Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie

Lubrication

Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering

Lubrication

Lubrication 1 www.uni-due.de/wt

Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1, 47057 Duisburg, Germany

Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering

Lubrication (History) The basic principles of lubrication have been investigated by Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), Arnold Sommerfeld (18681951) and Richard Stribeck (1861-1950)

Cambridge, UK Physicist
Lubrication 2 www.uni-due.de/wt

Cambridge, UK Physicist

Munich, Germany Dresden, Germany Physicist Mech. Engineer

Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1, 47057 Duisburg, Germany

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uni-due. Germany Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication (Stribeck curve) contact mechanics.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Contact Area of Solid Bodies Lubrication should avoid any solid contact between body and counterbody. physics. this requires a (non-solid) interfacial medium.g.uni-due.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. gas. which carries the load in all directions e.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. 47057 Duisburg. solid (with a low shear strength (MoS2. chemistry fluid dynamics Lubrication 4 www. Graphite) or as small particles). Germany 2 . 47057 Duisburg. fluids here: fluid film lubrication Lubrication 3 www.

de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. Germany 3 . Germany ηv/FN Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication elastohydrodynamic EHDL: the loads are taken entirely by the fluid and the elastic deformation of the asperities (e.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. of surface asperities hydrodynamic HDL: the loads are taken entirely by the fluid elastohydrodynamic EHDL: the loads are taken entirely by the fluid and the elastic deformation of the asperities (e.g. like aquaplaning) hydrodynamic HDL: the loads are taken entirely by the fluid boundary: the loads are taken predominatly by asperity contacts protected by thin fluid films. absorbed molecules or oxide layers ≠ dry contact mixed: transition between boundary and EHDL/HDL μ Lubrication 5 www. like aquaplaning) boundary: the loads are taken predominatly by asperity contacts protected by thin fluid films. absorbed molecules or oxide layers ≠ dry contact mixed: transition between boundary and EHDL/HDL Lubrication 6 www. 47057 Duisburg.uni-due. 47057 Duisburg.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication h/σ h = film thickness σ = standard dev.uni-due.g.

47057 Duisburg.uni-due.a controlled wear process trigged by temperature T>150ºC and sliding pressure Sulphur 4 .the effect disappears as temperature is increased .de/wt Physisorption Chemisorption 0.all fluids to some degree depending on polarity .) .Surface topography .de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1.friction modifiers .Contact pressure .Contact temperature (flash temperature) .g.uni-due.weak van der Waals bonds between the molecules and the surfaces due to molecule polarity .severe adhesive damage can be avoided by producing an easily sheared film .Lubricant chemistry (additives) .reversible process – the molecules attach and detach without any changes of the surface or adsorbate .chemical bonds between adsorbate and surface . oxide layers etc. fatty acids in contact with the surface forms metal soaps .a.e.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Boundary Lubrication The loads are carried by the asperities (s.the monolayer film is disorpted as temperature increases Chemical reaction . 47057 Duisburg. Germany Fe-sulphide Fe-oxide 10-100 nm .monolayers .Sliding speed Lubrication 7 www.animal and vegetable lubricants are normally more polar than mineral oils 0. Germany Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Additives are either physisorpted.stronger than physisorbed layers . GW contact model).Reactivity of surfaces (material. chemisorpted or transformed by a (tribo)chemical reaction .extreme pressure EP .3 nm Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1.3-3 nm Lubrication 8 www.partly antiwear . there is no hydrodynamic pressure acting within the gap between body and counterbody Parameters affecting boundary lubrication .irreversible or partly irreversible process .

The kinematic viscosity ν [mm²/s = cSt] is Lubrication 10 www. 47057 Duisburg.strength of boundary films . Germany Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Hydrodynamic Lubrication HDL The hydrodynamic lubrication takes advantage of the fact that a fluid is able to carry normal and tangential (shear) loads if certain physical and geometrical features apply.de/wt ν =ηρ Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Mixed Lubrication asperity contacts and hydrodynamic pressure carry the load The shift of the mixed lubrication regime to slower speeds or higher loads can be influenced by many parameters .transversal roughness so that the fluid film is not easily flowing through from Patir&Cheng 1978 Lubrication 9 www.viscosity of fluid . 47057 Duisburg. Germany 5 . the shear stress τ within the fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient dv/dh.uni-due.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. τ =η v v dv dh The proportionality factor is called absolute (dynamic) viscosity η [cP=mPa/s]. If two surfaces are separated by a fluid film with a thickness h and are moved against each other with the velocity v.long wavelength in surface roughness (low slopes for small pressure gradients) .uni-due.

uni-due. while non-Newtonian fluids might be pseudoplastic or dilatant. 47057 Duisburg.uni-due.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. the temperature. Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication The lubriction effect in bearings is brought about by forcing the fluid through a gap between converging bodies. the pressure and the shear rate • dγ =γ dt Notice: Many technical fluids might be Newtonian at low shear rates and nonNewtonian at higher ones! Lubrication 11 www. v h counterbody body Lubrication 12 www.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication η depends on the chemistry within the fluid.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. 47057 Duisburg. Germany 6 . Because of the volume continuity in fluid mechanics the internal pressure p must increase.and micro levels. Notice: The geometry of gaps can be quite different on all macro. Germany viscosity η For Newtonian fluids η is constant over the shear rate.

Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Pressure distribution acc.uni-due. Geometry of gap: h=h(x. Germany Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – e.z).z) Viscosity: η= η(x. η(y)=const. 47057 Duisburg.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. 47057 Duisburg. to Reynolds (1886) Lubrication 13 www.: p=p(x. w=w1+w2 Squeezing out flow v2-v1=∂h/∂t Reynolds equation for lubrication pressure (e. Germany 7 .z). Others did that later on. Lubrication 14 www.g. 3-dimensional case for plane surfaces forming a convergent lubrication gap Pressure distr. thrust bearings) ∂h ∂h ⎞ ∂ ⎛ h 3 ∂p ⎞ ∂ ⎛ h 3 ∂p ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ⎜ρ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ η ∂x ⎟ + ∂z ⎜ ρ η ∂z ⎟ = 6⎜ u ∂x + w ∂z + ∂t ⎟ ∂x ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ Don´t worry Reynolds has solved that for many cases already in 1886. Density: ρ= ρ(x.g.uni-due.z) Effective velocities Shear flow: u=u1+u2. p(y)=const.

uni-due.13 from Dowson&Higginson (1960) Lubrication 16 www. to η = η 0 eα ⋅ p α is the pressure exponent of viscosity Lubrication 15 www. v. The viscosity pressure characteristic becomes important. Germany hmin = 1.7 0.03 R 0. Germany Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Notice: For an incrompressible bronze/bronze steel/steel lubricant hmin depends strongly on η.6 (η 0 v ) E´0.de/wt 8 . which depends on FN acc.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. to Dowson one can write for the minimum film thickness hmin under a rolling contact situation ⎛ p0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ p0/l = line load of a rolling cylinder acc.uni-due.6α 0. α and R and only very little on P=p/E´. η increases with p acc. H=h/R E´and p0/l.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication – Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Under EHDL the elastic behaviour of the fluid and the solid (flattening) under high pressure has to be regarded. 47057 Duisburg. to Hertzian theory Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1. 47057 Duisburg.43 0.

uni-due.de/wt Universität Duisburg-Essen Lotharstr 1.Höhere Werkstofftechnik: Tribologie Lubrication Werkstofftechnik Materials Science & Engineering Lubrication hmin is the most important parameter for mechanical engineers. Germany 9 . in order to gain the λ-value (Tallian-parameter) λ= hmin 2 R + Rq 2 2 q1 if λ < 1 = BL if λ > 3 = HDL Lubrication 17 www. Thus. 47057 Duisburg. the calculated or measured values of hmin are connected to the combined Rqvalue of both bodies (variance of surface height profile).