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UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (CoET)


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT 1
PT1 2017

TITLE: SERVICE LINE INSTALLATION TO CONSUMERS


INSTITUTION: TANZANIA ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANY LIMITED (TANESCO)
STUDENT: NKANDA DAUDI M
REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2016-04-01716
STAFF SUPERVISOR: Eng. ATHUMANI SALIMU
TRAINING OFFICER: Eng. BARIKI RINGO

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Acknowledgement

I express my sincere appreciation to Mr. Joel Kuandika for his assistance during the
application phase for the Practical Training.

I would like also to thank Eng. Bariki Ringo (district engineer) for the full guidance
during the 8 weeks of practical training and access to first hand resources which helped
achieve greater insights towards electrical engineering.

I recognize also the contributions by other staff members and site supervisors
Mr.Malima, Mr.Rajabu including all site workers and fellow students for the proper
cooperation during site operations

I also thank Eng. Athumani Salim (staff supervisor) for the proper guidance and advice
on the best way to prepare my report.

Special thanks also for my parents who covered all the expenses for the entire Practical
Training period

Lastly but the most important I thank the almighty God for providing the strength,
courage and health to endure the entire Practical Trainings.

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ABSTRACT

Generally, this report is designed to explain and describe the technical details for a
successful service line installation. It covers from the standard methods of work to the
standard tools, components and equipment to be used for safe installation, and as such the
information provided in this report qualifies to guide an electrical technician in the
process.

The report has been divided in 2 parts; Part 1provides all the details about TANESCO
KIMARA branch where the practical training was conducted. It includes from the
organization structure, locations and policies.

Part 2 which is of main interest, attempts by first briefly introducing the procedures for
clients to apply for a service line. It then goes on to show the main preferred service
installation practice and focuses the rest of the discussion to that case study.

Following along from there, the report provides all the standard methods of work, safety
features and required components as per TANESCO standards. The report then
introduces alternative methods and then provides references and advice on which method
to use depending on the situation.

Finally the report is attached with weekly reports which give brief description of the work
performed as per day during entire period of practical training.

I kindly invite those technicians seeking a quick guide to the service installation process
and any aspiring reader as the report contains all the basic insights to the procedures.

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Table of Contents
PART 1: THE COMPANY ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.0: TANESCO ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1: TANESCO ORGANIZATION CHART ...................................................................................................... 2
1.2: SAFETY REGULATIONS AND GENERAL WELFARE ............................................................................... 3
1.2.0: General Safety Regulations ......................................................................................................... 3
1.2.1: Safety Habits ............................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.3: General Welfare .......................................................................................................................... 4
1.4: JOB DESCRIPTION FOR SKILL WORKER AND FOREMEN ..................................................................... 5
1.5: TANESCO RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING POLICY .............................................................................. 6
1.5.1: Recruitment Policy ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.5.2: Training Policy ............................................................................................................................. 6
1.6: COMMENTS ON THE SAFETY PRACTISE DURING PRACTICAL TRAINING ........................................... 7
PART 2: THE PROCESS ................................................................................................................................... 8
2.0: SERVICE LINE INSTALLATION TO CONSUMERS .................................................................................. 8
2.0.1: Pre-processes towards service line installation .......................................................................... 8
2.0.2 General introduction to service line installation ......................................................................... 9
2.1: PARTS OF A SERVICE LINE ................................................................................................................ 10
2.2: Basic Guidelines About Service Aerial.............................................................................................. 10
2.2.1: Position of LV Mains Pole.......................................................................................................... 10
2.2.2: Aerial Lengths............................................................................................................................ 10
2.2.3: Aerial Clearances....................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.4: Aerial Tension ........................................................................................................................... 12
2.2.5: Aerial Attachments ................................................................................................................... 13
2.2.6: Mains Pole................................................................................................................................. 15
2.3: SERVICE CONDUCTORS OVER ROADS ............................................................................................. 16
2.3.1: Road Crossing ........................................................................................................................... 16
2.3.2: Service Make-Off....................................................................................................................... 17
2.4: SERVICE CABLE INSTALLATION......................................................................................................... 18
2.4.1: Clipping Cables .......................................................................................................................... 18
2.4.2: Connectors ................................................................................................................................ 19
2.4.3: Meter Position & Installation .................................................................................................... 19

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2.5: SERVICE CONDUCTORS AND CABLES ............................................................................................... 19
2.6: TECHNICAL FAULTS ASSOCIATED WITH SERVICE INSTALLATION.................................................... 20
2.7: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OVER-HEAD SERVICE............................................................................ 21
2.7.1: Underground Service ............................................................................................................... 21
2.7.2: Comparison between Overhead and Underground Services ................................................... 23
2.8: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................... 24
WEEKLY REPORTS........................................................................................................................................ 25

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PART 1: THE COMPANY

1.0: TANESCO:

TANESCO is government owned company responsible with the task of generation,


transmission and distribution of electricity in Tanzania

 That includes selling electricity to Tanzania mainland and bulk power to Zanzibar
electricity corporation (ZECO) which in turn sells electricity to the public in Unguja
and Pemba.
 The company commenced operation under the government between 1965 and
1975. To date the company has developed a lot with a large number of customers
and assets,

The company has 1 or more branches and offices atleast in every region of Tanzania, the
headquarters being at Ubungo, Dar-es-salaam.

I attended my practical training at its Kimara branch, Dar- es salaam. The directions to
this branch from Mbezi Mwisho bus stop are as seen in the map1. (Figure 1.0)

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Figure 1.0
As of October 2017

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1.1: TANESCO ORGANIZATION CHART
REGIONAL MANAGER

PRINCIPAL ENGINEER

CUSTOMER REVENUE TRANSMISSION MAINS ENGINEER PLANNING


SERVICE PROTECTION ENGINEER ENGINEER
ENGINEER ENGINEER

INSTALLATION MAINS MAINS MAINS MAINS


INSPECTOR SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR
EMERGENCY SERVICE LINE CONTRUCTION MAINTANANCE

MAINS FOREMAN MAINS FOREMAN MAINS FOREMAN MAIN FOREMAN SURVEYERS


EMERGENCY SERVICE LINE CONTRUCTION MAINTANANCE

TECHNICIANS

CRAFTSMEN

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1.2: SAFETY REGULATIONS AND GENERAL WELFARE

1.2.0: General Safety Regulations


All employees who work on overhead lines must carry out their duties in accordance
with Tanesco Safety Rules (Electrical). These Rules are issued, so that staff can work in
safety under their guidance. The general instructions in the following section will help
staff to meet these safety requirements.

 Keep the workplace tidy

 Keep tools in good condition and properly stored

 Use the right tool and equipment for every job

 Only use approved work methods

 Do not work on an existing line unless you see a portable earth on ¡t

 Hold a job discussion to highlight the hazards of the job and the proposed
work methods, before starting each job

 Assign jobs on the basis of capacity and experience

1.2.1: Safety Habits


However, safety is not just obeying a set of rules as you meet each situation. Very few
people can concentrate completely for more than a short period. For this reason, the
only way to ensure safe working practices is to do things in the correct way so often that
it becomes a habit2.

Examples of these are;

 Correct way of lifting things


 Correct use of ladders
 Correct use of earthing equipment
 Use of safety bolts

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This is the key to safety and this is where the importance of the foreman counts, in the
men under him into good habits by practicing them all the time.

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To follow the correct way of doing things requires a lot of study and experience. It is the
duty of each man to educate himself in these matters. Over the years these correct
work methods have been refined, so that they have a high safety record3.

1.2.3: General Welfare


 Medical treatment:

Medical treatment of an employee and his family is solely his responsibility. However if
the employee is forced to undertake a medical treatment which costs a large amount of
money, the company advances the employee and pay the required sum directly to the
hospital.

 Sickness leave:

The approved absence of an employee from duty on account of illness other than
Excuse Duty(ED) is regarded as sickness leave and must be supported by a medical
professional’s note. Absence with no approval entails liability to other disciplinary
actions.

 Convalescent leave:

No employee will be granted overseas sick or convalescent leave at expenses of the


company but subjected to the recommendation of medical authorities.

 Loans and allowance awards:

The company is providing loans to employees depending on their needs i.e. house
repairs, education, and motor vehicle loans. Also some allowance is provided i.e.
mileage, teaching allowance and payment for overtime. There’s also a system of
rewarding workers such as best worker’s award, innovation awards and long service
awards.

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These are taught in the Training centers and should be adopted as standard.

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1.4: JOB DESCRIPTION FOR SKILL WORKER AND FOREMEN:
1. ENGINEERS

Duties assigned
 Engineers are head of all technical departments and professionally guide
departments to recognize problems in the particular field.
 Providing update information for new technology.
 Designing and planning of the projects.
 Providing update information for new technology.

2. SUPERVISORS

Duties assigned
 Set performance standards for tasks, jobs and roles of their department
 Completing quality and safety inspections.
 Monitor progress, oversee delivery of materials and carry out safety checks and
sort out any problems which could hold up work as they arise.

3. FOREMEN

Duties assigned
 Organizing construction works at site
 Coordinates the work of a crew of technicians and all below him.
 Ensure that the workers under them do their job skillfully and efficiently
 Ensure assigned work progresses on schedule.

4. TECHNICIANS

Duties assigned
 To perform daily activities in connection with designing, planning, projects
 To perform detailed programming of all breakdowns, maintenance and carrying
out special skill jobs.
 To perform specified routine tasks under the supervision of the senior staffs.
 To ensure proper organization control and maintaining discipline in the site.

5. LINES MEN (CRAFTSMEN)

Duties assigned
 Skilled persons who form working groups that carry out technical activities.

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1.5: TANESCO RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING POLICY

1.5.1: Recruitment Policy

 As of 2017, whenever a vacant seat arises, the responsible authority has to


appoint a temporary qualified staff as the office waits for a new recruit.
 Applications to a vacant seat shall be invited through advertisement on media.
 The selected ones have to pass through few month of training just to be familiar
with the task that he/she will be required to perform.
 Depending on the vacancy, there is a minimum education qualification
requirement.
 For high vacancies such as engineer position, candidate must be registered as
Professional Engineer by Engineers Registration Board (ERB) of Tanzania and
must possess engineering practicing license) of Tanzania and must possess
engineering practicing license.
 Computer literacy4 is highly recommended for office positions
 Experience in relevant field is also encouraged

1.5.2: Training Policy

Training policy basically applies to 2 groups, as follows;

- Newly recruited employees


- Senior employees

 The main target of training is to keep the workers up to date with new technology
and skills required to work with. These are done through ;

i. Several seminars that are held by the company to its member.


ii. Cooperation with Non-Governmental Organization
iii. Internship training for graduates
iv. The company may sponsor its staff for advanced studies abroad

 These training increases exposures and competence of the workers hence add
advantage to the working skills and consequently increases production of services
from the company.

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Especially fluency in AUTOCAD for engineers

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1.6: COMMENTS ON THE SAFETY PRACTISE DURING PRACTICAL TRAINING
I observed that the organization has done the following to ensure the safety of its
workers.

 Provision of uniforms and protective clothing which is done every year and
are required to be worn all the time when at work and should be kept clean.

 Safety boots were one pair is provided each year.

 Kaunda suits, skirts and blouses, overalls, coats and boots are provided in the
technician section

 Protective gears such as gloves and helmets are also provided to prevent
accidents during work.

 Safety symbols are placed on working places so as to remind the workers to


maintaining safety.

 Disciplinary action would be taken to any employee violating Safety and


Health regulations/rules and procedures in accordance with the Company's
disciplinary procedures such as termination, demotion, reprimand and fine.

Generally the safety gear and equipment provided by the company are sufficient to
provide the protection to the workers. The problem is that sometimes it takes a very
long time for the company to issue new gears, this causes the workers to work with
minimum safety due to use of old gears.

Also some workers are still ignoring the use of safety regulations due to lack of enough
knowledge and since there is no intensive supervision, this increases the risks to the
workers.

I recommend that the company’s management teams to supply more regularly to site
workers and provide education about safety to expose risks of electricity accidents so
that workers are pressured to work safely5.

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Also there should be day to day inspection before the workers go to the work sites; this
will ensure that all workers are properly geared for their own safety.

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PART 2: THE PROCESS
2.0: SERVICE LINE INSTALLATION TO CONSUMERS

2.0.1: Pre-processes towards service line installation

In Tanzania only TANESCO is in charge of all service installations. The following are the
stages to be expected by clients for a successful service line installation.

 Assuming wiring has already been done, the client is supposed to go to the
nearby TANESCO offices.

 Here he or she will request for a free application form and submit wiring
diagrams prepared by his/her contractor

 Upon submission of the application form, the office will allocate him/her a date
so that a surveyor will check the client’s premises and draft a list of the necessary
materials to complete the installation

 The surveyor will also issue a bill 6 to client to be paid depending on the survey
results

 Upon payment, the client should expect that within 30 days of office days,
TANESCO will have installed the electrical service to the premises.

This report however, is not going to discuss in detail about the above pre-processes and
procedures rather it will focus on the technical part of the installations i.e. it is going to
describe how the core process itself is carried out.

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Cost will vary from client to client depending on all materials required.

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2.0.2 General introduction to service line installation

Service drop is an overhead electrical line running from a utility pole, to a customer's
building or other premises. It is the point where electric utilities provide power to their
customers.
-Service line installation is reasonably the final task in the chain of supply from the
generating station to the consumer. This supply link carries a voltage7 which may be
dangerous and hazardous to customer, it’s essential therefore service lines be
constructed to recognized standards.
There are 2 types of service line installations, namely:
i. Overhead Service
ii. Underground Service
In Tanzania and during practical training sessions mainly Overhead service lines were
installed so this report is going to discuss mainly about Overhead service

Figure 2.1
Figure 1
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For Tanzania this is typically 240 Vrms

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2.1: PARTS OF A SERVICE LINE
There are major 2 parts (Figure 2.1) of a service line namely;
i. Aerial
The Overhead portion from mains pole to building
ii. Lead-in cable
The cable from the overhead conductor to the energy meter

2.2: Basic Guidelines About Service Aerial

2.2.1: Position of LV Mains Pole


Some consideration should be given to future service lines, when deciding on the
location of Mains poles. The service line should not be installed so that a failure of the
mains pole stay would transfer line tension to the aerials.

2.2.2: Aerial Lengths


The aerial span from mains pole to premises should be kept as short as possible.
The limits are as follows:
. Standard Span……………………….. 25 metres
. Maximum Span ………………………30 metres
. Max Span with Service Pole ……40 metres
If the span between pole and premises exceeds 40 metres8, then the LV mains should be
extended to allow a standard service span.

Figure 2.2
Figure 2

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It is compulsory not to exceed 40m

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2.2.3: Aerial Clearances
Clearances shall be maintained under all varying conditions of wind, temperature.
Allowance should be made for change in conductor sag due to varying weather (Figure2.2).
 VERTICAL CLEARANCES (figure 2.3)

Figure 2.3
Figure 3

Notes
1. Over spaces and ways subject to pedestrians or restricted vehicular traffic not 12 ft.
exceeding 8 ft. in height (see Exception1 below)
2. Residential Driveway (see Exception2 below) 16 ft.
3. Alleys, commercial and apartment driveways, parking lots, and other areas 16 ft.
subject to truck traffic
4. Streets, highways, county, or other public roads. 22 ft.
5. Roof not readily accessible by means of a permanent ladder, doorway, ramp, 3.5 ft.
or stairway (service not attached to building, i.e. passing over).
6. Roof within 6 Ft. of mast where mast is within 4 ft. of nearest roof edge. 1.5 ft.
7. Over roof of building service is attached to and roof is not readily accessible. 3 ft.
Exception 1 Over spaces and ways for residential service drops subject to 10 ft.
pedestrians and restricted traffic not exceeding 8 ft. in height.
Exception 2 Over residential driveways only
• Service conductor 12 ft.
• Drip loops 10 ft.

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 Horizontal clearances (figure 2.4)
-Service drop conductors attached to a building shall not pass closer than 3 ft. from
windows, wall projections, fire escapes, balconies or similar locations.

Figure 2.4
Figure 4

2.2.4: Aerial Tension


-Aerials need only be tensioned sufficiently to give normal ground clearance. When this
has been achieved, a further increase in tension will increase the load on the aerial
attachments unnecessarily. Where clearance over any obstacle is critical, improvement
should be sought by increasing the aerial height at the building or at the pole, and not by
increasing the tension on the aerial.

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2.2.5: Aerial Attachments
Service brackets (or pipes) with D-irons are attached to the building to allow the aerials
to be terminated (Figure 2.5). The spacing between conductors is usually 150mm. Chafe
tape is not needed with PVC conductors. The aerials are attached to the mains pole by
shackle insulators9 bolted to the pole (Figure 2.6). The neutral conductor is always on the
bottom.

Figure 2.5
Figure 5

9
Refer to vast sources such as google for visual description of such components

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Figure 2.6
Figure 6

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2.2.6: Mains Pole
Where aerials are nearly perpendicular to the LV mains a pole will tend to lean into the
aerials. This situation will arise nearly always with newly built mains. It is remedied by
“blocking” the pole, before the aerials are tensioned.
.
The ground in excavated on the building side of the pole, so that a short length of stay
block or other piece of timber will fit alongside the pole. The flat side of block should
bear against the side of the trench, and the other side against the pole.

When blocking is finished; the pole should have a slight rake away from the building.
When the aerials are subsequently tensioned, the pole will be nearly vertical (Figure 2.7).
Where a LV Terminal pole is involved, it is usual to install terminal stay about 0.6 metres
off line, so that the pole will lean away from building. When the aerials are tensioned
later, the pole will come nearly vertical.

Figure 2.7
Figure 7

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2.3: SERVICE CONDUCTORS OVER ROADS
Special care is always required when running conductors over streets and roads, because
of possible injury to passengers nearby or to staff working on the service. Apart from the
problem of getting across a busy street with the service conductors, there is also the
possibility of the conductor falling to the grounds while terminating it at the premises or
at the pole. The following procedure is designed to avoid these problems.

2.3.1: Road Crossing

 The aerials are measured in the usual manner to give a metre length of surplus
conductor and the shackle insulators are made-off at the consumer’s end of the
service.

 All connections are completed at the consumer’s end and loops are formed on the
mains end of the aerials.

 The shackle insulators for the aerials are fixed on the existing mains pole and for
each aerial wire being erected, a sash line must be run over the newly-erected
shackle insulators on the existing network pole.

 Proceeding with extreme caution, the aerials should be brought across the road.
Whatever steps are necessary should be taken in order to stop traffic10.

 The ends of the sash lines should be knotted through the loops on the ends of the
aerials, and while the traffic is still stopped, the aerials should be pulled up by a
ground man at the pole position using the sash lines.

 During “pulling up” a linesman on the pole should guide the sash lines over the
shackles. It should be always remembered that the man pulling the sash lines must
wear a pair of insulated rubber gloves if the mains are live. The aerials must not be
so long that the loops will be within reach of the man on the ground.

 In cases where one or all of the shackle insulators lie further down the pole than
the lowest existing conductor special care is needed to ensure that the sash lines do
not fall off the insulators and onto the road below.

 When all the aerials have been pulled up the sash lines should be firmly held by
the man on the ground or tied to the pole. The traffic can now proceed cautiously
beneath the aerials.

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Inquire for police support if necessary

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2.3.2: Service Make-Off
Starting with the lowest one, each service conductor is made-off as follows:
 One end of a short nylon rope sling (2m) is fixed onto the pole and a suitable
come-along is attached to the other end. .
 When the conductor is adequately hand-tensioned the come-along is fitted and the
sash line is detached from the end of this aerial (Figure 2.8).
 With the conductor safely held by the come-along the conductor is made off on to
the shackle insulator.
 The other conductors are made off in a similar manner.

When all the service conductors have been made-off the service is connected to the mains
in the usual manner (starting with the neutral).

Figure 2.8
Figure 8
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2.4: SERVICE CABLE INSTALLATION
Supply is brought from the aerial termination to the meter-box by lead-in cables which
are reasonably flexible and well insulated. The cables are clipped to the wall or timber
facade11. The lead-in cable must be visible over its complete run from the aerial to the
meter-box.
2.4.1: Clipping Cables
A neat lead-in installation can be obtained by following recommended methods.

 Cable clips should be installed in straight lines either vertically or horizontally.


A sloping line may be followed when the run is parallel to the roof line.
 Use twine (or cord) as a guide when putting in clips. For single-phase lead-ins
these should be 250mm apart on horizontal runs, and 350mm apart on vertical
runs. 3-phase lead-ins may require closer clipping.
 Unwind sufficient cable from the coil, for the lead-in length, so that it will lie flat
without bends or kinks (Figure 2.9).
 A drip loop should be formed in the lead-in run where it enters the meter-box. This
is achieved by running the lead-in cable to a point below the meter-box and then
reversing the cable to enter the box in an upward direction.
 Service cable should not be bent through a smaller diameter than 100mm to avoid
damage to the cable.

Figure 2.9
Figure 9

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so that the cable run is neat and unobtrusive

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Depending on the type of cable clip, they may be fixed to the wall by using:
 Plastic plugs and screws or Steel nails, or
 Plastic plugs and galvanized Nails
There are two types of plastic plug, one for screws other for nails12.
2.4.2: Connectors
All aerial to mains connections, are made with aluminum compression tap connectors
while aerials to lead-in connections, are made with bimetal compression connectors.
The lead-in cables are run so that;
 The bimetal connector is horizontal
 2 layers of moisture exclusion tape are fitted to the bimetal connector
 The tape extends from the PVC covering of the aerial to the PVC of the lead-in
cable13.
2.4.3: Meter Position & Installation
A meter box is normally fitted on a street side outside wall, near the aerial attachment
bracket. The lead-in cable must be visible on its entire length from the serial bracket to
the meter-box
If it is essential that the meter should be erected inside the building, the lead-in cable is
installed in a properly fitting steel conduit pipe for its length inside the building . The drip
loop should be formed just before the cable enters the pipe. The service cutout is installed
before the meter.
If aluminium cables are connected into the meter or cutout, protective grease must be
applied to the connections.
2.5: SERVICE CONDUCTORS AND CABLES
Normally, customers with loads of up to 10kW are supplied at single phase, while above
10kW a three phase service line is provided. The standard cable sizes are as follows:

Customer Load Aerial Lead-In

Up to 10kW single phase 2 x 25 sq.mm AAC14 PVC15 2 x 16 sq.mm Cu PVC/PVC

Over 10kW single phase 2 x 50 sq.mm AAC PVC 2 x 35 sq.mm Cu PVC/PVC

10kW to 30kW 3-phase 4 x 25 sq.mm AAC PVC 4 x 16 sq.mm Cu PVC/PVC

Over 30kW 3-phase 4 x 50 sq.mm AAC PVC 4 x 35 sq.mm Cu PVC/PVC

12
are not interchangeable
13
This will ensure that moisture will not enter the lead-in cable, and flow down to the meter terminals.
14
All Aluminum Conductor
15
Polyvinyl Chloride

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2.6: TECHNICAL FAULTS ASSOCIATED WITH SERVICE INSTALLATION

i. Voltage sag(dip)/ Undervoltage


-is a short duration reduction in RMS voltage

*dim and flickering lights, system shutdown are the common symptoms for voltage sag
Causes of voltage sag include;
 switching on loads with heavy startup currents
 Overloading of a particular phase
 Cable size
 Phase failure
 Rust and worn out cables
 Loose connections

-solution to voltage sag will depend upon the cause, however installing of a transformer
or power conditioners and stabilizers are common solutions

ii. Voltage swell/ Over voltage


- is the opposite of voltage sag. Voltage swell is a momentary increase in voltage

* happens when a heavy load turns off in a power system

 solution to voltage swell include using appropriate power conditioners and


stabilizers

iii. Domestic low voltage

-this is a persistent undervoltage occurring such that the service power line may even fail
to power a house.
It’s common problem in Tanzania.

Causes:
 When the transmission length increases then voltage drop also increases
 It might be also that the loads are more in between the substation and client’s
load point.

Solution:
 installing an intermediate substation (transformer) should generally solve the
problem
 phase balancing or phase addition may also solve the problem

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2.7: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OVER-HEAD SERVICE

 Sometimes, it may be necessary to run an underground service to a customer.


2.7.1: Underground Service

A PVC pipe with a minimum internal diameter of 50mm is run from the bottom of the
LV pole to the meter-box, and laid at a depth of 600mm. It is recommended that a yellow
marker tape, imprinted with a suitable warning about live cables should be laid
approximately 150mm under the ground surface. The tape (with the word Tanesco
stamped on it) will give warning that a cable is nearby, and also avoid the service pipe
being mistaken for a water pipe.

The service cable is pulled into the PVC pipe to the meter-box and then run up the pole to
the overhead mains or aerials. All cables running down the pole, are protected by
enclosing them in a PVC pipe from within 1 metre of the overhead conductors to the
bottom of the service trench. The pipes on the pole and in the trench must be separate to
ensure, that water does not get into the meter-box.

Figure 3.0
Figure 10

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For underground services cable sizes are as follows:

Customer Load Under-Ground Cable

Up to 10kW single phase I x 25/16 concentric AYCY16

10kW to 30kW 3-phase 3 x 25/16 concentric AYCY

Over 30kW Standard Under-Ground cable

Figure 3.1
Figure 11

16
Aluminium Conductor, TROPODUR Insulated, Metallic Screened and TROPODUR Outer Sheathed Heavy Duty
Cable

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2.7.2: Comparison between Overhead and Underground Services

Advantages of Underground method over Overhead method

 The lines are not exposed to extreme weather conditions such as storms as
opposed to overhead lines which suffer from wind, temperature variations

 Generally require less maintenance because there are no trees, brush, and other
vegetation to clear away.

 The power lines are free from traffic and associated accidents as opposed to
overhead lines which may be cut by unexpectedly taller vehicles

 Promises visually pleasant environment in cities where many power lines are
present as opposed to unpleasant overhead power lines in cities.

 Helps to cut down the cost for mains poles as the ground gives a better support for
the power lines.

 Reduces tensions on available mains’ poles as the cables need no support from the
poles

Disadvantages of Underground method over the Overhead method

 Requires much heavy initial installation cost; it requires digging of trenches and
compulsory expensive conduits as compared to cheaper overhead service

 Suffers from inevitable slower construction due to trenches involved as opposed to


the overhead method

 Difficult to spot damage and troubleshoot; because the power lines are buried
underground and hence takes longer to repair.

 More expensive to repair and upgrade. Once installed it becomes very hard to
modify the system because of the excavation involved hence the cost

 Underground method is limited by terrain of land , example it cannot be an option


in rocky areas, however overhead method is free from terrain limits

 Any voltage can safely be transmitted by overhead method , however there is a


limit to the amount of voltage to be carried by underground lines.

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2.8: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

SUMMARY:

This report presents about the common methods used by TANESCO for service line
installation to its clients and carefully discusses technical details of each method.

It presents all the basics about minimum safe distances and optimized procedures and
tools to simplify the activities while also prevent accidents. General guidelines and
regulations have been presented.

The methods used in analysis include first hand description from site technicians and
literature review. Direct interview methods were also used.

The report analysis exposes there is unnecessary expenditures and unnecessary time
delay TANESCO can cut down by adopting new modern ways for service line
installations. It also warns based on prediction trends how the system infrastructures
TANESCO keeps building will impact on the future cities’ environment.

The suggestions in this report are limited by the views of the site supervisor and have no
practical evidence yet to support them.

CONCLUSIONS:

Two methods have been presented suitable for service line installation i.e. overhead and
underground methods. The choice on which to adopt is controlled by nature of place,
weather, economy, social activities and desired appearances.

Overhead type is recommended in low-budget installations, areas without strong storms


or winds, moderate traffic and when structure appearance is not a concern. It has added
advantages of compatibility with any terrain, easier to upgrade, troubleshoot and quicker
in setting up and repairing.

Underground type on the other hand is suitable if cost is not a concern, place is not rocky,
areas with strong winds and storms, high traffic example cities and when pleasant
appearance is desired. It has added advantage of little maintenance costs and no
limitations due to weather.

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WEEKLY REPORTS

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