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Question One

Temp Temp Benzene Toluene X-value Y- Value


o
Kelvin C 101.320
353.3 80.16 101.320 0.000 1.000 1.000
358.2 85.06 116.900 46.000 0.780 0.900
363.2 90.06 135.500 54.000 0.581 0.776
368.2 95.06 155.700 63.300 0.411 0.632
373.2 100.06 179.200 74.300 0.258 0.456
378.2 105.06 204.200 86.000 0.130 0.261
383.8 110.66 240.000 101.320 0.000 0.000

120
X - Y diagram of Benzene and Toluene mixtures
115

110
Temperature (Kelvin)

105

100
Bubble point
Dew Point
95

90

85

80
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000
Mole Fraction of Benzene

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Question two

Y = αX/(αX+(1-X))

alpha = 2.5 Relative volatility 3.5


Y=X X Y* X Y*
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.10 0.10 0.22 0.10 0.28
0.20 0.20 0.38 0.20 0.47
0.30 0.30 0.52 0.30 0.60
0.40 0.40 0.63 0.40 0.70
0.50 0.50 0.71 0.50 0.78
0.60 0.60 0.79 0.60 0.84
0.70 0.70 0.85 0.70 0.89
0.80 0.80 0.91 0.80 0.93
0.90 0.90 0.96 0.90 0.97
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Answer to Question 3

Chart Title
1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000

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Line I

Select as a basis F = 1.0 mole. F = V + L; V = 0.25 F  L = 0.75F.


0.75 1
The equation of the straight line is 𝑦 ∗ = − 0.25
𝑥 + 𝑥
0.25 𝐹
𝑜𝑟 𝑦 ∗ = − 3𝑥 + 2
The line I passes thru’ the intercepts (0,2), (0.5,0.5) and (2/3. 0) any two suffice to draw the straight line!
From the graph, the operating line I intercepts the equilibrium line at x = 0.45 and y*= 0.66. The bubble
point can be read from the appropriate graph below. TBI = 93.85 oC.

Line II

100% vapourization implies that V=F and L=0.0. The equation of line II is a horizontal line of gradient
zero which passes thru’ x = xF and y = xF or (0.5,0.5). This line intercepts the equilibrium distribution
curve at x = 0.293 and y* = 0.50. The bubble point temperature is 99 oC.

Question 4

7.00
X Y* Y*-X 1/(Y*-X)
6.00
1 1
5.00 0.655 0.81 0.155 6.45
0.51 0.698 0.188 5.32
1/(Y*-X)

4.00 0.487 0.674 0.187 5.35


3.00 0.312 0.492 0.18 5.56
0.284 0.459 0.175 5.71
2.00 0.157 0.279 0.122 8.20
0.097 0.184 0.087 11.49
1.00
0.039 0.078 0.039 25.64
0.00 0.012 0.025 0.013 76.92
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0
X- mol fraction of heptane in liquid phase

Estimates of the area

ln(L1/L2)= 0.954 0.9385 0.912


L1/L2 = 2.596073 2.556144 2.489296

Using the middle estimate, L1/L2 = 2.556  L2 = 100/2.556 = 39.12. Amount of distillate collected is

L1-L2 = 100 – 39.12 = 60.876. Let average composition of distillate be yav.

Yav x 60.876 + 39.12x0.33 = 100 x 0.50  Yav = 37.09/60.876 = 0.609

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Question 5

Flash Evaporation

F= 100 mol, Vapourization 30% therefore V = 0.30*100 = 30. L = F-V = 70 mol


Equation of flash line
70 100
𝑦∗ = − 𝑥+ ∗ 0.60 𝑜𝑟 𝑦 ∗ = −2.3333𝑥 + 2
30 30
Intersection with the equilibrium line is at x = 0.493 and y* = 0.85

1.000
Distribution Curve for Acetone -Water mixtures
y- mole fraction of Acetone in Vapour

0.900
0.800
0.700
0.600
Phase

0.500
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000
x- Mole Fraction of Acetone in Liquid Phase

Differential mode

Rayleigh Plot

X Y Y-X 1/(Y-X) L1 = 100.0, L2 = 70.0; ln(L1/L2) = 0.357. From the choice of


0.010 0.253 0.243 4.115 scale on axes, and with X1=0.60, the value of X2 should be
0.020 0.425 0.405 2.469 found such that the number of boxes counted is 357. When
0.050 0.624 0.574 1.742 X2 = 0.50 the no of boxes=328.4 but when X2=0.49, no of
0.100 0.755 0.655 1.527 boxes = 357.
0.150 0.798 0.648 1.543 X2 = 0.49 L1*X1 = (L1-L2)*Yav + L2*X2 
0.200 0.815 0.615 1.626
0.300 0.830 0.530 1.887 Yav = (100*0.60 – 70*0.49)/30 = 0.857
0.400 0.839 0.439 2.278 The composition of the distillate is only slightly purer than
0.500 0.849 0.349 2.865 the single stage flash! There is not a great deal of
0.600 0.859 0.259 3.861 difference. However one can collect fractions of distillate
0.700 0.874 0.174 5.747 of varying levels of purity when the differential methods is
employed.

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5.000

Rayleigh plot of Acetone-water mixtures


4.000

3.000
1/(Y*-x)

2.000

1.000

0.000
0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800
x - Mole fraction of Acetone in Liquid Phase

Ordinate I Ordinate II Ordinate III

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