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AIAA 2003-3785

Aerodynamics for Revolutionary Air Vehicles
William L. Sellers 111, Bart A. Singer, and Laurence D. Leavitt
NASA Langley Research Center

21st Applied Aerodynamics Conference
23-26 June, 2003
Orlando, FL

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AI AA-2003-3785

Aerodynamics for Revolutionary Air Vehicles
William L. Sellers HI*, Bart A. Singert, and Laurence D. Leavitt‘
NASA Langley Research Center
Hampton, VA 2368 1-2 19

Abstract Introduction
Aeronautics research has seriously declined Projecting visions for the future is always a risky
partly because of the perception that it is a mature endeavor. The tendency in predicting future
science and only incremental improvements are technological advances is to be overly optimistic in
possible. Recent aeronautics roadmapping activities at terms of evolutionary improvements, and to be
NASA Langley paint a different picture of the future. completely blindsided by truly revolutionary advances.
Breakthroughs are still felt to be possible if we expand These tendencies should not be overly surprising; linear
the current design space of today’s vehicles and extrapolations of current trends are natural. Foreseeing
optimize the airspace and vehicles as a system. The the nonlinear saturation of those trends is more
paper describes some of the challenges that the aircraft difficult. Identifying promising opportunities that have
and airline industry face. These challenges include real potential for completely disrupting the way we live
political, technical and environmental issues. Examples and work is even more difficult. In the area of
of the opportunities and technologies that could provide aerodynamics and air transportation learned scientists
a different vision for the future are discussed. predicted that we would never fly, never cross a speed
barrier, or the public would never accept air
Nomenclature transportation only to be proven wrong in a relatively
b Span (inches) short period of time. Those making the negative
CL 3-D Wing lift coefficient predictions often worked long and hard on what they
D Drag Force believed to be the relevant problems before deciding
L Lift Force that no solution was in sight. Their error was in not
M Machnumber appreciating that some new approach could bypass the
W Weight problem(s), they understood to be in the critical path. It
is with this in mind that this paper presents visions of a
Abbreviations possible future and the impact aerodynamics must have
FLOPS Floating-point operations per second to enable a future filled with new and revolutionary air
MIPS Millions of Instructions per second
SFC Specific fuel consumption
There is an oft-spoken concern that aeronautics,
and aerodynamics in particular, is mature, and nothing
CMOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
more than incremental gains in performance and
LlNPACK Linear algebra software package capacity are possible. That perception is partly due to
Superscripts past successes in the field. The public, for the most
Fluctuating- component
part, sees an efficient and safe air transportation system
Subscripts with flights to most every part of the globe. Today’s
max Maximum value during actuator blowing cycle
aircraft are a marvel of engineering, science, and
mean Mean value
technology. Aerodynamic efficiency in terms of ML/D
min Minimum value during actuator suction cycle
has increased approximately 30% since the beginning
rms Root-mean-square value
of the jet age’. Range has increased such that non-stop
c w Freestream
flights of 8,000 nm are a reality. Aircraft noise has
been reduced significantly in the last 20 years.
‘Head. Flow Physics and Control Branch, Associate Fellow
PAsst. Head, Computational Modeling and Simulation Unquestionably, the rates of improvement in
Branch. Senior Member these areas have slowed, and linear extrapolation of the
$Head. Configuration Aerodynamics Branch, Associate current rates of improvement could certainly lead
Fellow someone to conclude that the future holds only
incremental improvements. This is especially
Copyright0 This material is declared a work of the US. Government unfortunate because straightforward extrapolation
and is not subject to copyright protection in the U.S.
suggests that significant problems lie ahead. These


The document includes technology. by conducting high-risk research. that the forecasts are true by continuing on our current path. autonomous reduce passenger travel time. such as noise and emissions will an entirely different picture of aeronautics. 800 restrictions worldwide on aircraft operations that The Europeans. multi-disciplinary efforts must be pick up and we again will be faced with increasing increased and the interactions dramatically improved. The blueprint for air transport accessible to small communities without aeronautics briefly described some of the new introducing noise and emissions concerns. high-lift or propulsive systems that will likely have to many with considerably shorter runways. and to make be low noise solutions as well. It refined the vision and started developing roadmaps for was proposed that by utilizing the nearly 5. and fostering an educated and increased air transport safety. It outlined technology development as well. have formulated severely limit growth into certain markets. they are the predictable of some of the advancements coming from other result of extrapolating current trends. 2001. travelers were new directions. Prior to September 11. It highlighted the fact that there are over opportunities for other approaches to air transportation. to take off and land with high thrust-to-weight ratio. Therefore. in 2001 NASA The NASA aeronautics blueprint recognized that formulated a team to develop a future vision for if we were to meet these challenges. devel- their goals on reduced emissions and noise. Perhaps the best the importance of aeronautics to the future of our nation example of their vision for the future3 describes a 2020 and the global economy. and they are winning more than 50% of the stated that NASA’s role was to provide enabling world market share in aircraft.300 smaller technologies to support the Aeronautics Blueprint. and a new era 2 . and the necessity for new vehicle concepts this better if we started to look more closely at that provide runway independence. facing increased transportation delays and projected This paper will focus on the role of 4 growth that would make the situation worse. long haul concepts. we have only begun to consider the the current aviation system including capacity. problems require a rethinking of our air transportation controls. Revolutionary On the other hand. and have a the issues of C 0 2 and NOx emissions on both air highly effective European framework2 for research and transportation capacity and the environment. national hub airports would be relieved. but most operate. There is a deep belief that for this vision to projections suggest that air transportation growth will become a reality. the steady aging of the NASA recently published its blueprint for workforce in the field. and the inclination to continue to aeronautics4 that provides a glimpse of what the future work on familiar problems in familiar ways. We can ensure disciplines that are critical. and very effective quietly and safely from an increased number of airports. but is poised to take off in bold difficult. While the technologies that will enable the increased capabilities current hub and spoke system of air transportation of these revolutionary air vehicles. and oping unique facilities. aerodynamics in that future vision and discuss the Geopolitical and economic circumstances have environment and constraints in which it will have to complicated projected growth scenarios. We can continue the steady declines in NASA Blueprint for Aeronautics Aeronautics research funding. It discussed a vision for their future in aeronautics.S. It also world. and aerodynamics and acoustics looked at and vehicle systems. With these factors as a backdrop. evolved as a cost-effective optimum for a given type of The blueprint addressed the challenges facing aircraft. just at a time when dramatic leaps in disruptive capabilities can occur through the innovative performance would be most beneficial. improvements are possible if we ask the right questions. This new future brings about the possibility for new For instance. we don’t need to increase aircraft speed to large. safety. The blueprint laid out the role future where European aeronautics is the best in the of the U. aerodynamic issues that need to be tackled to provide and security. The NASA teams’ efforts paint quality-of-life issues. We might accomplish operations. airports in the United States. NASA Langley Research Center further technologies could open up a new world of aviation. we are faced integration of existing technologies as well as through with a possible future of slow incremental advances in the invention of new previously undiscovered traditional aeronautics metrics. The concept of improving our ability to take off and land safely in a runway independence will require lightweight vehicles wider range of weather conditions. to their credit. This is especially true if one believes that truly Hence. The airline industry is under their own disciplines and the interactions between them economic pressure and increased public attention to that would be required. exciting Aeronautics. the congestion at the big Teams from structures and materials. of aviation could be in the year 2050. there will also be a discussion blamed for such dire forecasts. government in this future vision. delays in a few years. increased speed. one in make profits harder to generate and operations more which it is not mature. we recognize that huge new air vehicles will be required for this new vision. No one should be technologies. innovative workforce. flight systems.

acoustics. NASA the broader field of aeronautics. inherently includes unsteady separated flows. To inspire the next generation of explorers . proximity. we The NASA Mission is: will discuss some rapid developments in supporting To understand and protect our home planet technologies. How to best use the additional design future educational issues as well as conceptual design. two particularly important To extend life there. systems”. and cost. we will look in detail To improve life here. adding aeronautics is crucial to understanding and protecting additional aircraft to the existing system will in most our home planet. As and less dependence on ground-based maintenance. and a new vision and In this section. airspace. To achieve the in the field of aerodynamics from the steady to the future state. After appreciating the many levels of interconnectedness The NASA Vision is: associated with aviation systems. which give us hope that the challenges To explore the universe and search for life before us can be met.of point-to-point travel enabled. and representation from structures and design space become available when we step towards materials and flight systems and controls.” In terms of the NASA mission. It also designing for both unsteadiness and flexibility. in the future we may be able to exploit shorter runways with less ground-control dependence. and the 3 . and from the linear to nonlinear together. The be expanded to include multi-fidelity methods. It should be no surprise that multi. MDO would have to populated with long haul and regional aircraft. the taken. at noise and emissions. We will need to learn to operate from In fact. It was clear that new technology. environmental issues that fall well within the NASA To find life beyond mission of “improving life here” and the vision of “understanding and protecting our planet”. had a change in administration. future will include revolutionary air vehicles with emissions and noise constraints. we first look more closely at the mission statement. Additional aircraft in consistent with the NASA Aeronautics Blueprint theme the sky and on the runways will make the airspace and of bringing a new environmentally sensitive level of traffic control issues worse. The even more critical as a larger portion of our population structural morphing can include both small local and becomes exposed to these issues due to increased large global shape changes coupled with flow control. Today the disciplinary analysis (MDA) and optimization (MDO) state-of-the-art is a hub and spoke air traffic system was deemed critical for the future. As the demand for capacity goes up. however. Adding more airports will personal freedom of mobility to the American public. ways to think about aerodynamics and how it fits into fluid mechanics. These inspirational words are cases exasperate the problems. historically been the case. systems analysis. we must work them both unsteady world. 1. roadmap exercise at NASA Langley saw several Other teams at Langley have looked at these general trends. aviation system as a system of systems. that the aviation system is in fact a “system of “To improve life here. which safetyisecurity. bump up against environmental constraints. and atmospheric exciting new operating capabilities in a fully integrated modeling. emissions and noise will become control and structural morphing technologies. space is a question that only innovative future research Shortly after the planning process began NASA can answer. The Langley Aerodynamics Roadmap Planning These sorts of changes require entirely new Team consisted of representatives from aerodynamics. environment.. As only NASA can System of Systems The NASA Aeronautics Blueprint recognized The role of aeronautics in the NASA vision is clearly. But as we expand to opportunities to alter the design space using active flow all those new airports. In the past we have worked the vehicle and What is different is that we see a paradigm shift airspace capability axes separately. This shift is being brought about by a must pass through the additional “hoops” relating to desire to predict the full flight envelope. including new models for Technolow Issues and Possibilities the airspace system (vehicles included) needed to be developed so that a systems analysis approach could be Looking toward the future in aerodynamics. Next.. vehicle designers will continue to exploit technology advances across all NASA Langley Aerodynamics Roadmap Planning disciplines to break through the barriers for innovative approaches for air travel. rather included a representative from academia to address than against it. while still mindful that the resulting systems phenomena. structural flexibility instead of trying to avoid it. issues and see a future as depicted in Fig. Vast new regions of program offices.

potential future benefits to such a flexible system should warrant at least thinking about such a system NASA has had a long and successful history of aircraft noise reduction research'. The current mortality rate from studies at Heathrow and Los NASA noise initiative has a goal of reducing noise. flight. 2 Progress in noise reduction research impacts of aviation are discussed.ooO Ib T h & Noise levels for airplandengine i T Environmental ImDacts of Aviation m P configurations at time of initial B(KVIW' 11 Environmental issues are important to the quality of life of the American public. Aviation has the potential for being environmentally detrimental due to the introduction of objectionable noise. Different aircraft likely require an even greater reduction. by a factor of 2 in 10 years also a serious health risk. However. 1 Strategy for integrated advances in airspace progressively harder to achieve. an aviation future does not have to be coupled with these environmental hazards. and the emission of harmful compounds into the atmosphere. A factor of 4 Unlike many other pollutants. Long-term exposure to on the next airplanes rolling off the production lines. but 4 . Noise pollution is not just an annoyance. Angeles. a noise-management plan would not make the aircraft inaudible. effects on health resulting from exposure to aircraft make even maintaining the noise impact at constant noise. all aspects need to be worked together the airport boundaries of all the major airports will as a flexible and dynamic approach. Therefore. and community land use around boundaries. noise actually reduction corresponds to a 99% reduction in sound dissipates (as opposed to just diffusing) with distance power. Appropriate and timely research into critical technologies can help 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 us develop an environmentally fi-iendly aviation future. The enormity of the sideline noise reduction associated with reduced engine noise can be seen in Fig. and by a factor of 4 within 25 years. other noise contributors. The goal of types may have their trajectories optimized for low reducing perceived noise by a factor of 4 in 25 years noise in different ways than other airplanes. may require totally new aircraft system^"^ that Considering such variability in today's airport flight incorporate noise shielding andlor other technologies control paradigm is probably unimaginable. The majority of the noise reduction has come as a result of decreased engine noise. To be similar amounts. both propulsion noise airports can go a long way towards alleviating the and airframe system noise will need to be reduced by health hazards associated with aircraft noise. but would that includes aircraft noise-source reduction. but relative to a 1997 baseline. 2 . high noise levels poses serious health risks to those the slow rate of replacement of aircraft coupled with exposed. while Meecham and Shaw' claim increases in levels a short-term achievement at best. Even if all the technologies noise. This large decrease in noise has been largely a fortuitous consequence of the changeover to high-bypass ratio engines with improved propulsive efficiency and lower fuel consumption. The Noise Reduction Element of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program that Noise ended in 2001 had a goal of developing technologies For the foreseeable hture airplanes will create for a 5dB noise reduction. and aircraft . As the engine noise has been reduced. such as those associated with the airframe become increasingly important. probably at levels that are unacceptably high to developed in the AST program were to find themselves those in the immediate vicinity. Year of Initial Service In the following section a short summary of some of the critical issues regarding the noise and emissions Fig. contain the noise impact within most airport trajectory planning.Normalized to 100. To meet these goals. As described in reference 7. To contain the noise impact within most effective. Abey-Wickrama et a15 document the harmful projected increases in passenger and cargo operations. Each new increment of noise reduction gets Fig. these reductions from its source.

The increase in ozone by Fig. COz.3’strUct + 0. however. covered more than 20. weight reductions).S.000 km2 in an area between Emissions Virginia and Pennsylvania”. whereas the production of NOx is predicting the potential for a 50% reduction in fuel burn related to combustion efficiency. Satellite imagery of a racetrack contrail pattern contour within the airport boundaries. the fuel bum and the Europeans are attacking drag in any impact of contrails on climate change was uncertain. There were hints. used a simplified form of the range equation and a larger concentrations.linear. and induced drag. In 2050 the increase in COz ftom aviation. The full impact was difficult to assess14 aircraft and not simply handled as a retrofit. sulfur oxides (SOX)and soot.. natural-looking The impact of noise will become increasingly cirrus clouds. The team generated by a NASA DC-8 test aircraft off the coast of recognized that there is a difference between noise California. and 8% on the assumption that passenger traffic was projected from structural systems (e. This allowed Minnis et There have been numerous recent s t u d i e ~ ~ ~ ’ ~ ~all5 ” ~ ’to~ ~conduct ’~ a detailed analysis of the isolated of the impacts of aviation on the global environment.Z’Syst + 0. SFC have an order 1 effect. Drag is critical to NASA Aeronautics Blueprint because at the time. because they spread into non. Most water vapor emissions are rapidly removed by precipitation.6 to 10 -Typically (long range de): W 0. ozone (4)and methane (C€&). while structural weight Contrails from aircraft were not mentioned in the improvements will be less important. This 5 . that must be built into the conceptual design of the high clouds. Since water vapor is a breakdown of the weight buildup of a typical long- greenhouse gas this buildup would tend to warm the range aircraft to show that improvements in L/D and Earth. Accounting for this reduction atmospheric impact of emissions and the potential among various disciplines can always be debated technologies to reduce them is discussed below. 3 shows that the authors predict that their effect on climate changes from aviation was 36% will come from aerodynamics technologies (e. and other major emissions including NOx. The production of COZ can be directly There have been several European studies”” related to fuel burn. to grow by 5% annually from 1990 to 2015. As base consolidations are during that period were a few military aircraft that progressing and additional air wings are stationed at generated isolated contrails in areas that typically were fewer bases in the U. Six aircraft were more seriously consider the environmental noise responsible for the formation of cirrus clouds that impacts of basing. showed that it later formed a 60-mile cloud regulations and community acceptance and putting system over the state. The primary emissions include the greenhouse gases COz and water vapor (HzO). regarding carbon dioxide (COZ) and nitric oxide ( N G ) Technologies to reduce Emissions emissions.The only aircraft flying scrutiny as well. Containing the noise impact was based on contrails. provided in reference 10. A discussion of the over the next 20 years. form including friction. 23% from engine technologies. more small aircraft into the 5. however To obtain these results. wave. Contrails tend to warm the earth and there was Aerodynamic technologies that they considered include conjecture that they could spread or diffuse into thin both laminar and turbulent flow management.300 public use airports The unprecedented shutdown of aviation traffic may require even more improvements in noise due to the 9/11 disaster provided a rare opportunity to reduction. Their estimates were based lift and drag). contrails and to develop models to simulate both the The NASA Blueprint highlighted some of the issues contrails and their spread to cirrus clouds. the authors of reference emissions in the lower stratosphere can build up to 1. regarding the keeping the day-night average sound level (DNL) 55dE3 impact. Aircraft emissions further alter the atmospheric greenhouse gases. 3 Potential for fuel consumption over the next NOx emissions in the mid-latitudes is expected to 20 years (from Ref. is expected to range from 1. Military operations are coming under more look at contrail ~preading’~. and total aviation fuel use by 3% per year during the same period. 1) increase by 13% in 2050. because of the variety of ways design trades can be An excellent summary of the main constituents and accomplished. It was especially difficult because the important as a result of the increased freedom of dense air traffic prevented the analysis of isolated mobility.1’Payload times the amount in 1992.g. the military is being urged to crossed by 70-80 planes an hour. based on the various scenarios. Fig.g. After 2015 projections were so uncertain that they established a reference and several other possible emission scenarios due to different aviation constraints.4’Fuel + 0.

000 km range) were inferior to vehicles designed to operate at stage lengths of 5. They also found that the current trend of Fig. in that only nearer term market driven technologies were considered. and prohibitive costs as being required into both the technologies and the system insurmountable barriers. 1% reduction in aerodynamic drag for a long-range Progress however. “will or may. suggested that cruising at lower altitudes might reduce Apparently they are daunted by the same stifling factors the climatic impact. Gordon Moore. potentially large impacts on the optimization of They cite physical size limitations. Shock aerodynamic technology. and atmosphere as a off and Fig. Variable camber and smart wings are and processing power will be critical to future projected to provide a 10. the long- range aircraft is substantially heavier than one designed 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 for the shorter range.0% reduction in drag. since many of the new vehicle concepts development of new “TeraHertz” transistors that will will incorporate active flow control. which in turn will save approximately from 25 to 50 MHz. exponentially. The study identified that current market . 4 Projection of Moore’s Law for transistor increasing engine pressure ratios to improve thermal density efficiency might increase NOs emissions. ago. The approach was more conservative in their technology estimates than the 1 billion transistors in 2007 100 L IPCC Report of reference I O . The industry projection is that by 2007 summary of a report that investigated the challenges of there will be one billion transistors on a chip. Green” presents a through 2010. people doubted that the progress would continue and many barriers (e. and in the next two years the industry Pursuing LID and SFC improvements without expect to do that in day”.” Their results showed the current long-range wide-body scenarios (e. has been extremely rapid. He estimates that a economic observation more than a technology fact. with reduced c E operating costs through reduced fuel burn. and highly integrated airframe/propulsion process Intel had to address many of the barrier issues systems. runaway power commercially viable aircraft and additional research is consumption. airspace.-01 m trends for large. All of their findings have that have always impeded innovation and development.500 km or less be initiated.000 km or less.g. a co-founder boundaryilayer control is projected to provide another of Intel. In the aircraft results in a savings of 400. every week. both in the way we analyze optimizing the LID throughout the flight envelope as flows. autonomous flight extend Moore’s law for decades. Schneider’ provides an transistors on a silicon chip would double every 24 interesting statistic that helps to relate these months. His ‘‘law’’ in the beginning was more an improvements back to emissions. and nacelles using Computational Speed and Processing Power hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to reduce friction Information technology. As far back as 20 years analysis benefits. aircraft missions including vehicle characteristics and operating c I parameters. When discussion of these technologies and the assumptions transistors are scaled down power consumption rises that affect our future vision is included in this section. tail. A brief that people were saying could not be broken. The Gelsinger in Reference 18 states: “knowledgeable modeling of the greenhouse effect with altitude people have questioned Moore’s law for a long time.5%. 13. . I-micron) were professed to be Rapid Developments in Supporting Technology impossible only to be broken as new processes were Other discipline technologies are critical to the developed”. where today Intel adds 25 MHz 5. In the development capability. Intel labs recently a n n o ~ n c e d ’the ~ future vision. long-range aircraft.g. and current leaking through the gate dielectric and from the transistor source to the drain 6 . Moore‘s law is not leveling considering the vehicle. They recommended a full system Year study of long-range travel in stages of 7. For the same payload. computational speed. made a prediction in 1965 that the number of 3.000 kg of noxious emissions.000 km to 16.. They developed models for emission products. reducing emissions. and the ways we implement or control the new well as increasing the buffet boundary. 4 shows a projection of transistor density system can lead to bad results.000 liters of fuel per early days it took 3 years to move processing speed year and aircraft.. and smart structures and materials. drag by 22. includes laminarizing the wing.5% reduction in drag by aerodynamic developments. c increase the impact of air travel on climate change.

processing power based on LINPACK benchmark distributed flow control. and will the “Spike” or discontinuity resulting fiom exponential reach Petaflop ( I O l 5 floating point operations per growth or accelerated knowledge.ll0”~. one cannot even imagine the possibilities that await at supercomputers are doubling every 18 months. Moravec‘l in the field of artificial intelligence and 10 1 O ” f l o p k robotics. Each one of these security. Fig. 5 Comparison of computing versus brain power speed and chip density provides two areas of immediate (from Ref. What he and others” have found is that the long-term evolution has not been one single path of progression. They are already using self-assembly molecular manufacturing forming the dielectric one atomic layer at a time. and entirely new paradigms in 7 .000 criteria used by Moravec for robotic vehicles will be an enabling technology for several classes of flight vehicles (e. Over the years the tracking has expanded to cover the Artificial Intelligence change from vector to parallel machines. 6 Projected increase in supercomputer and control that will enable autonomous operation. 1900 *’ 1920 0-1. second) speed by the year 20 10. 6 shows results fkom that site that indicate makes hture projections difficult because it is felt that that in terms o f raw processing capability. and its 100 10‘’flOpk impact toward mimicking various biological organisms. As a tradeoff. they had to consider that will become a reality and offer new levels of safety and thinner dielectrics also leak more. He traces the evolution of 1 IO“ flo@a computing power from the 1900’s (prior to current silicon devices) and projects the growth forward. Dongerran has been tracking the will also allow the distribution of control necessary for processing speed of computers ranging fkom the Apple new architectures for the airspace system itself.. He shows in Fig. 1 I- Manual C. 1940 IBO lea0 2000 2020 Year How we use such incredible capability will lead to some exciting possibilities. projects increases in computational speed and reduced cost will provide enough processing power to rioph i1 0 ’ ~ match the human brain by 2020.g. The impact on revolutionary vehicles will be distributed processing Fig. In fact. I1 to Supercomputers using the LINPACK benchmark.L. 1994 1996 1998 ZOO0 2002 2004 2008 2008 2010 rather it is a series of “S-curves” that trace the Year progression of individual technologies. current supercomputer capability with 5 or fewer of these chips. . 21) application in regards to advanced aerodynamics analysis and revolutionary vehicles. Bob Gasser of Mllllon Intel states? “that nanotechnology is here today in the state-of-the-art high speed Silicon CMOS process technologies”. Their projections for CPU $& 0 speed and density is that 10 GHz to 100 GHz processors are not fantasy and in fact the new multi- billion transistor processors will allow you to reach ~ F~d -.-*. the evolution of computing power versus cost. new materials. He bases his comparison on the number of neurons in 10 10’2flOph each organism and provides the rationale for the criteria as a means of comparison. The increased processing Fig. They argue that the exponential growth itself world. and the results There are several research groups that project an have also been organized and placed on a dedicated exponential growth of knowledge in the next 20 to 30 w e b ~ i t e *ranking ~ the top 500 supercomputers in the years. To increase speed airspace management because airspace control can be requires thinner dielectrics that many people said distributed between the vehicles and the ground. problems was attacked using new architectures. Artificial For aerodynamic predictions raw processing speed may be a better indicator of the hture rather than intelligence and autonomous operation of flight the MIPS/$1. Intel states that in the last three years they have manufactured and sold over 50 E quadrillion nano-transistors.. It applications. Personal Air Vehicle). and nanotechnology.IC“l. 5 . when power is off drives this rise. With couldn’t be made because they would only be a few distributed sensors integrated vehicle health monitoring atoms thick.

The BWB provides a 19% vehicle commercially viable and their outlook was reduction in operating empty weight and a 32% based on whether the vehicle mission was a Mach 1. The dramatic increases in applications and technologies. As Liebeck states: “Once-apparent consumption. In the case of the show-stoppers have been reduced to technical HSCT. In A detailed discussion o f the emerging the military. structures. a 15% improvement in all the above categories challenges. The result of all The approach taken to identify candidate the increased computational p ~ w e ? ~is that a technologies during the roadmap planning exercise at computation that in 1980 took a full year to complete NASA Langley was to look across a wide spectrum of can today be done in approximately 5 seconds. The serious noise issues and the development of 8 . a quiet. In this section we discuss the vehicle Looking across vehicle classes and the classes considered and some examples of the emerging background literature revealed technologies that can technologies including active flow and noise control.000 smaller airports presented the large number of possible vehicle classes. specific fuel aerodynamics. and improved conceptual the tools for advanced vehicle conceptual design. In the case of the business jet the study based on the configuration design and vehicle layout identified a need for a 10% improvement in LID. It achieves these benefits (HSCT). vehicle classes. or in most cases proper solutions“. and provide smart adaptive structures. McMasters et al 26 and Dreisbach” provide an a variety of technologies that can be brought to bear industry perspective toward the issue facing airplane ranging from active flow and noise control to smart design including the training of the next generation of structures and materials. Since these overland flight.6 reduction in fuel burn compared to an advanced long. In the transportation sectors these include Personal Air Vehicles (PAV). In vehicle sectors considered were narrowed down to this section the reader is pointed to recent review PAVs. Advances in aerodynamic described the evolution of the design of the blended. regional and long haul aircraft. several studies over the years of supersonic vehicle It was also recognized that significant capabilities. or vehicle empty weight fraction. business jet or a Mach 2. which are a departure from our current barriers are significant and require either elimination. shrink as new computing and information technology The National Research Council (NRC) has published becomes available.2 Teraflop. It was felt that the enabling to set the foundation for understanding that major technologies for these three vehicles would cover most change is possible. “imagination”. and a supersonic articles. business jets. Many of the technologies are not of the requirements of the other classes. validation of the experimental and quiet green transport has the environmental noise and computational design tools is critical for the future emissions barriers discussed in detail earlier. There are vision. reduce noise. By highlighting selected technologies we hope overland vehicle.There are also new trends that show that PC clusters are critical requirements for each of these vehicles do not now present at all levels of performance. One recent studya by the NRC evaluated improvements toward the final vision goals could be commercial supersonic technology and they described made without resorting to advanced technology. but moving rapidly through the Background research was undertaken to identify development process. performance will be required to make a supersonic wing-body (BWB) concept. The vehicle also has to demonstrate a new designs are significant extrapolations from current benign effect on climate and atmospheric ozone. air and does not resort to advanced materials. significantly improve L/D. green transport. The vehicles. The environmental like the BWB. will require significant improvements in reduction to acceptable levels the sonic boom for our conceptual design tools and capability. The design methodology. computational speed of 3. Fully play a critical role in the future vision is complicated by utilizing the more than 5. The was required and reaching that goal was deemed to be roadmap planning team felt that to make more vehicles beyond the 25-year horizon. or design space. team felt that a concerted effort to reduce drag in all its forms was of particular importance because reductions Vehicle Classes in fuel burn through reduced drag results directly in Determining the suite of technologies that will reductions of CO? and water vapor emissions. sector these include Uninhabited Air technologies would be difficult in this paper due to the Vehicles (UAV) and high-performance vehicles. The maturation time will only past studies relevant to each of these vehicle classes. and 2 new PC form a self-consistent set because the highest priority clusters have made it into the top 10.4 High Speed Civil Transport range transport concept. To even be technology for one vehicle class may not be the critical considered to be in the top 10 category requires a technology for another vehicle. general aviation EmerPing Aerodynamics Technologies (GA). design engineers. barrier issues relating to vehicle performance and L i e b e ~ kin~ his ~ Wright Brothers‘ Memorial Lecture environmental impact. and thrust to weight.

generator extending only 20% of the boundary layer height is still effective. NASA teamed with the 3M Corporation to produce a thin Mylar film that had the proper Riblet geometry and spacing embedded into the film. Lin evaluated concepts to be imagined. The typical drag of a broad research effort in viscous drag reduction that buildup for aircraft is shown in Fig. these exciting technologies for vehicles.S. At NASA Langley it was flown on a Learjet where it confirmed that turbulent skin friction reductions of 6% were possible in flight. One is left to imagine that 9 . When these devices are applied Flow and Noise Control to a high-lift system they provide both operational and Passive and active flow and noise control has separation control benefits. we will use the a modem multi-element high-lift system they provided delineation of active versus passive flow control an L/D improvement of loo%. by Walsh= the critical issues (e.g. research into separation control technology and the much remains to be done in basic research: refined resulting fundamental question regarding how small can optimization of the shape of riblets. These devices have been used successfully on the energy is expended to achieve flow control. . Marec" control. when applied to constraints. and Lord et The use of longtudinal grooves on the surface of the ala give similar information for gas turbine engines. and Thomas et a131 provide excellent applications of passive flow control technology using reviews of some of the issues and future directions of MVGs and micro-vanes.. portion of the drag and varies from one vehicle type to Marec" describes a flight demonstration done in 1988. Riblet technology is the only turbulent drag reduction concept to make it to flight demonstrations36337s38. 7 Typical breakdown of drag components spills on the Riblet film. The MVG concept came from many years of states that in regards to Riblets and drag reduction: ". The testing involved placing samples at various locations on the aircraft to evaluate effects of operating temperatures. Lin this paper to describe all the work being pursued. Operationally they were seen a resurgence of interest in the last decade. Vortex generators undamaged over an %month operational period and that have used for many years in the field of separation the film &d give the expected fuel savings. both in the U. conducted by Daimler Chrysler Aerospace Airbus. for over 15 years. and a lift increase of proposed by Gad el HAB. Operational testing d e m ~ n s t r a t e d ~ " ~ ~ the field of passive flow control using micro vortex that the Riblet film remained unclogged and generators (MVGs) or micro vanes. In the following discussion. around the world that illustrate how one may address Riblets have been studied. L/D. 3M France. ultraviolet rays. also included large eddy breakup (LEBU) devices. LinaX3 has reviewed A340 aircraft. It was reported that there was Skin friction and induced drag comprise almost 70% of no serious damage to the film except in high erosion the total drag of a vehicle. film erosion. and ONERA. in reference 34. They were will be presented. provides many other examples and Kumar et al ". and the use of other the devices be and still be effective. The field Piper Malibu Meridian aircraft and are used on the of flow control is so broad that it is beyond the scope of Gulfstream V aircraft for shock separation control.5% in wide range of issues including separation control. drag reduction) and others in Europe. In this Passive flow control technology has been worked for demonstration they covered 700 m2 of an A320 with more than 50 years and shown to be applicable to a Riblet films and measured a reduction of 1 to 1. 7. The Europeans are continuing operational secondary flow control in inlets. Reducing fuel burn in many cases developed at NASA Langley in the early 1980's as part means reducing drag in all its forms. samples of technologies being developed drag reduction concept for a turbulent boundary layer. as a small enough that when the flaps retract they can be result of either correcting vehicle problems or stowed in the flap cove and thereby avoid a cruise drag expanding the design space due to new vehicle penalty. fuel bum. The Europeans have continued to pursue Riblet technology and conducted film durability evaluations38239on a Lufiansa Airbus A300-600 aircraft between 1988 and 1990. fuel burn. In skin or "Riblets" is probably the best-known passive this paper. Wave drag is a substantial areas and those areas exposed to anti-icing fluid. Of all the concepts considered at NASA. with Passive Flow Control Airbus partners. and most recently testing of the Riblet films on a Cathy Pacific Airline transition or laminar flow control.technologies for predicting and controlling noise was numerous devices and found that a small vane type considered critical. another.which is based on whether 10%. and fluid Fig. In terms of separation control.

By placing small 3 D roughness elements spans many of the application areas above and is at various spanwise spacing they could excite various continually seeking new ideas or approaches.g. much still needs to benefits. J o ~ l i provides n ~ ~ ~ a detailed from the subcritical roughness spacing is the dramatic review of the historical development and validation of affect on transition location . Although investigate active flow control technology. demonstration of the reliability. boundary layer transition modes for swept wings typical of a transport control and shock/boundary layer interactions. Careful placement of small 3 D and has a substantial benefit in terms of drag reduction. Use of subcritical LFC technology that spans over 60 years of research. The knowledge gained by understanding the flow horizontal and vertical tails.8” discourage the growth of instabilities. In the Arizona State University experiment transitioning to much higher Reynolds number than Saric states: “The most remarkable result obtained would occur normally. crossflow modes or wavelengths. broad categories depending on whether they involve The final example of passive flow control localized fluid interactions or localized shape technology highlights the research of Saric et ala deformation. roughness elements to excite a subcritical mode delayed Laminar flow control is typically active flow control transition by drawing energy from the most unstable (e. In a study by design and as conditions change in flight the Acara et ai4’ that compared an advanced subsonic effectiveness of the technique may diminish rapidly. maturity that they are undergoing testing that takes into Active separation control is another area that is account the relevant operating environment in which receiving considerable attention. which combines active areas where it is applicable it is an efficient technique. If the distributed roughness provide alternate ways to control benefits they promise materialize their potential payoffs the boundary layer and new technologies will be can be quite substantial toward meeting the NASA developed when theoretical and predictive techniques goals. Joslin points out that issues precluding the use of LFC on commercial aircraft today include: resolution Active flow control technolom of some of the potential performance penalties versus Active flow control technology has generated the benefits. Viswanath” Active flow control technology has a wide range provides a recent review of all the Riblet research to of applications and can typically be divided into two date. Potential research into crossflow instabilities and boundary layer applications include: separation control. be done. suction) that aims to keep a boundary layer from mode. This innovative provide large outputs based on exploiting some type of technique grew from many years of fundamental instability or particular flow sensitivity. Active laminar flow and provides a benchmark against which to compare control is rarely used alone and is almost always other methods. experimental and computational results. and 40% HLFC on the physics during the development of passive flow control engine nacelles resulted in reductions in TOGW of technology provides a framework from which to IO%. tremendous interest in the last few years based on maintainability. and operational characteristics. and viable high Reynolds number test require many more years of development plus advances techniques. receptivity. Saric‘s research showed that these instabilities Washburn” provides an overview of the flow control are sensitive to 3D roughness near the attachment line research underway at NASA Langley. twinjet with HLFC on 50% of the upper wing. A few of these concepts have reached a level of have improved. circulation control. Crossflow instability is one of the primary vortex control. Many of these development of an HLFC compatible ice-protection technologies are in their embryonic stage and will system. and block fuel of 15%. Choosing the wrong Laminar Flow Control (LFC) is one technology size or spacing can move transition forward and that has moved from concept to flight demonstration increase drag. roughness spacing delayed transition beyond the He defines the LFC categories that include Natural pressure minimum and onto the trailing-edge flap at Laminar Flow (NLF). which may the technology has been flight evaluated by both the adapt to changing conditions and provide even greater U.S. In the Laminar Flow Control (HLFC). Future concepts for LFC such as Saric’s in the supporting technologies mentioned earlier. This may include confirming the interest because separation is so pervasive in fluid flows 10 . and European aircraft industry. aircraft. OEW of 6%. The program of the wing.. In the case of fluidic interactions the investigating the use of leading-edge roughness as a recent emphasis has been on small-scale inputs that transition control mechanism. laminar flow control with NLF. It is of particular they have to operate. improvements using 3D Riblet geometries. the removal of the manufacturing constraints of the 80‘s technology works at flight Reynolds numbers or the and 90‘s and the introduction of new materials and physical scaling of the systems from the laboratory to manufacturing processes might provide larger flight article integration.. in which wing shaping is used to xIc=O. The one drawback is that it is a point combined with appropriate wing shaping. and Hybrid Passive flow control technology is important. mixing control.

This technology is now being investigated for study identified additional technology issues such as the use in a variety of concepts and applications that need to validate the technology at high flap deflections. a study was conducted by Jones el ai5’ experience at TAU. include pneumatic nacelles for performance efficiency. and oscillatory blowing Control (GACC) airfoil included a novel dual-blowing efficiency. and can be so detrimental to vehicle or system edge and the “Coanda effect” to turn the flow over a performance and structural integrity. the research team has demonstrated to see if using unsteady pulsed circulation control one that separation control works at flight chord Reynolds could reduce the mass flow requirements. 8 Three Dimensional (3D) Simplified High-Lift and wing tip devices. Washburn@ describes the performance. European% researchers have been pursuing this area very hard and have coined the phrase “adaptronics” to describe the technology. As a result of the for high lift separation control from the laboratory to lessons learned during the separation control research flight environment. The flaps. The results from his investigation supported a system study4’ of the benefits of active have shown the potential for a 48% reduction in mass flow control from the Boeing Company. then technology that will increase LID or reduce drag would be of particular interest. CCW would be an advantage because the CCW wing would be lighter. With this configuration he was able to highlighted in flight tests that focused on high-lift. These concepts include nonplanar systems. NASA Langley is other system impacts of circulation control such as continuing this research effort aimed at a wind tunnel noise. multiple surfaces. K r 0 0 ~reviews ~ current analysis and design methods and provides several examples of design concepts to increase LID.3% reduction in both drag tailored load distribution. NASA Langley performance penalty. Other studies are looking at trailing edge separation control. pneumatic ailerons and split and weight. applications. and issues associated with active high-lift. mild sweep (with the separation location technology. Monro et al 52 studied the acoustic characteristics validation of the 3D concept illustrated in Fig. active flow control concepts for high lift augmentation Their results showed a lower noise spectrum for the are also being pursued at NASA Langley CCW wing as compared to the conventional wing for the same lift.6% reduction in part count. Stanewsky= provides a comprehensive overview of the adaptive wing technology and flow control technology being considered. The blowing generates significant Wygnanski provide an excellent summary of the streamline turning that results in super-circulation and history. Spanwise variation of the upper and payoff. Utilizing a simple hinged flap with a drooped lower surface blowing may provide a distributed or leading edge provided a 3. The second broad area of active flow control pertains to structural morphing or localized shape changes. and the validation of simultaneous use of leading and and maneuvering control. but that addition of weak provide a “virtual trailing edge” to reduce the cruise steady suction is also very effective. Tip sails are just one of the many System Concept Using Flow Control wing tip devices reviewed. and Kroo illustrates the Circulation Control Wingsw (CCW) have been benefits by highlighting a simple tip sail consisting of studied for almost 65 years and the benefits have been two elements. Other of a CCW and a conventional wing high-lift system. The researchers were able to show that concept for the trailing edge whereby simultaneous oscillatory blowing is two orders of magnitude more blowing from the upper and lower surface would efficient than steady blowing. Jones’ General Aviation Circulation dictated by the geometry). 8. and thereby numbers (37 million). The study flow. Leveraging the many years of described above. CCW have not been applied due to the collaboration between NASA Langley and researchers systems penalties dealing with engine bleed at Tel Aviv University (TAU) to move this technology requirements and cruise performance. predict an increase of 1 1 % in span efficiency. Greenblatt@ and curved trailing edge. The dual blowing concept also provides the identified that simplification of a high lift system (via opportunity to make the entire wing into a distributed active flow control) to be the highest priority and control surface. If the goal were to reduce emission. Fig. He later Traditionally CCW wings use blowing at the trailing conducted an experimental investigation of the concept . The authors’ point out that even if the noise were comparable. and a 2. investigated compressibility remove one of the significant roadblocks to the effects. I n spite of the significant improvements in separation control.

methodology is enabling for all these efforts as it moves Kroo also presents an innovative design methodology more into the mainstream of analysis. thrust vectoring was apparently a conventional “turbulent” wing with weak shocks at conceived in 1909 well before the advent of high thrust cruise by design. The bump was the most the wing warping for vehicle control dates back well effective means of drag reduction and had added prior to when the Wright Brothers successfully benefits relating to buffet. They also ruled out to be unobtainable (given today’s technology levels) passive techniques for turbulent wings due to the performance is one way new design space may be increased sensitivity of the technique to changes in the opened. there is EUROSHOCK 11. research conducted by the EUROSHOCK I. their efforts that prevented the older designs from being successful. conditions. The algorithm was Revolutionarv Vehicle Concepts allowed to build up several generations of candidate designs of wings that proceeded through the discovery The Aeroroadmap team felt based on various of winglets and ultimately to a C-wing concept with research efforts that although advanced technology significant induced drag reductions. design. integrated into the design. significant L/D improvement potential (approximately Computational and experimental prediction 12 .. S. In fact. Stanewsky et al 57 have compiled an evidence that suggests that revisiting past conceptual extensive summary of the findings of the experimental. optimize L/D over a wider range of flight Liebeck’s BWB design does show at this early stage.1 1% was achieved for an into the optimum shape for the desired performance. flow control or new CFD design or In a carefully conducted assessment of a variety of analysis capability) can remove many of the barriers available drag reduction techniques. over 200 vehicles have been flight materials and (smart) structures for such a bump”. and increase the buffet margins. A focus on new missions with what appear reducing drag on laminar wings. tested (both powered and unpowered) over this period Stanewsky further describes in Reference 53. An excellent example is illustrated by the as to add new capability. reduce drag. Recommendations for future work performance aircraft in the U.g. technologies (e. focused on the development of an adaptive bump on the There are countless examples of this. Lastly. and I I projects. their studies showed that similar to weight ratio gas turbine engines capable of benefits could be achieved. A340-type long-haul vehicle with an HLFC wing. This way thicker wings flying wing concepts such as the Blended Wing Body25 could be built with less structural weight and reduced discussed earlier have been around since the mid to late time for manufacturing . A utilizes aeroelastic flexibility to deform the thin wing reduction of fuel burn of 2. The designed for laminar or turbulent conditions. reduction obtained varied as expected depending on North Carolina in 1903. and providing suitable 1800s. but made a comeback in vehicle (regionaVlong-haul) and whether the wing was 1990 with the Active Aeroelastic Wing program. The amount of drag employed it in their first powered flight at Kitty Hawk. For Another example. Even so. Earlier efforts in As mentioned earlier. to utilize thrust included: “Consider new wing designs with a bump vectoring for maneuver.. Advanced The European Union (EU) has focused a technologies have demonstrated throughout history that considerable effort in both L/D improvement and drag they can be used both to overcome old barriers as well reduction. disruptive innovations can EUROSHOCK I definitively showed that passive shock occur through the creative integration of existing control could be ruled out as an effective means of technology. Those findings ‘encourage’ advances that might otherwise take many lead them to undertake active control techniques in years to bring to fruition. The concept of upper surface of the wing. The F-22 Raptor will be the adaptive to account for the large chordwise movement first conventional take-off and landing production high of the shock. In other cases. The goal was to reduce drag resulting from Revisiting the Past shock and boundary layer interactions. but also varied based on the type of to ailerons over the years. DARPA often utilizes this approach to flow and boundary layer conditions. Boeing later could be retrofitted to existing aircraft. yet we consider the BWB to bump can be coupled to adaptive wing technology to be a ‘revolutionary’ new vehicle concept. approach. The wing system had many elements with arbitrary dihedral and twist. and systems analysis efforts undertaken. the aircraft at the conceptual design phase. and for nonplanar wings based on a genetic algorithm optimization. designs with the aim of using advanced aerodynamic computational. This form of control gave way 2D/3D results. Their AAW flight test vehicle is currently being flown at the systems benefits included the weight penalty involved Dryden Flight Research Centers. how the as discussed by Wood5’. but the bump had to be supporting the concept. to obtain the studied the C-wing= for application to a very large most benefits required integrating the technology into aircraft. that validated the IO-11% reductions in vortex drag. The AAW concept with modification of the wing for the bump. almost 100 years later.

stability and control issues. The comfortable with the concept of a strut-braced wing blown model also showed the ability to interchange (SBW) because many of them learned to fly in aircraft thrust and drag by varying blowing to provide greater of that type. windtube design philosophy currently employed in the Circulation Control is most effective at lower velocities transonic transport industry. one of the configurations. opposite. cantilevered concepts and et a t 3 discuss adding the outboard CCW wt pulsed although other concepts such as strut-braced and joined trailing edge pneumatics.0 to 9. powered-lift Pneumatic Channel Wing concept combines Circulation Control (CC) aerodynamic and propulsive technologies with the advantages of the Custer Channel Wing to provide a configuration intended to have ESTOL or perhaps even near VSTOL 8 1 rn& for approach capability. Thus. strut-bracing turbocharging is merely used for altitude compensation for transonic and supersonic speeds. including the use of distributed propulsion system. and low-speed handling. usable angles of attack. Since Channel Wing. with air mass flow on the same order as are NASA in collaboration with Georgia Tech required for a moderate performing CC system. Even larger improvements since the key driving parameter is the jet velocity might be realized if boundary layer ingesting inlets compared to freestream velocity ratio. Thus a no cost air supply is Pneumatic Channel Win5 present. circulation control wing. Circulation Control is very attractive for These differences in design philosophy result from very Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) and GA concepts because different operational requirements. lack of pilot visibility. Preliminary wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model have shown substantial lift capabilities for the CCW blown channel wing configuration62.6’. The systems. but without the ability to hover. nothing has displaced them the high lift performance and provide improved flight as of yet.0 using just the channel Many general aviation pilots are quite portion of the wing. distributed in GA aircraft. to develop very high lift for Extreme be hghly synergistic in several more exotic application STOL (ESTOL) applications. to have significant benefit over conventional As described in Reference 63. 1 5 2 0 % ) when compared to the state-of-the-art of their inherent low takeoff and landing speeds. The Front V i m application of CC to the channel wing solves an important problem of the original channel wing concept. The Research Institute is revisiting the channel wing authors’ show that Circulation Control could potentially conceptso. Transonic Strut Braced Wings CLMAX approaches 8. this lift was unusable in takeoff or approach because of limited tail scrape angles of the fuselage (typically about 12 degrees). lower become practical. but with a very simple areas. no outboard blowing. While the channel section was essentially stall-proof. Le. 9 Artist drawing of a powered lift channel wing are integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing with a CCW aircraft concept (PCW) configuration. shown in Fig. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle is based on previous wind tunnel and flight-test data. The majority of the commercial transport flexibility in Super STOL takeoffs and landings. generating increasing lift up to 45 degrees angle of attack. Sellers aircraft today are low-wing. and that we believe may be possible in simplest uses of Circulation Control applies to the the near future with advanced technology. and feature a high wing design philosophy. the turbocharger compressed air is dumped out a waste gate at this condition. Advanced flow control technologies Fig. which is expected to increase wings have been proposed. Military transport systems are typically the control capability. In this section the authors will takeoff and landing velocities can utilize lower jet provide examples of “revolutionary” vehicle concepts velocities or lower mass flows while achieving the that had been previously considered and were thought same effective lever-arm on the maximum lift. and not increased power at takeoff. These GACC airfoil with the utilization of a turbocharger to concepts utilize the following technologies: Custer power the pressurized blown plenum. that has no externally moving parts. at lower. In this section we 13 . 9. The use of CC provides increased channel circulation lift in a large streamtube. all propulsion and tilt nacelles.

A SBW has a 13. concept is very sensitive to aerodynamic technologies and is very synergistic. That started changing in the 1990’s as Gundlach et ale presented results of a conceptual design study of a strut-braced wing (SBW) transonic (b) Tip-Mounted Engines transport. Coupling advanced flow and noise control technology could greatly increase the SBW benefits. He reports that the SBW to counteract engine-out yawing moments. 10 Transonic strut braced wing (SBW) concepts have higher aerodynamic efficiency. reduced weight. They recommend that greater emphasis should be placed on LFC.”. 7. The wing tip mounted engine bum that a cantilever configuration when optimized for configuration uses circulation control on the vertical tail minimum TOGW . and a the interdependencies. and reduced emissions by 21%. the savings in fuel consumption are wing tip. Two different SB W lower sweep than a conventional cantilever design. higher aspect ratio. wave drag reduction. There are a variety of designer can unsweep the wing considerably. which metrics that could be used for the optimization study. which results in lower A GE-90 class high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine is transonic wave drag. They compared a 1995 technology cantilever wing design with an SBW concept. As a final part of the study they studied the lower drag. By reducing wing thickness a used for these vehicle studies. required smaller engines (required approximately 18% less thrust). 10.1% shown in Fig. The assumed mission was for a 325 passenger. which was so critical to the success of the concept. even more impressive. (from reference 66) and a reduced wing thickness.500 nm range. may offer the potential for significant portions of however. used less fuel (almost 20%).85 transport. were not yet available.. Subsequent studies (unpublished) have shown when compared to an advanced (year 2010) conventional configuration.. and other aerodynamic technologies for evaluation with the SBW. configurations were considered in this work and are Gundlach states that: “Although the SBW has an 8. SuDersonic Strut Braced Wings It would be fair to say that a great deal of effort has been directed toward the concept of 14 . The SBW can potentially Fig. The idea of a transonic strut-braced wing can be traced to the work of PfenningerMin 1958. It was recognized at the time of these early studies that the design and analysis tools required to provide an efficient windstrut juncture. Follow on efforts for the Air Force by Kulfan and Vachal= and for NASA in the 1980’s showed that the concept held promise.6% lower fuel mounted engines. which were considered impractical in the 2010 timeframe. the strut-braced wing configuration had lower weight (over IO%). An added benefit of the reduced weight effect of incrementally adding advanced technology in and improved aerodynamic efficiency is that smaller the h4DO process. and the other had a T-tail with fuselage. engines are required typically resulting in less noise. Here is a case where advances in propulsion technology (perhaps through distributed (a) Fuselage-Mounted Engines propulsion systems) will one day make the concept of wing tip propulsion systems practical. and Mach 0. Gundlach used TOGW as the major figure of natural laminar flow on the wing resulting in even merit. The study showed that in general the SBW An MDO approach is necessary to take advantage of all concept has less wing area. All this without taking advantage of wing tip mounted engines. One had the engines mounted on the decrease in TOGW. will discuss the potential benefits obtained by re- examining the concept of strut bracing as applied to a transonic and supersonic vehicle.

and the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) (or strut braced wing) as well as many other Program in the mid 1990’s. including the Supersonic Transport QSP results presented by Komadina7’ features down Programs (SST) in the 1960’s. sustained research effort in a Pfenningereein 1988 on ‘highly swept arrow wings and number of areas can overcome the technical barriers of strut braced wings. As noted by Woods7. supersonic commercial transports over the last 50 years boom overpressure of 0. utilizes thrust vanes to generate all hover supersonic flight has been provided by DAFWA’s Quiet control authority. Cruise L/D levels have been improved in upper and lower surface shaping to take advantage of ensuing research programs from the nominal value of 7 the naturally occurring conical flowfield and pressure (Concorde) to approximately 9 in studies conducted in loadings are examples of drag reduction opportunities. in the U. little true innovation has opportunities . Other interesting technology features of this configuration are discussed in references 68 and 69. features an extreme arrow wing planform. but little has been done in NASA programs to seriously mature the current readiness level of the technologies required to achieve these double digit levels of cruise L/D which are required to make these vehicles Fig. As a result many of be considered as an enabling technology for any of the lessons from one program were relearned in the next industry-proposed vehicle concepts.3 psf and a cruise L/D of 11. on the basis of synergistic flow control approaches. Pfenninger’s concept relies on suction laminar flow control. As little has changed beyond the technology level of the noted by woods7 utilizing favorable interference effects Concorde. It would also be fair to aerodynamic and structural technologies. even arrow wing concept fundamental work required to understand the unique features of arrow wings has not been done to address Tilt Nacelle PAV “the primary limiting factor of the planform. Jones in increase in cruise L/D for a commercial supersonic the 1970’s on ‘oblique wing concepts’ and Werner transport”. Work by Saric“ and others was hnding and support may well the one reason why the discussed previously in the Active Flow Control most recent U. In fact. some in the mid 1970’s. based on the G u n m a n 698 design. Even if laminar flow control aircraft in the current inventory is the B-1A developed remains unachievable for the foreseeable hture. proffered an interesting and challenging design with and L/D value in the high teens. the Supersonic Cruise selected configurations containing highly swept arrow Research (SCR) Program in the mid 1970’s and early wings and the preferred concept featured a joined wing 1980’s. this lack of consistent research research area.” The concept similar to that shown in Fig. As highlighted in the writings of He suggests that taking advantage o f these Woods7 and Bushnell-. Some very innovative solutions were nacelle allowing a virtual tailoring of the inlet and required to achieve the aggressive technology goals of exhaust flow pattern. the HSR program. would correlate to a 30 to 40% “ occurred beyond the pioneering efforts of R. This will enable the designer to the QSP program that included (among others) a sonic maximize the propulsion system performance through- 15 . which is enabled by external strut bracing. the concept uses pneu- Supersonic Platform7’ (QSP) Program in the last two or matic nacelles that provide pneumatic morphmg of the three years. 12. that these programs have requirement for laminar flow was featured in most been punctuated with long periods of relative inactivity every QSP vehicle solution and as such would have to in supersonic aerodynamics. and utilizing wing century. T. While much progress was made in authors argue that there are still many drag reduction those early programs from the standpoint of technology concepts which might result in large improvements in L/D. 11 Sketch of a Pfenninger strut braced extreme economically viable.S. In adhtion. DARPA has program by completely different groups of aeronautical provided significant funding for this fundamental engineers. An aggressive. production supersonic cruise capable Technology section. A state that in the United States. Critical to the concept proposed by Pfenninger.. is the requirement for significant runs of laminar flow on the wings. trailing Pneumatic control and distributed engine edge separation. it is fair to state that relatively improvements in cruise L/D for supersonic aircraft..” There are many technical challenges technologies are being applied to a tilt nacelle concept in the area of aircraft structures as well. reference. “Pfenninger. which has been in service for a quarter from multiple bodies and wings. The concept shown A great deal of focus on low boom efficient in Fig. S. As discussed in the Bushnell economically viable supersonic flight. 11.

.... was developed by M-DOT Aerospace of Phoenix. while 71% were due than thinking just in terms of CFD... 13 Sketch of the MUMGas Generator Fan concept with pneumatic leading............ preferably with Exhaust flow is then ducted onto a Coanda surface at tools that take more advantage of both developing the nacelle exit for pneumatic control of the exhaust computational capabilities and existing knowledge diffuser. Typically this constraint determines the In the past. thrust to weight of the vehicle for safe operations are As a first step into the future. stability and control.... aeroelasticity. Coupling the pneumatic nacelle with the bases.. For low speed operations such structural mechanics highlights the ultimate goal of as hover and transition to forward flight. including fluid dynamics. bellmouth lip shape that may continue to require computational capabilities that are effectively double the maximum thrust at these particularly efficient and/or accurate for solving conditions... the pneumatic developing packages that permit coupling these nacelle utilizes virtual inlet lip shaping to provide a specialties together at various levels. hence... ’ I Intake reduction in the effective hover disc loading at the Edge . concept while also eliminating the need for an engine acoustics.4 for a conventional efforts... comfortable design space of the past. CFD.. It also may provide nacelle separation specialized problems..... 12 Personal Air Vehicle Concept utilizing Crosscuttinp Technolopies circulation control nacelles Roles and Challenges for ComDutational Amroaches Multi Gas Generator Fans (MGGF) may power the vehicle.. Although we will more favorable. and cross-shafting system. we need to generalize the possible.... dramatic reductions in the required dominated our computational efforts in aerodynamics.out the flight envelope. 1 ground plane and a reduction in the ground erosion and foreign object damage (FOD) constraints.. the ability to couple results fi-om control in transition and crosswind conditions. 13. to about 1. perhaps running on computer architectures that we can just 16 ... a potentially safer system... engine size. we will discuss directions that we MGGF concept provides the smallest propulsion system believe the computational community can and should power requirement possible for V/STOL.. required thrust to weight concepts that need to be included in such computational reduces from approximately 2....... code developers to gas generators making the redundancy of the MGGF need to start thinking about computational aeronautics. Rather problems were related to the fan.and trailing edge P blowing Fig.... The MGGF concept shown in Fig. Arizona To seriously consider revolutionaxy changes in and will utilize the exhaust of several small engines aerodynamic vehicles requires working outside of the integrated in the nacelle to tip drive the nacelle’s fan. aeronautics..4 for the MGGF numerous specialties. Virtual Diffuser Area L Fig. two technologies makes for a more robust and safe In the broader context of computational aircraft system... I 1 Engines Trailing i Edoe BloGng ‘ Diffuser Exit Area / / / \ Hover / Cruise Coanda Blowing 6’ Blowing rc ... their use to power the nacelles should result in a relaxing of the engine-out sizing constraint for hover IntePrating the stoveDiDes and approach. The combination of these or at least computational aerodynamics. A recent multiple disciplines into a comprehensive design study showed that only 4% of all propulsion system scheme will become more critical in the future... aerodynamic vehicles... Additional benefits include a Leading . The importance of design optimization across twin-engine concept.... Because the be taking to better facilitate the design of novel MGGF contains a number of small-distributed engines. or computational fluid dynamics..... In this specific case.... the need for more efficient solvers. In this section.

The point is that current comfort zone. Some much longer it would take to incorporate such a individuals may assert that we cannot assimilate computation into a design cycle is unclear. How separations. no an observation of current practice. motion is modeled. Again. In our opinion. the impetus to exploit the results of those Hence recomputing the year in which such a calculation calculations in more and more inclusive system-design would reach Grand Challenge status based on more packages will grow. etc. but not a limitation serious criticisms have been leveled against the work of planned capability. information fast enough to warrant increased code Some individuals have criticized the Spalart. no landing gear. et aI7‘ for the resources required the extraordinary sensitivity of transition to initial and for performing an LES over a wing of transport aircraft boundary conditions. i. Spalart. order of the macroscopic scales of interest are they estimate that roughly 8 periods of 5-fold increases substantially steady. The required. no reliably design vehicles with configurations outside our high-lift system. simply not required. For a very long time into Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) involves the the future. will extend long into the future. should be 17 . However.and model development will seriously hamper our ability to this is just a cruise-configured wing. or where the important scales of motion are of the same order as the turbulent motions.barely imagine. After making a series of optimistic estimates measuring flow details in critical regions all contribute of our future ability to accurately perform such a to the problems. estimates of Spalart. an going to be critical. 10” grid points would be required. We have plenty of work to fill the optimistic computer improvements is easily done by computers of many generations to come. and the great difficulty in in cruise. we will retain a need to develop models of computation or simulation of large turbulent eddies complicated physics and use those models as part of while the dissipation of the unresolved smaller scales of computations involving aerodynamic vehicles. considerable complex physical phenomena. where multiple runs therefore resolved) turbulent eddies and the unresolved with several types of interacting phenomenon are turbulence be in the inertial range of turbulence. we must be solving the in computer hardware and software will enable LES to proper equations that suit the problem. equating the estimated 5’ increase in computer power to As part of this process. As current computations take estimated to be required to perform the computation.. accelerated development of that predicted using some other improvement scaling. foreseeable improvements in computer hardware and software alone will not enable us to simply compute our The need for modeling way through difficult physics. such a belief is overly optimistic and will negatively impact the Transition and turbulence treatments development of the kind of computational tools The general modeling of turbulence and the necessary for ultimately designing revolutionary laminar-turbulent transition problem has proven to be aircraft. flow structures on the factor of 5 increase in computer power every 5 years. relying on improved additional improvements would be required for such a computations to justify neglecting the hard work of calculation to become part of the design cycle -.e. calculation. With a rough trend of a the flow is quasi-steady. but to our best knowledge. recent years have seen a would be required. physics-based models for complex flow phenomena is Assuming a doubling of computer power every year. resulting in a considerable progress has been made in the computational effort of approximately 10” floating development of turbulence models for cases in which point operations to complete. first consider the physics. hence such a computation might tendency to acknowledge that flows with large-scale attain Grand-Challenge status in the late 2030’s. one of the most daunting problems in engineering To better appreciate this situation. The wide range of scales of turbulent flows. Although improvements in incredibly optimistic long-term projection would leave computing power and solver techniques will continue to us with such a calculation rising to Grand Challenge facilitate more direct computations of particularly status in about the year 2015. less time. et al” conclude that approximately Although turbulence is inherently unsteady. Vos et dominate future aerodynamic calculations and therefore indicate that appropriate modeling of the physics is further work on ways to model complex flow physics is critical. Here we assert that estimates as being overly conservative in terms of the limited capacity to absorb all the data produced may be computer power trend. Proper application of LES requires Successful physical modeling is going to be especially that the cutoff length scale between the computed (and required for optimization studies. allows us to solve equations much more rapidly and Some individuals believe that continued improvements accurately than in the past. appropriate use of LES has led to important Physics-based modeling improvements in turbulence modeling as well as to Although greatly enhanced computing power deeper insights into the physics of complex flows. no fuselage. et ai” speed beyond a certain point.

and Thomasg'. Singer and Guoe7 determined that details of the upstream conditions. predict installed jet noise from complex three- Ideas from Lattice-Boltzman solvers (for example. difficult problem associated with these actuators including Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)72. mixing enhancement. well yield improved efficiency and/or accuracy in the Future revolutionary aircraft will require both low long term.@) may also provide new insights for promising approach. the scales involved in acoustic workshop is being conducted in collaboration with U. Extensive work in Modeling the laminar-turbulent transition process Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) is underway at a brings additional difficulties not addressed in the search variety of institutions to address many o f these for suitable turbulence models and treatments. ai7* for an LES over a wing. resolved. For instance the application of wavelets to airframe and exhaust system noise. and make choices between them is not at all clear.w. and a approximately the same as that estimated by Spalart et stochastic form of the parabolized stability equations. treated as unsteady. Many of issues.S. These methods go by a variety of names. a wide variety of Interest in active flow control for drag or noise turbulence treatments have emerged to bridge the gap reduction. Difficulties have arisen even in the Stokes (PANS).7576 involves the coupling between the flow structures Limited Numerical Scales (LNS)77. Partially Averaged Navier on the external flow. Acoustic waves involve very small between the models. a multi-mode critical layer theory. the important frequency and Turbulent Separation Control to take place at range is large. What is the most effective approach for community to re-assess its direction and consider modeling a noise source and propagating it is far from whether some dramatically different approaches might clear. is documented in the work of Hunter traditional Navier Stokes equations are solved. Flow Simulation interior to the actuators and the effect of the actuators Methodology (FSM)78. Finally. propagation are typically much larger than those and European research organizations. or even what Much more work is needed to validate the various critical experiments should be used to test the models approaches under different sorts of flow conditions. they explored a volume encompassing a medium size commercial resonant triad model with random forcing of the phase transport requires as many as 10" grid points. This about 10 kHz. equation. which are now routinely create localized disturbances in the flowfield. see dimensional flows is an absolute requirement. The ability to turbulence modeling has yet to make serious inroads. so considerable concern exists with respect to where the unsteady flow structures are well resolved by modeling the effects of large numbers of actuators in the grid and a more dissipative RANS-like calculation boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers. In particular. Which approach is the best. An important step in the direction of sorting out benefits Noise sources and deficiencies of each treatment would be to perform The computation of aircraft noise is a particularly a set of critical experiments with carefully measured difficult task because of large disparities between the flow quantities to form the basis for comparisons relevant scales. and between unsteady LES with its huge computing separation control has stimulated the recent requirements and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier development of innovative synthetic jet actuators that Stokes (RANS) computations.74. One Chen et aI. Considerable additional work needs to be done to Schemes for modeling the noise sources through integrate any of these approaches with modern the development of synthetic are turbulence modeling. currently under development as well as approaches for The long-term future of turbulence and transition coupling hybrid RANS-LES computations with modeling will require a combination of hard work to acoustic propagation schemesw. They all involve simulation of single. In addition. flow vectoring. This work is actually being amounts of energy relative to localized hydrodynamic performed as part of the NASA Langley Research fluctuations and the acoustic waves are very sensitive to Center Workshop on CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets numerical errors. A performed. The method is based on Lighthill's 18 . Carpenter in regions where the unsteady flow structures cannot be et al review a variety of approaches to the problem. even in cases in which the more NASA Langley. or a small number of these performing an unsteady LES-like simulation in regions devices. involved in its generation. How to do this well improve current approaches dispersed with occasional for general flow conditions still requires significant new ideas to force the turbulence and transition research.79 and otherss0. extending from several hundred Hz to NASA Langley Research Center in March 2004. After recognizing that LES will Boundary conditions not solve all our turbulence issues.ffi. Rubinstein and resolving all the frequencies important for noise Choudhari'l applied stochastic versions of transition certification with 6-7 points per wavelength over a models to this problem.s Simply propagating the acoustics is a these difficulties stem from a lack of knowledge of the significant job. which is being developed at turbulence simulations.

The approach. probabilistic realistic aerodynamic problems has been difficult. The method has the potential for being particularly effective in the presence of a 19 . and area seeks to reduce the cost of design via a rigorous guide us in ways to reduce the uncertainties. can significantly reduce the number of high- a single approach helped drive the details of that design fidelity model evaluations. computing derivatives is now a output value. The conditions to be evaluated are more equal footing. One of the difficulties occasionally but systematically corrected with high- with any revolutionary change is that the early versions fidelity information.^^ We anticipate that such methods will such calculations affordable. It is hoped that this work performance penalty. The first area seeks to One tool that might be used involves probabilistic reduce the cost of computing functions and derivatives problem solving. they functions) are included as part of the input. including prediction of aerodynamic parameters just from the applications to turbulent flows. A new research program at NASA Langley analyses. While some promising (usually in the form of probability distribution optimization approaches do not rely on derivatives. first order of the new idea rarely perform as well as the best Approximation/Model Management Optimization designs of the prior approach. we dual algorithm guarantees asymptotic convergence rates currently have a great deal of uncertainty in the equivalent to that of the primal system. One of the difficulties with using including: how well have the model equations been state-of-the-art optimization methods has been the high solved. but another problem. Probabilistic Methods With such methods in place. new configuration ideas Traditional analysis employs deterministic can be compared with their older counterparts on a methods. Years of experience with (AMMO). a number of important technical issues still obtained. The second with different types of aerodynamic problems. how well do the model equations describe the computational cost of repeated function and derivative relevant physics. preselected and used as inputs. while retaining convergence towards a local optimum. uncertainties in the context of design. revolutionary configurations. Although some new to high-fidelity optima. Rather than slowly evolving to represents an initial step in a general ‘design for noise’ the optimal choice of details for any new configuration. The recent trend of using adjoint methods for inroads.Acoustic Analogy and uses a Navier Stokes FUNS approach will not have the benefit of those years of CFD simulation with temperature-corrected two. optimization methods have the potential for greatly Alrrorithmic develouments accelerating the move towards those best design details. experience. especially into the design of structural computing sensitivity derivatives is aimed at making component^. based on years of experience with similar designs. For instance. where the strong single additional linear problem and a subsequent nonlinearity in the system has the potential for making matrix-vector multiplication dimensioned by the the computed outputs very sensitive to the inputs. will ultimately allow for rigorous risk-based design. and how well are the input parameters evaluation via high-fidelity analyses and sensitivity known. Thus. a set of model equations Beyond the fact that the work requires CFD are solved. and outputs corresponding to the inputs are experts. The extent to which the outputs characterize stand in the way of the widespread use of design physical reality depends on a number of factors. For the price of solving a start to appear in aerodynamics. In probabilistic methods. clue us as to how those uncertainties vary constrained design can also be realized. One optimization strategy ODtimization methods developed by Alexandrov and Lewis% at the NASA How to tweak a design to achieve a desired result Langley Research Center relies on transferring the is going to be critical to taking full advantage of computational load onto low-fidelity models. use of variable-fidelity models with a single optimization process. By simultaneously application of different computer codes. for aerodynamic design problems of probability distribution function that characterizes the even medium size. improved optimization strategies. This difficulty is being addressed from two Research Center is being developed to explore these directions: design oriented model development and issues in more depth. design sensitivities can be incorporation of such methods into aerodynamic design computed for a single output or constraint function. et aiw shows that an exact we employ to make the predictions. methods can also be used to assess the very tools that Recent work by Nielsen.% Future solving adjoint systems for several output functions. The number of design variables. The output severely limit the dimensionality of the optimization is not a single value for any quantity. the solution of the adjoint system for In the realm of aerodynamics. capability. appropriate use of optimization methods equation k-e turbulence closure and anisotropic can narrow and perhaps eliminate that initial Reynolds stress modeling. optimization methods. Probabilistic problem solving is making necessity. Unfortunately. a developments may help us account for those predictive significant savings in the context of multiobjective and uncertainties.

Practical efficiency through the solution of both the primary flow equations of the method is problem-dependent. although they did reduce optimal design.hierarchy of models of increased fidelity. These demonstrations of the approach indicate that not only feature-based grid refinements did not necessarily can lower resolution simulations be used to accelerate improve the accuracy of the quantity of interest convergence of a higher resolution simulation to an (typically. and not the details involved in ensuring accuracy of the and algebraic error (finite residual remaining after each output. Targeting the remaining Automatic error control error focuses the adaptive procedure on the nonlinear As discussed previously. The wide variability Parkw is currently extending these methods to was documented in the first AIAA Drag Prediction 3D flows with direct CAD coupling to adaptation and Workshop96. such has demonstrated ten-fold reductions in grid as those for turbulence. we need to pay more attention to the development 20 . but must be methodologies. Current target local equation or discretization errors. Both must be reliably predicted and becomes the input to another computer routine. or different remains to be done. or adjoint equations. easily remedied in three-dimensional computations. is the fact that the error remaining in the simulation at different solvers exhibit different results if termination was always within a user-specified approximation fidelity is insufficient. but the promising and the dual. Different formulations (Finite-Element / simultaneously. Automatically producing an output to a specific High-order temporal schemes offer potential increases tolerance is crucial to multidisciplinary design in efficiency over presently used methods. as well as to time-dependent flows Finite-Difference / Finite-Volume). This ability would allow designers error consists of truncation error (discrete to concentrate more on the outcome of a calculation. Poor spatial resolution can change not only quantitative results. and automatic specification of design variable for the primal and dual problems) is extremely effective bounds. in directing grid resolution to directly impact the solution quantity of interest. balanced to optimize the efficiency of a given scheme. results to date suggest that the approach merits further Venditti and Darmofalg7have demonstrated 2D investigation. AMMO might take adjoint error correction methods to compute output advantage of various levels of turbulence modeling or it functions for high Reynolds number turbulent flow on might be useful in combination with models for local complex. dynamics. Temporal specified tolerance. The Automatic error control would provide the capability to perceptual bias towards ignoring temporal accuracy specify the desired error tolerance of an output variable needs to change as the community begins to tackle and have the code vary internally to achieve the more complicated unsteady flow problems. criterion. approximation of a continuous temporal derivative). This is especially important in cases where each timestep in the nonlinear system of algebraic output is not scrutinized by a human. adaptive of interpolation error estimates and equation residuals gridding. More recent work has linked accelerate convergence to an optimal design for an local equation error to global solution quantities inherently viscous flow problem. Schemes for automatic error control in temporal where resources are often pushed to their limits. but instead equations). Other remaining error in the output function after application difficulties in using formal optimization methods of the error correction step is also used as an adaptation include appropriate optimization problem formulation. Inadequate grid tolerance. but the Euler equations can be used to the number of grid points. particularly important implication of this methodology However. and boundary requirements for solutions with equivalent errors. lift and/or drag). The adjoint adaptation criteria (a combination robust mesh movement for viscous grids. Errors associated with inadequate spatial Robust algebraic solvers are necessary to realize the resolution have long plagued computational fluid benefits of high-order methods. but also the qualitative features of Understanding results the flow. significant solution errors in the flow field to improve the error corrected variability exists between different aerodynamic solvers functional. An added benefit to this approach approximation order can yield vastly different answers is that the adjoint solution is also available for design if the grid resolution is inadequate. carefully tuned to utilize different solver technologies. Early attempts to enable automatic grid As we become more proficient at generating adaptation focused on increasing grid resolution in gigabytes. chemistry. independent of the physical models used. multi element geometries. A conditions. This issue is not optimization. An estimate of the applications of active-flow control devices. The use of various physical models. integrations are available. contributes heavily to these differences. run on the same nominal problem. Extension of this work to cases in which resolution in space or time is the primary source of this multiple quantities must be accurately computed variance. For instance. and eventually terabytes of computational regions of rapid geometry or flow-solution change to data. but not widely usede3.

Using full flow-field computational computational fluid dynamics methods for various (or extensive experimental) data to isolate and model systems (for example. such immersive Shock et allo5In particular. The introduction of underused visual cues LGA and LBE methods may play a more significant such as texture may eventually provide improved role in future computational aerodynamics and insight into these fields. although preliminary studies in this environments may be more successful. three. and the ability to development of fast algorithms for steady state control the details of the visualization is not yet calculations. like lift In recent years. high-tech sort of the methods to low-speed flows. Algorithms generally useful t o the research community. Although in response to head movements of the observer. understand what flow features should be isolated and Although the promising potential of the LGA how those flow features might interact with each other. a researcher would like specific needs of computational aerodynamics. If these issues can be resolved. To date.102. we that preserve conservation laws and necessary need a sustained effort to develop postprocessing tools symmetries such that the emerging behavior of these that can help us optimize the use of the computed data. might be straightforward. Although computer programs that learn from the consequences of their past actions have been popular in games (most notably chess) and robotics. however. see references 101. The Feature-recognition software will probably be great promise of LBE methods follows from their indispensable in efforts to understand flow phenomena. the interpolations still need to be studied in depth. Cave Automatic Virtual restricted to structured Cartesian grids of squarekubic Environmentsw (CAVE). interpolations can be applied to develop developed for analyzing transitional and turbulent flows stretched grids in these methods. intrinsic parallelism due to nearest neighbor data Not only do we need research in generic feature communications of the convection process and a purely recognition to continue. in which images are projected cells. or at least reach direction have been done. Currently the accuracies of the LGA glamorous needs.103). methods using the lattice-gas or drag. not easily unresolved issue for these methods involves the accessible to individual researchers. Therefore. require individuals to work at the edges of traditional disciplines and will benefit from nontraditional Solvers that learn collaborations of researchers. calculations. visualizing and automata (LGA) and the lattice Boltzmann equation conceptualizing even a moderately extensive set of field (LBE) have become an alternative to conventional data is nontrivial. a outstanding visualization problems for researchers in systematic method to develop high-order LBE schemes fluid mechanics involves more fundamental and less is highly desirable. Even in nominally steady flows. of more sophisticated systems to analyze and visualize Non-traditional solver techniaues the data. the case of direct numerical simulation) turbulent flows. in conjunction with the is to construct simple models based on kinetic theory development of more capable numerical techniques. but also we need to better local calculation of the collision process. models obeys the desired macroscopic equations. At present. the time-dependent. A third issue important for more researchers. dimensional nature of turbulent flows makes most any these methods have not been developed to address the visualization difficult. Although extracting a single number. the effects of the (for example. A second environment is expensive to produce. to visualize. (See to immerse him/herself in the flowfield and analyze it Lockard et aiio4and a more recent opposing view by from all points of view. Voice activation of image control aerodynamic calculations is related to turbulence might facilitate the interaction of the researcher with the modeling. Developing these tools will acoustics. these methods are usually analysis is in its infancy. see Banks and Kelly'00). and LBE methods are essentially first order in time and three-dimensional tensor fields are notoriously difficult second order in space. The important features of the flow can challenge the sanity fundamental philosophy of the LGA and LBE methods of any investigator. Such developments may lead to important useful to high-Reynolds-number aerodynamic insights in the future. with multi-grid type of solution techniques are yet to be Projections of holographic images in small workstation fully developed. at least if we wish to visualization described above tends to capture attention take advantage of the efficiencies associated with at shows and exhibits. so the calculation becomes impractically large on multiple walls of a room and the images vary in where boundary layers need to be resolved. However. LGA and LBE methods are sufficiently intuitive for such visualizations to become essentially explicit time marching schemes. Ideally. and LBE methods as viable CFD tools has been Visualization has traditionally dominated our demonstrated in a number of cases of laminar and (in analysis tools. one of the more difficult having a small number of velocities. Another issue is the current limitation of Although the flashy. learning behavior in aerodynamics programs seems to be limited 21 . without which these methods would not be dataset. Finally. have been principle.

Humans are apparently trainable. Background information in the paper strategies for dealing with such a problem. Some Codes that include adaptive behavior and sort of evaluation of the performance would also need hopefully learn from past experiences have potential for to be included. The intelligent program would platforms are a route to reaching our goals. Therefore one of the first disciplines. Integrating codes in ways that programs that can modify themselves. the procedure itself. etc. Later. The ability to accomplish conceptual design studies rapidly. with a known level of Wrapup confidence and tailored fidelity was considered to be a Advanced computer tools will have an important priority. or at least be can lead to improved designs will be a challenging task smart enough to offer to modify themselves or their in and of itself. Revolutionary new something like the above procedure. the calculation. However. the current generation of aircraft will have they can learn to recognize CFL instabilities and follow difficulty meeting these goals. and the accelerating progress in instability appears. problems in other fields. the program should Examples are provided that show that revisiting probably request permission to perform the required previous innovative vehicle concepts and incorporating sequence of steps. perhaps running on advanced hardware previously run cases. is to re. we consider two cases below. reducing the iteration time step (and computer processing speed and its impact on thereby lower the CFL number). returning to the trends of increased restrictions on noise and emissions original time step. At first. knowledge base. turbulence model information. then be able to make recommendations as to what turbulence model or what grid resolution should be Concludinpr Remarks used to efficiently compute the new case. It will require nurturing specific crosscutting role to play in the development of revolutionary new technologies including computational methods and aerodynamic vehicles.the learning does not change the program itself interaction with other codes designed for solving and let it benefit from its past experiences. Developing radically new concepts the user as to what it is doing. Just as the new vehicles will multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization. stopping sometime before the aviation’s future. and then continuing computational predictions and artificial intelligence. Extensive sets of will require improvements in our conceptual design carefully reviewed learned procedures might even find capability and an expansion of our fundamental a lucrative market for themselves. are realized. the need for integration the potential for dramatically improving the quality and will continue to drive the need for better modeling of quantity of computations that are performed. It highlights work that was done in the grows too large. A smart wrapper vehicles will be required to meet the NASA goals for around the solver code might observe its user perform reduced emissions and noise. evaluation being done by the computer itself. computational methods for a variety of cases the learning is restricted to a single run or set of fields will need to be built in ways that allow more runs . and if the in the most optimistic circumstances. the program might just alert capability can help. to adaptive gridding and design optimization. accurate results in the shortest time possible. but this We want to ensure that past paradigms do not may be possible in the future. steady Reynolds-averaged The paper discusses the current perception that Navier Stokes calculations sometimes experience aeronautics and aerodynamics in particular. A strong require integrating a variety of disciplines to maximize 22 . As a second example. These new vehicles will this procedure several times and then be able to perform require us to change our paradigm in vehicle design. hopefully bypassing the transient. describes the environmental factors that will affect perform the calculation. as both user and program new technologies to remove prior barriers and add new become more confident. Smart similarities between the new flow case and one or more algorithms. We need to concentrate on code would have access to the database and an approaches that achieve our desired outcomes and not intelligent program would be capable of determining necessarily those that seek to maximize output. this is the result of a development of a NASA Blueprint for Aeronautics that transient that would correct itself through further describes a revolution in aeronautics. As food flow physics and improved algorithms for getting for thought. In these the benefit. and efforts at iterations if the calculation could just be kept stable NASA Langley to develop roadmaps for various through the transient. and The future is not easy to predict. The information might include grid speeds required. Future cases run with the bind our future directions. Oftentimes. Right now it is hard to imagine this greatly facilitating our ability to design novel aircraft. Novel In the first case a database is populated with algorithms for solving systems on reconfigurable information associated with information associated with hardware platforms may be required to achieve the previous runs. is a mature exponential instabilities when the local CFL number technology. input in view of apparent code or user difficulties have Among other things. resolutions.

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