SPM Questions 
Chapter 5 : Indices and Logarithms 
Prepared by YOGARAAJAA B.Sc.Physics ( Hons ), UTM. 

1999,PI,No.6 

Given that log _{2} 3 = 1.585 and log _{2} 5 = 2.322. Find the value of 
2003,PI,No.5 

a) log _{2} 45 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
Given log _{2} T  log _{4} V = 3, express T in terms of V. 

b) log _{4} (9/5) 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
( 
4m ) 

1999,PII,No.12 
2003,PI,No.6 

a) Given that x = log _{2} 3, determine the value of 4 ^{x} . Hence, 
Solve the equation 4 ^{2}^{x} ^{} ^{1} = 7 ^{x} . 
_{(} _{4}_{m} _{)} 

find the value of 4 ^{y} if y = 1 + x. 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
2004,PI,No.7 

b) Given that log _{a} 3 = 0.7924. Without using a table or a 
Solve the equation 32 ^{4}^{x} = 4 ^{8}^{x} ^{+} ^{6} . 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

calculator, i) prove that log _{a} 27a = 3.3772, 
2004,PI,No.8 

Given that log _{5} 2 = m and log _{5} 7 = p. Express log _{5} 4.9 

ii) solve the equation √3 x a ^{n}^{}^{1} = 3 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
in terms of m and p. 
( 4m ) 

2005,PI,No.7 

2000,PI,No.6 
Solve the equation 2 ^{x} ^{+} ^{4}  2 ^{x} ^{+} ^{3} = 1. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

a) Solve 3 ^{l}^{o}^{g} ^{2} ^{x} = 81 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
2005,PI,No.8 

b) If 3 ^{2}^{x} = 8(2 ^{3}^{x} ), show that x log _{a} (9/8) = log _{a} 8. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
Solve log _{3} 4x  log _{3} (2x 1) = 1. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

2000,PII,No.12 
2005,PI,No.9 

a) Simplify 
log 49 log 12 12 64 
Given that log _{m} 2 = p and log _{m} 3 = r. Express 

log 7 16 
( 
3m ) 
log _{m} ( 27m/4) in terms of p and r. 
_{(} _{4}_{m} _{)} 

b) Given that 3 log xy ^{2} = 4 + 2 log y  log x, where x and y 

are positive integers. Show that xy = 10. 
( 4m ) 
2006,PI,No.6 

c) The total money saved in a bank after n years is 
Solve the equation 
2 x 
1 

2000(1 + 0.07) ^{n} . Determine the minimum years taken so that the savings exceed RM 4000. 
( 3m ) 
8 
3
4
x 2


2006,PI,No.7 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

2001,PI,No.5 
Given log _{2} xy = 2 + 3 log _{2} x  log _{2} y. Express y in 

a) Given that log _{2} k = p and log _{3} k = r . Express log _{k} 18 in 
terms of x. 
( 3m ) 

terms of p and r . 
_{(} _{4}_{m} _{)} 
2006,PI,No.8 

Solve 2 + log _{3} (x  1) = log _{3} x. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

2001,PII,No.12 
2007,PI,No.7 

a) Given that log _{1}_{0} x = 2 and log _{1}_{0} y = 1, show that 
Given log _{2} b = x and log _{2} c = y. Express log _{4} (8b/c) 

xy  100y ^{2} = 9. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
in terms of x and y. 
( 4m ) 

b) Solve the following equations. 
2007,PI,No.8 

i) 3 ^{x} ^{+} ^{2} = 24 + 3 ^{x} , ii) log _{3} x = log _{9} (5x + 6). 
Given 9(3 ^{n}^{}^{1} ) = 27 ^{n} . Find the value of n. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

_{(} _{7}_{m} _{)} 
2008,PI,No.7 

Solve the equation 16 ^{2}^{x} ^{} ^{3} = 8 ^{4}^{x} 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

2002,PI,No.6 

a) Given that log _{5} 3 = k . If 5 ^{2}^{λ}^{}^{1} = 15, state λ in terms of k . 
2008,PI,No.8 

( 
3m ) 
Given that log _{4} x = log _{2} 3, find the value of x. 
( 3m) 

b) Solve log _{2} (7t  2)  log _{2} 2t = 1. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

2009,PI,No.7 

2002,PII,No.12 
Given 3 ^{n} ^{} ^{3} x 27 ^{n} = 243, find the value of n. 
( 3m ) 

a) Given 2 log _{4} x  4 log _{1}_{6} y = 3. State x in terms of y. ( 5m ) 

b) Solve the following simultaneous equations. 2 ^{m}^{}^{1} x 32 ^{k} ^{+} ^{2} = 16, and 
2009,PI,No.8 

Given tha log _{8} p  log _{2} q = 0, express p in terms of q . 

5 ^{}^{3}^{m} x 125 ^{3} ^{} ^{k} = 1 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
( 
3m ) 
Additional Questions 

1993,Pl,No.6 
b) 
Given that log _{5} 3 = 0.683 and log _{5} 7 = 1.209. 

If 3  log _{1}_{0} x = 2 log _{1}_{0} y, state x in terms of y. 
_{(} _{4}_{m} _{)} 
Without using a calculator, find the value of i) log _{5} 1.4, 

1993,Pl,No.13 
ii) log _{7} 75. 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 

a) 
Given that h = log _{m} 2, and k = log _{m} 3. 

Express in terms of h and / or k 
1997,Pl,No.6 

i) 
log _{m} 9 
Prove that log _{3} xy = 2 log _{9} x + 2 log _{9} y. Hence, or 

ii) log _{6} 24 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
otherwise, find the value of x and of y that satisfy the following equations. log _{3} xy = 10, and 

b) 
Solve the following equations : 

i) 
4 ^{2}^{x} = 1 / 32 

ii) log _{√}_{x} 16  log _{√}_{x} 2 = 3 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
log _{9} x 
_{3} 

= 

log _{9} y 
2 
( 6m ) 

1994,Pl,No.5 

Solve the following equations : 
1997,Pl,No.14 

a) 
log _{3} x + log _{9} 3x = 1
1
8
x
4
4 2
x
x 3

_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} ( 3m ) 
a) Find the value of 3 ^{l}^{o}^{g}^{3} ^{7} without using a calculator. 

b) 
( 
2m ) 

b) Solve 5 log _{x} 3 + 2 log _{x} 2  log _{x} 324 = 4, stating your 

1994,Pll,No.11 
answer correct to 4 significant figures. 

a) Given log _{8} n 
= ⅓. Find the value of n . 
_{(} _{1}_{m} _{)} 
( 
4m ) 

b) Given 2 ^{r} = 3 ^{s} = 6 ^{t} , express t in terms of r 
and s . 
( 4m ) 
1997,Pll,No.12 

c) Given y = k x ^{m} , where k and m are constants. 
a) Given that 2 log _{3} (x + y) = 2 + log _{3} x + log _{3} y, show 

y = 4 when x = 2, and y = 8 when x = 5. Find the value 
that x ^{2} + y ^{2} = 7xy. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

of k and of m . 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
b) Without using a table, solve the equation log _{9} [ log _{3} (4x  5) ] = log _{4} 2. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

1995,Pl,No.6 
c) After n years, price of a car is RM60 000(7/8) ^{n} . After how many years does the price of the car 

Solve the following equations : 

a) 81(27 ^{2}^{x} ) = 1 
_{(} _{2}_{m} _{)} 
is below RM20 000 for the first time ? 
( 4m ) 

b) 5 ^{t} = 26.3 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

1995,Pll,No.12 
1998,Pl,No.5 

a) Given m = 2 ^{r} and n = 2 ^{t} , express in terms of r and/ or t , 
Given that log _{√}_{x} 4 = u , and log _{y} 2 = w .Express log _{4} x ^{3} y 

3 

i) 
log _{2} mn 
ii) log _{8} m  log _{4} n 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
in terms of u and/ or w . 
_{(} _{4}_{m} _{)} 

32 b) Temperature of a metal indreases from 30 ^{o} C to T ^{o} C follows the equation T = 30( 1.2 ) ^{x} when the metal is 
1998,Pll,No.12 

a) Given that log _{a} 3 = x and log _{a} 5 = y. Express 

heated for x seconds. Calculate 
log _{a} ( 45/a ^{3} ) in terms of x and y. 
_{(} _{2}_{m} _{)} 

i) the temperature of the metal when it is heated for 10.4 seconds, 
b) Find the value of log _{4} 8 + log _{r} √r. c) Two experiments were carried out to find the relationship between variables x and y. Equations 3(9 ^{x} ) = 27 ^{y} and log _{2} y = 2 + log _{2} ( x 2 ) were _{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 

ii) 
the time, in seconds, to increase the temperature 

of the metal from 30 ^{o} C to 1500 ^{o} C. 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 

1996,Pl,No.6 
obtained from the first and the second experiment 

a) Simplify 2 ^{n}^{+}^{2}  2 ^{n} + 10(2 ^{n} ^{} ^{1} ). 
_{(} _{2}_{m} _{)} 
respectively. Find the value of x and of y that 

b) Solve 3 ^{x} ^{+} ^{2}  5 = 0. 
_{(} _{3}_{m} _{)} 
satisfies both the experiments. 
( 5m ) 

1996,Pll,No.12 

a) Solve the following equations : 

i) 
4 ^{l}^{o}^{g} ^{2} ^{x} = 5 

ii) 
2 ^{x} .3 ^{x} = 5 ^{x} ^{+} ^{1} 
_{(} _{5}_{m} _{)} 
Answers ( SPM 1999  2009 ) 
( SPM 1993  1998 ) 

1999,PI,No.6 
2005,PI,No.9 
1993,PI,No.6 

a) 5.492 
3r  2p + 1 
x = 1000/y ^{2} 

b) 0.424 

2006,PI,No.6 
1993,PI,No.13 

1999,PII,No.6 
x = 1 
a) 
i) 2k 

a) 
9, 36 
ii)
k
3h k h 

b) 
ii) n = 1.3962 
2006,PI,No.7 

y 
= 2x 

2000,PI,No.6 
b) 
i) x = 5/4 

a) 
x = 16 
2006,PI,No.8 
ii) x = 4 

x 
= 9/8 

2000,PII,No.12 
1994,PI,No.5 

a) 
4/3 
2007,PI,No.7 
a) 
x = 1/3 

c) 
11 years 
3 
x

y

b) 
x = 2 

2 

2001,PI,No.5 
1994,PII,No.11 

a) 
2 p r 
2007,PI,No.8 
a) 
n = 2 

pr 
n = 1/2 
b) 
t
rs
r
s


2001,PII,No.12 
2008,PI,No.7 
c) 
k = 2.368, m = 0.7565 

b) 
i) x = 1 
x = 3 

ii) x = 6 
1995,PI,No.6 

2008,PI,No.8 
a) 
x = 2/3 

2002,PI,No.6 
x = 9 
b) 
t = 2.031 

a) 
k
2
2 
2009,PI,No.7 
1995,PII,No.12 

b) 
t = 1/3 
n = 2 
a) 
i) r + 3t  5 

ii) 2 r 3t 

2002,PII,No.12 
2009,PI,No.8 
6 

a) 
x = 8y 
p = q ^{3} 
b) 
i) 199.8 ^{o} C 

b) 
k = 2, m = 5 
ii) 21.46 s 

2003,PI,No.5 
1996,PI,No.6 

T 8 V 
a) 
8(2 ^{n} ) 

b) 
x = 0.535 

2003,PI,No.6 

x = 1.677 
1996,PII,No.12 
1997,PI,No.6 

a) 
i) x
5

x= 729, y = 81 

2004,PI,No.7 
ii) x = 8.827 

x 
= 3 
b) 
i) 0.209 

ii) 2.219 
1997,PII,No.12 

2004,PI,No.8 
b) 
x 
= 8 

2p  m  1 
1997,PI,No.14 
c) After 9 yrs 

a) 7 

2005,PI,No.7 
b) x = 1.316 

x 
= 3 

1998,PI,No.5 
1998,PII,No.12 

2005,PI,No.8 
6 
1 u 2 w 
a) 2x + y  3 

x 
= 3/2 
b) 2 

c) = 5/2 x 

y 
= 2 
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