83 36.82
0.36 375 28.28 36.20 53.46 53.52 53.99 23.67 28.06 43.84 46.03 47.34
415 33.30 39.30 56.37 60.06 60.74 25.5 31.39 49.04 53.45 53.45

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 53


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

60 Compressive Strength of Mixes at Different Curing Period for w/c = 0.45


Compressive strength in MPa

50

40

30

20
415Kg/m³
10 375Kg/m³
350Kg/m³
0
3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
Curing Period in Days

Fig 5.7: Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.45

60 Compressive Strength of Mixes at Different Curing Period for w/c = 0.42


Compressive strength in MPa

50

40

30

20
415Kg/m³
10 375Kg/m³
350Kg/m³
0
3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
Curing Period in Days

Fig 5.8: Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.42

60 Compressive Strength of Mixes at Different Curing Period for w/c = 0.40


Compressive strength in MPa

50

40

30

20 415Kg/m³
375Kg/m³
10 350Kg/m³

0
3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
Curing Period in Days

Fig 5.9: Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.40

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 54


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

70 Compressive Strength of Mixes at Different Curing Period for w/c = 0.38


60
Compressive strength in MPa

50

40

30

20 415Kg/m³
375Kg/m³
10
350Kg/m³
0
3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
Curing Period in Days

Fig 5.10: Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.38

Compressive Strength of Mixes at Different Curing Period for w/c = 0.36


70
Compressive strength in MPa

60

50

40

30
415Kg/m³
20
375Kg/m³
10
350Kg/m³
0
3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
Curing Period in Days
Fig 5.11: Compressive Strength Developed for Water-Cement ratio of 0.36

Table 5.8: The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and NC
(w/c ratio=0.45)

The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28


Cement days Strength (CR1) for NC at Different days Strength (CR1) for PARC at
w/c Cement Contents for Curing Period in Different Cement Contents for Curing
Content
ratio Days Period in Days
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 0.622 0.755 1 1.089 1.096 0.519 0.669 1 1.09 1.11
0.45 375 0.529 0.699 1 1.084 1.105 0.490 0.670 1 1.080 1.110
415 0.544 0.691 1 1.006 1.010 0.549 0.679 1 1.059 1.079

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.9: The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and NC
(w/c ratio=0.42)
The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days
Cement days Strength (CR1) for NC at Different Strength (CR1) for PARC at Different
w/c Cement Contents for Curing Period in Cement Contents for Curing Period in
Content
ratio Days Days
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 0.56 0.723 1 1.032 1.064 0.549 0.649 1 1.069 1.089
0.42 375 0.526 0.680 1 0.985 1.011 0.510 0.710 1 1.060 1.10
415 0.532 0.677 1 1.051 1.054 0.540 0.660 1 1.081 1.090

Table 5.10: The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (w/c ratio=0.40)
The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days
Cement days Strength (CR1) for NC at Different Strength (CR1) for PARC at Different
w/c Cement Contents for Curing Period in Cement Contents for Curing Period in
Content
ratio Days Days
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 0.562 0.677 1 1.029 1.063 0.549 0.6499 1 1.08 1.09
0.40 375 0.516 0.702 1 0.997 1.017 0.549 0.649 1 1.069 1.089
415 0.569 0.716 1 1.057 1.037 0.55 0.7 1 1.05 1.07

Table 5.11: The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (w/c ratio=0.38)

The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days


Cement days Strength (CR1) for NC at Different Strength (CR1) for PARC at Different
w/c Cement Contents for Curing Period in Cement Contents for Curing Period in
Content
ratio Days Days
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 0.541 0.689 1 1.044 1.076 0.53 0.63 1 1.069 1.10
0.38 375 0.517 0.70 1 1.014 1.021 0.5 0.68 1 1.059 1.069
415 0.563 0.661 1 1.038 1.057 0.529 0.690 1 1.069 1.099

Table 5.12: The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days Strength (CR1) for PARC and
NC (w/c ratio=0.36)
The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days
Cement days Strength (CR1) for NC at Different Strength (CR1) for PARC at Different
w/c Cement Contents for Curing Period in Cement Contents for Curing Period in
Content
ratio Days Days
in
‘kg/m³’ 3 7 28 56 90 3 7 28 56 90
350 0.514 0.688 1 1.100 1.073 0.51 0.66 1 1.08 1.11
0.36 375 0.528 0.677 1 1.001 1.009 0.539 0.640 1 1.049 1.079
415 0.590 0.697 1 1.065 1.077 0.519 0.64 1 1.089 1.089

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.13: The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) for
PARC and NC (w/c ratio=0.45)

Strengths ratio in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) at Curing Periods of


Cement
w/c Conten 3 7 28 56 90
ratio t
in NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC
‘kg/m³’
350 1 0.701 1 0.744 1 0.839 1 0.840 1 0.849
0.45 375 1 0.796 1 0.824 1 0.859 1 0.856 1 0.863
415 1 0.828 1 0.806 1 0.820 1 0.863 1 0.87

Table 5.14: The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) for
PARC and NC (w/c ratio=0.42)

Strengths ratio in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) at Curing Periods of


Cement
w/c Conten 3 7 28 56 90
ratio t
in NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC
‘kg/m³’
350 1 0.745 1 0.725 1 0.820 1 0.850 1 0.841
0.42 375 1 0.774 1 0.834 1 0.799 1 0.859 1 0.870
415 1 0.841 1 0.809 1 0.829 1 0.852 1 0.857

Table 5.15: The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) for
PARC and NC (w/c ratio=0.40)
Strengths ratio in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) at Curing Periods of
Cement
w/c Conten 3 7 28 56 90
ratio t
in NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC
‘kg/m³’
350 1 0.791 1 0.776 1 0.810 1 0.850 1 0.830
0.40 375 1 0.873 1 0.758 1 0.820 1 0.879 1 0.878
415 1 0.830 1 0.840 1 0.860 1 0.853 1 0.886

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Table 5.16: The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) for
PARC and NC (w/c ratio=0.38)

Strengths ratio in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) at Curing Periods of


Cement
w/c Conten 3 7 28 56 90
ratio t
in NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC
‘kg/m³’
350 1 0.802 1 0.749 1 0.820 1 0.840 1 0.837
0.38 375 1 0.811 1 0.808 1 0.839 1 0.877 1 0.879
415 1 0.790 1 0.876 1 0.840 1 0.865 1 0.873

Table 5.17: The ratio of Strengths in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) for
PARC and NC (w/c ratio=0.36)
Strengths ratio in terms of Normal Concrete Strength (CR2) at Curing Periods of
Cement 3 7 28 56 90
w/c Conten
ratio t
in NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC NC PARC
‘kg/m³’
350 1 0.828 1 0.800 1 0.809 1 0.819 1 0.863
0.36 375 1 0.836 1 0.775 1 0.820 1 0.860 1 0.876
415 1 0.765 1 0.798 1 0.869 1 0.889 1 0.879

Table 5.18: Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of NC mix at w/c
of 0.45

Normalised 28day Strengths of PARC mixes in


w/c terms of Strength at w/c = 0.45 at Cement
ratio
Content in kg/m3
350 375 415
0.45 1 1 1
0.42 1.05 1.059 1.176
0.4 1.075 1.111 1.317
0.38 1.148 1.176 1.384
0.36 1.198 1.291 1.456

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 58


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

1.6 Normalised 28 day Strength of PARC Mixes


Normalised 28 Day Strength of PARC
1.4
350kg/m³ 375kg/m³ 415kg/m³
1.2

1
Mixes

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0.45 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.36
w/c Ratio

Fig.5.12: Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45

1.5 Normalised 28 day Strength of PARC Mixes


Normalised 28 Day Strength of PARC

1.4 350kg/m³
375kg/m³
1.3
415kg/m³
1.2
Mixes

1.1

0.9

0.8
0.45 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.36
w/c Ratio

Fig.5.13: Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45

Table 5.19: Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of NC mix at


Cement Content of 350 kg/m3
Normalised 28day Strengths of NC mixes in
terms of Strength of Mixes at Cement
w/c ratio
Content of 350 kg/m3 at Different w/c
Ratio
350 375 415
0.45 1 1.5 1.898
0.42 1 1.42 1.63
0.4 1 1.28 1.425
0.38 1 1.275 1.5
0.36 1 1.345 1.419

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 59


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

Normalised 28 Day Strenth Curve


Normalised Strength of Mixes 2
350kg/m³ 375kg/m³ 415kg/m³
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.45 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.36
w/c Raio

Fig.5.14: Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45

Table 5.20: Normalised 28 day Strength of mixes in terms of Strength of PARC mix at
Cement Content of 350 kg/m3

The ratio of Strengths in terms of 28 days


Strength for PARC at Different Cement
w/c ratio (Normalizing different w/c ratio for cement
content of 350kg/m3)

350 375 415


0.45 1 1.53 1.85
0.42 1 1.385 1.655
0.4 1 1.297 1.513
0.38 1 1.3 1.537
0.36 1 1.36 1.52

2.1
Normalised 28 Day Strength Curve - PARC Mixes
1.9
Normalised Strength

1.7

1.5

1.3 350kg/m³
375kg/m³
1.1
415kg/m³
0.9

0.7
0.45 0.42 0.4 0.38 0.36
w/c Ratio

Fig.5.15: Normalised 28day Strength of PARC Mixes in Terms of Strength of Mixes at w/c Ratio of 0.45

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 60


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

5.3.6 Discussions on Results – Compressive Strength


The compressive strength test was conducted on mixes of PARC, mixes with pond ash as
fine aggregates and NC – mixes with only sand as fine aggregates for cement contents (CC)
of 350, 375 and 415 kg/m3. The w/c ratio was reduced from 0.45 to 0.42, 0.40, 0.38, and to
0.36 for each CC and compressive strength was evaluated at curing periods of 3, 7, 28, 56 &
90 days. From the results, the following observations were made.
1. Compressive strength of NC mix at 28 day curing period, at 0.45 w/c ratio was
26.29MPa at 350kg/m³ cement content, 39.48MPa at cement content of 375kg/m³ and was
nearly 50MPa at cement content of 415kg/m³ (Table 5.3 & Fig 5.7).
2. As the w/c ratio is reduced from 0.45 to 0.36, 28 day strength of NC mixes increased to
39.72MPa, 53.46MPa and 56.37MPa for 350 kg/m3, 375kg/m³ and 415 kg/m³
respectively(Table 5.7 & Fig 5.11).
3. Similar trend of increase was observed in PARC mixes. The 28 day strength of PARC
mixes at w/c ratio of 0.45 was 22.08MPa at 350 kg/m3, 33.95MPa at 375 kg/m3 and was
40.93 at 415 kg/m3. Corresponding increase in strength was 32.17MPa, 43.84MPa and
49.09MPa at w/c ratio of 0.36 at different cement contents respectively (Table5.3 & Fig 5.7).
4. The increase in 28 day strength of NC mix with w/c of 0.36 at cement content of 350
kg/m3 was nearly 51% when compared to that with w/c of 0.45. The increase is nearly 35%
at CC of 375 kg/m3 and is nearly 13% for 415 kg/m3 in terms of mix with w/c of 0.45 for the
same cement content.
5. The increase in 28 day strength of PARC mix with w/c of 0.36 at cement content of
350 kg/m3 was nearly 20% when compared to that with w/c of 0.45. The increase is nearly
29% at CC of 375 kg/m3 and is nearly 46% for 415 kg/m3 in terms of mix with w/c of 0.45
for the same cement content.
6. There is reduction in strength of PARC mixes in comparison with NC mixes with
reduction of nearly 15 – 20% at different w/c ratios and also at different cement contents.
7. Strength development of PARC mixes at different w/c ratio and also at different
cement content is in line with the strength development of NC and also satisfy the site
requirement of strength at 3,7 & 28days curing period.
8. The increase in strength of PARC mixes is in line with that of NC mixes at higher
curing periods.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 61


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, RESULTS & DISUSSION CHAPTER 5

9. Contribution of pond ash in concrete in PARC mixes at enhance curing periods of 56


days and 90 days was not noticeable in comparison with NC mixes. This may be due to the
lesser content of particles finer than 20 micron which contributes to increase in strength.
a. The increase in 28 day strength of PARC mix with w/c of 0.36 at cement content of
350 kg/m3 was nearly 20% when compared to that with w/c of 0.45. The increase is nearly
29% at CC of 375 kg/m3 and is nearly 46% for 415 kg/m3 in terms of mix with w/c of 0.45
for the same cement content.
b. There is reduction in strength of PARC mixes in comparison with NC mixes with
reduction of nearly 15 – 20% at different w/c ratios and also at different cement contents.
c. Strength development of PARC mixes at different w/c ratio and also at different
cement content is in line with the strength development of NC and also satisfy the site
requirement of strength at 3,7 & 28days curing period.
d. The increase in strength of PARC mixes is in line with that of NC mixes at higher
curing periods.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 62


CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Conclusions
The test was conducted on fresh and hardened mixes of PARC, mixes with pond ash as fine
aggregates and NC – mixes with only sand as fine aggregates for cement contents (CC) of 350,
375 and 415kg/m3. The w/c ratio was reduced from 0.45 to 0.42, 0.40, 0.38, and to 0.36 for each
CC and properties in fresh and hardened state were evaluated. Compressive strength of PARC
mixes at curing periods of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days were evaluated and compared with that of NC
mixes. From the discussions results, the following conclusions can be made.

1. The slump of PARC mixes is less than that of slump of corresponding NC mixes.
2. Dosage of admixture is varied from (8-12) ml to get the required workability.
3. As the w/c ratio of PARC & NC mixes were reduced, slump of the mixes also showed
reduction in slump values, as expected.
4. Higher the cement contents, better is the workability measured in terms of slump of mixes.
This trend of behavior of PARC mixes is found similar to that of NC mixes.
5. Workability flow of PARC mixes is slightly lesser than that of NC mixes and flow rate
decreases corresponding to the reduction in the w/c ratio as expected.
6. The increase in 28 day strength of PARC mix with w/c of 0.36 at cement content of 350
kg/m3 was nearly 20% when compared to that with w/c of 0.45. The increase is nearly 29%
at CC of 375 kg/m3 and is nearly 46% for 415 kg/m3 in terms of mix with w/c of 0.45 for
the same cement content.
7. There is reduction in strength of PARC mixes in comparison with NC mixes with reduction
of nearly 15 – 20% at different w/c ratios and also at different cement contents.
8. Strength development of PARC mixes at different w/c ratio and also at different cement
content is in line with the strength development of NC and also satisfy the site requirement
of strength at 3,7 & 28days curing period.
9.The increase in strength of PARC mixes is in line with that of NC mixes at higher curing
periods.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 63


CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK CHAPTER 6

6.2 Scope for Future Study


i. Detailed Study on properties of Pond ash from different sources and its behaviour in
concrete.
ii. Short term and long term Durability parameters – experiment Study.
iii. Study on Structural behaviour of Pond Ash concrete.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 64


REFERENCES

REFERENCES
1. Aggarwal .P, Aggrarwal Y. & Gupta S.M, “Effect of Bottom Ash as Replacement
of Fine Aggregates in Concrete”, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol.8, no.1,pp
34 – 42, 2007.
2. Amnon Katz And Hadassa Baum, “Effect of High Levels of Fines Content on
Concrete Properties”, ACI materials journal/November-December 2006.
3. Arumugam K, Ilangovan R & James Manohar D “A Study on Characterization
and Use of Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate in Concrete” International Journal Of Civil
And Structural Engineering Volume 2, No 2, 2011.
4. Ashis Kumar Bera, Ambarish Ghosh, & Amalendu Ghosh, “Compaction
Characteristics of Pond Ash” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No.
4, April 1, 2007.
5. Bang R.S., Ghugal Y.M. & Pateriya I.K “Strength Performance of Pond Ash
Concrete” International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 0974-5904,
Volume 05, No. 01 February 2012 , P.P. 180-185.
6. Bhangale P. P. & Nemade P. M. “Study of Pond ash (BTPS) use as A Fine
Aggregate in Cement Concrete”, International Journal of Latest Trends in
Engineering and Technology. Vol. 2 Issue 2, March 2013.
7. Bharathi Ganesh, H. Sharada Bai & R. Nagendra “Effective utilization of pond
ash for sustainable construction – need of the hour”, International Journal of Earth
Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, , pp 151-154. October 2011.
8. Bharathi Ganesh, Sharada Bai H, Nagendra R & Narendra B.K.,
“Characterization of Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate in Concrete” International
Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering , Paper ID SAM189,
Vol. 1, June 2012.
9. Bharathi Ganesh, Sharada Bai H, Nagendra R. & Netravathi K S, “Behaviour of
Concrete with Pond Ash – Thermal Power Plant Waste as Constituent –Durability
Perspectives”, The International Network Of Women Engineers & Scientists
(INWES), October 2012.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 65


REFERENCES

10. Haldive S.A. & Kambekar A. R “Experimental Study on Combined Effect of


Fly Ash and Pond Ash on Strength and Durability of Concrete”, International Journal
of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013.
11. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Gaurav Patel & Umrigar F S “Pond Ash: Opportunities for
Eco-Friendly Material (As Fine Aggregate) In Green Concrete” Journal of
International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary, Volume 1, Issue 8, September
2013.
12. Kadam M.P. & Patil Y.D, “Effect of Coal Bottom Ash as Sand Replacement on the
Properties of Concrete with Different W/C Ratio” International Journal of Advanced
Technology in Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2231 –5721, Volume-2, Issue-1, 2013.
13. Lee bong Chun, Kim Jin Sung, Kim Tae Sang & Chae Seong Tae “A Study on
the Fundamental Properties of Concrete Incorprating Pond-Ash in Korea” The 3rd
ACF international conference-ACF/VCA 2008.
14. Mangaraj B.K And Krishnamoorthy S, “Use of Ponded Fly Ash as Part
Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Mortar and Concrete”, Indian concrete journal
may 1994.
15. Milind P. Bhamare, Yogesh N. Bafna & Arun K. Dwivedi “Engineering Properties
of Cement Containing Pond Ash”, IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), Volume
2, Issue 10 ,October 2012.
16. Mohd Syahrul Hisyam bin Mohd Sani, Fadhluhartini bt Muftah & Zulkifli
Muda “The Properties of Special Concrete Using Washed Bottom Ash (WBA) as
Partial Sand Replacement”, International Journal of Sustainable construction
engineering and technology Volume 2, 2010.
17. Ranganath R.V, Bhattacharjee V.B. & Krishnamoorthy S., “Reproportioning of
aggregate mixes for optimal workability with pond ash as a fine aggregate in
concrete”, July 1999, The Indian Concrete Journal,pp 441 – 449.
18. Singh H.P, Maheshwari B.K, Swami Saran & Paul D.K. “Evaluation of
Liquefaction Potential of Pond Ash” The 14th World Conference on Earthquake
October 12-17, 2008 Beiging china.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 66


REFERENCES

19. Thomas F. Edens, “Recovery and Utilization of Pond Ash”, 31 April 2006, online 12
June 2006, http:/www.flyash.info _2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd, 19 Proceedings
of International Ash Utilization Symposium.
20. Virender Kumar, “Compaction and Permeability Study of Pond Ash Amended with
Locally Available Soil and Hardening Agent” vol 85, may 2004.

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 67


REFERENCES

CODES OF PRACTICE
1. Compressive strength IS 516-1959 re aff 1999
2. Aggregates specification – IS 383 -1970- (specifications for coarse and fine
aggregates from natural sources foe concrete)
3. Aggregates testing - IS 2386 Part I- (method of test for aggregates for concrete).
4. Cement - testing IS 12269-1987
5. IS 269:1989 Specification for ordinary portland cement (fourth revision)
6. IS 383: :1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for
concrete (second revision)
7. IS 456:2000 Plain and reinforced concrete – code of practice (third revision)

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 68


PHOTO GALLERY

ASH POND – RTPS ASH POND - SAMPLE COLLECTION LOCATION

PLAN OF ASH POND I & II – RTPS

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 69


PHOTO GALLERY

COLLECTION OF POND ASH IN BAGS NEAR RTPS

SPECIMEN IN COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 70


PHOTO GALLERY

COMPRESSION TEST MACHINE GAUGES

FAILURE OF SPECIMEN AFTER COMPRESSION TEST

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 71


PHOTO GALLERY

CONCRETE MIXER

SLUMP OF CONCRETE

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 72


PHOTO GALLERY

CURING TANK AND SPECIMENS

Dept of Civil Engineering, SJCIT Page 73