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August 2010 Fachhochschule Aachen, Jülich campus M.Sc. Energy systems Chauhan Harishchandra, 995102

**Supervisors:Dr. Christian Faber ………………………………………….. Dipl.- Ing. Friedrich Henneböhl …………………………………….......
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Table of Contents List of Figures .................................................................................................... 4 List of Tables ..................................................................................................... 5 [1] Introduction .................................................................................................. 6 (1.1) Types of errors ........................................................................................ 6 (1.2) Absolute and relative errors .................................................................... 6 (1.3) Error propagation law ............................................................................. 7 (1.4) DIN norms for different accuracy classes of measured quantities of CHCP- ............................................................................................................ 7 [2] List of accuracy classes and its ranges for measured quantities of CHCP ..... 8 (2.1) Temperature............................................................................................ 8 (2.2) Volumetric flow rate ............................................................................... 8 (2.3) Heat flux ................................................................................................. 9 [3] Graphical representation of different accuracy classes with tolerance ranges ......................................................................................................................... 10 (3.1) Temperature classes .............................................................................. 10 (i) Class A ................................................................................................ 10 (ii) Class B.............................................................................................. 11 (iii) Class 1/3B ......................................................................................... 11 (3.2) Volumetric flow classes ........................................................................ 12 (i) Ultrasonic flow rate device:- ................................................................ 12 (ii) Magnetic inductive device:- .............................................................. 13 (iii) Mechanical device 1:- ....................................................................... 15 (iv) Mechanical device 2:- ....................................................................... 16 [4] List of monitored measuring data................................................................ 18 (4.1) Blumenhaus Bade ................................................................................ 18 (4.2) Haiger .................................................................................................. 21 [5] Statement of different accuracy limits for heat flux of CHCP plants ........... 25 (5.1) Blumehaus Bade ................................................................................... 25

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(5.2) Haiger ................................................................................................... 28 [6] Energy/Heat balance of Blumenhaus Bade CHCP plant and error calculation from the data .................................................................................................... 30 (6.1) Procedure and Formula for heat/energy balance ................................... 30 (6.2) Heat flow through different circuits ...................................................... 31 [7] Conclusion .................................................................................................. 33 References ........................................................................................................ 34

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........................................ 10 Figure3.11 Relative error graph of mechanical device 2 derived from the manufacturer graph .....................................1 Accuracy limits according to class A................ 22 4 .....................8 Error graph of mechanical device 1 from manufacturer ....................................................... 17 Figure3...................................................................... 14 Figure3............ 13 Figure3............................... 17 Figure4..............4 Logarithmic graph of ultrasonic device from manufacturer ............................................................................. 11 Figure3......2 Plant layout of Haiger .3 Accuracy limits according to class 1/3B .....................10 Error graph of mechanical device from manufacturer .................................... 12 Figure3................................9 Relative error graph of mechanical device 1 derived from the manufacturer graph ............1 Plant layout of Blumenhaus Bade ........2 Accuracy limits according to class B ................7 Relative error graph of magnetic inductive device derived from the logarithmic graph ........................................ 11 Figure3.............................List of Figures Figure3...............6 Logarithmic graph of magnetic inductive device from manufacturer 14 Figure3................................ 16 Figure3......5 Relative error graph of ultrasonic device derived from the logarithmic graph ................................................................................... 19 Figure4.. 15 Figure3...

1 Comparison of heat flux relative error values of different circuits….1 Calculated heat fluxes at Blumenhaus Bade……………………….1 Temperature accuracy classes………………………………………7 Table 4.19 Table 4.28 Table 7.1 List of measured quantities at Blumenhaus Bade………………….1 Recommended measuring instruments for different heat fluxes…….2 List of measured quantities at Haiger………………………………23 Table 5.2 Calculated heat fluxes at Haiger…………………………………….26 Table 6.32 5 .25 Table 5..List of Tables Table 2.

Errors that arise due to an individual’s bias. Systematic errors may be estimated to a certain extent and the necessary corrections may be applied to the readings.Errors that tend to be in one direction. Errors due to imperfection in experimental technique.The magnitude of the difference between the true value of the quantity and the individual measurement value is called Absolute Error of the measurement. (1.Errors that arise from effects of external conditions or any unfavorable conditions during experiments. Some of the sources are: Instrumental errors. (1. lack of proper setting of the apparatus or individual’s carelessness in taking observations without observing proper precautions. |ΔA|relative = |ΔA|mean/ Amean ….2) (ii) Relative error. Personal errors.2) Absolute and relative errors- (i) Absolute error.1) Types of errors- (i) Systematic errors. ΔA = Amean ± A Thus we can say that the actual value is Amean – ΔAmean ≤ A ≤ Amean+ ΔAmean ….The ratio of the mean absolute error (ΔA mean) to the mean value of the quantity measured is called Relative Error.3) 6 . (ii) Random errors.1) …. either positive or negative. (1.Errors that occur irregularly and hence are random with respect to sign and size. |ΔA| = Amean – A. (1.Errors that arise from the imperfect design or calibration of the measuring instrument (Zero error in the instrument).[1] Introduction: (1. These can arise due to random and unpredictable fluctuations in experimental conditions. In the absence of any other method of knowing the true value normally the true value is the arithmetic mean of the measured values.

(ii) Error of a product or a division. The relative error is then… (Z+ΔZ)/Z = 1 ± (ΔZ/Z) = 1 ± (ΔA/A) ± (ΔB/B) ΔZ/Z = (ΔA/A) + (ΔB/B) ….4) DIN norms for different accuracy classes of measured quantities of CHCP Temperature – DIN EN 60751 Volumetric flow rate – DIN 1434 For heat flux( ) both of these accuracy classes can be used and heat flux depends on the manufacturer of the heat flux measuring device.3) Error propagation law . (1. Actually there are rules for addition. /1/ 7 .5) ‘When two quantities are added or subtracted. Z±ΔZ = (A±ΔA)(B±ΔB) Z±ΔZ = AB ± BΔA ± AΔB ± ΔAΔB By ignoring the quantity ΔAΔB as this product is small compared to other terms and so Z±ΔZ = AB ± BΔA ± AΔB This form can be used for the absolute error calculations.6) ‘When two quantities are multiplied or divided. (i) Error of a sum or a difference. (1.4) So the maximum value of error can be |ΔZ| = |ΔA| + |ΔB| The same rule applies for subtraction.(1. the absolute error in the final result is the sum of the absolute errors in the individual quantities’. where ΔA and ΔB are their absolute errors. (1.Here if Z=AB. product and division. subtraction. the relative error in the result is the sum of the relative error of individual quantities’. So the total error for Z is Z=A+B.When several quantities are measured then errors in all the measurements combine and so the error propagation law can be used. Suppose we are measuring two quantities A and B. ….Here A and B have a measured value A±ΔA and B±ΔB respectively. (1. Thus for addition… Z±ΔZ = (A±ΔA) + (B±ΔB) ….

With the help of a temperature sensor pair the temperature difference of any circuit can be obtained and thus it gives us the heat flux of that circuit. DN type and accordingly the nominal value of volumetric flow rate can be selected.According to DIN EN ISO 5167 the measurement of volumetric flow rate has three accuracy classes (1) (2) (3) = ± (1 + 0.01 p/ ).05 p/ ). Accuracy limits are shown in the graphs below and it can be seen that MID devices are the most accurate devices for volumetric flow measurement.e.30K + 0. /3/ 8 . Here mainly three types of measuring instruments for volumetric flow rate measurement are used.1 Temperature accuracy classes Classes Class A Class B Class 1/3B Ranges ( -30°C to 300°C) ( -50°C to 500°C) ( 0°C to 150°C) Accuracy limits ±(0. From the data sheets of the manufacturer (Thermo Sensor) accuracy limits are ±0. both sensors will be A and A.15K + 0.005*T) Temperature accuracy limit for Class A (TA) = ± (0. The volumetric flow ranges are mainly dependent on the particular application and the manufacturer of the device. MID (Magnetic inductive device) and Mechanical device. 3 (m /h) = Actual volumetric flow rate 1 Having an approximation about the value to be measured.2) Volumetric flow rate . and thus the accuracy limit can be calculated from the single accuracy class. Though the accuracy limits are shown in the graphs below in the section [3]. B and B or 1/3B and 1/3B. not more than ±5% Here p(m3/h) = Nominal value of the flow sensor given by manufacturer.002*T) ±(0.15K + 0. which are US (Ultrasonic device). not more than ±3.[2] List of accuracy classes and its ranges for measured quantities of CHCP(2. In the case of temperature sensor pairs both sensors always belong to the same accuracy class i.02 p/ ). /2/ (2.005*T) ±1/3(0. This value is a permanent value of the volumetric flow rate measured with the device according to DN showing the diameter of the inlet duct of the device. measuring instruments for temperature are mainly having three classes Table 2.05% between 0°C to 100°C. not more than ±5% 1 = ± (3 + 0.30K + 0.5% 1 = ± (2 + 0.According to DIN EN 60751.1) Temperature .002*T) T = Temperature in °C Here mainly temperature sensor pairs or a single temperature sensor are used.

Accuracy classes and ranges for heat flux mainly depend on the manufacturer and the application of the instrument. Here also mainly three types of instruments are used. which are dependent on the temperature difference. 9 . In both the plants Ultrasonic devices are used for direct heat flux measurements in compact conditions while magnetic devices are used for indirect heat flux measurement.3) Heat flux . volumetric flow rate and the medium and the absolute temperature of the medium. Moreover the error of heat flux measurements can be calculated with the help of the error propagation law with two quantities which are temperature and volumetric flow rate.(2.

(3. DIN EN 60751 for different accuracy classes. The relative error value is given by the formula above. 10 . From this absolute error values the relative errors can be calculated with the help of formula given below Trelative = |ΔT|mean/ Tmean ….8 0.2 -0.75K.8 -1 -50 0 50 100 150 Temperature °C 200 250 300 350 Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit Figure3.4 -0.6 0. The 12 values of temperature has been taken and the graph has been made for values between (-30°C to 300°C). Class B and Class 1/3B) are shown below.4 0./2/ (i) Class A – (-30°C to 300°C) 1 0.1) For Class B and Class 1/3B the accuracy limits can be seen from the graphs shown below.[3] Graphical representation of different accuracy classes with tolerance ranges(3.75K at 300°C.09K to 0.6 -0. The absolute error for this temperature range lies between 0. These graphs for different classes (Class A.2 Accuracy limits in (K) 0 -0.1) Temperature classes – Here graphs for the temperature range between 0°C to 150°C are shown.1 Accuracy limits according to class A In class A we can see that the maximum absolute error reaches at 0.

1 -0.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Temperature °C Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit Figure3.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit Figure3.4 0.(ii) Class B – (-50°C to 500°C) 0.2 -0.1 0 -0.2 Accuracy limits in (K) 0.1 -0.2 Accuracy limits according to class B (iii) Class 1/3B – (0°C to 150°C) 0.3 -0.3 0.2 0.3 -0.4 0.1 Accuracy limits in (K) 0 -0.3 0.2 Temperature °C -0.3 Accuracy limits according to class 1/3B 11 .

e. p is the nominal value of volumetric flow rate and as said earlier it can be chosen according to the application.5m3/h Multiplying Qp with the first point of a logarithmic volumetric flow rate absolute volumetric flow rate can be obtained as shown here 12 .2) Volumetric flow classes – The graphs for volumetric flow rate depend on the manufacturer. as E r r o r (m3/h) Figure3.4 Logarithmic graph of ultrasonic device from manufacturer The method of getting absolute value volumetric flow rate curve is shown here.5 m3/h. Model number/Name: AMFLO SONIC UFA-114 For the device used here has the nominal value of volumetric flow rate i.Thus from these graphs it can be seen that class 1/3B has the highest accuracy among all the accuracy classes of temperature sensors. The device can be chosen in the range between 1. As shown in DIN 1434 the classes of volumetric flow rate sensors contain p and in the formula. the device is of DN 20 type. Here Qp = 2. /4/ p is 2. (i) Ultrasonic flow rate device:- According to DIN EN ISO 5167 Class 2 for ultrasonic volumetric flow rate measurement device (US) [By aqua metro]. (3.5m3/h to 25m3/h.

5 3 3. /4/ The values used in the graph are = Qmin = 0.5 m3/h to 60m3/h.5 4 (m3/h) Figure3.14 m3/h 3 p = 3. As the nominal value of volumetric flow rate is 3.01 = 2.p(absolute) = p * 0. Now onwards all the logarithmic graphs have been converted into absolute value by the same method as shown above.01 = 0.025 m3/h Figure 3. 5 4 3 E r r o r % 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit 0.7m3/h.5.4 shows the logarithmic graph given by the manufacturer. From this relative error graph is made as shown below in figure 3. Here the nominal value of the volumetric flow rate is 2.5 1 1.5 Relative error graph of ultrasonic device derived from the logarithmic graph (ii) Magnetic inductive device:- According to DIN EN ISO 5167 for magnetic inductive volumetric flow rate measuring device (MID) [By aqua metro]. 13 . the range of this device is between 1. and so by multiplying this value with x-axis the absolute value of volumetric flow rate can be obtained as shown above by keeping the y-axis values same as the manufacturer graph.5m3/h * 0. and the method discussed above can be used for the absolute volumetric flow rate graph. as the DN type used As described above the graph shown below is also a logarithmic graph given by the manufacturer.5m3/h.7m3/h.5 2 2.7 m /h 3 s = 7 m /h i p is 3. Model number/Name: AMFLO MAG Smart The nominal value of volumetric flow rate is here is DN25 type.

6 Logarithmic graph of magnetic inductive device from manufacturer 8 6 4 E r r o r % 2 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit 0.5 3 3.7 Relative error graph of magnetic inductive device derived from the logarithmic graph Thus the accuracy of the volumetric flow measurement device depends on the manufacturer of the apparatus. here it is aquametro.5 4 (m3/h) Figure3. 14 .5 2 2.5 1 1.E r r o r % (m3/h) Figure3.

The graph = Minimum flow rate = 0. From here graphs shown below are for DN 25 and as well from the manufacturer data sheet.063 m /h 3 3 = Permanent flow rate = 6.039 m3/h 3 2 = Transition flow rate = 0.9 m /h 1 This graph can be read by the values given and from that it is clear that accuracy limit ranges between ± 2%.8 Error graph of mechanical device 1 from manufacturer 15 . with water temperature 20°C is shown below. E r r o r % (m3/h) Figure3.(iii) Mechanical device 1:- The graph of the accuracy class for mechanical device from aquametro.3m3/hr. as per DN25 type. From Typische Fehlerkurve it is clear that volumetric flow rate measured below 2 is having the highest accuracy limits fluctuation. Model number/Name: AQUA Concept cold water /4/ The nominal value of volumetric flow rate shown below is having values as follows p is 6.3 m /h 3 4 = Overload flow rate = 7.

Here graphs are obtained as DN 25 and as well from the manufacturer data sheet.35 m /h 3 n = 3.6 4 E r r o r % 2 0 0 -2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -4 (m3/h) -6 Positive accuracy limit Negative accuracy limit Figure3. as per DN25 type. /4/ The values given in the graphs are as follows = 0.5 m /h min This graph can be read by the values given and from that it is clear that accuracy limit ranges between ± 1%. Model number/Name: Series 417/M-TFXKA The nominal value of volumetric flow rate p is 3. Thus from all these graphs and discussion we can conclude that MID devices are having the highest accuracy amongst all.065 m3/h = Minimum flow rate 3 tr = 0.9 Relative error graph of mechanical device 1 derived from the manufacturer graph (iv) Mechanical device 2:- The graph of accuracy class for mechanical device 2 from aquametro is shown below.5m3/h. 16 .

6 0.6 Accuracy limit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (m3/h) Figure3.8 E r r o r % 0.4 0.2 0 -0.Figure3.2 -0.10 Error graph of mechanical device from manufacturer 1.2 1 0.11 Relative error graph of mechanical device 2 derived from the manufacturer graph 17 .4 -0.

HK-2 T13 and HK-3 (TvorHK1-3) Reverse flow Temperature from HK-1 and HK-2(TrückHK1+2) Reverse flow Temperature from HK-3(TrückHK-3) Secondary heat Circuit inlet temperature(THT-IN-SEK) T14 T15 T16 .1 List of measured quantities at Blumenhaus Bade /6/ Quantity Name Ambient Temperature Room Temperature CHP Exhaust Temperature 1(Tabgas 1) Sign Instrument Type T1 T2 T3 Pt 100 Pt100 Thermocouple Accuracy class 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) Class B CHP Exhaust Temperature 2(Tabgas 2) CHP Forward flow Temperature(Tvorlauf) CHP Reverse flow Temperature(Trücklauf) Boiler Temperature(peak load) Buffer tank upper Temperature(Toben) Buffer tank middle Temperature(Tmittel) Buffer tank lower Temperature(Tunten) Hot water Temperature(Tww) Cold water Temperature(Tkw) T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 Thermocouple Pt100 (Sensor pair) Thermocouple Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 18 Class B Class A Class B 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) Forward flow Temperature to HK-1.1) Blumenhaus BadeTable 4.[4] List of monitored measuring data– (4.

1 Plant layout of Blumenhaus Bade /6/ 19 .Figure4.

± 2% VHK3(2 m3/h) 5 Mechanical max.Secondary heat Circuit outlet temperature(THT-OUT-SEK) THT-IN (Heat input to chiller) THT-OUT(Heat output from chiller) TMT-OUT(Output temperature of MT circuit) TMT-IN(Input temperature of MT circuit) TNT-OUT(Output temperature of NT circuit) TNT-IN(Input temperature of NT circuit) TNT-SOLL(Control signal of cold control) T17 Pt100 1/3 DIN(B) T18 T19 T20 T21 T22 T23 T24 Pt100 (Sensor pair) Pt100 (Sensor pair) Class A Class A Pt100 (Sensor pair) Class A Direct measurement Direct voltage signal TGAS T25 Thermocouple ? ? VGAS(Total gas consumption) 1 Mechanical VCHP(2.5 m3/h) 3 Mechanical max. ± 2% VHT(1.7 m3/h) 7 MID ±2% 20 .5 m3/h) 2 Ultrasonic ±2% VWW(1.6 m3/h) 6 Mechanical ±1% VMT(3. ± 2% VHK1+2(2 m3/h) 4 Mechanical max.

2) HaigerTable 4.2 List of measured quantities at Haiger /6/ Garage Temperature (T_Garage) Room 1 Temperature (T_Raum_1) Room 2 Temperature (T_Raum_2) Room 3 Temperature (T_Raum_3) Room 4 Temperature (T_Raum_4) CHP 1 Exhaust Temperature (T_Abgas_1) CHP 2 Exhaust Temperature (T_Abgas_2) CHP 3 Exhaust Temperature (T_Abgas_3) CHP in Temperature (T_BHKW_IN) CHP out Temperature (T_BHKW_OUT) Heat buffer upper Temperature (T_SP_oben) Heat buffer middle Temperature (T_SP_mitte) Heat buffer lower Temperature (T_SP_unten) Cold buffer upper Temperature (T_SPK_oben) Cold buffer middle Temperature (T_SPK_mitte) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Pt100 Thermocouple Thermocouple Thermocouple Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Pt100 Pt100 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) Class B Class B Class B Class A Class A 1/3 DIN(B) 1/3 DIN(B) T13 Pt100 1/3 DIN(B) T14 Pt100 Class A T15 Pt100 Class A 21 .(4.

2 Plant layout of Haiger/6/ 22 .Figure4.

Warm water heating from chiller waste input Temperature (T_WW_VW_IN) Warm water heating from chiller waste output Temperature (T_WW_VW_OUT) Heat input to chiller (T_HT_IN) Heat output from chiller (T_HT_OUT) Input temperature of MT circuit (T_MT_IN) Output temperature of MT circuit (T_MT_OUT) Input temperature of NT circuit (T _NT_IN) Output temperature of NT circuit (T_NT_OUT) T17 Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Class B T18 T19 T20 T21 Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Class A Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Class A T22 T23 T24 Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Class A Input temperature of secondary NT circuit T25 (T_NT_IN_sek) Outputput temperature of Secondary NT circuit (T_NT_OUT_sek) Control signal of cold control (T _NT_Soll) T_Gas Boiler Temperature (T_Kessel) VGAS VCHP(6 m3/h) VHT(6 m3/h) VMT(6 m3/h) VNT(6 m3/h) T26 Pt100 (Sensor Pair) Class B T27 T28 T29 Direct measurement Thermocouple Thermocouple Pulse Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic _ _ _ 1 2 ±2% ±2% ±2% ±2% 3 4 5 23 .

VSPK(6 m3/h) Heat flow from buffer SP-2 to SP-1 (QWW) Heat flow from SP-1 to HK-1 (QHK) Heat flow from HK-1 to buffer SP-1 (Q_SP2) Heat flow boiler to buffer (QKessel) 6 Ultrasonic Ultrasonic heat flow Ultrasonic heat flow Ultrasonic heat flow Ultrasonic heat flow ±2% ±3% ±3% ±3% ±3% Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 24 .

Q = V*ρ*Cp* ΔT …. The values to be analyzed are shown below in the tables and can be obtained by the accuracy limits of temperature sensor pairs and the volumetric flow measurement devices.05K between 0°C to 150°C as given by the manufacturer(Thermo Sensor AG) and so that value is considered for heat flux 25 .e.e. flow rate. Neglecting the density error due to pressure changes and considering density error due to temperature dependency calculation is shown below. As well Specific heat capacity is also a function of temperature and then in calculation dependency of specific heat capacity on temperature is shown. According to heat flux equation as shown below heat flux depends on four parameters and that are temperature difference. Blumenhaus Bade and Haiger the accuracy limits of heat fluxes are to be measured. These are QNT. These values can be calculated with the help of error propagation law.1) Blumehaus Bade:Here the accuracy limits of different heat fluxes values are to be measured in Blumenhaus Bade CHCP plant. QHT. density and specific heat capacity. (5. (5. QMT. the relative error in the result is the sum of the relative error of individual quantities’. The heat flux accuracy limit can be calculated from the error propagation law. the intention of the report is to calculate the heat flux accuracy limits from the volumetric flow rate and the temperature accuracy limits.2) Thus the relative heat flux errors calculated through this law is presented in the table below. According to error propagation law the accuracy limit for the heat flux can be calculated with the relative error values of individual quantities i.1) Density is a function of temperature and pressure.[5] Statement of different accuracy limits for heat flux of CHCP plants – In both the plants i. The tables given below present the accuracy limits for heat fluxes to be measured and the description is given below. QHK1+2. QHK3. (5. As the maximum absolute error of temperature sensor pair is ±0. QBHKW. Thus the error in temperature is considered as the error in density and specific heat capacity. ΔQ/Q= ΔΔT/ΔT+ ΔV/V + Δρ/ ρ + Δ Cp/ Cp …. The temperature accuracy limits are given in K. QWW. Though the plants have heat flux measuring devices. Error propagation law for multiplication and division says that ‘When two or more quantities are multiplied or divided.

ΔQBHKW/ QBHKW = ΔΔTBHKW/ΔTBHKW+ ΔVBHKW/VBHKW + ΔρBHKW/ ρBHKW + ΔCpBHKW/ CpBHKW …. The method is to notice the specific heat capacity change with 0. QHT.uk/si_water. QBHKW. the specific heat capacity relative error value is ±0.simetric. for QNT. (5. The relative error in specific heat capacity can be calculated by two methods as shown below. From the table given in www. Relative error of temperature is ΔΔTBHKW/ΔTBHKW = (0.4% Density is a function of temperature and pressure. /7/ 26 . QHT.1°C temperature change. From the data given in the web-site shown above 10 density readings are taken into account and by deriving the mean value relative error is calculated and the maximum value of relative error of density is ±0. (I) (II) From the data given in Heat and mass transfer book by Domkundwar. The relative accuracy limit of temperature and volumetric flow rate can be seen in the graphs as well the absolute values can be converted into relative value by the equation shown below. QMT.01% at 80°C.e.co. QMT.04%. the density changes in small amount. /8/ Specific heat capacity is a function of temperature also. QWWV for Haiger plant. /1/ |ΔA|relative = |ΔA|mean/ Amean Example of calculation of relative error of heat flux is shown below.calculation and i. The pressure dependency is very less and neglecting the density changes due to pressure only temperature is taken into account. Cp = Cp0 + αT + αT2 Here α is a constant value.1°C.3) The temperature difference mean value of BHKW circuit is 12 K. From the differentiation of the equation shown below. This temperature is maximum possible temperature in the circuits of CHCP plants. If temperature changes by 0. Cp0 = Specific heat capacity at 0°C temperature T = Temperature By taking the simple way of finding relative error from method (I) and with same procedure as shown for the density.05K/12K)*100 = ±0. density relative error is calculated as shown below. QBHKW for Blumenhaus Bade plant and QNT.

04% ±0.05% ±2.25% QBHK T05 – T06 W QWW QHK1 +2 T11 – T12 T13 – T14 T13 – T15 QHK3 27 .01 QMT QHT T21 .3) ΔQBHKW/ QBHKW = (±0.45% The method shown here is used for the relative error calculation of all the heat fluxes in different circuits.2% ±0.55% ±2.01 ±0. Applying all these values to equation (5.45% ±2. /6/ Table 5.2% ±0.04% ±0.±2.7% ±0.T22 5 ±1% ±0.04% ±0.04%) + (±2%) =.25% ±1.1 Calculated heat fluxes at Blumenhaus Bade Heat Temperat Tem Temper Density flux ure Sensor pera ature relative Pair ture relative accuracy diffe accurac limit renc y limit e (K) QNT T23 .01 ±0.01 ±0.04% ±0.01 Specific heat capacity relative accuracy limit ±0.5% ±0.2% ±0.01 ±0.25% ±2.04% ±0.4%) + (±0.75% ±2.04% Volumetric flow rate device Flow rate relative accurac y limit Heat flux relative accuracy limit V8 (MID) V7 (MID) V6 (Mechanical) V2 (US) V3 (Mechanical) V4 (Mechanical) V5 (Mechanical) ±2% ±2% ±1% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±3.04% ±0.01 ±0.01%) + (±0.The volumetric flow rate device used here is Ultrasonic device and relative error value for that is ±2%.4% ±0.T20 T18 – T19 10 7 12 20 10 20 ±0.

QHK. QWWV. As the maximum absolute error of temperature sensor pair is ±0. According to heat flux equation as shown below heat flux depends on four parameters and that are temperature. QMT. QBHKW for Blumenhaus Bade plant and QNT. The heat flux accuracy limit can be calculated from the error propagation law. QHT. ΔQ/Q= ΔΔT/ΔT+ ΔV/V + Δρ/ ρ + Δ cp/ cp …. As well Specific heat capacity is also a function of temperature and then in calculation dependency of specific heat capacity on temperature is shown.e. Error propagation law for multiplication and division says that ‘When two or more quantities are multiplied or divided. /1/ |ΔA|relative = |ΔA|mean/ Amean 28 . QHT. QBHKW.1) Density is a function of temperature and pressure. QBHKW. QHT. Q = V*ρ*cp* ΔT …. QMT. The relative accuracy limit of temperature and volumetric flow rate can be seen in the graphs as well the absolute values can be converted into relative value by the equation shown below.2) Thus the relative heat flux errors calculated through this law is presented in the table below.05° C between 0°C to 150°c as given by the manufacturer(Thermo Sensor AG) /5/ and so that value is considered for heat flux calculation and i. density and specific heat capacity. the relative error in the result is the sum of the relative error of individual quantities’.2) Haiger:Here the accuracy limits of different heat fluxes values are to be measured in Haiger CHCP plant. QWW. These are QNT. (5. QMT. The temperature accuracy limits are given in K. According to error propagation law the accuracy limit for the heat flux can be calculated with the relative error values of individual quantities i. Thus the error in temperature is considered as the error in density and specific heat capacity. Neglecting the density error due to pressure changes and considering density error due to temperature dependency calculation is shown below. flow rate. (5. QWWV for Haiger plant.e. for QNT.(5.

01% ±0.2 Calculated heat fluxes at Haiger Heat flux Tempera ture Sensor Pair Temp eratu re differ ence (K) 5 5 7 12 20 10 20 Temperat ure relative accuracy limit Density relative accura cy limit Specifi Volumetric c heat flow rate capacit device y relative accura cy limit ±0.2% ±0.7% ±0.25% QNT QMT QHT QBHKW QWW QHK QWWV T23 .04% V4 (US) V3 (US) V2 (US) V6 (US) V3 (US) V1 (Mechanical) Flow Heat flux rate relative relativ accuracy e limit accur acy limit ±2% ±3.01% ±0.55% ±2.05% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±2% ±3.75% ±2.04% ±0.01% ±0.01% 29 .01% ±0.25% ±2.01% ±0.04% ±0.04% ±0.04% V5 (US) ±0.04% ±0.05% ±2.T22 T19 – T20 T09 – T10 T20 – T21 T22 – T23 T17 – T18 ±1% ±1% ±0.01% ±0.4% ±0.45% ±2.T24 T21 .Table 5.2% ±0.5% ±0.04% ±0.

(6.2) *ρ*cp* ΔT ……. The remaining circuits use water as heat transfer fluid. with the help of the error propagation laws the values of relative errors for different heat fluxes are shown and discussed. cp mix = (x1* cp 1) + (x2* cp 2) ρ mix = (x1* ρ1) + (x2* ρ2) x1 and x2 are the percentages of the component in the mixture. 30 *ρ …… (6. Specific heat capacity and density of the mixture can be calculated from the formula given below.1) Procedure and Formula for heat/energy balance :The data measured have temperature and volumetric flow rate values for different circuits and so one can calculate heat flux (Q) with the formula = *cp* ΔT …… (6.e. From these formulas cp and ρ of the mixture can be calculated if these two values for an individual component are known. (6. The percentage of water in the mixture is 80% while 20% is glycol.3) . HT circuit and MT circuit have water and glycol mixtures as heat transfer fluid.1) Here with the values of the volumetric flow rate the mass flow rate can be calculated easily if the density of heat transfer fluid is known from the formula = And so = = Heat flux (W) = Volumetric flow rate (m3/h) ρ = Density (kg/ m3) cp = Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg*K) ΔT = Temperature difference (K) = Mass flow rate (kg/hr) In these plants two circuits i. Now from the actual data of Blumenhaus Bade plant the relative error calculation is shown below.[6] Energy/Heat balance of Blumenhaus Bade CHCP plant and error calculation from the data Theoretically and i.e. From this formula density and specific heat capacity value for the mixture of water (80%) and glycol (20%) are shown below.

Eight points have been taken into consideration to find out the maximum and minimum relative error values from the one day data of Blumenhaus Bade plant. Here time interval during which the device is on stand still is neglected and the values at steady state are considered.cp mix = 3. From these eight points two points are at maximum and minimum heat flux values.4) The temperature difference at peak point of heat flux curve is 11.35 kJ/kg*K ρ mix = 1022.64 kg/ m3 The circuits HK1+2 and HK3 are not in use during summer because of no need of heating.2) Heat flow through different circuits :Here heat flux values for all circuits have been calculated with the help of equation (6. It has been seen that at the minimum heat flux values accuracy of measurement is not good. From the graph of the US device the relative error value is ±2.5%) =.632m3/h. /6/ 31 .5 %. The volumetric flow rate device used here is Ultrasonic device and measured value of volumetric flow rate is 0.43%) + (±0.05K/11.04%) + (±2. By determining the temperature difference and volumetric flow rate value at the particular point relative error can be found as shown in section /5/. Thus the heat flux values in these circuits are zero.98% The method shown here is used for the relative error calculation of all the heat fluxes in different circuits. (6.43% As well density and specific heat capacity are the functions of temperature and so these both quantities have the relative error as described above. The example of relative error calculation from measured data is shown below.52 K from the data of measurement.3).01%) + (±0.52K)*100 = ±0. Relative error of temperature is ΔΔTBHKW/ΔTBHKW = (0. /6/ (6.±2.3) ΔQBHKW/ QBHKW = (±0. For particular time heat flux value relative accuracy is calculated as shown below. ΔQBHKW/ QBHKW = ΔΔTBHKW/ΔTBHKW+ ΔVBHKW/VBHKW + ΔρBHKW/ ρBHKW + ΔCpBHKW/ CpBHKW …. Applying all these values to equation (5.

.4) 32 .22 ±9.26 7.05 ±2.38 3.98 ±15.1 ±1.95 ±4.76 ±8.35 ±3.g.45 ±2. (6.07 ±3.89 5.Table 6.1 Comparison of heat flux relative error values of different circuits Heat flux ( ) (kW) Average heat flux value ) (kW) 9.4929 Maximum heat flux relative error% ±2.08 ±6.25 QBHKW QMT QHT QNT QWW The heat flux values for the WW circuit varies too much because it is only used when hot water is required for domestic application e.6978 10. /7/ As well volumetric flow rate measuring device of NT circuit is not working at the moment and so heat flux in NT circuit is calculated by doing heat balance of adsorption chiller and obtained by the formula QNT = QMT .25 ±1.85 Minimum heat flux relative error% ±2.QHT ……. for taking bath.75 ±3.05 Relative error as per theoretical law in % ±2.

33 . Thus the error calculation of the whole CHCP plant can be done easily with the help of the work shown here.89 5. As well in calculation of heat flux value for NT circuit. the values to be measured are high then high accuracy class devices are to be used and the values to be measured are low then low accuracy class devices should be used.4929 Temperature sensor pair class Class 1/3B Class 1/3B Class 1/3B Class 1/3B Class A Flow measuring device Ultrasonic Mechanical Ultrasonic MID Mechanical The recommendations are mainly based on the measured values and by keeping in mind that. Uncertainty of WW circuit as discussed earlier. Here density is a function of temperature and pressure while specific heat capacity is a function of temperature. As well due to periodic operation of an adsorption chiller the mean value and error from data is high. Even though there is a variation in the relative error value obtained by energy balance of the plant and reasons for that are shown below.26 7. But effect due to pressure change is neglected here.[7] Conclusion Here conclusion can be made that results obtained of relative error by doing energy balance are quite reliable and one can make prediction of an error value from this work. Table 7. The reasons of variation in relative error value are listed below.38 3.6978 10.1 Recommended measuring instruments for different heat fluxes Heat flux ( ) (kW) QBHKW QMT QHT QNT QWW Average heat flux value ) (kW) 9. As well table shown below is the recommendation for temperature sensor pair and volumetric flow rate device for different heating circuits. As well imperfection in experimental technique/procedure and personal errors. heat loss is ignored while heat balancing around the adsorption chiller.

Part 1: General principles and requirements. Ringstrasse 75. Germany /7/Arora.simetric. 59199. J.References /1/ Benenson. Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices inserted in circular crosssection conduits running full -. New Delhi – 110002. Bönen. Ansari Road Darya Ganj.W.uk/si_water 34 . (e-book). CH-4106 Therwil.Stöcker. 2003 /4/ Aquametro data sheets for volumetric flow rate Aquametro AG. 5. W. Switzerland /5/ THERMO SENSOR data sheets for temperature sensor pairs Thermo Sensor GmbH. 2004 /8/ www. Germany /6/ Solar Institute Jülich data sheet for plants of CHCP plants Heinrich-Mußmann-Str. 1996 /3/ DIN EN ISO 5167. 36. 2001 http://www. Slemens strasse. sixth edition Dhanpat Rai and company. Lutz Hand book of Physics. Domkundwar A course in Heat and mass transfer.amazon.com/Handbook-Physics-Walter-Benenson/dp/0387952691 /2/ DIN EN 60751.co. 4779/23. H. Industrielle Platin-Widerstandsthermometer Genauigkeitsklassen der Temperatur. Harris. 52428 Jülich.

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