BASIC MATHEMATICS

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T A T I S T I C S]

BASIC MATHEMATICS

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T A T I S T I C S]

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: ««««««««««................... : Che Nurul Azieana Binti Che Yang : 16th April 2010 .

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: ...................................... ............ : Nor Atirah binti Mohd Rapingi : 16th April 2010.

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: ...................................... ..... : Madhihah binti Nordin : 16th April 2010.

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

NEGERI SEMBILAN.MOH SEK. SEK.SAMSUDIN OCCUPATION : RETIRED SOLDIER MOTHER¶S NAME : NORMALA BT ZAINOL ABIDIN OCCUPATION : HOUSE IFE   [S T A T I S T I C S] : HE NURUL AZIEANA BT :9 7-558 HE YANG : 7TH E EMBER 99 SEREMBAN. TMN SULIANA.TEKNIK AMPANGAN JOHOR MATRICULATION COLLEGE RE ZA. .NO HOBBY AMBITION E UCATION FATHER¶S NAME : CHE YANG BIN HJ.NUMBER ATE OF BIRTH PLA E OF BIRTH : KLUANG.KEB. SIKAMAT 7 4 GROUP TEL. : PPISMP (MATH ) : 3.BASIC MATH MATICS NA E I.9 93 : LISTENING TO MUSI : LE TURER : SEK.MEN.TAMAN PAROI JAYA.MEN. JOHOR A RESS : NO 4 . . JLN SRI ANGI.KEB. ATO¶ HJ.

AGAMA PERSEKUTUAN KAJANG KUALA NERANG MARA MATRICULATION COLLEGE UNIVERSITY MALAYA .MEN. KEDAH FATHER¶S NAME : MOHD RAPINGI BIN YUSOF OCCUPATION : TEACHER MOTHER¶S NAME : HAPISHAH BINTI YOM OCCUPATION : HOUSE IFE ¡ : NOR ATIRAH BINTI MOHD RAPINGI :9 : 5 TH - -5 44 MAY 99 : PPISMP (MATH ) : 33 494 : ARCHERY : LECTURER : SEK.NUMBER DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH : LANGKA I.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] NAME I.KUALA TERIANG SEK. KEDAH ADDRESS : PS 4 .C. LANGKA I.NO HOBBY AMBITION EDUCATION . MKM PADANG MATSIRAT. 7 GROUP TEL.KEB. KAMPUNG PADANG KANDANG.

C. JALAN DUTAMAS 3. QUARTERS PERKHIDMATAN A AM. NO .BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] NAME I.NUMBER DATE OF BIRTH : PLACE OF BIRTH : KLUANG.NO HOBBY AMBITION EDUCATION : : PPISMP (MATH ) 7.3 8 SEPTEMBER 99 . 5 48 .3 5 : LISTENING TO MUSIC : LECTURER : SEK REN CONVENT SENTUL SEK MEN CONVENT SEK MEN SAINS SERI PUTERI FATHER¶S NAME : NORDIN BIN YUSOF OCCUPATION : PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR MOTHER¶S NAME : NOOR AZIZAH BINTI AHMAD OCCUPATION : CUSTOMER SERVICE OFFICER IMR £ ¢ : MADHIHAH BINTI NORDIN :9 t 9 . GROUP TEL.KUALA LUMPUR.4. JOHOR ADDRESS : G.

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] CONTENT BIL CONTENT CONFESSION PAGE QUESTION PROFILE CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS CONCLUSION COLLABORATION FORM APPENDICES PAGES .

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

Credits also for our beloved friends that let us share the information and help each other to make sure all of us made assignment that follow the instructions. Not forgo tten each our group members that always give full commitment and cooperation. our Mathematics¶ lecturer that always guide us in order to complete this assignment. We are really appreciated those who lend their hand. we are really appreciating all the effort those who help us whether their name was mentioned or not. Besides that. So. we would like to thank God that after all the hardship that we need to face up. we also would like to thank our precious parents and families that always are with us in hardship or happy time and always support a nd give advice to ensure all of us are not give up although there are many obstacles. give fantastic idea and share their fabulous opinion especially Madam Norehan. She always makes sure all of us are understand what the task craved.BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT irst of all. . hank you. we manage to complete the assignment in the time given by the topic of matrices.

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

which can be dated to the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal ( 54). It was introduced into English by Sir John Sinclair.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] INTRODUCTION St ti ti f i ll i i ti . T ti t . It f t l i t ti . Modern omputers Christiaan Huygens .f t f t t l t i l i l l i l i t l i ft l ti t t l ll ti ll t. T l t l l . ti t t ti ti .i ll t. The collection of data about states and localities continues . and ave also made possi le new met ods t at would e impractical to p erform manuall . T e term statistics is ultimatel derived from t e New Latin statisticum collegium ("council of state") and t e Italian word statista ("statesman" or "politician"). l t . B t l 7t it 8t t i ti ti t fi l t l f ilit t ti l l i t . In particular. T i l i ti i t f l t t . censuses provide regular information about the population. it t t f 9t t i ti i t - l i . signif ing the "science of state" (then called political arithmetic in English). i it t t . t ti ti t t i i ft i li j t l t ti ti t 8t t t i i t f t t i l. originall designated the anal sis of data about the state. It acquired the meaning of the collection and classification of data generall in the earl 9th century. i i .i t µ t ti St ti ti t l i f it i i 9t l i i fi l i t t i i f t ilit f it f l t t t i t i l l t t i i expedited l rge-scale statistical computation. T e German Statistik. i l t i l t ti . the original principal purpose of Statistik was data to be used by governmental and (often centrali ed) administrative bodies. Si t i e t.Thus. . It l ft t ti ti t t t f i t f t . first introduced Gottfried Achenwall ( 749). It t ti i l f ff it ti ll t . i t . The mathematical methods of statistics emerged from probability theory. largely through national and international statistical services. Christiaan Huygens ¤ i t i l i ft i i t i ¶. ll t i t t t f f t i .

but one which led to unmanageable equations. Littrow ( 833). continuous errors are discussed and a probability curve is given. 889). In the modern era. Pearson. Lacroix ( 8 ). Gauss had used the method in his famous 8 prediction of the location of the dwarf planet Ceres.Adolphe Quetelet ( 79 . and Carl Friedrich Gauss ( 8 9). De Morgan ( 8 4). and that there are certain assignable limits within which all errors may be supposed to fall. The theory of errors may be traced back to Roger Cotes' Opera Miscellanea (posthumous. Edgeworth. which is used throughout statistics. introduced the notion of the "average man" ( l'homme moyen) ¥ used to minimi e errors in data measurement. 7 ). Glaisher ( 87 ). Crofton ( 87 ). but a memoir prepared by Thomas Simpson in 755 (printed 75 ) first applied the theory to the discussion of errors of observation. S. 8 ). the "probable error" of a single observation was widely used and inspired early robust statistics (resistant to outliers). Pierre-Simon Laplace ( 774) made the first attempt to deduce a rule for the combination of observations from the principles of the theory of probabilities. Helmert ( 87 ). Didion. Boole. Ivory ( 8 5. Laurant ( 873). the work of Kolmogorov has been instrumental in formulating the fundamental model of Probability Theory.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] ( 57) gave the earliest nown scientific treatment of the subject. 85 ). He also gave ( 78 ) a formula for the law of facility of error (a term due to Joseph Louis Lagrange. Further proofs were given . He repres ented the law of probability of errors by a curve. and Thiele ( 88 . and Giovanni Schiaparelli ( 875). Gauss ( 8 3). Dedekind ( 8 ). Peters's ( 85 ) formula for r. another important founder of statistics. was published independently by Adrien-Marie Legendre ( 8 5).Other by Laplace ( 8 Donkin ( 844. 7 3) and Abraham de Moivre's The Doctrine of Chances ( 7 8) treated the subject as a branch of mathematics . In the nineteenth century authors on statistical theory included Laplace. Daniel Bernoulli ( 778) introduced the principle of the maximum product of the probabilities of a system of concurrent errors. Liagre. The method of least squares. He deduced a formula for the mean of three observations. Hagen ( 837). The reprint ( 757) of this memoir lays down the axioms that positive and negative errors are equally probable. Herschel ( 85 ). contributors were Ellis ( 844).874). 774). 8 ). which was Pierre-Simon Laplace Robert Adrain ( 8 8). and K. . De Morgan. Bessel ( 838). Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (posthumous.

whereas statistics is the mathematical science discussed in this article. The total area of a histogram used for probability density is always normali ed to 1. The categories are usually specified as consecutive. It then shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several categories (a form of data binning). non-overlapping intervals of some variable.Charles S. controlled randomi ed experiments with a repeated measures design. or suicide rates. Charles S. The histogram is one of the seven basic tools of quality control. The total area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. marriage rates. Each rectangle is erected over an interval. ¦ . Peirce The word statistics can either be singular or plural. in which he introduced "confidence". A histogram may also be based on the relative frequencies instead. Statistics always related to the graph. Peirce ( 839-9 4) formulated frequenters theories of estimation and hypothesistesting in ( 877-. and often for density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable. which will in general more accurately reflect the underlying variable. then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot. In its singular form.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] as a means of understanding complex social phenomena such as crime rates. Peirce invented an optimal design for experiments on gravity. pie chart. If the lengths of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1. and the total area then equals . the frequency divided by the width of the interval. An alternative to the histogram is kernel density estimation. The height of a rectangle is also equal to the frequency density of the interval. bar graph. a histogram is a graphical display of tabular frequencies. Histograms are used to plot density of data. Peirce also introduced blinded. which uses a kernel to smooth samples. histogram. This will construct a smooth probability density function. For example.e. and often are chosen to be of the same si e. a statistic is a quantity (such as a mean) calculated from a set of data. with an area equal to the frequency of the interval. i. [1] but not necessarily so.878) and ( 883). The categories (intervals) must be adjacent. shown as adjacent rectangles. In statistics. fre quency polygon and histogram.

e. Some examples of discontinuous data include 'shoe si e' or 'eye colour'.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] DIAGRAM 1. The bars can also be plotted hori ontally. data which has discrete values and is not continuous. some examples of continuous data would be 'height' or 'weight'. for which you would use a bar chart. Bar charts are used for plotting discrete (or 'discontinuous') data i. In contrast. DIAGRAM 1. A bar chart is very useful if you are t rying to record certain information whether it is continuous or not continuous data.0 : EXAMPLE OF HISTOGRAM A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.1 : EXAMPLE OF BAR CHART § .

in particular if the intent is to compare the si e of a slice with the whole pie. illustrating proportion. and some recommend avoiding it. It can also help people do work. rather than comparing the slices among them. In a pie chart.2 : EXAMPLE OF PIE CHART ¨ . or to compare data across different pie charts. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to illiam Playfair's Statistical Breviary of 18 1. Together.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] A pie chart (or a circle graph) is circular chart divided into sectors. other plots such as the bar chart or the dot plot. The pie chart is perhaps the most ubiquitous statistical chart in the business world and the mass media. may be more adapted for representing certain inf ormation. the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area). However. is proportional to the quantity it represents. it has been critici ed. pointing out in particular that it is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart. Pie charts work particularly well when the slices represent 5 to 5 % of the data. but in general. or non-graphical methods such as tables. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. DIAGRAM 1. the sectors create a full disk. Pie charts can be an effective way of displaying information in some cases.

DIAGRAM 1. Unlike histograms.BASIC MATH MATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] A frequency polygon shows approximately the smooth curve that would describe a frequency distribution if the class intervals were made as small as possible and the numbers of observations were very large. One way to form a frequency polygon is to connect the midpoints at the top of the bars of a histogram with line segments (or a smooth curve). frequency polygons can be superimposed so as to compare several frequency distributions. Sometimes it is beneficial to show the histogram and frequency polygon together. smoothed frequency polygon.4 : EXAMPLE OF FREQUENCY POLYGON © . The very common bell curve used to represent a normal distribution is an ideali ed. Of course the midpoints themselves could easily be plotted without the histogram and be joined by line segments.

BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] .

representative are stayed at the page in front in analysis. In the other hand. Statistician will get many data when the data is representing using visual representative. It deals with all aspects of this. psychologists prefer to represent their data in an organized way. pie chart. in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. but also the planning of the collection of data. there is represented using bar graph. it is very clear and easier to know the mode. Last but not least. In this assignment. So.BASIC MATHEMATICS [S T A T I S T I C S] CONCLUSION Statistics is the science of making effective use of numerical data relating to groups of individuals or experiments. we want to h ighlight that visual representative is very important in statistics. ther than that. by using data representative we can get a lot of information from the data. choose what is suitable for your data and make it easier. ne of them is mode. frequency polygon and pie chart. visual representative also can help statistician easy to find mean and median. histogram. ust take the higher one. the higher. bar chart. his is because a list of raw data may be difficult to interpret. rom the graph also we will get doubled or triple data rather than just he information we are collected from the visual using tabled representation or raw data. We will get the highest. frequency polygon and others. including not only the collection. . When the data is representing using bar graph or histogram. the data collection is about the siblings among college. the lower a nd the lowest number of the data that we are collect. here are many types of visual representative of data in statistics such as histogram. rom this data collected. Mode is the higher number 0 students o ut of whole students of one of the of the data. line graph. wo of the most common ways are frequency distributions and graphs. he data was represented using these graphs to make it easier to read by the statistician. analysis and interpretation of such data.

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