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o

Kelvin C 101.320

353.3 80.16 101.320 0.000 1.000 1.000

358.2 85.06 116.900 46.000 0.780 0.900

363.2 90.06 135.500 54.000 0.581 0.776

368.2 95.06 155.700 63.300 0.411 0.632

373.2 100.06 179.200 74.300 0.258 0.456

378.2 105.06 204.200 86.000 0.130 0.261

383.8 110.66 240.000 101.320 0.000 0.000

120

X - Y diagram of Benzene and Toluene mixtures

115

110

Temperature (Kelvin)

105

100

Bubble point

Dew Point

95

90

85

80

0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000

Mole Fraction of Benzene

Page | 1

Question two

Y = αX/(αX+(1-X))

Y=X X Y* X Y*

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.10 0.10 0.22 0.10 0.28

0.20 0.20 0.38 0.20 0.47

0.30 0.30 0.52 0.30 0.60

0.40 0.40 0.63 0.40 0.70

0.50 0.50 0.71 0.50 0.78

0.60 0.60 0.79 0.60 0.84

0.70 0.70 0.85 0.70 0.89

0.80 0.80 0.91 0.80 0.93

0.90 0.90 0.96 0.90 0.97

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Answer to Question 3

Chart Title

1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000

Page | 2

Line I

0.75 1

The equation of the straight line is 𝑦 ∗ = − 0.25

𝑥 + 𝑥

0.25 𝐹

𝑜𝑟 𝑦 ∗ = − 3𝑥 + 2

The line I passes thru’ the intercepts (0,2), (0.5,0.5) and (2/3. 0) any two suffice to draw the straight line!

From the graph, the operating line I intercepts the equilibrium line at x = 0.45 and y*= 0.66. The bubble

point can be read from the appropriate graph below. TBI = 93.85 oC.

Line II

100% vapourization implies that V=F and L=0.0. The equation of line II is a horizontal line of gradient

zero which passes thru’ x = xF and y = xF or (0.5,0.5). This line intercepts the equilibrium distribution

curve at x = 0.293 and y* = 0.50. The bubble point temperature is 99 oC.

Question 4

7.00

X Y* Y*-X 1/(Y*-X)

6.00

1 1

5.00 0.655 0.81 0.155 6.45

0.51 0.698 0.188 5.32

1/(Y*-X)

3.00 0.312 0.492 0.18 5.56

0.284 0.459 0.175 5.71

2.00 0.157 0.279 0.122 8.20

0.097 0.184 0.087 11.49

1.00

0.039 0.078 0.039 25.64

0.00 0.012 0.025 0.013 76.92

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0

X- mol fraction of heptane in liquid phase

L1/L2 = 2.596073 2.556144 2.489296

Using the middle estimate, L1/L2 = 2.556 L2 = 100/2.556 = 39.12. Amount of distillate collected is

Page | 3

Question 5

Flash Evaporation

Equation of flash line

70 100

𝑦∗ = − 𝑥+ ∗ 0.60 𝑜𝑟 𝑦 ∗ = −2.3333𝑥 + 2

30 30

Intersection with the equilibrium line is at x = 0.493 and y* = 0.85

1.000

Distribution Curve for Acetone -Water mixtures

y- mole fraction of Acetone in Vapour

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600

Phase

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000

0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000

x- Mole Fraction of Acetone in Liquid Phase

Differential mode

Rayleigh Plot

0.010 0.253 0.243 4.115 scale on axes, and with X1=0.60, the value of X2 should be

0.020 0.425 0.405 2.469 found such that the number of boxes counted is 357. When

0.050 0.624 0.574 1.742 X2 = 0.50 the no of boxes=328.4 but when X2=0.49, no of

0.100 0.755 0.655 1.527 boxes = 357.

0.150 0.798 0.648 1.543 X2 = 0.49 L1*X1 = (L1-L2)*Yav + L2*X2

0.200 0.815 0.615 1.626

0.300 0.830 0.530 1.887 Yav = (100*0.60 – 70*0.49)/30 = 0.857

0.400 0.839 0.439 2.278 The composition of the distillate is only slightly purer than

0.500 0.849 0.349 2.865 the single stage flash! There is not a great deal of

0.600 0.859 0.259 3.861 difference. However one can collect fractions of distillate

0.700 0.874 0.174 5.747 of varying levels of purity when the differential methods is

employed.

Page | 4

5.000

4.000

3.000

1/(Y*-x)

2.000

1.000

0.000

0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800

x - Mole fraction of Acetone in Liquid Phase

Page | 5

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