Fire management plan ODMP - Fire Danger Rating System | Fires | Savanna

Fire Danger Rating System for Controlled Burning & Fire Suppression In African Grassland & Savanna Ecosystems

Winston S. W. Trollope - EnviroNet Consultants, Nelspruit, 1200, South Africa Table 12. Fire Danger Rating System for controlled burning and fire suppression in African Grasslands and savannas. FIRE FIRE FIRE FDI CONTROLLED BURNING DANGER INTENSITY FIRE SUPPRESSION DANGER STAGES kJ/s/m Fires are not likely to start, or may spread very slowly, or may <500 Too cold, humid or wet for go out unaided. There is little flaming combustion & intensity BLUE 0-20 LOW controlled burning is low under all conditions. Control is readily achieved & (Flame lengths
0 – 1m)

limited or no mopping up is required. Suitable for controlled burning to: • Remove moribund and/or unpalatable grass material; • Construct burnt firebreaks. Suitable for controlled burning to: • Remove moribund and/or unpalatable grass material up to a maximum FDI of 55. Suitable for controlled burning to: • create and/or maintain an optimum balance between herbaceous and woody vegetation e.g. combat bush encroachment. Although controlled burning operations can be conducted without creating a fire hazard, care must be taken when burning on exposed, dry slopes. Keep a constant watch for unexpected changes in wind speed and direction. Light mopping up operations are required . Controlled burning not recommended above FDI = 55 for removing moribund grass. Mature fine fuels will burn readily; spread moderate in forests, fast in open areas. Fires burn on the surface with moderate flames. Control is not difficult but direct and indirect attack with fire truck and labour should be used. Light to moderate mopping-up operations necessary. Great care must be taken during controlled burning. Ignition occurs readily. Grass fires spread at + 7km/hour. Fires may be very intense with local crowning and short to medium range spotting. Control very difficult requiring indirect attack methods with major assistance necessary. Check for any sign of smoke anywhere. Any fire that occurs, should be attacked with maximum force and aircraft if possible. Mopping-up operations may require an extended effort. Rate of spread extremely high. Fires extremely intense plus extensive crowning, fire whorls and long range spotting. Dangerous heat effect on people within 10m of fire, remove all personnel from field. Control may not be possible by frontal attack during the day and fire fighters should limit their efforts to containing lateral spread until weather changes. Damage potential total and mopping up operations may be very extensive and difficult. Full ground and aerial assistance necessary throughout.

500-1000 GREEN 21-45 MODERATE
(Flame lengths 1 – 1,2m)

1001-2000 YELLOW 46-60 DANGEROUS
(Flame lengths 1,2 – 1,8m)



2000-3000 VERY DANGEROUS (Flame lengths
1,8 – 2,4m)



>3000 EXTREMELY Too dangerous and unsuitable DANGEROUS (Flame lengths for controlled burning.


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