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TECHNICAL ~OTES

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

No. 705

WIND-TUNNEL INVESTIGATION OF GROUND EFFECT
1
ON WI NGS WITH FLAPS

By Isidore G. Recant
Langley Memo rial Aeronautical Laboratory

Washin~ton
May 19;.(9

8 J {NESS, SCIt. '("
. ~N' L GV D ~

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 705

WIND-TUN) EL INVESTIGATION OF GROUND EFFECT

ON WINGS WITH F~APS

By Isidore G. Recant

SUMMARY

An investigation was conducted in the N .A.C.A. 7- by
lO-foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of ground prox-
i mi ty on the aerodynam ic characteristics of wings equipped
with high-lift devices . A rectan ~ ular and a tapered wing
were tested without flaps, with a split flap, and with a
slotted flap. The gr ~und was represented by a flat plate ,
completely spanning the tunnel and extending a considerable
distance ahead and back of the mo d el. The position of the
plate was varied from one-half to three chord lengths below
the wing.

The results are presented in the form of curves of
absolute coefficients, showing the e f fect of the ground on
each wing arrange ment . The effect of the ground on lift,
drag, and pitching moment is discussed. An appendix g ives
equations for calculating tunnel-wall corrections to be
applied to ground - effect tests conoucted in rectangular
tunnels when a plate is used to represent the ground.

The tests indicated that the ground effect on wings
with flaps is a marked decrease in drag, a decrease in
diving moment, and a substantial reduction in maximum lift.

INTRODUCTION

The phenomenon commonly called IIground effect,lI where-
by the aerodynamic characteristics of plain wings undergo
marked changes in the presence of the ~round. has been sub-
ject to considerable inves tigati o n (references 1 and 2) .
Both theory (referen ce ~) and experiment (references 4, 5,
and 6) indicate that the proximity of the ~round decreases
the drag and increases the slope of the lift curve in the
same manner as an increase in aspect ratio would affect the

th e ne ce s s i ty for fu rth e r study of t he p rob- lem i s obv i o us . Neve rth e l es s . 7 .A . A .half ch o rd l e ngth .A . Sin c e almost all present-day a irplane s a re p r ov ided with fl ap s o f one type o r a n o the r and s ince the flap ef - fe ct is of particula r import a nce in the im med iat e vicin i ty of the g round . and th e metho d of g round s i mu - la tion i s n o t exactly r ep r esentative of actua l fl ight c o n- d i ti o ns .span spl it and slotted f la ps .foo t wind tunnel t o stud y t he effec t of a s i mulated g round a r e a on a rectan g ular a nd a tapered wi ng . C . C. ea ch e q uipped succe s sively with full . it d oe s not necessar i ly follow that the maxi- mum l i ft c oeff icient is i ncreased. Much l ess study has b ee n devoted t o the ef f ect of the g r oun d on airfo i ls equ i pped with lift-increasing dev ic es . For th e sl o tted flap . It may be pointed out t hat the tests we r e run at a comparatively small scal e . the max i mum l i ft decreased consi de r ab l y as th e g r ound was approached . 7 - by 1 0 . the max i mum l ift is unaffected (refe r ence s 3 and 5) or sl i gh tly decr ease d ( r efe r ences 4 . In fact . 705 same facto r s .a i r val ue at any g iv en angle o f attack . and 8) . Te chn i cal Note No . the max i mum l i ft re ma i ned n ea r ly constant . for th e mu lti p le s l o tted flap . Vi r. Although a wing o p e r - a tin g i n the vi c inity of the g r ound is subjected to an in - crea se i n li ft ove r the free . it is cust om ary t o p redict the ef- f ect o f the g r ound on the basii of an ap~a r e nt in c rease in aspe ct ratio ( r efe r ences ~ and 5 ) . bu t flight tests are r equ i r ed t o dete rmin e the applicabil - ity o f the wi nd-tunnel results. th e re sults a r e bel i eved to be in- d ic at i ve of the comparat i ve effects o n the v a ri ous dev i ces . whe r ea s. The max i mum lift fo r split and p l a i n trai l ing-ed g e fla p s incr eased as the win g ap - p r oa ch ed th e g r ound . Serebr i js ky ( r efe r e nce 1 0 ) found a decrease in th e max imum l i ft as the g r ound was a pp r oa c hed .2 N . f o r wi ng he i ghts decreasing fr~m infinity to one . Available e vi dence in- d ic a t e s that . ud (refe r en c e 9) found th e cust oma ry incr ease in the s l o pe of the lift curve and dec r eas e in th e d ra g for wings with var io us types of flap . .A . The p re se nt inv e st i ga t i on was made i n the N . For spl it flaps of the Zap type .

The flaps are full span. These methods are compared by Raymond (reference 6) and Cowley and Lock ~--- . 705 3 APPARATUS AND TESTS Models The wing models used have the N. The flap chord is 25. and they are l o cated at 80 per- cent of the wing chord. The split-flap models are shown in figures l(b) and 2(b).A.C.by lO-foot cl ose d-thr oat wind tunnel described in reference 12. Wind Tunnel The tests were made in the N .C. a geometric aspect ratio of 6. 2) have a root chord of 16. The model was moun ted on the regular 6-component balance (ref- erence l~) that measures the aerodynamic forces and moments independently and simultaneously with respect to the wind axes of the model. They had been used in a pre- vious investigation (reference 11) and were available for the present tests. Th~ maximum ordinates of all sections on the upper surface are in . 1).A. The flaps were set at 60°.( N. 7.a horizontal plane and the plan form is symmetrical about a line perpendicu- lar to the root chord at its 50 -percent point. The tapered wings (fig. 2~012 profile and are made of laminated mahogany. They have a span of 6 0 inches.56 percent of the wing chord and the deflection is 40°. which gives the slot shape . On the tapered wing the flap also has a taper of 5 :1. shown in figures l(c) and 2(c). their chords are 20 per- cent of the wing chord. The slotted-flap models are . Technical Note No. which is the deflection necessary for maximum lift. and an average chord of 10 inches (fig. which is the angle necessary for maximum lift. and the path of the flap nose for various deflections. the flap prnfile.A.C. This flap is designated 2-h in re fere nce 1 2 . On the ta- pered wing the flap a lso has a taper of 5:1.67 inches and are tapered 5:1.A.A.A. Ground Representation The most common methods of ground representation are the flat-plate and the reflection methods.

but Raymond's tests also show a sh i ft i n z e r o lift with the refl ect i on me thod . C . how- e v e r. it is unli ke ly that the resul ts we re g r eat ly affected . A su rvey of the bounda r y layer o ver the p late at the trailing edge of the wing was made . is 7 feet l o ng and 10 feet wide . Tes ts Dynam ic. A su rv ey o f the bounda r y laye r o v e r the p l a te. The ave r age test Reynolds Numbe r was 609 . Te chnic a l Note No . Cow ley and Lo c k i mpute the discrepancy to a phift in the ang l e of ze r o lift that i s due to the defle c t i on of the a ir stream by the plate . completel y spa nn in g the tunnel width . A . The plate was held in any desired position by set s cr ews th at clamp e d it to the v e rtical rods . In the p resent tests the g r 0und was s i mulated by a flat p l ate . The model was mo u nted ab ou t fou r chord lengths back of the lead i ng edge of the p late . bot h r e ferenc e s show a discrepancy between the two me th ods . . vertical ste el r ods passed through the plate an d th e f r ame at each c o r ne r and were ri g id ly attached t o the tunn e l floor and r oo f . such a c ond i tion does no t ex i st i n actual f li gh t . i t to the wing . The effecti v e Reynolds Numbe r due t o th e turbul en ce o f t he tunnel was app r ox i ma tely 974 . ~7 poun ds pe r square foo t. The plate is ma de o f ~ / 8 -in ch plywood . 000 based on a mean wing ch o rd o f 1 0 inches. The plate ' was fastened to a steel f r ame . Since the mode ls we re al- ways at least 2 inch es from the plate . wh ich was mounted o n the tun nel center line . Two v e rtic a l rods under the p l a te a t its longitudinal center line kept it f r om sagg i ng . ) . the p late metho d i s c ons id e r ed v alid . The most obvious objection to the plate i s the fact that the a ir moves wi th respect t o it. are c ompa ra t ive and . 000 . sh o wed the max i mum thickness under the trailing edge of the wing t o be about 1 i nch . A . cr eat ing a bounda ry l aye r . Th e leadin g e d ge of the pl ate has a fa ir ed nosepiece 4 inches l o ng and 2 inch es thick . The dy - nam ic p r essure was ma int a i ned c onstant thr oughout the tests at 16 .4 N . F i gure 3 shows the plate and the metho d of moun ti ng it in the tunnel . 705 ( r eferen ce 1 4) . The pla te was f r ee t o sl i de on the r o ds i n o rd e ~ t o vary the d i stance f r om . The p res e nt tests . under these circumstan ces. moreo ver.p r essu re su r veys at the location of the model were made fo r each posit i on of the g r ound p lat e . cor r esponding t o an a ir speed of 80 mi les pe r hou r at standard pea -l eve l c o n- d itions.

D. 705 5 The rectangular and the tapered wings were tested plain and then successively with full-span split flaps and full-span slotted flaps.A. . N. CD. and three chord len~ths below the wing .C. d yn&mic p re ssu re and is angle o f attack . CW ' mean ~eJ~a tric chord of airfoil with flap fully I f) ~ ] . Te chnical Note No .~ ea. em ( a. drag. Coeff icients and . CL . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . 0 pitching-moment coefficient about aerodynamic center of plain wing (MCa.A. Lift. drag coefficient (D/qS). one.Symbols T~e results are g iven in absolute nondimensional coef- ficient form. q. c . a. lift coefficient (LI q S ) . Each arrangement was tested in the c~ear tunnel and then with the ground plate at one- half. S. and pitching mo- m~nts were measured for an angle-of-attack range from -6 o to the stall in 2 0 increments . c. two. . )o/qcwS)' where L is lift. c . Distances were measured from the quarte r-ch ord point of the model to the ground plate. Of' flap deflection . h. . wi ng area . distance of quarte r-c ho rd point f r om ground. drag. pitc~ing moment about aerodyna mic center of p:: c. ln wing . ).

chose the trailin ~ edge . po i nt. whose wo r k is summarized in r eferences 1 and 2.6 N . however . For long ~ r ound d istance~. S i nce the lift caused by the change i n the angle of attack ac ts at ap~ r oximately the quarte r-chord po int and the lift that is due to the wing cu r vatu r e acts at about the half-chord uoint ( r eference 15). but it is well t keep i n mind the reference points used when test r esults a r e compared . The nose of the wing was chos en in r~fer­ ence 9 . Te ch n ic a l Note No~ 705 Ground Distance The distance of the w i ng from the g round is exp ressed as a ratio hlc w ' whe r e h is ' the distance from the g r ound to the quar t e r .chord po int was used in re fe r ences 6 and 7 . No SUbstantiated theo ry i nd i cates anyone r efe r ence po int to be prefe r able . C . Wind-Tunnel Co rr ections The tests run with out the ground pla t e in the tunnel we r e corrected for tunnel effect to aspect ratio 6 i n free a ir. the half .chord po i nt of the wi ng . the qua rt e r-ch o r d uoint seems conv~nient as a refer - ence . The tests run with he g r ound plate in the various pos itions be l ow the wing were not corrected because th e tunnel-wall i nterfe r ence facto rs calculated fo r these condit i ons were smal l enough to be disregarded . The ch o ice of the refer e nce po in t f r om wh ic h to measure the g round d i stan ce i s somewhat arbitrary and varies with different ' invest i gato rs . different result s may be expected for each re fe r ence po in t chosen. Regard l ess of the po int selected . Fo r short ~ r· und d is- tances . the choice of reference uo i nt i s not likely to make any ap- p re ciable d i f ference in ~he res ults . Wh en th e quarter-chord 90int is used as a reference . The method of calculat i ng the inter fe r ence factors for the ground-board installation is given i n the appendix.cho rd uo i nt wa s used in references ~ and 6 8 .A. the g round d i stance to the po int of action of the lift that i s due to the angle of attack w ill not change and the g r ound distance to the point of action of the l i f t that i s due to the curvatur e will change only slightly wi th a ch a ng e i n th e angle of attack . the quarte r . _____ J . and D~twyle r . the g round distance will evidently vary as the angl e of attack i s changed unless the wing is r otated about that po int in changing the angle. The no~mal jet-boundary c orrect i ons were applied ( r eference 11) . A .

i s nUme r ically greater than predicted by the theory . c e '! g i ve s the 0 ret i cal eQuations that indicate an i n c rease in the angle of zero l i ft ~s the " ground is a~p r oa c hed . 705 7 P r ecis i on Expe r imenta l erro r s in the results p r esen t ed i n "th is repo rt are believf. Ae r odynamic Effects of the Proximity of the Ground 1if1=~~~Y~_E1QQ~.. th i s i ncrease is due to tbe thickness of the ~ i n~ .The effect of the ~ r ound On the slope of the lift curve is shnwn i n figurBs 4 to 9 .. (See references 7 and 8 . OOl ±0 . )0 of . . 005 ±O . . 4 and 5) the slope increases as the ~ r und di "stance decreases .. The i ncrease. No tests were made to dete r mine the effect of " the flap f i ttings. Because the tests are comparative . . OO l 0 CD min .. lo ... ±1/16 inch The ~ r ound plate was paral l el to the tunnel axis within ±O ..d to be wi th i n. N . R e f oe r e n." -. . The present tests show no suc h shif t. Fo r the pla i n wings (fi~s. Th i s discrepancy may be due to the fact that the theory is base~ only on the effect of the trailing-vortex system and ne~ ­ lects the effect "of streamline cu r vature due to the ground .A. . c . ±O . ±O .. ... OOI m(a . In gene r al .. Techni c a l No t e No . . the ef - fect of the fitt i ngs would p r obably not materially change the results. 0005 (Sf = 0 ) C . lo ±O . C . . . the fo l low i ng l "i mi ts : "" ex. ±0 . this e(fect is in a~ r eement with the Wieselsber~er theory (reference 3) . . . Oo h . ±l . A . especially fo r the shorter ~round distances.. ) Th i s effect \ ill tend to in- c rea s e t h e s lop e fur the r ..

reports similar d iscrepancies wi th th e theory. 6 would increase with a d ecrease in ground distance .etical esti- ma te that i s based so l e l y on an a ppa rent increase in the a s~ e ct rat i o . These test-s '. the s l opes below CL = 0 . It is doub t ful . CLmax is nearly ~onstant to wi thin two chord lengths from the ground . The reduction in drag of the p lain wings is s omew hat greater than the th eo r. Technical Note No. C . A. 6 to 9) . fo r very small distanc e s . This incrffas e is probably a manifestation of the effe ct reported by Datwyle r (see refer e nces 1 and 2 ) where- by . the present tests in- d icate that the max imum l i ft of p lain wings is little af- fected by the presence of t he g round . For the p lain wings. the maximum lift is substan- t ially decreased a s the d i stance from the ground decreases (f ig . if no shift in the angle of zero l i ft (as i s ind i cated by the plain . were not run below a lift coeffic i ent of 0 . us i ng th e reflection me thod. the drag for all the wing arrangements was substantially reduced as the ground distance decreased. CLmax increases rapidly . M~~i~Q~_lif1 . 1 0) .. The results of Raymond (reference 6) as well as those of Cowley and Lock (reference 14) tend to show that the p l ate method o f gr~und r ep res entat ion giv€s a greate r decrease i n drag th a n does th e reflection method. At stil l shorter d istances the lift begin~ to increase . as Le Sueur ( reference I) . The dec'rease is greater for the slotted-flap . A s indi c ated by theory.wing tests) is assumed . that the discrepancy between Wieselsberge r 's theory and the present t es ts is entirely due to the method of ground representation. 1 purposes. howeve r.8 N .The effect of the g round on maximum lift i s shown ~n figures ~O and 11. A .The effect of the ground on drag is shown in figures 4 to 9 . however. ho\ ever. Fo r al l p ractic -3. 705 For the wi ngs wi th the slotted and the split flaps (figs. Fo r the wings wit h flaps. As the distance becomes less. the lift cu r ves in general appear to be parallel but disp l aced from each other as the ground dis- tance decreases . whereas" the reduction for the wings with f laps averages 40 pe r cent greater than Wi eselsberger's theory indicates .. and . It i s likely that the dif- fe rence between the theo r etica l and the experimental re- sults is due to the fact that the Wieselsberger theory neg- lects th e effect of flow curvature and the change in the lon g itudinal velocity ( reference 7) that are due to the p res en ce of the ground . 6 . ~£~g . the lift drops slightly .

Induced longitudinal-velo·city. otherwise~ the curve for the tapered wing would coincide with the one for the rectangular wing. nevertheless.5 percent. which in most cases tends to increase the lift for a given angle of attack and is very nearly a function of (C1 . which tends to ' decrease the lift for a given angle and is a function of 012. . · the decrease in 01max might be expected ·t ·o be a functio'n of the 01max t. which tends to increase the lift for a gi ven angle of attack and is a ·funct ion of 0 1 . whereas the C1max of the rectangular split-flap wing is decreased 18. it does suggest the na- tUre of ground effect.in reference 7 probably does not apply to the maximum lift of a wing nor to a wing equipped with flaps. For either type o·f flap. however.t caused the greater loss in the lift. however. and that of the tapered split- flap wing 8.hat the wing possesses in f . the decrease in lift is greater for the · rectangul~r than for the tapered wing. the lift of the tapered slotted-flap wing is reduced 12.A.ree air. that the lift increases rather than de- creases as the trailing edge approaches the plate.) . 705 9 wings than for the split-flap wings. Wing-thickness effect.~012). 4~ Trailing-vortices ·effect. the CLmax of the rectangular .5 percent. It is evident from figure II.A. Technical Note No . N. For a constant ~istance from the ground.7 percent.slotted-flap wingis ' decreased 21 pe rcent. The tests by Datwyler indicate.7. Flow-curvature 'effect. which tends to deere~se the lift and is constant for a fixed height. It is therefore p~ssible that the wings with the flaps are more greatly affected by the boundary layer and thislleffec. 3. At hlc w = 0. effect. For a given height. 11. The theoretical work reported .C. The trailing edges of the wings with flaps were con- siderably closer to the ground plate than the t railing edges of the plain wing because of the flap deflections. (See fig. that the free-air value of 01max is ~ot the only !actor involved. 2.. the ground ef- fect may be broken down into the following: 1.

The increase in the LID of the wings with flaps caused by the g round. 3.. For a given angle of attack. 2. The simila rit y in the shapes of the c urves of figure 12 indicates that the phenomenon of Ilfloatingil is to be expected on airplanes equipped with flaps as well as on those without flaps.C. The approach of the ground increased the slope of the lift curves of the p lain wings but had little effect on the slope of the curves of the wings with flaps over the range of ang les of attack tested. in spite of the decrease in the lift. the magnitude of the reduction varied with the lift coefficien t. The approach of the ground increases the value of LID sharply for all wings.. indicates how markedly the drag is decreased . 1ifl~dr~g_~~liQ_at_m~~im~m_lifl. whereas. For the plain wings . the change in ~he moment is to be expec~ed . The appro ach o f the ground reduced the drag of all the wings tested . the trailing-vortices effect is most likely to be p r edominant. for the wings with flaps wi th their considerably higher lift coefficients.The effect of the g round on the pit ching moment is shown in figures 4 to 9.A.The effect of the ground on the lift-drag ratio at maximum lift is shown in figu re 1 2 . the effec t of the g round is quite marked. the diving mo- men t increases as the g r ound distance decreases . If the change in the lift is caused by the ground. the change in pitching moment due to the grdund is not large.10 N. For the wings with flaps (especially the rectangular wings).A. The approach of the g rou nd had small effect on the pitch ing moments of the plain win gs but decreased the div- ing moments of the wings equipped with split or slotted flap s . the in- duced longitudinal-velocity effect. Ei1QQi~g_mQm~nt . CONCLUSIONS The tests reported herein showed that : 1. is in- creased . 705 Fo r the plain wings. Technical Note No . The diving moment is decreased and the slope of the momen t curves . _ _J . probably takes precedence and causes a loss in lift. varying as the square of the lift coefficient.

it is desired t o deter- mi ne a stream function that .C. Thus . The reduction i n the max i mum lift coeffici en t was g r ea ter for win gs equ i ppe d wit h slotted f la ps than for win gs equipped with sp lit flaps. In the case of ~ ro und effect . Langley Memo rial Ae r onaut ic a l Laboratory. Va . if the fl oo r o f the tunne l represents the ground and if the function that r ep r esents the effect of the g r ound plane is deducted f r om t he str eam function that satisfies the c ond iti ons for the boundaries of a cl osed r e ct angu l a r tun ne l. when added to the flow p roduc ed by the airfo il in an unli mi ted stream. National Advisory Committee for Aeronaut ics. The general prob l em for a wi nd tunnel is the determi- nation of a stream fun cti on that. Te chnic a l No te No .I I N . The boundaries may be re p l a c ed by the stream function and the effect on the airfoi l computed . The reducti o n in th e maximum lift co eff icient was g reater for rectangula r wi ngs ·with flaps than for ta p ered wing s with f l ap s. APPENDIX Tunnel -Wall Corre cti ons f o r Test Installation Use d When g round-e ffec t tests are made in a wind tunnel . satisfies t he c ond itio ns ex ist ing at the ' boundar i es of t he air stream . othe rs have used the standard form of correction.A. the corre cti ons we r e calculated from the theo r etical equationg g iven in r efe r- en c es 16 and 17 . 19~ 9 . the question of tunnel . Langley F i eld . Th e approach o f the ~ r o und had almost no effect on th e ma xi mum lift o f the p lain wings b~t r e duced the ma x- i mu m lift c oeff icient o f th e wi ngs equ ipped wi th spl i t o r s lotte d flaps.A . when a~ded to the flow pro - duced by the a irfoil ope r a ti ng nea r an i nfin it e plane .wal l interference corrections al- ways ar i ses . the remainder should g i ve the c o rr ect ion due t o the tunne l walls .. 6. Some investigators have used no correct i on . 705 11 4. 5. will satisfy the boundary conditions. . Ma rc h 1 1 . In an effort to dete r mi ne the ir magn i tude.

he nrrr)l -"2- °1 = . s em i sp an of w i ng ..-- . at each pos ition of t he g r ound p l ane . if a cl o sed rect angula r t unne l wit h a \ing dis - p laced from the ce nte r is c o nsidere d .. Acc o rding to r eference 16 ... an in finite pat t e rn of i mag es ma:y b e ar ra nge d to sa tisf y the boundary condi- t i o ns ( r efe r en c e 1 6) .B i s : L .-- 2 . A.-. s. C .. i n effe ct.g .... 1 . wid th of tunne l.!:Q: + 2: 1 log ( 1 ..J whe r e r = b/h cy = 2 s/b and h is height of tunnel. b."2 CD S In ..a ..-. s i n h nr. n new tunne l wit h a new he i g ht -t o ... These cond iti ons are shown i n fi g ur e l~ " Now . Technical No te No . th e e qua tion for the in - te rf e r en c e du e to the system o f v ort ic es symmet ric al about l i ne A-A i s: . . t he win g was mo unt ed in the ce n - te r of t he tun ne l and the g r ound plane was mo v ed t o vary the d istance of t he win g fro m the g r ound .. 12 N .I l o. Such a S ~T stem i s shown in fi g ure 14"". Thus .A . t he re wa s.width r a tio and a d iff e r e nt d i stan ce f r om t he wi ng t o the tu nnel cente r li ne . 2 nrn (1 ) L 2 \ s I nh . 705 In the present t es ts. The equation fo r the i nterferenc e caus ed by the sys- t em of v o~ tic es s y mme t ric a l about line B.-- 4n r cy 2 ~.

A.2 d) The total vertical velocity at F is + V =r x+s +L s-x 2 4n (x+s)2 + (h _ 2d)2 4n (s _ x)2 + (h _ 2d) 2 The downf lo w ove r the entire span i s : . Technical Note No . 705 13 whe r e d is the distan c e of the w i ng from the c en t e r li ne . N.02 is calcu - lated as follows. 14. the effect of the single g r ound i mage 0 1 . O.x 4n (s .A. (See f i g .x 2 4n J (s _ x) 2 + (h _ 2 d) 2 =J_ -------2-----------2 s .---------2 (x + s) + (h . 2 d) The v e rtic a l velocity V 2 at the po int F due to vortex 02 of strength r is: V = S_ _ __________ _________ _~ s . The correct i on fo r the complete tunne l is then 01 + 02 In order to el i minate the effe c t of the g r ound p la ne ..x) + (h .) The vertical velocity v 1 at any po i nt F on the real wing due to vo r tex 01 of strength r is: r (x + s) = 4n ------~.

Technic~l Note No ..{ = BTT lo g I (x L + S )2 + (h . x)a + (h - = y.14 N . A . and S. p.C .2 d )4' or r D = BTT 1V where From the relation r 28 p V = 12 C1 P va 8 where V is velocity. [1 ~ g ~_±-§~_±_lQ_=_g~~ 2JS BTT a 2 (s . area of the a irfoil. A.x) + (h . 2d)jL 2d)"JL r- I S_ { 8TT 10 ' '" l(s . C1 VS D = 32TTS 1V . is obtained C1 V8 r = 4s Therefo re . 705 = 1'_ 4TT s J:'. density.2d) -s = r lO IS ~~~~_~_i~_:_~lJ~_ BTT (h .

(h . 705 15 6 a. eN' is so small as to b~ neg- ligible. when the ground-plane correction..- 64TTS 16TT0'2r '" 1 [4s 2 + (h 2d) 2 J2 - 0:. = ~1 °L ----a- D °L.A. N.. is subtracted from the total tunnel correction (01 + 02).8 'if = ----"2". It can be seen that most of the tunnel interference is due to the ground plane. 3 60 . Fi~ure l~ gives the correction fact~rs for the vari- ous positions of the ground plane. the net correction.C . Technical Note No. ' .. °L S V = 2sV = 64TTS :::: 64TTS bh 0 0:.'-1. . the tunnel cross-sectional area .\jJ S " bh 0:. especially when the distance from the wing ~o the ground is short and that. :::: log -----------~----- 16TT.a. b'h = ---'2 i/I :::: . 0:. 0:.A. :::: ON C CL x 57 .§ 2 D :::: ON C °L where S is the wing area. :::: ON S 6cx.2d) or 1 :::: ----- 2 log l6TT(j r The net correction is then and °1 + °2 . 0.

. 1932 . No . 1922. C . It ir o . I . Carl J . 771. 828 . 9. Tokyo I mpe ri al Un iv. T . VIII. A . 4 July 19~8. No . 6.: Effect of the Ground on an Airplane Fly- i n~ Close to It . Mau ric e : Gr ound Effect on the Take-Off and Land i ng of Ai r planes .nd Sim idu. Le Sueu r. In s t. C . Sept .. A .. R . C . Central Aero-Hydrodynamical Inst . A .: Wind-T unne l Investi ga tion of Rectang ular and Tapered N . Res. 1 877 . Yositada : The Lift on a Flat Plate Placed near a Pl ane Wall . 67. 25. M. No .: A Full . N . N . 20 June 1938. Milton B . Toky o Im perial Un iv. C . . E .A. 97 ..i: The Ef - fect of Gr ound o n the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a M0 no p I a neW i n g . A . A . A . 1937 .: Wi ng RAsistance near the Ground . 265 . Techn ic al · Note No . Lou i s : ~tude en soufflerie des caracteristiques aerodynamiques de quelques dispos itifs hypersusten - tateurs p laces au v o isinage du sol . 2~0 1 2 Wings with Plain Ail e rons and Full .A.) . C . ( v o l. 66 1. A . A. 7. Taima . Re po r t No . Aer o . N . E . N. . Raymond . C . Re id. Viaud . 705 REFERENCES 1. Se r ebr ij sky .: Gr ound Effect .A. T . Inst . and Tome 207 . 1935 . X I I I. pp . A. II 4.A .. 1936 . No . T . Wieselsber~er . 1921. C . No . N .. Repo rt No . 1 938 . Res .Scale Investi~ation of Ground Effe ct.39 . No .A. A .: Ground Influence on Aerofoils . 11 . 19~3 . 37 .C. T . 674. M. T . Takeo. T . 1. 15 6" ( v 0 1. Tan i.C . . Aug .. No . Wenzinge r. with Special Reference to the Effect of the Ground upon the Lift of a Monoplane Aerofoil.. 77 . P is toles i.: Ground Effect on the Aerodynamical Cha ract e r ist i cs of an Aeroplane ( in Russ i an) . Tonn i es . Sod. 1927 . N . T . N . Ae r o . 2 .C.). 3. 10 . 5.Span Split F l aps . Susumu . . No . 267 . pp . M. and Takenouti. 8. (Moscow). N . Arthur E . 2. 16 N . Comptes Rendus : Tome 206 .80 . No . a. A . Ell i ot G. and Ames. Na~am i ya . Tomot i ka . 1..A. N . A.Theo ry and Practice. 1 9~7 . Rep 0 r t J o . Masuo. M.

No . Ca rl J . A . 1 939 . 1 92 1.A.. R . R .A.. No . and Loc k .A. N. L . Te chnical No t e No .C. . No . 1 9 1. W. C .Tu nne l Int e r fe r en c e with Pa r t i cu l a r Refe r en c e t o Off - Cente r Pos i t i o ns of t h e Wi ng and t o th e Do wnwa sh at t h e Ta il. No . 75 4 . a nd Ha rris.A. 16. Briti s h A. No.. R .A. R . N .: Th e 7 by 1 0 F o ot Wind Tun ne l of t h e Na ti onal Advi so ry Comm itt ee fo r Ae r o na ut ic s _ T . R . Munk . N . C .: Wind- Tu nne l Inv e st i ~ation of an N. N. 17. C .. T . Co wl e y. A . 4 1 2 . 230 1 2 Airfoil w i -t h Vari o us Arr a n gem ents o f Sl o tt e d Fl a ps. R . N . 46 1. T .A.C. 15 .A. Tho mas A. & M.C.: Cushionin g Eff ect of Ae r op l anes Cl ose t o t he Gr ou n d. C . R . A . T . We nzin ge r. Ha rri s .. N. 1 93 1. 6 6 4 . J ames A . 547 . Theod o r se n. 1 933 .: Ele men ts o f th e Wing Se cti o n Th eo ry and o f t he Wi n g Theo r y .. a n d Wh it e . H. 13 . 705 17 12 .A. No . Theo d o re : I n t e r fe r en ce o n a n Airf o il o f F i n i te Span in an Open Re c tang ul a r Wind Tu nne l. Max M. Ab e . Silv e r s t e i n . 1 924 . N . A ... 1935 . T . A . C . Th oma s A . 14 .: Wi n d . C . A .

j z b=60' (a) Plain rectangular wing . ( i ..N.2556cw slotted flap... ~ i ( ---. i"' U~ ----JI ---. .2..~ : I\ I I i g s==L~ I 0. tapered gular wing models.. 2. b 60 '~---------j------. b = 60" ----------1----1 (c) Rectangular wing with (c) Tapered wing with O. l. wing mod e 15.l z-.---------------..----I I ----------------.~-. 23012 rectan. IT!--+------ J J I - ~ .2.20cw split flap.~ ~ -=== TI I I o ~ . A. ! I \ I 8-~ I I I I I I I ~1 I--::-b / 2 =30 "=-:J b/2=30" I . O. C.. .A .2.. (a) Plain tapered wing.th 0.A... Figure 2. C.3012. A .556cw slotted flap. I __ _ ______ L --~------------- ------. Figure 1.1 ' r::-:--b/2=30" ==J b/2=30" t<----b=60" ~ b-60" (b) Rectangular wing with (b) Tapered wing wi..N..0c w spli t flap . 0.Technical Note No 705 Figs .N. -==_ i (J co C r-i D .---- b/2-30"~ b/2=30" I 1<--'. u "~t\.A .C A.

N. C. 3 . ?O5 J'ig.A. Technical Note No.A.

.. 1.i II 'I ~~ ~~.. . 5 E .0 I '001.4 IA ~W 4-< QJ r...3 ..4 . Technical Note No. taper ratio..:..4 W) ~ '.6.u .. 0 J .0 o 2 . 2.. d.- u -l .. I 16 '00 C'(j 8 (j t · 12 ..A. V u ~ Vjr 1/ 11 28 . \:: +' fjJ Val r . P-. 1..6 ~ ""'= o::::iit' d ~ IP' CD ~ --p ~ ~ CD 04 -4 0 4 8 12 16 -4 0 4 8 12 16 0 Angle of attack .6 /.t (jJ I o .. ~ /~ .N .. C.. . Figure 5.8 /~ ..C.u I' 20 u 4-4 4-< U Q) 0 +' 4-< .2 +' h/cw h/c w c: o 0.~ 24 4-4 . . A.. .Tapered wing..IV... 1. Ang1e of attack.. Q) . deg. 0 o E o 2.0 c + 00 + co 44 . 4.1 " ~ Q) 0 u .6 <> 3. d J deg . . 23012 wing. C Q) . il 08 .2 ~ V ~>/\ 36 1.5 .c: ....5 Q) o 0. . ~~ / ~ / '~V 32..2 // I fL d. 0 . 5: I. V k..0 <> 3.. +' 0 c:: ~ . Effect of ground proximity on aerodynamic characteristics of N. ~ /J ) j' A'f ~ . 40 1. 705 Figs.Rectangular wing"...-l .--::::i -..A.6.'i/ /. Figure 4.0 CL /J ~ CL /.A.

Figure 7.---- ~ I I h ~ / ~ V .Rectan g u1ar wing..2 0 4 8 12 16 -4 0 4 8 12. Tech n i c al No te No 705 Figs....6 A!I" / 1.A.A .~ 24 . P 36 CL: ~ ~ ~~ VI /\ I ..... taper ratio.. 11 / 32 i ~J / /) V I V u Cl . . Angle of attack ) d.. (0' ..20cw split flap.. 5 : 1. ~ .. d . 0 o 2 .Tape red wing.0 08 + CD + co o e-~ I 04 -4 . ..2 +-'- Vi V /.. ... 0 6.3 o E I -. . /-:.. deg..span 0. Effect of ground proximi t y on aerodynamic characteri s tics of N .. / I~/ r: . .0 o 3.u Q) ./~ 20 S ~ ~V ~ ~ ~ /~ V -) o V tl.. 11 ~ v ~ V C\l ~ .. 0 ...0 LV 44 u ~ ~ ~ 17 [g '" 0: 1..Q) ~ VI ~ r/ / ~ V CD V"'" r: Q) 1..5 o 0 .A. ~ .0 .. 1. u .7 h o I ....O u f7)).G. Fi gu r e 6 .4 tlo r: . " o .2 +' c + (\) E -.. A. ~V //) 17 I ..- Q) o ~ u . /~ ~ V .8 u 1.---- .:j ~ V? V/ / CD Vj V i/ /.7 12 6.C../ il I )' . 23012- wing with full .1 -./ I I /. 0 I o 2..N.4 o 0.. deg .8 td ~ V .y k I h r.4 ~ 1/ V v: / )t:'/.. 2.. 16 0 Ang l e of att a ck .. ><<<~ "'. 1...C.C 2..A ....6 ~~ 16 c5 W h/cw h /cw . 8 ~ 40 lb It CL J 1. 1.2 o 3..

7 12 .. 5:1 ..3 o E H-. Effect of ground proxim it y on aero d y n am i c characteristics of N. 04 I I I I I ! -4 oo 4 8 12 16 ..h~ V/C n 0.. Figure 8 .. H-..8 H-! +- ---I.4 j CL ) '1' J // W i/ 19 I 28 ..0.rJ j . 24 .- 'P I I 36 1.r ../ ' Y§ )' I~ )fi/ V V Q) 8 +' .A. '--' --l .J \: ~. I + 00 .C.0 1.6 f--- ~JA1/} I J -+ i 32 I I / Jf u c:::l l.0 08 ~ ~ 1 o 3. ~ /.: 2.5 ~ .4 \: .. deg..8 r L /y¥ 1/J0 )/ ~ I ~ I i y/v /v l./ . 1.. 0 f //vIA Ifl //. 1.Tapered wing.9 ~ o u d J= +-' 0 C Q) -f-- U -. -. 1.t .. ~ Cn t:.f--l : U -r .'/) .A . ~ .j CL j V. . f--. ¥ -oJ- Jf v: .0.2 I i l? I I 44 ~ I 1..I AI /j V- I " . d. Techni c al Note No.4 a 4 8 12 l6 0 Angle of atta c k.N . . ./ /1.0 <\l t. I +-~ ~ _ L -4- '+-< QJ G I. .- I I· Q) U lI'l 1/ . 0 3.0 _I-.4 ~ VV t:.0 ~ I f. .l I ~ Q) f- o U . .y-' ~17 0 0 I . 0 40 !~ ~ b ~ /~~ I . Angle of attack. d. figure 9.20 8 :. .A. C. taper ratio.I . 23012 w ing wi th full.6 I~ ~// V h /cw W~ ~v h /cw 0. o 2.Rectangular wing .. deg .- I + co . 1. 0 o 2 . I j I I i I 7~ 0: 2 ..span O.2. -+ - - 16 '0._. 8. A . ) I c '+-< Q) .<..f - I --' + +---+1 17 I '0.£ ~-. + // ).~ . - +' \: Q) P-= - V yO' ~ I - E -.. 2556cw slotted fl ap./.. f-L . 0 ~ k.. 0 .. 705 Figs. +.2 I j y J.2 f-. J!-j.

u 4 V V OJ Q 1/ . ~~ "Ii 'H (j) 'H I I 0 0 <l I .:J /' .. .. 705 Fig::../'" l-..4 .6 2.A. .:J \ I ~ 'H bo '"d \ I I \ 0./ V' (j) Ul 8 / V co (lJ / ..l Q) l-.4 Free-air maximum lift coefficient.--... r< I I I ~ ~u I ~ \ I uw I \ I h l() I +-> . ~ 24 +-> 'H .. 10.(j) ° (j) \ .2 1.() rO.. Technical Note No.l oJ:!:: 0'+-0 .~ I I I I c..--. I '\ II b..c: +->u (J .r< 20 r-' o Rectangular wing p7 E o Tapered wing I .-< +-> (j) (j) co Q) ~ \ I I \\ I '-H +-> u P.7 Cw below wing.A. 'H lilo 'H(j) '0 WO U +-> I co .. ~ ..:::J tID ..-<. (/) I 1\ \ I c:: U) ~ I ~ \ I I ./ C"'" o . (j) p.00 I I . +-> o C\.. ... c:: 16 ~+-' V X (j) co u E V r. . ~ ~ I 0.< 0 L!) '+-0(::. .N. h co . .o I I I " 4-< ~ l-./"' / .. '"d (:: co .. . \ \f'\.. 12 V (::.11 ~ 9 I I I 01 I I I I I I I "l"'bo " c:: I I I 0 4-<...-< I I ..r< C\.() ~ I to b.op... p..--..Effect of free-air maximum lift coefficient on decrease in maximum lift due to ground effect at 0.8 1.C . CLmax Figure 11 .~ I I I Oc./' .. \ I I COC\lC\l .. +->Q) co \ I I I I I I +-> ocr: b 'r-< .0 2.-. .--.

I ~IGiClIG' ~ rI- <1l "- . h/cw I-%j 1-" Figure 12.t. .. r -<>- B-*-. --- -S-m+- -~xS- ---' X ..6f=600 ....-C~....._ ~ s 12 -.20cw sp1i t flap. r--. --- y I~ C~J I c~:) ...A. ><10 .. ... O. I-' N I-' . -.....--LB 2h -------j-.. ..=== r- ..-~ _ ~p -C--=--: ). 2h t-' ~ '-< 14 \" b-....I-. 1... z ~ (') y ~ 20 .- ~ 4 >-. .. 1 I I Pl1 t-'j >< o aln wIng I I I I I I " IC~ c~ <1l u .. .r-- r--.J 0 5 1 2 3 4 k -b -->i Ratio of height of quarter-chord point to chord.... .J ttl EllB o 0... ~ 16 Rectangular wing () 0) . 23012 wings.-A .I-- D.-.C.::::" '- . -9-". I 2h ---i----.. -c~.r.. A* 1-_.... ..--- al 6 I I TG --..-- I --J § .. . C I I ( h . >-.A. 2556cw slot t ed fl ap. --C~- ~ l f +-' Q I'--..I -f. G _ ~ c~ '-. 2h C) TG f CI C~:) I -+-' "-' ...-- --< t-- r- . -"-.--. C.Image pattern that satisfies boundary ()'Q UJ lift-drag ratios at maximum condition for closed rectangular lift of N.... ~. "0 I ... .... B ~ ~ .1--<> 2h o 01 hr X . -. -.. ....-4 ------Tapered wing . . .2d ) al 0 .. of =40 "- I g. I-. "t:... -- r-- r-. I (Ij s I-. 2 .1 I.Effect of ground proximity on figure 14 ..... tunnel with wing offset from center . _ _ _ .

.--~----- .0 69 -. ) r=b /h d/b 1 . 1 55 . ----.12 2 . La 4J25 ----.'--- 1 8. b ( sq. 02 8 .) co .- L t f. 008 .1.31 . 301 0 .--. 090 . 0022 5 30 72 6 1. 192 . '±12 7.1 5 4 0 . 0027 ~ I I i 1-'- 6 42 84 0 1. 146 . 050 . CJl h a L .0 72 . 092 .Effective tunnel di me nsions and wall. 140 ____ 1l2 1 · ~= . 2 50 .10 6 .---. 0 03 0 ..-~ ----. e = 30.. 138 . f-' CN .. ::s1-'- l various positions of ground d o board. e20 . 133 . 412 ~ J?40 0 . 00077 4 20 62 11 1. 2 5 4 .1 02 -. . 073 . 0037 I ()Q .I~ ·0 ·:x> · g. 09 6 . 1 5 ~~ : ~. .. 412 5 . 94 . 5 . 054 . OE3 .~-. t'l (5= co II 1 r:a se a (i n . 059 . -4 ~ ~~ t. b =1 20'1 ~ II Z ·:x> Figure 13 .19 9 .0 . 65>~ C = bh sic 01 O2 01 +0 2 ~ ~ (1J co ON sic <0 +. 0 40 . 450 . __ I .___ _ _ 1 5 a h ---. 298 0 . 47 -. 0 68 . 00051 3 10 52 16 2 .112 . 042 ..correction factors for r h h/2 1 42" 1 ---. -. ~5z 1 ~ ill Lh h L ~= -.. . 0 75 O _~ 0 .. 43 0 . --------. 4 12 6 . 4. 0 86 -. 02 6 . 67 . 275 . 5 0 .i n. 005 . ) h ( in . 249 . 2 0 7 . 326 .. 640 . Pl 11 I f-' ~ I S-.->r... ) d( i n . 113 . 00032 2 7 49 17 .-------- --------. '±12 10 .. ---=------~~------------~~~--------------------------------------------~------------------~------~ ~ .