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UENR4504

January 2015

Troubleshooting
854F-E34TA Industrial Engine
JU (Engine)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-
ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

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UENR4504 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents DEF Pressure Is High ................... .................. 80


DEF Pressure Is Low................... ................... 82
Troubleshooting Section DEF Tank Level Is Low .................. ................. 86
DEF Tank Temperature Is High............ ........... 88
Electronic Troubleshooting DEF Tank Temperature Is Low ............ ........... 92
Welding Precaution ..................... ..................... 5 ECM Does Not Communicate with Other
System Overview....................... ....................... 5 Modules ............................ ............................ 95
Glossary .............................. ............................. 9 Electronic Service Tool Does Not
Communicate........................ ........................ 95
Electronic Service Tools ................. ................ 12
Engine Cranks but Does Not Start......... ......... 97
Indicator Lamps ....................... ....................... 14
Engine Does Not Crank................ ................ 102
Replacing the ECM..................... .................... 17
Engine Has Early Wear ................ ................ 104
Self-Diagnostics....................... ....................... 18
Engine Has Mechanical Noise (Knock) .... .... 106
Sensors and Electrical Connectors ........ ........ 19
Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable 109
Engine Wiring Information ............... ............... 23
Engine Overspeeds................... ....................112
ECM Harness Connector Terminals ........ ....... 31
Engine Shutdown Occurs Intermittently .... ....112
Service Tool Features................... .................. 31
Engine Speed Does Not Change ......... .........114
Engine Stalls at Low RPM .............. ...............115
Programming Parameters
Engine Top Speed Is Not Obtained ....... ........117
Programming Parameters ............... ............... 34
Engine Vibration Is Excessive ........... ........... 120
Flash Programming .................... .................... 34
Exhaust Has Excessive Black Smoke..... ..... 122
Injector Code - Calibrate................. ................ 34
Exhaust Has Excessive White Smoke .... ..... 125
Mode Switch Setup..................... .................... 35
Exhaust System Contains Oil ............ ........... 128
Throttle Setup ......................... ........................ 37
Fuel Consumption Is Excessive .......... ......... 130
Multiposition Switch Setup............... ............... 39
Fuel Contains Water ................... .................. 133
Fuel Rail Pressure Problem............. ............. 134
Customer Specified Parameters
Fuel Temperature Is High ............... .............. 140
Customer Specified Parameters........... .......... 41
Inlet Air Is Restricted................... .................. 141
Customer Specified Parameters Table ...... ..... 45
Inlet Air Temperature Is High ............ ............ 142
Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet . . 49
Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is High ...... ...... 143
Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is Low ....... ...... 144
System Configuration Parameters
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Is High.... ... 146
System Configuration Parameters......... ......... 53
NOx Conversion Is Low................ ................ 149
NRS Mass Flow Rate Problem........... .......... 151
Symptom Troubleshooting
Oil Consumption Is Excessive ........... ........... 153
Acceleration Is Poor or Throttle Response Is
Oil Contains Coolant................... .................. 155
Poor ............................... ............................... 54
Oil Contains Fuel ..................... ..................... 157
Alternator Is Noisy ..................... ..................... 57
Oil Pressure Is Low.................... ................... 159
Alternator Problem (Charging Problem and/or
Power Is Intermittently Low or Power Cutout Is
Noisy Operation)...................... ..................... 59
Intermittent......................... ......................... 162
Battery Problem....................... ....................... 60
SCR Catalyst Has Incorrect Inlet
Coolant Contains Oil.................... ................... 61
Temperature........................ ........................ 165
Coolant Level Is Low ................... ................... 63
SCR Warning System Problem .......... .......... 166
Coolant Temperature Is High............. ............. 63
Valve Lash Is Excessive ................ ............... 174
Coolant Temperature Is Low.............. ............. 66
Crankcase Breather Ejects Oil ............ ........... 67
Cylinder Is Noisy....................... ...................... 70 Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code
DEF Concentration Is Incorrect ........... ........... 71 Diagnostic Trouble Codes .............. .............. 175
DEF Does Not Purge................... ................... 73
DEF Module Does Not Respond .......... .......... 75 Diagnostic Functional Tests
DEF Pressure Does Not Respond......... ......... 76 CAN Data Link - Test .................. .................. 184
DEF Injector - Test .................... .................... 189

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4 UENR4504
Table of Contents

DEF Line Heater - Test ................. ................ 193


DEF Pump - Test ..................... ..................... 199
DEF Pump Pressure Sensor - Test........ ....... 205
DEF Return Valve - Test ................ ............... 209
DEF Tank Sensor - Test................ ................ 213
ECM Memory - Test ................... ................... 218
Electrical Connector - Inspect............ ........... 221
Electrical Power Supply - Test ........... ........... 224
Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test ............ ............ 228
Idle Validation - Test................... ................... 234
Indicator Lamp - Test .................. .................. 241
Injector Data Incorrect - Test............. ............ 245
Injector Solenoid - Test ................. ................ 248
Mode Selection - Test .................. ................. 255
Motorized Valve - Test ................. ................. 258
NOx Sensor - Test .................... .................... 264
Power Take-Off - Test .................. ................. 268
Relay - Test (Start Relay)............... ............... 273
Relay - Test (ECM Main Relay) .......... .......... 278
Relay - Test (SCR Relay)............... ............... 282
Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia
Sensor) ............................ ........................... 288
Sensor Supply - Test................... .................. 292
Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Exhaust
Gas Pressure Sensor) ................ ................ 297
Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test ...... ..... 303
Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test .... .... 309
Solenoid Valve - Test (Coolant Diverter
Valve)............................. ............................. 316
Solenoid Valve - Test .................. .................. 319
Speed Control (Analog) - Test ........... ........... 326
Speed/Timing - Test................... ................... 331
Switch Circuits - Test (Engine Oil Pressure
Switch) ............................ ............................ 339
Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch) ..... .... 345
Switch Circuits - Test (Air Filter Restriction
Switch) ............................ ............................ 348
Valve Position - Test ................... .................. 353
Water in Fuel - Test.................... ................... 359

Index Section

Index............................... .............................. 363

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UENR4504 5
Electronic Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting Section

Electronic Troubleshooting

i05980253

Welding Precaution

Correct welding procedures are necessary in order to


avoid damage to the Electronic Control Module
(ECM) , to sensors, and to associated components.
Components for the driven equipment should also be
considered. When possible, remove the component
that requires welding. When welding on an
application that is equipped with an electronically
controlled engine and removal of the component is
not possible, the following procedure must be Illustration 1 g01143634
followed. This procedure minimizes the risk to the Service welding guide (typical diagram)
electronic components.

1. Stop the engine. Remove the electrical power from 5. When possible, connect the ground clamp for the
the ECM. welding equipment directly to the engine
component that will be welded. Place the clamp as
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned close as possible to the weld. Close positioning
off. reduces the risk of welding current damage to the
engine bearings, to the electrical components, and
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
to other components.
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is installed,
open the switch. 6. Protect the wiring harnesses from welding debris
and/or from welding spatter.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following 7. Use standard welding procedures to weld the
components: materials together.
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
i05949712
• ECM
System Overview
• Sensors

• Electronically controlled valves The engine has an electronic control system. The
system also monitors the engine aftertreatment and
• Relays the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems.
• Electronic control units The control system consists of the following
components:
NOTICE • Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sen-
sors) or electronic component grounding points for • Software (flash file)
grounding the welder.
• Wiring
• Sensors

• Actuators

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6 UENR4504
Electronic Troubleshooting

The following information provides a general


description of the control system. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting for detailed
information about the control system.
Electronic Control Circuit Diagram

Illustration 2 g03697844
Electronic control circuit diagram for the 854F-E34TA engine

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UENR4504 7
Electronic Troubleshooting

Block Diagram

Illustration 3 g03697885
Block diagram for the 854F-E34TA engine
(1) EGR valve (10) Engine exhaust gas temperature sensor (19) Fuel transfer pump
(2) Air cleaner (11) Primary speed/timing sensor (20) Primary fuel filter with water-in-fuel
(3) Air inlet temperature sensor (12) Secondary speed/timing sensor sensor
(4) EGR cooler (13) Fuel injectors (21) Intake manifold air temperature/
(5) Turbocharger (14) High-pressure fuel pump pressure sensor
(6) Engine intake throttle valve (15) Fuel rail pressure sensor (22) Secondary fuel filter with fuel
(7) Wastegate regulator (16) Oil pressure switch temperature sensor
(8) Air-to-air aftercooler (17) Coolant temperature sensor (23) Fuel tank
(9) Engine exhaust gas pressure sensor (18) Engine

Illustration 4 g03698237
Block diagram for the aftertreatment
(24) Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) temperature (28) DEF tank header unit
sensor (29) DEF tank
(25) DEF level sensor (30) DEF pump pressure sensor
(26) DEF quality sensor (31) DEF pump filter
(27) Coolant diverter valve (32) DEF pump module

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8 UENR4504
Electronic Troubleshooting

(33) DEF injector (37) DEF mixer (41) SCR outlet temperature sensor
(34) Engine out NOx sensor (38) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) (42) Tailpipe out NOx sensor
(35) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) inlet inlet temperature sensor (43) Ammonia sensor
temperature sensor (39) SCR catalyst
(36) DOC (40) Ammonia Oxidizing (AMOX) catalyst

System Operation • Coolant temperature sensor


• Intake manifold air temperature sensor
Engine Governor
• Intake manifold pressure sensor
The ECM governs the engine. The ECM determines
the timing, the injection pressure, and the amount of • NOx sensors
fuel that is delivered to each cylinder. These factors
are based on the actual conditions and on the desired The ECM adjusts timing for optimum engine
conditions at any given time during starting and performance and for economic fuel usage. Actual
operation. timing and desired timing cannot be viewed with the
electronic service tool. The ECM determines the
The governor uses the throttle position sensor to location of top center of the number one cylinder from
determine the desired engine speed. The governor the signals that are provided by the engine speed/
compares the desired engine speed to the actual timing sensors. The ECM determines when injection
engine speed. The actual engine speed is determined should occur relative to the top center position. The
through interpretation of the signals that are received ECM then provides the signal to the injector at the
by the ECM from the engine speed/timing sensors. If desired time.
the desired engine speed is greater than the actual
engine speed, the governor injects more fuel in order
to increase engine speed. Fuel Injection
The ECM sends a high voltage signal to the injector
solenoids in order to energize the solenoids. By
controlling the timing and the duration of the high
voltage signal, the ECM can control the following
aspects of injection:

• Injection timing
• Fuel delivery

Customer Parameters and Engine Speed


Governing
A unique feature with electronic engines is customer
specified parameters. These parameters allow the
owner of the machine to fine-tune the ECM for engine
operation. Fine-tuning the ECM allows the machine
owner to accommodate the typical usage of the
machine and the power train of the machine.
Many of the customer parameters provide additional
restrictions on the actions that will be performed by
Illustration 5 g02737816
the ECM in response to input from the operator. The
Typical example PTO Top Engine Limit is an engine rpm limit that is
used by the ECM to limit the fuel during operation of
The desired engine speed is typically determined by the PTO. The ECM will not fuel the injectors above
one of the following conditions: this rpm.
• The position of the throttle Some parameters are intended to notify the operator
of potential engine damage (engine monitoring
• The desired engine speed in Power Take-Off parameters). Some parameters enhance fuel
(PTO) economy (machine speed, engine speed limit, and
idle shutdown). Other parameters are used to
Timing Considerations enhance the engine installation into the machine.
Other parameters are used to provide any engine
operating information to the owner of the machine.
Once the governor has determined the amount of fuel
that is required, the governor must determine the
timing of the fuel injection. Fuel injection timing is
determined by the ECM after considering input from
the following components:
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UENR4504 9
Electronic Troubleshooting

Other ECM Functions for buses that are used for communication with other
microprocessor-based devices.
Performance
Code – Refer to “Diagnostic Trouble Code” .
The ECM can also provide enhanced control of the
engine for machine functions. Refer to Communication Adapter Tool – The communication
Troubleshooting, “Configuration Parameters” for adapter provides a communication link between the
supplemental information about the systems that can ECM and the electronic service tool.
be monitored by the ECM in order to provide
enhanced machine performance, fuel economy, and Coolant Temperature Sensor – The coolant
convenience for the operator. temperature sensor detects the engine coolant
temperature for all normal operating conditions and
for engine monitoring.
Programmable Parameters
Data Link – The data link is a serial communication
Certain parameters that affect engine operation may bus that is used for communication with other devices
be changed with the electronic service tool. The such as the electronic service tool.
parameters are stored in the ECM.
Derate – Certain engine conditions will generate
Customer parameters are variable. Customer event codes. Also, engine may be derated. The map
parameters can affect the following characteristics of for the engine derate is programmed into the ECM
the engine within the limits that are set by the factory, software. The type of derate can be one or more of
by the monitoring system, and by PTO operation: three types: reduction of rated power, reduction of
rated engine speed and reduction of rated machine
• Rpm ratings speed for OEM products.

Some of the parameters may affect engine operation Desired Engine Speed – The desired engine speed
in an unusual way. An operator might not expect this is input to the electronic governor within the ECM.
type of effect. Without adequate training, these The electronic governor uses the throttle position
parameters may lead to power complaints or sensor signal, the engine speed/timing sensor, and
performance complaints even though the other sensors in order to determine the desired
performance of the engine is to the specification. engine speed.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Configuration Parameters” Diagnostic Trouble Code – A diagnostic trouble


for additional information on this subject. code is sometimes referred to as a fault code. These
codes indicate an electronic system malfunction.

i05857062
Diagnostic Lamp – The diagnostic lamp is also
called the warning lamp. The diagnostic lamp is used
to warn the operator of the presence of an active
Glossary diagnostic code. The lamp may not be included in all
applications.

Active Diagnostic Code – An active diagnostic code Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) – DEF is a mixture of
alerts the operator or the service technician that an urea and water that is injected into the exhaust
electronic system malfunction is currently present. stream. The heat in the exhaust gas releases the
Refer to the term “Diagnostic Code” in this glossary. ammonia in the DEF. The ammonia reacts with the
oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the SCR filter to produce
Aftertreatment – Aftertreatment is a system that is nitrogen and water vapor.
used to remove pollutants from exhaust gases. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) – The DOC is a
system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) device in the exhaust system that oxidizes certain
and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system. elements in the exhaust gases. These elements can
Alternating Current (AC) – Alternating current is an include carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and the
electric current that reverses direction at a regular soluble organic fractions (SOF) of particulate matter.
interval that is reoccurring. Digital Sensor Return – The common line (ground)
Ammonia Oxidizing (AMOX) catalyst – The AMOX from the ECM is used as ground for the digital
catalyst removes any residual ammonia from the sensors.
exhaust gas stream after completion of the Selective Digital Sensors – Digital sensors produce a pulse
Catalytic Reduction (SCR) process. width modulated signal. Digital sensors are supplied
Before Top Center (BTC) – BTC is the 180 degrees with power from the ECM.
of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches the Digital Sensor Supply – The power supply for the
top center position in the normal direction of rotation. digital sensors is provided by the ECM.
Bypass Circuit – A bypass circuit is a circuit that is Direct Current (DC) – Direct current is the type of
used as a substitute circuit for an existing circuit. A current that flows consistently in only one direction.
bypass circuit is typically used as a test circuit.
CAN Data Links (see also J1939 CAN Data Link) –
The CAN Data Links are serial communications

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10 UENR4504
Electronic Troubleshooting

DT, DT Connector, or Deutsch DT – This design is 3 – The voltage is above normal or the voltage is
a type of connector that is used on this engine. The shorted high.
connectors are manufactured by Deutsch .
4 – The voltage is below normal or the voltage is
Duty Cycle – Refer to “Pulse Width Modulation” . shorted low.
Electronic Engine Control – The electronic engine 5 – The current is below normal or the circuit is open.
control is a complete electronic system. The
electronic engine control monitors the engine 6 – The current is above normal or the circuit is
operation under all conditions. The electronic engine grounded.
control also controls the engine operation under all 7 – The mechanical system is not responding
conditions. properly.
Electronic Control Module (ECM) – The ECM is the 8 – There is an abnormal frequency, an abnormal
control computer of the engine. The ECM provides pulse width, or an abnormal time period.
power to the electronics. The ECM monitors data that
is input from the sensors on the engine and the 9 – There has been an abnormal update.
aftertreatment. The ECM acts as a governor in order
to control the speed and the power of the engine. 10 – There is an abnormal rate of change.
Electronic Service Tool – The electronic service tool 11 – The failure mode is not identifiable.
allows a computer (PC) to communicate with the
ECM. 12 – The device or the component is damaged.

Engine Monitoring – Engine Monitoring is the part of 13 – The device requires calibration.
the electronic engine control that monitors the
sensors. Engine monitoring also warns the operator 14 – There is a special instruction for the device.
of detected problems. 15 – The signal from the device is high (least severe).
Engine Oil Pressure Switch – The oil pressure 16 – The signal from the device is high (moderate
switch detects engine oil pressure. The oil pressure severity).
switch is used for engine protection. If insufficient oil
pressure is detected during engine operation, an 17 – The signal from the device is low (least severe).
event for low oil pressure will be raised.
18 – The signal from the device is low (moderate
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor – An engine speed/ severity).
timing sensor is a hall effect switch that provides a
digital signal to the ECM. The ECM interprets this 19 – There is an error in the data from the device.
signal as the crankshaft position and the engine
speed. Two sensors are used to provide the speed 31 – No FMI description required
and timing signals to the ECM. The primary sensor is
associated with the crankshaft and the secondary Flash File – This file is software that is inside the
sensor is associated with the camshaft. ECM. The file contains all the instructions (software)
for the ECM and the file contains the performance
Event Code – An event code may be activated in maps for a specific engine. The file may be
order to indicate an abnormal engine operating reprogrammed through flash programming.
condition. These codes usually indicate a mechanical
problem instead of an electrical system problem. Flash Programming – Flash programming is the
method of programming or updating an ECM with an
Exhaust Gas Recirculation – The Exhaust Gas electronic service tool over the data link instead of
Recirculation (EGR) system recycles a portion of the replacing components.
exhaust gases back into the inlet air. The recirculation
reduces the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust Fuel Pump – See “High Pressure Fuel Pump” .
gases. The recycled exhaust gas passes through a
cooler before being introduced into the inlet air. Fuel Rail – This item is sometimes referred to as the
High Pressure Fuel Rail. The fuel rail supplies fuel to
Failure Mode Identifier (FMI) – This identifier the electronic unit injectors. The high-pressure fuel
indicates the type of failure that is associated with the pump and the fuel rail pressure sensor work with the
component. The FMI has been adopted from the SAE ECM to maintain the desired fuel pressure in the fuel
practice of J1587 diagnostics. The FMI follows the rail. This pressure is determined by calibration of the
parameter identifier (PID) in the descriptions of the engine in order to enable the engine to meet
fault code. The descriptions of the FMIs are in the emissions and performance requirements.
following list.
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor – The fuel rail pressure
0 – The data is valid but the data is above the normal sensor sends a signal to the ECM that is dependent
operational range. on the pressure of the fuel in the fuel rail.
1 – The data is valid but the data is below the normal Glow Plug – The glow plug is a starting aid for cold
operational range. conditions. One glow plug is installed in each
combustion chamber in order to improve the ability of
2 – The data is erratic, intermittent, or incorrect.
the engine to start. The ECM uses information from

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UENR4504 11
Electronic Troubleshooting

the engine sensors to determine when the glow plug exists, the signal or the supply voltage can no longer
control unit must provide power to each glow plug. reach the intended destination.
Each of the glow plugs then provides a hot surface in
the combustion chamber in order to vaporize the Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – NOx is a component of
mixture of air and fuel. The vaporization improves the exhaust gases that are produced by the
ignition during the compression stroke of the cylinder. combustion process. NOx is reduced by the EGR
system and is further reduced by the SCR component
Glow Plug Control Unit – The Glow plug Control of the aftertreatment system.
Unit (GCU) is controlled by the ECM in order to
provide high current to the glow plugs. The Parameter – A parameter is a value or a limit that is
programmable. A parameter helps determine specific
Harness – The harness is the bundle of wiring (loom) characteristics or behaviors of the engine.
that connects all components of the electronic
system. Personality Module – See “Flash File” .
Hertz (Hz) – Hertz is the measure of electrical Post Run – The time duration between the keyswitch
frequency in cycles per second. being turned to the OFF position and the main relay
switching off the power to the ECM (approximately 30
High Pressure Fuel Pump – This device supplies seconds).
fuel under pressure to the fuel rail (high-pressure fuel
rail). Power Cycling – Power cycling refers to the action of
cycling the keyswitch from any position to the OFF
High Pressure Fuel Rail – See “Fuel Rail” . position, and to the START/RUN position.
Injector Trim Codes – Injector trim codes are codes Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) – The PRV is a valve in
that contain seven characters. The codes are the fuel rail that prevents excessive pressure. The
supplied with new injectors. The code is input through PRV will reduce the pressure to a safe level that will
the electronic service tool into the ECM. The injector limit engine operation but the reduced pressure will
trim codes compensate for variances in not stop the engine.
manufacturing of the electronic unit injector and for
the life of the electronic unit injector. Primary Speed/Timing Sensor – This sensor
determines the position of the crankshaft during
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor – The engine operation. If the primary speed/timing sensor
intake manifold air temperature sensor detects the air fails during engine operation, the secondary speed/
temperature in the intake manifold. The ECM timing sensor is used to provide the signal.
monitors the air temperature and other data in the
intake manifold in order to adjust injection timing and Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) – The PWM is a
other performance functions. signal that consists of pulses that are of variable
width. These pulses occur at fixed intervals. The ratio
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor – The Intake of “TIME ON” versus “TIME OFF” can be varied.
Manifold Pressure Sensor measures the pressure in This ratio is also referred to as a duty cycle.
the intake manifold. The pressure in the intake
manifold may be different to the pressure outside the
engine (atmospheric pressure). The difference in
pressure may be caused by an increase in air
pressure by a turbocharger.
Integrated Electronic Controls – The engine is
designed with the electronic controls as a necessary
part of the system. The engine will not operate
without the electronic controls.
J1939 CAN Data Links – These data links are SAE
standard diagnostic communications data links that
are used to communicate between the ECM and
other electronic devices.
Logged Diagnostic Codes – Logged diagnostic
codes are codes which are stored in the memory.
These codes are an indicator of possible causes for
intermittent problems. Refer to the term “Diagnostic
Trouble Codes” for more information.
OEM – OEM is an abbreviation for the Original
Equipment Manufacturer. The OEM is the
manufacturer of the machine or the vehicle that uses
the engine.
Illustration 6 g01858875
Open Circuit – An open circuit is a condition that is
caused by an open switch, or by an electrical wire or Reference Voltage – Reference voltage is a
a connection that is broken. When this condition regulated voltage that is supplied by the ECM to a

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12 UENR4504
Electronic Troubleshooting

sensor. The reference voltage is used by the sensor


to generate a signal voltage. Wait To Start Lamp – This lamp is included in the
cold starting aid circuit in order to indicate when the
Relay – A relay is an electromechanical switch. A wait to start period is active. The lamp will go off when
flow of electricity in one circuit is used to control the the engine is ready to be started. The glow plugs may
flow of electricity in another circuit. A small current or not have deactivated.
voltage is applied to a relay in order to switch a much
larger current or voltage. Warning Lamp – The warning lamp is used to warn
the operator of the presence of an active diagnostic
Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor – This sensor code.
determines the position of the camshaft during engine
operation. If the primary speed/timing sensor fails Wastegate – The wastegate is a device in a
during engine operation, the secondary speed/timing turbocharged engine that controls the maximum
sensor is used to provide the signal. boost pressure that is provided to the inlet manifold.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) – SCR is a Wastegate Regulator – The wastegate regulator
process for reducing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in controls the pressure in the intake manifold to a value
the exhaust gases. Ammonia is introduced into the that is determined by the ECM. The wastegate
exhaust and reacts with the exhaust gases in the regulator provides the interface between the ECM
SCR catalyst to convert the NOx into nitrogen and and the mechanical system.
water vapor.
Sensor – A sensor is a device that is used to detect i05949762
the current value of pressure or temperature, or
mechanical movement. The information that is
detected is converted into an electrical signal. Electronic Service Tools
Short Circuit – A short circuit is a condition that has
an electrical circuit that is inadvertently connected to
an undesirable point. An example of a short circuit is Perkins electronic service tools are designed to help
a wire which rubs against a vehicle frame and this the service technician:
rubbing eventually wears off the wire insulation.
Electrical contact with the frame is made and results • Retrieve diagnostic codes
in a short circuit.
• Diagnose electrical problems
Signal – The signal is a voltage or a waveform that is
used in order to transmit information typically from a • Read parameters
sensor to the ECM.
• Program parameters
Supply Voltage – The supply voltage is a continuous
voltage that is supplied to a component. The power • Install injector trim codes
may be generated by the ECM or the power may be
battery voltage that is supplied by the engine wiring. Required Service Tools
Suspect Parameter Number (SPN) – The SPN is a Table 1
J1939 number that identifies the specific component
of the electronic control system that has experienced Required Service Tools
a fault. Part Number Description
Throttle Position – The throttle position is the T400077 Extraction Tool
interpretation by the ECM of the signal from the
throttle position sensor or the throttle switch. T400078 Extraction Tool

Throttle Position Sensor – The throttle position T400079 Extraction Tool


sensor is a sensor that is connected to an accelerator T400080 Extraction Tool
pedal or a hand lever. This sensor sends a signal to
the ECM that is used to calculate desired engine T400081 Extraction Tool
speed. - Suitable Digital Multimeter
Throttle Switch – The throttle switch sends a signal
to the ECM that is used to calculate desired engine
speed. Optional Service Tools
Top Center Position – The top center position refers Table 2 lists the optional service tools that can be
to the crankshaft position when the engine piston used when the engine is serviced.
position is at the highest point of travel. The engine
must be turned in the normal direction of rotation in
order to reach this point.
Total Tattletale – The total tattletale is the total
number of changes to all the parameters that are
stored in the ECM.

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Table 2 (Table 3, contd)


Part Number Description Service Tools for the Use of the Electronic Service
Tool
U5MK1092 Spoon Probe Kit
MULTIMETER Part Number Description
-(1) Data Subscription for All Engines
- Suitable Digital Pressure Indicator
or or 27610164 TIPSS Adapter Kit (Electronic Service Tool to the
- Engine Pressure Group ECM interface)
or
- Suitable Battery Load Tester 27610401 Perkins CA3 Kit
(1) Refer to Perkins Engine Company Limited.
- Suitable Temperature Adapter
MULTIMETER
Note: For more information on the Electronic Service
2900A038 Harness as
Tool and the PC requirements, refer to the
documentation that accompanies the software for the
Electronic Service Tool.
Perkins Electronic Service Tool
Connecting the Electronic Service Tool
The Electronic Service Tool can display the following
information: and the TIPSS Adapter
• Status of all pressure sensors and temperature
sensors

• Programmable parameter settings


• Active diagnostic codes and logged diagnostic
codes
• Logged events
• Histograms
The Electronic Service Tool can also be used to
perform the following functions:

• Diagnostic tests
• Calibrations

• Programming of flash file


• Parameter programming

• Copy configuration function for Electronic Control


Module (ECM) replacement
• Data logging

• Graphs (real time)


Table 3 lists the service tools that are required in
order to use the Electronic Service Tool. Illustration 7 g01121866
Table 3 (1) Personal Computer (PC)
(2) Adapter Cable (Computer Serial Port)
Service Tools for the Use of the Electronic Service (3) TIPSS adapter
Tool (4) Adapter Cable Assembly
Part Number Description
Note: Items (2), (3) and (4) are part of the TIPSS
-(1) Single Use Program License adapter kit.
Use the following procedure in order to connect the
(continued)
Electronic Service Tool and the TIPSS Adapter.

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

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2. Connect cable (2) between the “COMPUTER” 2. Connect cable (2) between the “COMPUTER”
end of TIPSS adapter (3) and the RS232 serial end of CA3 adapter (3) and a USB port of PC (1).
port of PC (1).
3. Connect cable (4) between the “DATA LINK” end
Note: The Adapter Cable Assembly(4) is required to of CA3 adapter (3) and the service tool connector.
connect to the USB port on computers that are not
equipped with an RS232 serial port. 4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position. If the
Electronic Service Tool and the CA3 adapter do
3. Connect cable (4) between the “DATA LINK” end not communicate with the Electronic Control
of TIPSS adapter (3) and the service tool Module (ECM), refer to the diagnostic procedure
connector. Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Does
4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position. If the Not Communicate”.
Electronic Service Tool and the TIPSS adapter do
not communicate with the Electronic Control i05857081

Module (ECM), refer to the diagnostic procedure


Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Does
Indicator Lamps
Not Communicate”.

Connecting the Electronic Service Tool Indicator Lamps


and the CA3 Kit Seven lamps are available as options.
• “Shutdown” lamp
• “Warning” lamp

• “Wait to start” lamp


• “Low oil pressure” lamp

• “Emissions system failure” lamp


• “Low DEF” lamp

• “DEF quality” lamp

Functions of the Lamps


Shutdown Lamp
Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
On – The lamp will be on when the shutdown level in
the engine protection strategy has been reached. The
“Warning” lamp will also be on.

Warning Lamp
Illustration 8 g01121866 Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
(1) Personal Computer (PC)
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
(2) Adapter Cable (Computer Serial Port) then go off unless there is an active warning.
(3) CA3 adapter
(4) Adapter Cable Assembly Flashing – The lamp will be flashing when a
“warning” or a “warning and derate” is active.
Note: Items (2), (3) and (4) are part of the CA3 kit. On – The lamp will be on when a diagnostic code is
active.
Use the following procedure in order to connect the
Electronic Service Tool and the CA3 Adapter.

1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

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Wait to Start Lamp


Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless “Wait to Start” is active.
On – The lamp is on during a “Wait to Start” period.

Low Oil Pressure Lamp


Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
On – The lamp will come on when a low oil pressure
event is detected. The “Warning” lamp and the
“Shutdown” lamp may also come on.

Emissions System Failure Lamp


Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
On – The lamp will be on when there is a fault in the
aftertreatment system. The “Warning” lamp may also
be on or flashing.

Low DEF Lamp


Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
On – The lamp will be on when the fluid level in the
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank is low.
Flashing – The lamp will be flashing when the DEF
tank is empty.

DEF Quality Lamp


Lamp check – When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
On – The lamp will be on when the DEF
concentration is out of the acceptable range.

Color of Lamps
Typically, the “Shutdown” lamp is colored red and
the “Warning” lamp is colored amber. The color of
the other lamps can vary.

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Operation of the Indicator Lamps


Table 4
Warning Shutdown Low DEF DEF Quality Emissions Sys- Description of the Indication Engine State
Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp tems
(Alert (Action FailureLamp
Lamp) Lamp)
On On On On On When the keyswitch is moved to The keyswitch is in the
the ON position, the lamps come ON position but the en-
on for 2 seconds and the lamps gine has not yet been
will then go off. cranked.

Off Off Off Off Off With the engine in operation, there The engine is operating
are no active warnings, diagnostic with no detected faults.
codes, or event codes.

On Off Off Off Off If the warning lamp comes on dur- The engine is operating
ing engine operation, the lamp in- normally but there is one
dicates that an active diagnostic or more faults with the
code (an electrical fault) is electronic management
present. system for the engine.

Slow Flash Off Off Off Off If the warning lamp flashes during The engine is operating
engine operation, an active diag- but there is one or more
nostic code is present. The diag- active diagnostic codes
nostic is sufficiently serious in that have initiated an en-
order to cause an engine derate. gine derate.

Fast Flash On Off Off Off If the warning lamp flashes and The engine is either
the shutdown lamp comes on dur- shutdown or an engine
ing engine operation, one of the shutdown is imminent.
following conditions exists: One or more monitored
engine parameters have
1. One or more of the shutdown exceeded the limit for an
values for the engine protection engine shutdown. This
strategy has been exceeded. pattern of lamps can be
caused by the detection
2. A serious active diagnostic code of a serious active diag-
has been detected. nostic code.

After a short time, the engine will


shut down.
Off Off On Off Off The level of fluid in the DEF tank is The engine is operating
below 10%. normally. This lamp
warns the operator that
the DEF tank requires
refilling.

On Off On Off On The level of fluid in the DEF tank is An active event code is
below 5%. raised.
Slow Flash Off On Off Slow Flash The level of fluid in the DEF tank is An active event code is
0%. raised. The engine will
be derated.
Fast Flash On Fast Flash Off Fast Flash The level of fluid in the DEF tank If shutdowns are en-
has been 0% for at least 40 abled, then the engine
minutes. will be shut down. After a
further 30 minutes the
engine will be com-
manded to low idle.
Off Off Off On Off The DEF quality is out of the ac- The engine is operating
ceptable range. normally. This lamp
warns the operator that
the DEF quality is
incorrect.

(continued)

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(Table 4, contd)
Warning Shutdown Low DEF DEF Quality Emissions Sys- Description of the Indication Engine State
Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp tems
(Alert (Action FailureLamp
Lamp) Lamp)
On Off Off On On The DEF quality has been out of An active event code is
the acceptable range for at least raised.
50 minutes.
Slow flash Off Off On Slow Flash The DEF quality has been out of An active event code is
range for at least 140 minutes. raised. The engine will
be derated.
Fast Flash On Off On Fast Flash The DEF quality has been out of If shutdowns are en-
the acceptable range for at least abled, then the engine
350 minutes. will be shut down. After a
further 240 minutes the
engine will be com-
manded to low idle.
On Off Off Off On There is an active diagnostic code The engine is operating
for a Exhaust Gas Recirculation normally unless the com-
(EGR) system or SCR component. ponent fault causes an
engine derate. In this
case, the warning lamp
will flash. An active event
code will be raised.
Slow Flash Off Off Off Slow Flash There has been an active diagnos- An active event code is
tic code for an EGR or SCR com- raised. The engine will
ponent for at least 25 minutes. be derated.

Fast Flash On Off Off Fast Flash There has been an active diagnos- An active event code is
tic code for an EGR or SCR com- raised. The engine will
ponent for at least 115 minutes. be derated. If shutdowns
are enabled, then the en-
gine will be shut down.
After a further 180 mi-
nutes the engine derate
will become more se-
vere. 210 minutes after
that point, the engine will
be commanded to low
idle.

i05857949 Note: Ensure that the ECM is receiving power and


that the ECM is properly grounded before
Replacing the ECM replacement of the ECM is attempted. Refer to the
schematic diagram.
Use the electronic service tool to read the parameters
NOTICE in the suspect ECM. Record the parameters in the
suspect ECM. Install the flash file into the new ECM.
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. After the ECM is installed on the engine, the
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened parameters must be programmed into the new ECM.
component life.
NOTICE
If the flash file and engine application are not
The engine is equipped with an Electronic Control matched, engine damage may result.
Module (ECM). The ECM contains no moving parts.
Follow the troubleshooting procedures in this manual
in order to be sure that replacing the ECM will correct Perform the following procedure in order to replace
the problem. Verify that the suspect ECM is the cause the ECM.
of the problem.
1. Connect the electronic service tool to the
diagnostic connector.

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Electronic Troubleshooting

2. From the menu bar go to the following menu • ECM Replacement


options:
9. Click on “Load From File” at the bottom of the
• Service screen.

• Copy Configuration 10. Select the correct ECM replacement file. Check
that the date and time stamp matches that of the
• ECM Replacement desired replacement file and click on “OK” .
3. Click on “Load From File” at the bottom of the 11. Click on “Program ECM” at the bottom of the
screen. screen.
4. Once the ECM data has been loaded, click on 12. Once the “Programming Complete” dialog box
“Save to File” at the bottom of the screen. Select a appears on screen, click on “OK” .
folder location and click on “Save” .
13. Check for logged diagnostic codes.
5. Remove the ECM. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Electronic Control Module - Remove
i04628911
and Install”.
6. Install the replacement ECM. Refer to Disassembly Self-Diagnostics
and Assembly, “Electronic Control Module -
Remove and Install”.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) can detect
7. Download the flash file. faults in the electronic system and with engine
operation. A self-diagnostic check is also performed
a. Connect the electronic service tool to the whenever power is applied to the ECM.
diagnostic connector.
When a fault is detected, a diagnostic trouble code is
b. Select “WinFlash” from the “Utilities” menu generated. This code conforms to the SAE J1939
on the electronic service tool. standard. An alarm may also be generated.

Note: If “WinFlash” will not communicate with the Diagnostic Trouble Code – When a fault in the
electronic system is detected, the ECM generates a
ECM, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service diagnostic trouble code. The diagnostic trouble code
Tool Does Not Communicate”. indicates the specific fault in the circuitry.
c. Select the engine ECM under the “Detected
ECMs” . Diagnostic codes can have two different states:
d. Press the “Browse” button in order to select • Active
the part number of the flash file that will be
programmed into the ECM. • Logged

e. When the correct flash file is selected, press Active Code – An active diagnostic code indicates
that an active fault has been detected by the control
the “Open” button. system. Active codes require immediate attention.
Always service active codes prior to servicing logged
f. Verify that the “File Values” match the codes.
application. If the “File Values” do not match
the application, search for the correct flash file. Logged Code – Many generated codes are stored in
the permanent memory of the ECM. The codes are
g. When the correct flash file is selected, press logged for 100 operating hours unless a code is
cleared by use of the electronic service tool.
the “Begin Flash” button.

h. The electronic service tool will indicate when Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
flash programming has been successfully needed. The fault may have been temporary. The
completed. fault may have been resolved since the logging of the
code. If the system is powered, an active diagnostic
8. From the menu bar go to the following menu trouble code may be generated whenever a
component is disconnected. When the component is
options: reconnected, the code is no longer active. Logged
codes may be useful to help troubleshoot intermittent
• Service faults. Logged codes can also be used to review the
performance of the engine and the electronic system.
• Copy Configuration

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i05949806

Sensors and Electrical Connectors


854F-E34TA Engine

Illustration 9 g03698957
Sensors and electrical connector locations on the left side of the 854F-E34TA engine
(1) High-pressure fuel pump inlet metering (3) 62-pin engine interface connector (6) Oil pressure switch
valve (4) Fuel temperature sensor (7) Primary speed/timing sensor (crankshaft)
(2) 10-pin engine interface connector (5) Fuel rail pressure sensor (8) Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

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Illustration 10 g03699376
Sensors and electrical connector locations on the left side of the 854F-E34TA engine
(1) High-pressure fuel pump inlet metering (3) 62-pin engine interface connector (6) Oil pressure switch
valve (4) Fuel temperature sensor (7) Primary speed/timing sensor (crankshaft)
(2) 10-pin engine interface connector (5) Fuel rail pressure sensor (8) Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

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Illustration 11 g03699378
Sensors and electrical connector locations on the right side of the 854F-E34TA engine
(9) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve (12) Exhaust gas pressure sensor (16) Secondary (camshaft) speed/timing
(10) Intake manifold air pressure and (13) Intake throttle valve sensor
temperature sensor (14) Coolant temperature sensor
(11) Exhaust temperature sensor connector (15) Wastegate regulator

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Clean Emissions Module (CEM)

Illustration 12 g03699404
Typical view of the sensor locations on the CEM on 854F-E34TA
(17) Engine out NOx sensor (19) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)/DEF (20) DOC inlet temperature sensor
(18) Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) injector mixing chamber module

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Illustration 13 g03699407
Typical view of the sensor locations on the CEM on 854F-E34TA
(21) Inlet air temperature sensor (26) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) (31) Heated DEF line
(22) Breather heater catalyst (32) DEF tank
(23) Heater Control Unit (HCU) (27) DEF pump module (33) DEF tank header unit
(24) Glow plug Control Unit (GCU) (28) SCR inlet/outlet temperature sensors (34) Engine Electronic Control Module
(25) Coolant diverter valve (29) Ammonia sensor (ECM)
(30) Tailpipe out NOx sensor

i05949819

Engine Wiring Information

Harness Wire Identification


Note: In the following diagrams, “Pxxx” signifies a
plug and “Jxxx” signifies a jack.

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Schematic Diagrams

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Electronic Troubleshooting

854F-E34TA Engine

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Illustration 14 g03699478
Schematic diagram of the wiring between the engine components and the engine interface connections

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Electronic Troubleshooting

Wiring from the Engine to the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

Illustration 15 g03700146
Schematic diagram of the wiring between the engine interface connectors and the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

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Electronic Troubleshooting

Illustration 16 g03701787
Schematic diagram for the aftertreatment system components

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Wiring for the Application

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Illustration 17 g03702362
Schematic diagram for a typical application

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Electronic Troubleshooting

i04035775 • Diagnostics

ECM Harness Connector • Diagnostic Tests


Terminals • Override Parameters

Glow Plug Starting Aid Override


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) uses a
connector with 60 terminals (J2) and a connector with This override is used to check that the glow plugs are
94 terminals(J1) to interface to the wiring harness. functioning correctly. The override will remain active
until switched off using the electronic service tool.

DEF Pressure Line Heater Override


This override switches on the line heater for the DEF
pressure line. The override will remain active until
switched off using the electronic service tool.

DEF Backflow and Suction Line Heater


Override
This override switches on the line heater for the DEF
return line and the DEF suction line. The override will
remain active until switched off using the electronic
service tool.
Illustration 18 g02266273
Typical view of the pin layout on the J2 connector DEF Pump Heater Override
This override switches on the heater for the DEF
pump module. The override will remain active until
switched off using the electronic service tool.

Active Diagnostic Codes


The purpose of this screen is to show all of the active
diagnostic codes.
In the electronic service tool, select the engine ECM.
Select the “Diagnostics” tab.
Select the “Active Diagnostic Codes” tab.

Logged Diagnostic Codes


Illustration 19 g02277053
The purpose of this screen is to show all of the logged
Typical view of the pin layout on the J1 connector diagnostic codes. Logged diagnostic codes will be
cleared from the “Logged Diagnostic Codes” screen
i05867012 when the code has not been active for 40 hours.
In the electronic service tool, select the engine ECM.
Service Tool Features
Select the “Diagnostics” tab.
Select the “Logged Diagnostic Codes” tab.
Override Parameters
Diagnostic Tests
The override parameters screen has multiple
overrides. The parameters control various functions Electronic service tool diagnostic tests are listed
on the engine and the aftertreatment. These functions below.
and features allow the technician to troubleshoot
different engine systems. Select the “Diagnostics” tab.
Navigate to the following menu options in the Select the “Diagnostic Tests” tab.
electronic service tool in order to access the
“Override Parameters” :

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Electronic Troubleshooting

Cylinder Cutout Select the “Calibrations” tab.

This test can disable individual cylinders to while the Calibrations Listed in the Engine ECM
engine is running to help identify cylinders that are
performing below the required level. Menu
Click “Change” for an individual cylinder in order to
switch off that cylinder manually. This test can be Injector Codes Calibration
used to identify faults by listening to the sound of the
engine as a cylinder is disabled. If there is no change Whenever an injector is replaced, the injector must be
in the sound of the engine as a cylinder is disabled, trimmed. Trimming the injector calibrates all of the
this may indicate a fault in that cylinder. injectors to deliver the same amount of fuel. The
Injector Codes Calibration allows the injector trim
code information to be programmed into the ECM.
Fuel Rail Pressure Test After the injector is calibrated, the calibration data is
checked for validity.
This test raises the fuel pressure in the high-pressure
fuel rail to 180000 kPa (26107 psi) for one minute at When new injectors are installed, record the serial
1300 rpm. numbers of each injector and input using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting,
After this test has been run, and the fuel pressure has “Injector Code - Calibrate” for more information.
been allowed to drop to a safe level, the fuel system
can be inspected for signs of leakage.
Component Replacement Resets
DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test In the electronic service tool, go to the “Service”
menu.
This test is used with the DEF Test Kit to measure
the amount of DEF that the SCR dosing system is Oxidation Catalyst Replacement Reset
delivering. The test can also be used to confirm that
there is an acceptable spray pattern from the DEF Use this reset when the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
Injector. (DOC) is replaced.
Note: The DEF injector must be removed from the
exhaust system during this test and placed in an EGR Valve Learn Reset
appropriate container. Failure to do so could result in
issues with the SCR system operation. Refer to Use this reset when the Exhaust Gas Recirculation
(EGR) valve is replaced.
Testing and Adjusting, “Aftertreatment SCR System
Dosing Test”.
Rail Pressure Valve Learn Reset
DEF Dosing System Purge Test Use this reset when the fuel rail pressure valve is
replaced. This reset will reset the counter in the ECM
This test verifies that the DEF purging process is for the number of times that the pressure relief valve
working correctly by purging the DEF pump and lines. has opened.
This service test is used to purge the DEF system.
This test turns on the DEF purging pump, causing the Rail Pressure Sensor Replacement Reset
DEF to be pumped from the injector back into the
tank. Purging allows the system to de-pressurize and Use this reset when the fuel rail pressure sensor is
empty prior to repair work. replaced.

DEF Dosing System Verification Test SCR Catalyst Replacement Reset


This test primes the dosing system. The test is used Use this reset when the SCR catalyst is replaced.
to ensure that the DEF pump is able to build
adequate pressure. NOx Sensor Replacement Reset
This test turns on the DEF pump. During this time, the
DEF pump will pressurize the entire DEF dosing Use this reset when either the engine out NOx sensor
system. The DEF injector will open briefly. The DEF or the tailpipe out NOx sensor is replaced. Also use
pump will purge the system at the end of the test. this reset if both NOx sensors are replaced.

Calibrations EGR Cooler Replacement Reset


In the electronic service tool, go to the following menu Use this reset when either the Exhaust Gas
options: Recirculation (EGR) cooler is replaced.
Select the “Service” tab.

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Electronic Troubleshooting

Engine Emissions Operator Inducement


Safe Harbor Reset
When an operator inducement has shut down the
engine, the engine can be restarted and run for a
maximum of 30 minutes. Each time the engine is
restarted a counter in the ECM will increase by one.
Once the counter reaches three, the engine will only
run at low idle.
The “Safe Harbor Reset” will reset the counter to
zero.
Note: Only use this reset when the fault that caused
the inducement has been repaired or if the engine
needs to be started as part of the troubleshooting
process.

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34 UENR4504
Programming Parameters

Programming Parameters
d. Verify that the “File Values” match the
application. If the “File Values” do not match
the application, search for the correct flash file.

i04035800 e. When the correct flash file is selected, press


the “Begin Flash” button.
Programming Parameters
f. The electronic service tool will indicate when
flash programming has been successfully
The electronic service tool can be used to view completed.
certain parameters that can affect the operation of the
engine. The electronic service tool can also be used 6. Access the “Configuration” screen under the
to change certain parameters. The parameters are “Service” menu in order to determine the
stored in the Electronic Control Module (ECM). parameters that require programming.

i04215913 7. Start the engine and check for proper operation.


Check that there are no active diagnostic codes.
Flash Programming
“ WinFlash”” Error Messages
Flash Programming – A method of loading a flash If any error messages are displayed during flash
file into the Electronic Control Module (ECM) programming, click on the “Cancel” button in order to
stop the process. Access the information about the
“ECM Summary” under the “Information” menu.
The electronic service tool is utilized to flash program Ensure that you are programming the correct flash file
a flash file into the ECM. The flash programming for your engine.
transfers the flash file from the PC to the ECM.

Flash Programming a Flash File i05867872

1. Obtain the part number for the new flash file. Injector Code - Calibrate
Note: If you do not have the part number for the flash
file, use “PTMI” on the Perkins secured web site. Injector codes are seven digit alphanumerical codes
that are supplied with each injector. The code is
Note: You must have the engine serial number in printed on the injector . The code is used by the
order to search for the part number of the flash file. Electronic Control Module (ECM) to balance the
performance of the injectors.
2. Connect the electronic service tool to the
diagnostic connector. The electronic service tool is used to load the injector
codes into the ECM.
3. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start
The injector codes must be loaded into the ECM if
the engine. any of the following conditions occur:
4. Select “WinFlash” from the “Utilities” menu on • An electronic unit injector is replaced.
the electronic service tool.
• The ECM is replaced.
Note: If “WinFlash” will not communicate with the
ECM, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service • Electronic unit injectors are exchanged between
Tool Does Not Communicate”. cylinders.
5. Flash program the flash file into the ECM. • A 630-2 diagnostic code is active.

a. Select the engine ECM under the “Detected If the ECM is replaced, the injector codes are
ECMs” . normally transferred to the new ECM as part of the
“Copy Configuration” procedure. If the “Copy
b. Press the “Browse” button in order to select Configuration” procedure fails, the injector codes
the part number of the flash file that will be must be loaded manually.
programmed into the ECM. Installing Injector Codes
c. When the correct flash file is selected, press
the “Open” button.

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UENR4504 35
Programming Parameters

Exchanging electronic unit injectors can help


determine if a combustion problem is in the electronic
unit injector or in the cylinder. If two electronic unit
injectors that are currently installed in the engine are
exchanged between cylinders, the injector codes
must also be exchanged. Record the injector trim
codes for the two injectors that are to be exchanged.
Use the electronic service tool to enter the injector
codes for the correct cylinders.

i05867904

Mode Switch Setup

The Mode Switches can be used to change the


performance characteristics of the engine. The
“Engine Operating Mode” configuration is located in
the “Configuration” screen of the electronic service
tool.

Engine High Idle Speed (RPM)


Illustration 20 g02738616
Typical example of an electronic unit injector This parameter represents the maximum engine
(1) Location of the injector code
speed when the mode switch is not installed or when
the switch is in the OFF position.
Table 5
1. Record the injector code for each electronic unit
injector. Min Max
1500 rpm 2800 rpm
2. Connect the electronic service tool to the
diagnostic connector. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electronic Service Tools”. High Idle Droop Percentage
3. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the high idle.
4. Select the following menu options on the electronic
Table 6
service tool:
Minimum Maximum
• Service 5 percent 10 percent

• Calibrations

• Injector Trim Calibration Throttle #1 Droop Percentage


5. Select the appropriate cylinder. This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 1” input.
6. Click on the “Change” button. Table 7
Minimum Maximum
7. Input the applicable injector code that was
recorded in Test Step 1. 0 percent 10 percent

8. Click on the “OK” button.


Throttle #2 Droop Percentage
The injector code is loaded into the ECM.
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
9. Repeat the procedure for each cylinder, as is applied to the “Throttle 2” input.
required. Table 8

Exchanging Electronic Unit Injectors Minimum Maximum


0 percent 10 percent

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36 UENR4504
Programming Parameters

TSC1 Droop Percentage Table 14


Minimum Maximum
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Torque Speed Control 1(TSC1)” 0 percent 10 percent
input.
Table 9
Minimum Maximum Engine Operating Mode #2 High
0 percent 10 percent
Idle Speed
This parameter defines the high idle speed when
mode 2 is selected.
Engine Operating Mode #1 High Table 15
Idle Speed Minimum Maximum
This parameter defines the high idle speed when 1500 rpm 2800 rpm
mode 1 is selected.
Table 10
Minimum Maximum Engine Operating Mode #2 High
1500 rpm 2800 rpm
Idle Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the high idle when mode 2 is selected.
Engine Operating Mode #1 High Table 16
Idle Droop Percentage Minimum Maximum
This parameter represents the amount of droop that 5 percent 10 percent
is applied to the high idle when mode 1 is selected.
Table 11
Minimum Maximum Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle
5 percent 10 percent
#1 Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 1” input when mode 2 is
Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle selected.
#1 Droop Percentage Table 17
Minimum Maximum
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 1” input when mode 1 is 0 percent 10 percent
selected.
Table 12
Minimum Maximum Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle
0 percent 10 percent
#2 Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 2” input when mode 2 is
Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle selected.
#2 Droop Percentage Table 18
Minimum Maximum
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 2” input when mode 1 is 0 percent 10 percent
selected.
Table 13
Minimum Maximum Engine Operating Mode #2 TSC1
0 percent 10 percent
Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Torque Speed Control 1(TSC1)”
Engine Operating Mode #1 TSC1 input when mode 2 is selected.
Droop Percentage Table 19
Minimum Maximum
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Torque Speed Control 1(TSC1)” 0 percent 10 percent
input when mode 1 is selected.
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UENR4504 37
Programming Parameters

Engine Operating Mode #3 High i05920711

Idle Speed Throttle Setup


This parameter defines the high idle speed when
mode 3 is selected.
Table 20 There are two separate channels for throttle input.
Minimum Maximum The two channels can have any combination of an
analog throttle or a multi-position switched throttle.
1500 rpm 2800 rpm
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) must be
programmed for the type of throttle input that is being
Engine Operating Mode #3 High used in either position. From the menu, select
“Services” , then “Configuration” . On the
Idle Droop Percentage “Configuration” screen, select “Throttle
Configuration” to set up the analog throttle or select
This parameter represents the amount of droop that “PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters” to set up the
is applied to the high idle when mode 3 is selected. multi-position throttle switch.
Table 21
Minimum Maximum
5 percent 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle


#1 Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the “Throttle 1” input when mode 3 is
selected.
Table 22
Minimum Maximum
0 percent 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle


#2 Droop Percentage
This parameter represents the amount of droop that Illustration 21 g02233193
is applied to the “Throttle 2” input when mode 3 is Typical Range of Throttle
selected.
Table 23 (1) Lower Diagnostic Limit
(2) Initial Lower Position
Minimum Maximum (3) Idle Validation Minimum Off Threshold
(4) Idle Validation Maximum On Threshold
0 percent 10 percent (5) Initial Upper Position
(6) Upper Diagnostic Limit

Engine Operating Mode #3 TSC1 Analog throttles require additional programming. If a


multi-position switch is selected, refer to the
Droop Percentage Troubleshooting Guide, “Multiposition Switch Setup”.
If an analog throttle is selected, the following
This parameter represents the amount of droop that parameters can be programmed into the ECM.
is applied to the “Torque Speed Control 1(TSC1)”
input when mode 3 is selected. Throttle Enable Status
Table 24
This parameter defines which analog throttle inputs
Minimum Maximum are used.
0 percent 10 percent Table 25
Value
Disabled
Throttle #1
Throttle #1 and Throttle #2
Throttle #2

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38 UENR4504
Programming Parameters

Throttle #1 Initial Lower Position Table 30

This parameter is the voltage that will be interpreted Minimum Maximum


by the ECM as zero throttle. This parameter has a 0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC
tolerance to make an allowance for manufacturing
differences between throttle pedals.
Table 26 Throttle #1 Lower Diagnostic Limit
Minimum Maximum
This parameter is the minimum voltage that should be
0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC detected by the ECM in normal operation when the
pedal is in the “off” position. A value below this limit
will generate a open circuit or voltage below normal
Throttle #2 Initial Upper Position diagnostic code. The range of this diagnostic
detection area is from 0 VDC to the programmed
This parameter is the voltage that will be interpreted value for the lower position limit.
by the ECM as full throttle. This parameter has a Table 31
tolerance to make an allowance for manufacturing
differences between throttle pedals. Minimum Maximum
Table 27 0 VDC 1.6 VDC
Minimum Maximum
3.6 VDC 4.6 VDC Throttle #1 Upper Diagnostic Limit
This parameter is the minimum voltage that is
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Switch detected by the ECM in normal operation when the
pedal is in the maximum position. A value above this
Enable Status limit will generate a short circuit or voltage above
All analog throttles can have an Idle Validation Switch normal diagnostic code. The range of this diagnostic
(IVS). If this parameter is programmed to “Yes” , the detection area is from the programmed value of the
ECM will look for this switch input on pin J1:67 for Idle upper position limit to 5 VDC.
Validation Switch 1 (IVS1) and J1:42 for Idle Table 32
Validation Switch 2 (IVS2). Minimum Maximum
Table 28
3.6 VDC 5 VDC
Values
No
Yes Throttle #2 Initial Lower Position
This parameter is the voltage that will be interpreted
by the ECM as zero throttle. This parameter has a
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Minimum tolerance to make an allowance for manufacturing
Off Threshold differences between throttle pedals.
Table 33
This parameter is the minimum voltage that will be
detected by the ECM when the IVS is ON (Closed). Minimum Maximum
0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC
If the ECM detects a voltage below this value with the
IVS OFF (Open), a fault code will be generated and
the engine will remain at idle.
Table 29
Throttle #2 Initial Upper Position
Minimum Maximum This parameter is the voltage that will be interpreted
by the ECM as full throttle. This parameter has a
0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC tolerance to make an allowance for manufacturing
differences between throttle pedals.
Table 34
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Maximum
Minimum Maximum
On Threshold
3.6 VDC 4.6 VDC
This parameter is the maximum voltage that will be
detected by the ECM when the IVS is OFF (Open) .
When the idle validation switch is OFF (Open) and
the ECM detects a signal that is higher than the
programmed value for IVS Max ON, the ECM will
generate a fault code and the engine will remain at
idle.
Refer to Table 30 and Table 30 .
This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 39
Programming Parameters

Throttle #2 Idle Validation Switch Throttle #2 Upper Diagnostic Limit


Enable Status This parameter is the minimum voltage that is
All analog throttles can have an Idle Validation Switch detected by the ECM in normal operation when the
(IVS). If this parameter is programmed to “Yes” , the pedal is in the maximum position. A value above this
ECM will look for this switch input on pin J1:76 for Idle limit will generate a short circuit or voltage above
Validation Switch 1 (IVS1) and J1:42 for Idle normal diagnostic code. The range of this diagnostic
Validation Switch 2 (IVS2). detection area is from the programmed value of the
upper position limit to 5 VDC.
Table 35
Table 39
Values
Minimum Maximum
No
Yes 3.6 VDC 5 VDC

i05867907
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Minimum
Off Threshold Multiposition Switch Setup
This parameter is the minimum voltage that will be
detected by the ECM when the IVS is ON (Closed).
Note: The multi-position throttle switch can only be
If the ECM detects a voltage below this value with the enabled if the optional PTO switches are not installed.
IVS OFF (Open), a fault code will be generated and
the engine will remain at idle. The multi-position throttle switch is an optional throttle
Table 36 input. A maximum of four switch positions can be
used.
Minimum Maximum
When the “Multi-Position Throttle Switch” option is
0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC
selected as the “Throttle Lock Feature Installation
Status” in the electronic service tool, additional
information is required.
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Maximum
On Threshold Multi State Input Switch Enable
This parameter is the maximum voltage that will be Status
detected by the ECM when the IVS is OFF (Open) . This parameter must be set to “Enabled” if a multi-
When the idle validation switch is OFF (Open) and position switch is installed on the application.
the ECM detects a signal that is higher than the
Table 40
programmed value for IVS Max ON, the ECM will
generate a fault code and the engine will remain at Value
idle.
Enabled
Table 37 Disabled
Minimum Maximum
0.4 VDC 1.6 VDC
Mode Select Enable/Disable
This parameter defines the function of the multi state
Throttle #2 Lower Diagnostic Limit input switch.
Table 41
This parameter is the minimum voltage that should be
detected by the ECM in normal operation when the Value
pedal is in the “off” position. A value below this limit Mode Select Switch
will generate a open circuit or voltage below normal PTO Mode/Multi Position Throttle Switch
diagnostic code. The range of this diagnostic
detection area is from 0 VDC to the programmed
value for the lower position limit.
Throttle Lock Maximum Engine
Table 38
Speed
Minimum Maximum
0 VDC 1.6 VDC This parameter defines the maximum engine speed
the multi position throttle switch can control to when
enabled.
Table 42
Minimum Maximum Default
0 rpm 2800 rpm 1.05 times rated
speed

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40 UENR4504
Programming Parameters

Throttle Position #1 Engine Speed


The “Engine Speed” is the programmed engine rpm
for a particular position of the multi-position throttle
switch.
Table 43
Minimum Maximum Default
0 rpm 2800 rpm 800 rpm

Throttle Position #2 Engine Speed


The “Engine Speed” is the programmed engine rpm
for a particular position of the multi-position throttle
switch.
Table 44
Minimum Maximum Default
0 rpm 2800 rpm 800 rpm

Throttle Position #3 Engine Speed


The “Engine Speed” is the programmed engine rpm
for a particular position of the multi-position throttle
switch.
Table 45
Minimum Maximum Default
0 rpm 2800 rpm 800 rpm

Throttle Position #4 Engine Speed


The “Engine Speed” is the programmed engine rpm
for a particular position of the multi-position throttle
switch.
Table 46
Minimum Maximum Default
0 rpm 2800 rpm 800 rpm

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UENR4504 41
Customer Specified Parameters

Customer Specified Engine Idle Shutdown Warning Time

Parameters This parameter defines the amount of time that a


warning is raised before the engine is shut down.
Table 50
Minimum Maximum

i05867969 Less than “Engine Idle Shut-


0
down Delay Time”
Customer Specified
Parameters PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to
be configured to the exact needs of the application. Note: PTO and a multi-position throttle switch cannot
be installed at the same time.
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
operational requirements change. This parameter defines the switch input for the PTO/
Throttle lock function.
The following information is a brief description of the Table 51
customer specified parameters. The following
parameter values are included with the descriptions: Value
Multi Position Throttle Switch
• Minimum None
Raise/Lower Switch
• Maximum

Speed Control Multi-State Input Switch Enable Status


Low Idle Speed This parameter should be set to “Enabled” if a multi-
position switch is installed on the application. Refer to
The “Low Idle Speed” parameter is the minimum Troubleshooting, “Multiposition Switch Setup” or refer
engine rpm. to Troubleshooting, “Mode Switch Setup” for more
Table 47 information on configuring the multi-state switches.
Table 52
Minimum Maximum
Value
800 rpm 1200 rpm
Enabled
Disabled
Engine Idle Shutdown
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1
Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status
The “Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed 1” parameter
If the “Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status” is the engine speed that can be selected in the PTO
parameter is set to “Enabled” , the engine will shut Set/Resume mode.
down after a pre-set duration at low idle and the
Table 53
machine is in a safe state. Refer to “Machine Idle
Status Input Configuration” . Minimum Maximum
Table 48
800 rpm 1300 rpm
Value
Enabled
Disabled Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp
Rate
Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Time The “Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate”
parameter is the rate of engine acceleration when the
This parameter defines the amount of time the engine PTO switch is held in the ACCELERATE position.
can remain at idle when the machine is in a safe state Table 54
before the engine is shut down.
Table 49
Minimum Maximum

Minimum Maximum 0 rpm/sec 500 rpm/sec

0 hours 277 hours

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42 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Hydrocarbon Elevated Idle Speed


Rate This parameter defines the engine speed that the idle
The “Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate” speed is elevated to when there is excessive
parameter is the rate of engine deceleration when the hydrocarbon build-up in the aftertreatment system
PTO switch is held in the DECELERATE position. and the application is in a safe state.
Table 60
Table 55
Minimum Maximum
Minimum Maximum
1100 rpm 1200 rpm
0 rpm/sec 500 rpm/sec

Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Engine Acceleration Rate


Increment The “Engine Acceleration Rate” parameter is the
acceleration rate for the engine under normal
The “Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment” operating conditions.
parameter controls the increase in engine speed Table 61
when the PTO switch is briefly operated to
ACCELERATE. Minimum Maximum
Table 56 0 rpm/second 1000 rpm/second
Minimum Maximum
0 rpm 50 rpm
Configurable Inputs

Throttle Lock Maximum Engine Speed Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation
Status
This parameter defines the maximum engine speed
when the PTO switch is held in the ACCELERATE An air filter restriction switch is an optional switch
position and the “Throttle Lock Feature Installation input. If an air filter restriction switch is installed on the
Status ” is set to “Raise/Lower Switch” . application, this parameter must be set to “Installed” .
Table 57
Minimum Maximum
Note: If the Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation
Status is set to “Not Installed” , the “Air Filter
0 rpm 2800 rpm Restriction Switch Configuration” must be set to
“Normally Open” .
Table 62
Miscellaneous Value

Monitoring Mode Shutdowns Installed


Not Installed
The “Monitoring Mode Shutdowns” parameter
controls the shutdown feature that is associated with
the engine monitoring feature. When this feature is Air Filter Restriction Switch
enabled, certain diagnostic codes will cause the Configuration
engine to be shut down in order to protect the engine
from damage.
A “Normally Open” or a “Normally Closed” air filter
Table 58 restriction switch can be connected to the ECM. This
Value parameter must be set for the type of switch that is
installed.
Disabled Table 63
Enabled
Value
Normally Closed (to Ground)
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed Normally Open

This parameter defines the maximum engine speed


when a fault is detected on the throttle signal from the
analog throttle position sensor or the Torque Speed
Control 1 (TSC1) CAN data link request.
Table 59
Minimum Maximum
800 rpm 1800 rpm

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UENR4504 43
Customer Specified Parameters

User Defined Shutdown Enable Status Shutdown Lamp Installation Status


A user-defined shutdown switch is an optional switch Table 69
input. Programming the “User Defined Shutdown
Value
Enable Status” parameter to “Enabled” notifies the
ECM that a user-defined switch input is present. If this Enabled
parameter is programmed to “Enabled” and the Disabled
user-defined shutdown switch closes, the engine will
shut down.
Table 64 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Value Installation Status
Enabled Table 70
Disabled
Value
Enabled
Machine Idle Status Input Configuration Disabled

This parameter defines the method that the ECM is


notified when the application is in a safe state for DEF Level Lamp Installation Status
“Engine Idle Shutdown” and “Hydrocarbon Elevated
Idle Speed” functions. Table 71
Table 65 Value
Value Enabled
Switch Disabled
Data Link
Switch and Data Link
DEF Quality Lamp Installation Status
Configurable Outputs Table 72
Value
Lamps Enabled
Disabled
The following parameters must be set to “Enabled” if
the relevant lamp is connected directly to the engine
ECM. Starter Relay Installation Status
Oil Pressure Lamp Installation Status This parameter must be set to “Enabled” if the
application is equipped with a start relay controlled by
Table 66 the engine ECM.
Value Table 73
Enabled Value
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled

Wait to Start Lamp Installation Status


Table 67
Low Pressure Fuel Pump Installation
Value
Status
Enabled This parameter must be set to “Enabled” if a low-
Disabled pressure fuel pump is installed on the application.
Table 74
Value
Warning Lamp Installation Status
Enabled
Table 68 Disabled
Value
Enabled
Disabled

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44 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

Tachometer Output Configuration Throttle Arbitration Method


(Degrees per Pulse) The “Throttle Arbitration Method” parameter is
applicable to engines with more than one throttle
This parameter is used to configure the degrees per input. This parameter defines which throttle has
pulse if a tachometer is installed. control of the engine speed.
Table 75 Table 78
Minimum Maximum Value
0 degrees per pulse 360 degrees per pulse Largest wins
Smallest Wins
Manual
J1939 Continuous Fault Handling
These parameters define the engine software Manual Throttle Arbitration Precondition
reaction to faults on Torque Speed Control 1 (TSC1)
Check
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable This parameter is only applicable when the “Throttle
Status Arbitration Method” is set to manual. When this
parameter is enabled, the engine speed must be less
This parameter selects the TSC1 source address of than 1200 rpm and the active analog throttle position
the controlling device. Refer to the OEM must be less than 10 percent in order to switch the
analog throttle input.
documentation for more information.
Table 79

TSC1 Fault Reaction Value


Enabled
This parameter defines the engine software response Disabled
to a fault on the TSC request. If this parameter is
enabled, a fault on TSC1 will cause the engine speed
to go to “Limp Home Desired Engine Speed” . If this
parameter is disabled, a fault on TSC1 will cause the
Aftertreatment Configuration
engine speed control to switch to another valid speed
These parameters define the configuration of the
input (if available). aftertreatment that is installed on the application.
Table 76
Value Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank
Enabled Configuration
Disabled
This parameter defines the DEF tank configuration.
Table 80
TSC1 Fault Handling
Value
When this parameter is set to enabled, the engine 19 Liter Landscape
software will monitor TSC1 faults as soon as the 19 Liter Portrait
keyswitch is turned to the ON position. When this
parameter is set to disabled, the engine software will
monitor TSC1 faults after the first TSC1 message is
received. DEF Tank Height Parameters
Table 77
These parameters are used to define the DEF tank
Value configuration if a custom DEF tank is installed. Refer
Enabled to the OEM documentation for more information.
Disabled

Throttle Configuration
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Throttle Setup” for more
information on configuring throttles.

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UENR4504 45
Customer Specified Parameters

i05870101

Customer Specified Parameters Table

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46 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

Table 81
Customer Specified Parameters

ECM Parameter Possible Values


Speed Control

“Low Idle Speed” 800 to 1200 rpm

Engine Idle Shutdown

Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status Enabled


Disabled
Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Time 0 to 277 hours

Engine Idle Shutdown Warning Time 0 to “Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Time”

PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters


“Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status” Multi Position Throttle Switch
None
Raise/Lower Switch
Multi-State Input Switch Enable Status Enabled
Disabled
Mode Select Enable/Disable Enabled
Disabled
“Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1” 800 rpm to 1300 rpm

“Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate” 0 to 500 rpm /sec

“Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate” 0 to 500 rpm /sec

“Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment” 0 to 50 rpm

“Throttle Lock Maximum Engine Speed” 0 to rpm

Throttle Position #1 Engine Speed 0 to 2800 rpm

Throttle Position #2 Engine Speed 0 to 2800 rpm

Throttle Position #3 Engine Speed 0 to 2800 rpm

Throttle Position #4 Engine Speed 0 to 2800 rpm

Miscellaneous
“Monitoring Mode Shutdowns” Disabled
Enabled
“Limp Home Desired Engine Speed” 800 rpm to 1800 rpm

“Hydrocarbon Elevated Idle Speed” 1100 rpm to 1200 rpm

“Engine Acceleration Rate” 0 to 1000 rpm/sec

Configurable Inputs

Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status Installed


Not Installed
Air Filter Restriction Switch Configuration Normally Closed (to ground)
Normally Open

“User Defined Shutdown Enable Status” Enabled


Disabled
“Machine Idle Status Input Configuration” Switch
Data Link
Switch and Data Link
Configurable Outputs

(continued)

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UENR4504 47
Customer Specified Parameters

(Table 81, contd)


Customer Specified Parameters

ECM Parameter Possible Values


Oil Pressure Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Wait to Start Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Warning Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Shutdown Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
DEF Level Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
DEF Quality Lamp Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Starter Relay Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Low Pressure Fuel Pump Installation Status Enabled
Disabled
Tachometer Output Configuration (Degrees per Pulse) 0 to 360 degrees per pulse

J1939 Continuous Fault Handling

Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status Various

TSC1 Fault Reaction Enabled


Disabled
TSC1 Fault Handling Enabled
Disabled
Throttle Configuration

Throttle Arbitration Method Largest Wins


Smallest Wins
Manual
Manual Throttle Arbitration Precondition Check Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Throttle #1
Throttle Enable Status
Throttle #1 and Throttle #2
Throttle #2
Throttle #1 Initial Lower Position 0.4 to 1.6 V
Throttle #1 Initial Upper Position 3.6 to 4.6 V

No
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Switch Enable Status
Yes
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Minimum OFF Threshold 0.4 to 1.6 V
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Maximum ON Threshold 0.4 to 1.6 V
Throttle #1 Lower Diagnostic Limit 0 to 1.6 V

Throttle #1 Upper Diagnostic Limit 3.6 to 5 V

Throttle #2 Initial Lower Position 0.4 to 1.6 V


Throttle #2 Initial Upper Position 3.6 to 4.6 V

(continued)

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48 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

(Table 81, contd)


Customer Specified Parameters

ECM Parameter Possible Values


No
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Switch Enable Status
Yes
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Minimum OFF Threshold 0.4 to 1.6 V
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Maximum ON Threshold 0.4 to 1.6 V
Throttle #2 Lower Diagnostic Limit 0 to 1.6 V

Throttle #2 Upper Diagnostic Limit 3.6 to 5 V

Engine Operating Mode

High Idle Speed 1500 to 2800 rpm

High Idle Droop Percentage 5 to 10 percent

Throttle #1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Throttle #2 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

TSC1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #1 High Idle Speed 1500 to 2800 rpm

Engine Operating Mode #1 High Idle Droop Percentage 5 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #1 TSC1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #2 High Idle Speed 1500 to 2800 rpm

Engine Operating Mode #2 High Idle Droop Percentage 5 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #2 TSC1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 High Idle Speed 1500 to 2800 rpm

Engine Operating Mode #3 High Idle Droop Percentage 5 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Engine Operating Mode #3 TSC1 Droop Percentage 0 to 10 percent

Aftertreatment Configuration

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Configuration 19 Liter Landscape


19 Liter Portrait
DEF Tank Height Parameters Various

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UENR4504 49
Customer Specified Parameters

i05870106

Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet

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50 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

Table 82
Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet

Speed Control

“Low Idle Speed”

Engine Idle Shutdown

Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status

Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Time

Engine Idle Shutdown Warning Time

PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters


“Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status”
“Multi-State Input Switch Enable Status”

“Mode Select Enable/Disable”


“Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1”

“Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate”

“Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate”

“Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment”

“Throttle Lock Maximum Engine Speed”

“Throttle Position #1 Engine Speed”

“Throttle Position #2 Engine Speed”

“Throttle Position #3 Engine Speed”

“Throttle Position #4 Engine Speed”

Miscellaneous
“Monitoring Mode Shutdowns”

“Limp Home Desired Engine Speed”

“Hydrocarbon Elevated Idle Speed”

“Engine Acceleration Rate”

Configurable Inputs

Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status


Air Filter Restriction Switch Configuration

“User Defined Switch Installation Status”


“Machine Idle Status Input Configuration”

Configurable Outputs

Oil Pressure Lamp Installation Status

Wait to Start Lamp Installation Status

Warning Lamp Installation Status

Shutdown Lamp Installation Status

Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) Installation Status

DEF Level Lamp Installation Status

DEF Quality Lamp Installation Status

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 51
Customer Specified Parameters

(Table 82, contd)


Starter Relay Installation Status

Low Pressure Fuel Pump Installation Status

Tachometer Output Configuration (Degrees per Pulse)

J1939 Continuous Fault Handling

Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status

TSC1 Fault Reaction


TSC1 Fault Handling

Throttle Configuration

Throttle Arbitration Method


Manual Throttle Arbitration Precondition Check
Throttle Enable Status
Throttle #1 Initial Lower Position
Throttle #1 Initial Upper Position

Throttle #1 Idle Validation Switch Enable Status


Throttle #1 Idle Validation Minimum OFF Threshold
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Maximum ON Threshold
Throttle #1 Lower Diagnostic Limit

Throttle #1 Upper Diagnostic Limit

Throttle #2 Initial Lower Position


Throttle #2 Initial Upper Position

Throttle #2 Idle Validation Switch Enable Status


Throttle #2 Idle Validation Minimum OFF Threshold
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Maximum ON Threshold
Throttle #2 Lower Diagnostic Limit

Throttle #2 Upper Diagnostic Limit

Engine Operating Mode

High Idle Speed

High Idle Droop Percentage

Throttle #1 Droop Percentage

Throttle #2 Droop Percentage

TSC1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #1 High Idle Speed

Engine Operating Mode #1 High Idle Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #1 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #1 TSC1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #2 High Idle Speed

Engine Operating Mode #2 High Idle Droop Percentage

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
52 UENR4504
Customer Specified Parameters

(Table 82, contd)


Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #2 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #2 TSC1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #3 High Idle Speed

Engine Operating Mode #3 High Idle Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #3 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage

Engine Operating Mode #3 TSC1 Droop Percentage

Aftertreatment Configuration

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Configuration

DEF Tank Height Parameters

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 53
System Configuration Parameters

System Configuration
Parameters

i05870129

System Configuration
Parameters

System configuration parameters are programmed at


the factory. Normally, system configuration
parameters would never be changed through the life
of the engine. System configuration parameters must
be reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module
(ECM) is replaced. System configuration parameters
are not reprogrammed if the ECM software is
changed. The following parameters are system
configuration parameters.

Engine Rating Information


Information regarding the engine power and speed.

Rated power

Rated Engine Speed

Peak torque

Peak Torque Speed

ECM Identification Parameters


ECU Serial Number

Application Software Part Number

Application Software ID

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
54 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Symptom Troubleshooting

i05952249

Acceleration Is Poor or Throttle


Response Is Poor

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Parameters in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM)
• Throttle Position Sensor/Throttle Switches

• Air intake and exhaust system


• Valve lash

• Turbocharger
• Fuel supply
• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

• Electronic unit injectors


• Individual malfunctioning cylinder

Recommended Actions
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of


probability. Complete the procedures in order.

Note: If the problem only occurs under certain


conditions, test the engine under those conditions.
Examples of certain conditions are high engine
speed, full load, and engine operating temperature.
Troubleshooting the symptoms under other
conditions can give misleading results.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 55
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 83
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Engine Derate Result: A diagnostic code is present.


or Diagnostic
Note: Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may cause Codes Troubleshoot the diagnostic code. Refer to Troubleshoot-
poor performance. ing, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active or logged di- Result: A diagnostic code is not present.
agnostic codes. Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Parameters in the Electronic Control Module (ECM) Parameters Result: The parameters are not correct.

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct parame- Input the correct parameters. Refer to Troubleshooting,
ters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Customer Speci- “Customer Specified Parameters” for additional
fied Parameters” for additional information. information.

Result: The parameters are correct.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Throttle Position Sensor/Throttle Switches Electrical Result: The throttle response is not as expected.
connections
A. Turn the start switch to the ON position. If the maximum no-load speed cannot be obtained refer to
Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)”
B. Run the engine until the speed is equal to the maximum no-load and Troubleshooting, “Mode Selection - Test”.
speed.
If the engine speed is erratic refer to Troubleshooting,
C. Use the electronic service tool to make sure that the throttle is “Speed Control (Analog) - Test”.
set to reach the maximum no-load speed. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Throttle Setup” Result: All responses are normal.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Air Intake and Exhaust System Restrictions Result: There are restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust
system.
A. Observe the engine warning lamp. Check for an air filter restric-
tion indicator, if equipped. Replace plugged air filters. Refer to the Make the necessary repairs, Refer to Systems Operation/
Operation and Maintenance Manual. Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust System - In-
spect” for additional information.
B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions and/or
leaks. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet Result: There are no restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust
and Exhaust System - Inspect”. system.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Valve Lash Valve lash Result: The valve lash is not correct.

Note: The valve lash can affect the performance of the engine. Make any necessary repairs. Refer to Systems Operation,
A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Testing and Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect”.
Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect”.
Result: The valve lash is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
56 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 83, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

7. Turbocharger Turbocharger Result: There is a fault on the turbocharger.

Note: The turbocharger that is installed on the engine is a nonser- Repair the turbocharger or replace the turbocharger. Refer
viceable item. If any mechanical fault exists, then the faulty turbo- to Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger - Remove”
charger must be replaced. and Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger - Install”.

A. Ensure that the mounting bolts for the turbocharger are tight. Result: The turbocharger is OK.

B. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not blocked or Proceed to Test Step 8.
restricted.

C. Check that the compressor housing for the turbocharger is free


of dirt and debris. Make sure that the housing is not damaged.

D. Check that the turbine housing for the turbocharger is free of


dirt and debris. Make sure that the housing is not damaged.

E. Check that the turbine blades rotate freely in the turbocharger.

F. Ensure that the wastegate on the turbocharger is adjusted cor-


rectly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Turbo-
charger - Inspect”. If the wastegate actuator is faulty, replace the
turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger
- Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger -
Install”.

8. Fuel Supply Fuel system Result: The fuel supply is not OK.

A. Visually check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Do not rely on the Repair the fuel system or replace the fuel system compo-
fuel gauge only. nents, as necessary.

B. Ensure that the vent in the fuel cap is not filled with debris. Result: The fuel supply is OK.

C. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in the full Proceed to Test Step 9.
OPEN position.

D. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified fuel


(wax).

E. Check the primary filter/water separator for water in the fuel.

F. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

G. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are tight and secured
properly.

H. Replace the primary and secondary fuel filters.

G. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems Op-


eration, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

H. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation,


Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

I.
Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 57
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 83, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

9. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Cylinder Result: The results of the compression test are outside the
compression specifications.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation, Test-
ing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Investigate the cause and rectify any faults.

Note: Possible causes of low compression are shown in


the following list:

· Loose glow plugs


· Faulty piston
· Faulty piston rings
· Worn cylinder bores
· Worn valves
· Faulty cylinder head gasket
· Damaged cylinder head

Result: The results of the compression test are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There are active diagnostic codes relating to the
codes fuel injectors.
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co-
des that relate to the electronic unit injectors. Troubleshoot the active diagnostic codes.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

Result: All injectors are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

11. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: The test indicates a faulty cylinder.

A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic service Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is not
tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . operating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder
that is operating below normal performance.
As each cylinder is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from
the engine. When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a notice- Result: The test indicates that all cylinders are OK.
able change in the sound of the engine.
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
If a change in the sound of the engine is not noted, the isolated
cylinder is not operating under normal conditions. If the isolation of
a cylinder results in a change in the sound that is less noticeable,
the cylinder may be operating below normal performance.

i05952252 Probable Causes


Alternator Is Noisy • Alternator drive belt

• Alternator mounting bracket

Note: This symptom is not an electronic system fault. • Alternator drive pulley

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting • Alternator bearings


for information on possible electrical causes of this
condition. Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
58 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 84
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Alternator Drive Belt and Tensioner Drive belt Result: The alternator drive belt is in good condition and
the belt tension is correct.
A. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Check the belt tension.
Result: The alternator drive belts are not in good condition
Note: Excessive belt tension can result in damage to the or the belt tension is incorrect.
alternator.
If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged, replace
the belts. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator
Belt - Remove and Install” for the correct procedure.

Result: The alternator drive belts are in good condition and


the belt tension is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Alternator Mounting Bracket Alternator Mounting Result: The alternator mounting bracket is cracked and
Bracket distorted.
A. Inspect the alternator mounting bracket for cracks and
distortion. Repair the mounting bracket or replace the mounting
bracket.

Note: The repair/replacement will ensure that the alternator


drive belt and the alternator drive pulley are in alignment.

Result: The alternator mounting bracket is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Alternator Drive Pulley Alternator Drive Result: There is excessive wear on the alternator drive
Pulley pulley.
A. Check the condition of the alternator drive pulley. Look for
deep grooves that have been worn into the pulley by the belt. Replace the pulley.
Check that the nut for the pulley has not become loose.
Result: The alternator drive pulley nut was loose.

Tighten the nut.

Result: There is not excessive wear on the alternator drive


pulley.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Alternator Bearings Alternator bearings Result: The alternator bearings are not OK.

A. Check the alternator bearings for signs of wear. Repair the alternator or replace the alternator, as needed.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the correct
procedure.

Result: The alternator bearings are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 59
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05989269

Alternator Problem
(Charging Problem and/or Noisy
Operation)

Probable Causes
• Alternator
• Charging Circuit

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 85
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Condition of the Alternator Drive Belts Drive belt Result: The alternator drive belts are in good condition and
the belt tension is correct.
A. Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belts.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Check the belt tension. If the engine is equipped with an au-
tomatic belt tensioner, check the automatic belt tensioner. Result: The alternator drive belts are not in good condition
or the belt tension is incorrect.
Excessive belt tension can result in damage to the alternator.
If the alternator drive belts are worn or damaged, replace
the belts. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the cor-
rect procedure.

If necessary, replace the automatic belt tensioner. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly for the correct procedure.

2. Condition of the Alternator Drive Pulley Alternator Drive Result: There is excessive wear on the alternator drive
Pulley pulley.
A. Check the condition of the alternator drive pulley. Look for
deep grooves that have been worn into the pulley by the belt. Replace the pulley.
Check that the nut for the pulley has not become loose.
Result: The alternator drive pulley nut was loose.

Tighten the nut.

Result: There is not excessive wear on the alternator drive


pulley.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
60 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 85, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Wear of the Alternator Bearings Alternator bearings Result: The alternator bearings are OK.

A. Check the alternator bearings for signs of wear. Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The alternator bearings are not OK.

Repair the alternator or replace the alternator, as needed.


Refer to Disassembly and Assembly for the correct
procedure.

4. Operation of the Alternator or Regulator Regulator and Result: The regulator and alternator are operating properly.
alternator
A. Verify that the alternator or the regulator is operating cor- Proceed to Test Step 5.
rectly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Al-
ternator - Test” for the proper testing procedures. Result: The regulator and alternator are not operating
properly.

Repair the alternator and regulator or replace the alternator


and regulator, as needed. Refer to Disassembly and As-
sembly for the correct procedure.

5. Inspection of the Charging Circuit Charging circuit Result: The charging circuit is not working properly.

A. Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in the Clean all connections and tighten all connections. Replace
charging circuit. any faulty parts.

i05989429

Battery Problem
Probable Causes

• Charging circuit
• Battery

• Auxiliary device

Recommended Actions
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 61
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 86
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Charging Circuit Charging Result: The charging circuit is not OK.


circuit
A. Check that the battery charging circuit is operating correctly. Re- Repair the charging circuit, as necessary.
fer to Troubleshooting, “Alternator Problem”.
Result: The charging circuit is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Battery Battery Result: The battery is not OK.

A. Verify that the battery is no longer able to hold a charge. Refer Replace the battery. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Battery - Test”. Manual, “Battery - Replace”.

Result: The battery is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Auxiliary Device Auxiliary Result: The battery has been drained by an auxiliary device
Device being left in the ON position.
A. Check if an auxiliary device has drained the battery by being left
in the ON position. Charge the battery. Verify that the battery is able to maintain a
charge. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting for
the correct procedure.

Result: The battery has not been drained by an auxiliary de-


vice being left in the ON position.

Contact the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

i05952261

Coolant Contains Oil


Probable Causes

• Engine oil cooler


• Cylinder head gasket

• Cylinder head
• Cylinder block

Recommended Actions
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
62 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 87
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Engine Oil Cooler Oil Cooler Result: A leak is found in the engine oil cooler.

A. Drain the coolant from the cooling system. Drain the lubricat- Install a new oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
ing oil from the engine oil cooler. Refer to the Operation and bly, “Engine Oil Cooler - Remove” and Disassembly and
Maintenance Manual for more information. Assembly, “Engine Oil Cooler - Install” for the correct
procedure.
B. Check for leaks in the engine oil cooler. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System” for the Flush the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and Main-
proper procedure. tenance Manual for the correct procedure. Refill the cooling
system with the correct coolant. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for the recommended coolant and
capacities.

Refill the engine with the proper oil after the leak has been
repaired. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual
for the correct oil capacities and viscosity.

Result: A leak was not found in the engine oil cooler.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Cylinder Head Gasket Cylinder head Result: The cylinder head gasket does not show signs of
gasket damage or leakage.
A. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and As-
sembly, “Cylinder Head - Remove”. Install a new cylinder head gasket and install the cylinder
head. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Cylinder Head
B. Inspect the cylinder head gasket for faults and any signs of - Install” .
leakage.
Result: The cylinder head gasket shows signs of damage
or leakage.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Cylinder Head Cylinder head Result: A fault is found in the cylinder head.

A. Check for cracks in the cylinder head. Perform a leak test on Repair the cylinder head or replace the cylinder head. In-
the cylinder head. Refer to System Operation, Testing and Ad- stall the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
justing, “Cylinder Head - Inspect” for the correct procedure. bly, “Cylinder Head - Install”.

Result: A fault is not found in the cylinder head.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Cylinder Block Cylinder block Result: A fault is found in the cylinder block.

A. Inspect the top face of the cylinder block for faults and signs Repair the cylinder block or replace the cylinder block. In-
of leakage. spect the top deck. Refer to the Reuse and Salvage Guide-
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cylinder lines for the proper inspection procedure.
Block - Inspect” for the correct procedure.
Result: No fault is found in the cylinder block.

Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-


bly, “Cylinder Head - Install”.

Contact the Dealer Solutions Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 63
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05989049

Coolant Level Is Low

Note: On engines equipped with a Diesel Exhaust


Fluid (DEF) system, the DEF tank requires coolant
flow around the tank. The coolant diverter valve will
turn the flow to the DEF tank on or off. If the coolant
system is filled when the coolant diverter valve is
CLOSED , the coolant level will drop when the
coolant diverter valve is opened. This situation does
not necessarily indicate a fault.
Inspect the cooling system for leaks. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling
System - Test” for the correct procedure.

i05991749

Coolant Temperature Is High

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:


Table 88
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for High Coolant Temperature

J1939 Code Description Notes


110-15 Engine Coolant Temperature : High - least The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the coolant temperature
severe (1) is greater than 110° C (230° F) for at least 0.5 seconds. The code will be
reset if the coolant temperature is less than 110° C (230° F) for at least
0.5 seconds.

If equipped, the warning lamp will come on. The ECM will log the diagnos-
tic code.
110-16 Engine Coolant Temperature : High - moder- The Electronic Control Module (ECM detects that the coolant temperature
ate severity (2) is greater than 112° C (233.6° F) for at least 0.5 seconds. The code will be
reset if the coolant temperature is less than 110° C (230° F) for at least
0.5 seconds.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The ECM will log the diagnostic
code.
Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Coolant level
• Coolant temperature sensor

• Radiator and hoses


• Radiator cap and pressure relief valve

• Water temperature regulator


• Engine cooling fan

• Quality of coolant
• Coolant pump

• Cylinder head gasket

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
64 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 89
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: Diagnostic codes are not present.


Codes
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for diagnostic codes that Return the unit to service.
relate to the temperature in the cooling system.
Result: Diagnostic codes are present.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Coolant Level Engine coolant


level Result: The engine coolant level is low.
A. Check the coolant level.
Check the cooling system for leaks. Refer to Systems Op-
eration, Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System - Test” for
additional information. Repair any leaks immediately.

Result: The engine coolant level is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Coolant Temperature Sensor Coolant tem- Result: The temperature sensor is not accurate.
perature sensor
A. Compare the reading for the coolant temperature on the elec- Troubleshoot the circuit and the coolant temperature sen-
tronic service tool to the reading for the coolant temperature on a sor. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Sensor Signal (Analog,
calibrated test gauge. Passive) - Test”.

Result: The temperature sensor is reading accurately.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Radiator and Hoses Radiator and Result: The radiator fins are blocked or damaged.
hoses
A. Check the radiator fins for dirt, debris, and/or damage. Remove any dirt and/or debris and straighten any bent
fins.
B. Check for collapsed hoses and/or other restrictions.
Result: The radiator has internal blockage.
C. Check the radiator for internal blockage.
Remove the blockage.
D. Ensure that the radiator size is sufficient. An undersized radiator
does not have enough area for the effective release of heat. An un- Result: The radiator fins are not damaged and the radiator
dersized radiator may cause the engine to run at a temperature that does not have an internal blockage.
is higher than normal. The normal temperature is dependent on the
ambient temperature. Proceed to Test Step 5.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 65
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 89, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

5. Radiator Cap and Pressure Relief Valve Radiator cap Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water temper-
ature regulator are not operating properly.
A. Pressure-test the cooling system. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System” for the correct procedure. Clean the components or replace the components.

B. Check that the seating surfaces of the pressure relief valve and Result: The pressure relief valve and/or the water temper-
the radiator cap are clean and undamaged. ature regulator are operating properly.

C. Check operation of the pressure relief valve and/or the water Proceed to Test Step 6.
temperature regulator.

6. Water Temperature Regulator Water Temper- Result: The water temperature regulator is not operating
ature Regulator correctly.
A. Check the water temperature regulator for correct operation. Re-
fer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling System” Replace the water temperature regulator. Refer to Disas-
for the proper procedure. sembly and Assembly, “Water Temperature Regulator -
Remove and Install”.

Result: The water temperature regulator is operating


correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Engine Cooling Fan Fan and drive Result: The drive belt is not tensioned correctly.
belt
A. Check for a loose drive belt. Result: The fan is damaged.

Note: A loose fan drive belt will cause a reduction in the air flow Repair the fan or replace the fan, as necessary. Refer to
across the radiator. Disassembly and Assembly, “Fan - Remove and Install”.

B. Check the engine cooling fan for damage. Result: The fan is OK and the fan belt is tensioned
correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Quality of Coolant Coolant Result: The coolant is not of an acceptable quality.

A. Check the quality of the coolant. Refer to the Operation and Drain and refill the coolant system with coolant of the cor-
Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations - rect quality. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Man-
Coolant”. ual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations - Coolant”.

Result: The coolant is of an acceptable quality.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
66 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 89, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

9. Inspection of the Coolant Pump Coolant pump Result The coolant pump is damaged or not operating
correctly.
A. Inspect the impeller of the coolant pump for damage and/or
erosion. If necessary, replace the coolant pump. Refer to Disas-
sembly and Assembly, “Water Pump - Remove” and Disas-
sembly and Assembly, “Water Pump - Install”.

Result The coolant pump is not damaged and the pump is


operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Cylinder Head Gasket Cylinder Head Result: Bubbles are present in the coolant or the coolant
gasket is discolored.
Switch off the engine and allow the engine to cool to below normal
working temperature. Remove the pressure cap for the coolant sys- Check the cylinder head gasket. Refer to the recom-
tem. Start the engine and inspect the coolant for the presence of mended action for the cylinder head gasket within Trouble-
bubbles or discoloration of the coolant. shooting, “Oil Contains Coolant”.

Note: If bubbles are present in the coolant or the coolant is discol- Check the cylinder head for flatness. Refer to the recom-
ored, combustion gases may be entering the cooling system. mended action for checking flatness of the cylinder head
within Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cylin-
der Head - Inspect”.

Result: There is no evidence of gas leakage into the cool-


ing system.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05952268

Coolant Temperature Is Low Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
and alkali.

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot a low At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
coolant temperature. and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to
heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
Probable Causes
Remove filler cap slowly to relieve pressure only
• Thermostat when engine is stopped and radiator cap is cool
enough to touch with your bare hand.
• Coolant temperature sensor
Cooling System Conditioner contains alkali.
• Extreme ambient temperatures Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
• Engine cooling fan configuration
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
Recommended Actions steps are listed.
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 67
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 90
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Make Sure the Engine is Correctly Equipped for Ambient Engine operation Result: The engine is equipped for the ambient
Conditions conditions.

A. Ensure that the engine is correctly equipped for the ambient Proceed to Test Step 2.
conditions.
Result: The engine is not equipped for ambient
conditions.

Refer to the OEM documentation for more information


regarding equipment required for cold-weather
operation.

2. Inspect the Cooling System Engine coolant Result: The engine coolant level is OK.
level
A. Check the coolant level. Proceed to Test Step 3.

B. Check for signs of a coolant leak. Result: The engine coolant level is not OK.

Note: If the coolant temperature sensor is not immersed in coolant, Check the cooling system for leaks. Refer to Trouble-
a false reading can occur. shooting, “Coolant Level is Low” for additional informa-
tion. Repair any leaks.

3. Faulty Coolant Temperature Sensor Faulty coolant Result The coolant temperature is as expected.
temperature
A. Check the reading of the coolant temperature on the electronic sensor A failed coolant temperature sensor has been detected.
service tool. The temperature should rise steadily as the engine is Replace the temperature sensor.
warmed. Ensure that the temperature is as expected.
Result The coolant temperature is as expected.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Engine Coolant System Coolant Result: The coolant temperature comes up to opera-
temperature tional temperature.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Return the unit to service.
B. Connect to the electronic service tool.
Result The coolant temperature does not come up to
C. Start the engine. operational levels.

D. Monitor the “Engine Coolant Temperature” in the status screen Test the . Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Ad-
justing, “Water Temperature Regulator - Test”. If the test
fails, replace the water temperature regulator. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Temperature Reg-
ulator - Remove and Install”.

If the procedure did not correct the fault, contact the


Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05991949

Crankcase Breather Ejects Oil

The crankcase breather includes a pressure relief


valve that prevents a build-up of excessive pressure
in the breather system.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
68 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions

Illustration 22 g02919637
(1) Crankcase pressure relief valve
Illustration 23 g02919737

In normal operation of the engine, the pressure relief


valve remains closed. If there is evidence of oil
staining around pressure relief valve (1), perform the
following procedure in order to diagnose the fault.

Probable Causes
• Breather filter

• Breather hoses
• Breather heater

• Excessive blow-by

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 69
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 91
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Breather Filter Breather filter Result: The breather element is incorrectly installed or
damaged.
A. Check that the breather element is correctly installed and that
the element is not damaged. Install a new filter element. Refer to Operation and Mainte-
nance Manual, “Engine Crankcase Breather Element -
Replace”.
B. Check for restrictions or blockages in orifice (2). Note: If a new filter element blocks before the service peri-
od is completed, the blockage can indicate a fault in the
engine.

Result: There is a restriction or blockage in orifice (2).

If necessary, replace the crankcase breather. Refer to Dis-


assembly and Assembly, “Crankcase Breather - Remove”
and refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Crankcase
Breather - Install”

Result: The breather filter is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Breather Hoses Breather hoses


Result: There is a restriction or blockage in one of the
A. Check the oil return hose and the breather outlet hose for restric- breather hoses.
tions or blockages.
Replace the breather hoses, as necessary.

Result: The breather hoses are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Breather Heater 10 V to 14 V for Result: The measured voltage is less than 10 V.


step D
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. There is a fault in the wiring to the breather heater.
Less than 10 k Repair the harness or repair the harness
B. Disconnect the breather heater connector. Ohms for step
F. Result: The measured resistance is greater than 10 k
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Ohms.

D. Use a suitable multimeter to measure the voltage at the harness Replace the breather heater.
connector for the heater.
Result: All measurements are within the expected ranges.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
F. Use a suitable multimeter to measure the resistance of the heater
element.

4. Excessive Blow-by Blow-by Result: The fault has been rectified.

Excessive blow-by increases the flow of fumes through the breath- Return the engine to service.
er system and can cause the breather element to block. The pres-
sure relief valve may then open. Result: The fault is still present.

A. If excessive blow-by is suspected, replace the breather element. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Crank-
case Breather Element - Replace”.

B. Investigate the cause of the excessive blow-by. Refer to Trouble-


shooting, “Oil Consumption Is Excessive”.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
70 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05991971

Cylinder Is Noisy
Probable Causes

• Diagnostic codes

• Fuel quality
• Valve train components

• Injectors
• Pistons

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 92
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Codes Result: A diagnostic trouble code is active or logged.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool and Troubleshoot the active or logged codes. Refer to Trouble-
the Electronic Control Module (ECM). shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

B. Check for active diagnostic codes. Result: A diagnostic trouble code is not active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Fuel Quality Fuel Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

A. Check the fuel quality. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Drain the fuel system and replace the fuel filters. Refer to
Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”. the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Pri-
mary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace” and Op-
B. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information on eration and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Filter -
the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine. Replace”.

Fill the fuel system with fuel that meets the standard in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”.

Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-


nance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.

Verify that the procedure has eliminated the noise.

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 71
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 92, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Valve Train Components Valve train Result: Valve train components are damaged.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Valve Lash Is Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair has elimi-
Excessive”. nated the noise.

B. Check for damage to valve train components. Remove the valve Result: The valve train components are not damaged.
cover from the suspect cylinders. Check the following items for
damage: Proceed to Test Step 4.

· Valve springs

· Rocker shaft

· Pushrods

· Camshaft followers

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

4. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There is an active diagnostic code for the injectors.
codes
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co- Troubleshoot any active injector diagnostic codes. Refer to
des that relate to the electronic unit injectors. Troubleshoot any ac- Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.
tive diagnostic codes before continuing with this procedure.

Result: There are no active diagnostic codes for the


injectors.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Pistons Pistons Result: One or more pistons are worn or damaged.

A. Inspect the pistons for damage and wear. Replace any worn or damaged parts.

Verify that the repair has eliminated the noise.

Result: All pistons are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05952321

DEF Concentration Is Incorrect

Use this procedure to troubleshoot the following


codes:
Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool
Features” for more information about service
features.
Table 93
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Concentration Is Incorrect

J1939 Code Description Notes

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
72 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 93, contd)


3516-2 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Erratic, Intermit- The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the
tent, or Incorrect concentration of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is out-
side of the acceptable range for at least 10 minutes.
The battery voltage is at least 9 V.
The DEF tank temperature is between 20° C (68° F) and
40° C (104° F).
The DEF quality lamp will come on.

3516-14 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Special The ECM detects that the fluid in the DEF tank is not
Instruction DEF.
The fault is detected for at least 5 minutes.
The battery voltage is at least 9 V.
The DEF tank temperature is between 20° C (68° F) and
40° C (104° F).
The warning lamp will flash.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of


probability. Complete the procedure in the order in
which the steps are listed.
Table 94
Required Service Tools

Part Number Description

T400195 Test Kit (Refractometer)

Table 95
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

Diagnostic Active
1. Check for Diagnostic Codes Active or Logged Diagnostic or Logged codes Result: A diagnostic code is active or logged other than a
codes. 3516-2 or 3516-14 code.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Troubleshoot the active or logged code.
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Result: A 3516-2 or 3516-14 diagnostic code is active or
logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check the DEF Quality DEF quality Result: DEF quality is not within the acceptable range.
standards
A. Use a T400195 Refractometer to measure the Diesel Exhaust Drain the DEF fluid from the tank. Refill the tank with DEF
Fluid (DEF) quality. that meets ISO 22241 quality standards.

Refer to Testing and Adjusting, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid Quality - Result: DEF quality is within the acceptable range.
Test” for the correct procedure.
Replace the DEF header unit. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly.
Repeat this procedure from Test Step 1.

If the procedure did not correct the fault, contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 73
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05892003

DEF Does Not Purge


Table 96

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Does Not Purge

J1939 Description Notes


Code
The ECM detects that the DEF pressure is greater than the acceptable range by at least
35 kPa (5 psi) after the DEF system has purged. The acceptable range is determined by
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid
ambient conditions and DEF tank temperature.
4334-20 Doser Absolute Pressure : Data
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Drifted High
The warning lamp will come on.
This diagnostic code will clear the next time the keyswitch is turned to the ON position.

The ECM detects that the DEF pressure is less than the acceptable range by at least
75 kPa (11 psi) after the DEF system has purged. The acceptable range is determined by
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid ambient conditions and DEF tank temperature.
4334-21 Doser Absolute Pressure : Data The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Drifted Low The warning lamp will come on.
This diagnostic code will clear the next time the keyswitch is turned to the ON position.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
74 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

Illustration 24 g03712848
View of the DEF pump module.
(1) DEF backflow line connector

Illustration 25 g03712856
View of the DEF tank and DEF tank header unit
(1) DEF backflow line connector

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 75
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 97
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Check the Backflow Line for a Restriction DEF return line Result: An obstruction was found.
restriction
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes. Flush line with water or low-pressure air. If necessary, re-
B. Remove the backflow line from DEF tank header (2) and DEF place the line.
pump (1). Result: An obstruction was not found.
C. Inspect the backflow line for obstructions. If one of the preceding diagnostic codes are logged every
Note: Possible obstructions are ice, DEF deposits, or debris. time the engine is shut down, either the purging pump is
not operating correctly or the DEF pump pressure sensor
is faulty.
Replace the DEF pump module. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly.

i05952343

DEF Module Does Not


Respond

Use this procedure to troubleshoot the following


codes:

Note: Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool


Features” for more information about service
features.
Table 98
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Module Does Not Respond

J1939 Code Description Notes


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the DEF injector does
not open when requested.
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing
5394-7 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Valve : Not Responding Properly
There are no other active diagnostic codes for the DEF injector.
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of


probability. Complete the procedure in the order in
which the steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
76 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 99
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are other active diagnostic codes relating to
codes the DEF injector or the DEF quality.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Troubleshoot the other diagnostic codes before returning
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. to this procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
Trouble Codes”.
C. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic
codes. Result: There are no other active diagnostic codes relat-
ing to the DEF injector or the DEF quality. A 5394-7 diag-
nostic code is active.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Perform the “ DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test”” DEF dosing Result: The quantity collected is not within the acceptable
range.
A. Perform the “DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test” . Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Aftertreatment SCR Replace the DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and As-
System Dosing Test” for the correct procedure. sembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and
Install”.

Result: The quantity collected is within the desired range.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check the DEF Pressure Line Pressure line Result: There is ice in the pressure line.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes. Check the operation of the line heaters. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “DEF Line Heater - Test”.
B. Visually inspect the lines for leaks or damage. Result: There are restrictions or leaks in the lines.

C. Remove the DEF pressure line between the DEF pump and the Remove the restrictions or replace the pressure line.
DEF injector. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly, “Diesel Ex-
haust Fluid Lines - Remove and Install”. Result: There are no restrictions in the lines.

D. Check for ice, urea deposits, or debris in the DEF pressure line. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05892816

DEF Pressure Does Not


Respond

These codes can become active in the following


circumstances:
• The DEF pump pressure is not stable after the
initial priming sequence.
• The DEF pump is not able to supply DEF after the
line heaters have been energized and a heating
cycle has been completed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 77
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 100
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Pressure Does Not Respond

J1939 Description Notes


Code
The ECM detects that the DEF backflow line pressure is not responding.
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on. The DEF system will purge.
The diagnostic code will be cleared when the keyswitch has been cycled
and the DEF lines have been defrosted.
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Dosing Unit Input Lines : Not
3362-7 The DEF pressure line pressure is not responding after the defrosting
Responding Properly
period.
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on. The DEF system will purge.
The diagnostic code will be cleared when the keyswitch has been cycled
and the fault does not reoccur.
The ECM detects that the DEF pressure does not reach 100 kPa (14.5 psi)
after ten attempts to pressurize the system.
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute The warning lamp will come on. DEF dosing will be disabled while this diag-
4334-7 nostic code is active.
Pressure : Not Responding Properly
The ECM detects that the DEF pump is unable to reduce the DEF pressure
while the system is purging.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the DEF pressure is not stable during ten attempts to
pressurize the system.
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute
4334-10 The warning lamp will flash. The DEF system will be purged and the engine
Pressure : Abnormal Rate of Change
will be derated.
The diagnostic code will be cleared when the keyswitch has been cycled
and the fault does not reoccur.
Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

Illustration 26 g03713516 Illustration 27 g03713528


View of the DEF pump module View of the DEF tank and DEF tank header unit
(1) DEF backflow line connector (4) DEF backflow line connector
(2) DEF pressure line connector (5) DEF suction line connector
(3) DEF suction line connector
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
78 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 101
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Level in the DEF Tank DEF Level Result: There is not enough DEF in the DEF tank.

A. Check that there is sufficient DEF in the DEF tank. Fill the DEF tank with DEF. Refer to Operation and Main-
Note: If there is insufficient DEF in the DEF tank, the system can fill tenance Manual, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Fill”.
with air.
Result: The level in the DEF tank is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Diagnostic Trouble Codes Diagnostic trou- Result: One of the diagnostic codes listed in Table 100 is
ble codes active or recently logged.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine.
Proceed to Test Step 3.
B. Connect to the electronic service tool.
Result: A code other than 4334-7 is active or recently
C. Check for active or recently logged diagnostic trouble codes. logged.

Troubleshoot the logged or active code. Refer to Trouble-


shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

3. Check the DEF Line Heaters DEF line heaters Result: The DEF line heaters are not OK.

A. Check that the DEF line heaters are working correctly. Make any necessary repairs. Refer to Troubleshooting,
Refer to Troubleshooting, “DEF Line Heater - Test”. “DEF Line Heater - Test”.

Start the engine. If the fault is still present, proceed to Test


Step 4.
Result: The DEF line heaters are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 79
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 101, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Inspect All the DEF Lines for Leaks Leaks Result: The lines are leaking, damaged, pinched, or
disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine.
Make the necessary repairs.
B. Connect to the electronic service tool.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
C. Use the electronic service tool to perform the “DEF Dosing Sys-
tem Verification Test ” in order to pressurize the system. Result: The lines are not leaking, damaged, pinched, or
disconnected.
D. Visually inspect all DEF lines from the tank to the DEF injector.
Look for pinched, damaged, or disconnected lines. Proceed to Test Step 5.

E. Inspect the lines for leakage.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

Obstructions
5. Check the DEF Lines for Obstructions Result: An obstruction was found.

A. Remove the suction line from the DEF tank header (5) and DEF Flush the line or replace the line.
pump (3).
Install the pressure lines.
B. Remove the pressure line from the DEF injector and DEF pump
(2).
Result: An obstruction was not found.
C. Remove the backflow line from the DEF pump (1) and the DEF
pump header (4).
D. Inspect the lines for obstructions. Flush lines with water/low Install a replacement DEF pump module. Refer to Disas-
pressure air if necessary. sembly and Assembly.

Note: Possible obstructions are ice, DEF deposits, or debris.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
80 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05952353

DEF Pressure Is High


Table 102

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Pressure Is High

J1939 Description Notes


Code
The ECM detects that the DEF pressure is greater than 750 kPa (109 psi) for at least 0.5
seconds.
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
4334-0 Doser Absolute Pressure : High - The warning lamp will flash and the engine will be derated. DEF injection is disabled while
most severe (3) this diagnostic code is active.
The diagnostic code will clear when the DEF pressure drops below 750 kPa (109 psi) for
at least 0.5 seconds.
The ECM detects that the DEF pressure has risen above 610 kPa (88 psi) and remains
above 590 kPa (86 psi) for at least 20 seconds.
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid
The warning lamp will flash and the engine will be derated. When this diagnostic code be-
4334-16 Doser Absolute Pressure : High -
comes active, the DEF pressure will be reduced and the pressure build-up process will be-
moderate severity (2)
gin again .
The diagnostic code will clear if the DEF pressure remains below 610 kPa (88 psi) after
the DEF system has been repressurized.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 81
Symptom Troubleshooting

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

Illustration 28 g03712848
View of the DEF pump module.
(1) DEF backflow line connector

Illustration 29 g03712856
View of the DEF tank and DEF tank header unit
(1) DEF backflow line connector

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
82 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 103
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Backflow Line for a Restriction DEF return line Result: An obstruction was found.
restriction
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes. Flush line with water/low pressure air. If necessary, re-
place the line.

B. Remove the backflow line from DEF tank header (2) and DEF Proceed to Test Step 3.
pump (1).
Result: An obstruction was not found.
C. Inspect the backflow line for obstructions.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
Note: Possible obstructions are ice, DEF deposits, or debris.

2. Check for a Restriction in the DEF Pump DEF pump Result: DEF did not flow from the DEF backflow line into
restriction the container.
A. Connect the backflow line to DEF pump (2). Place the other end
of the line into a suitable container to collect the DEF. Replace the DEF pump. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly manual for the correct procedure.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine.
Result: DEF flowed from the backflow line into the
C. Connect to the electronic service tool. container.

D. Perform the “DEF Dosing System Verification Test” . Wait for Connect the backflow line to DEF tank header (1).
the test to complete.
If the fault is still present, contact the Dealer Solution Net-
work (DSN).

i05897537

DEF Pressure Is Low

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:


Table 104
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Pressure Is Low

J1939 Code Description Notes


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser
(DEF) pressure has dropped below 390 kPa (57 psi) and remains below
4334-18 Absolute Pressure : Low - moderate severity
410 kPa (59 psi) for at least 40 seconds.
(2)
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

The ECM detects that the duty cycle of the DEF pump required to maintain
DEF pressure is too high.
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump The DEF system is not dosing.
4374-15
Motor Speed : High - least severe (1)
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 83
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 105
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the DEF Gauge Gauge Result: The gauge did not move by adding or removing flu-
position id to the tank.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Remove the DEF tank header and check for a stuck float.
B. Check the current position of the DEF gauge.
If the float was not stuck, replace the DEF tank header. Re-
C. Clean dirt and debris from around the tank filler cap before re- turn the unit to service.
moving the cap. Add DEF to the DEF tank.
If the float was stuck, repair the stuck float, if possible. If
D. Check for a change in the gauge position. the float cannot be repaired, replace the DEF tank header.
Return the unit to service.
E. If the gauge is in the full position, drain DEF from the tank and
look for a change in the gauge position. Result: The gauge moved by adding or removing fluid to
the tank.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Inspect the DEF Lines for Leaks Leaks Result: A leaking or disconnected line was found.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine. Repair or replace the faulty DEF line.

B. Connect to the electronic service tool. Result: A leaking or disconnected line was not found.

C. Perform the “DEF Dosing System Verification Test” to pressurize Proceed to Test Step 3.
the system. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Service Tool Features” for
more information.

D. Inspect all of the DEF lines for disconnected lines or leaks.

3. Inspect the DEF Tank Filler Cap Filler cap Result: The cap has a blockage.

A. Clean dirt and debris from around the filler cap before removing Replace the cap.
the cap. Blockages can be caused by a build-up of dirt/debris
around the filler cap. Result: A blockage was not found.

B. Remove the cap. Proceed to Test Step 4.

C. Visually inspect the DEF tank filler cap for blockages.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
84 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 30 g03712848
View of the DEF pump module.
(1) DEF backflow line connector

Illustration 31 g03712856
View of the DEF tank and DEF tank header unit
(1) DEF backflow line connector

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 85
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 106
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Check for Suction Line Restrictions Restrictions Result: An obstruction was found.

A. Disconnect suction the line from DEF pump module (1) and DEF Flush the line with water or low-pressure air or replace the
tank header (2). Refer to Illustration 30 and Illustration 31 . suction line.

B. Inspect the suction line for obstructions. Proceed to Test Step 8.

Possible obstructions are ice, DEF deposits, or debris. Result: An obstruction was not found.

Install the suction line.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Replace the Filters and Flush the DEF Tank DEF filter Result: The DEF tank was flushed and the filters were
replaced.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes.
Proceed to Test Step 6.

B. Flush the DEF tank. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Ad-
justing, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank - Flush” for the correct
procedure.

C. Replace the DEF tank header filter and DEF pump filter. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Tank - Flush” for the correct procedure.

6. Check for a Leaking DEF Injector DEF Dosing Result: The quantity of DEF collected is not within the ac-
ceptable range.
A. Perform the DEF dosing system accuracy test. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Aftertreatment SCR System Dos- Replace the DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and As-
ing Test” for the correct procedure. sembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and Install”

Result: The quantity of DEF collected is within the ex-


pected range.

Replace the DEF pump. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-


bly, “Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump - Remove and Install”.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
86 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05952400

DEF Tank Level Is Low


Table 107

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Tank Level Is Low

J1939 Code Description Notes


Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank The DEF tank is empty.
Level : Low - most severe (3) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
1761-1 The Emissions System Malfunction lamp is on and the warning lamp
flashes.
The engine will be derated. The engine may shut down.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.
Table 108
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the DEF Fluid Level Gauge position Result: The gauge did not move by adding DEF to the tank.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Check the current position of the DEF gauge. Result: The gauge moved by adding DEF to the tank. Turn
the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes.
C. Clean dirt and debris from around the cap before removing the
cap. Return the unit to service.

D. Add DEF to the DEF tank.

E. Check for a change in the gauge position.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 87
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 32 g03715320

Table 109
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

2. Check the Electrical Connection at the DEF Tank Header Electrical Result: The electrical connectors are free of corrosion and
connections are not loose.
A. Inspect electrical connector (1) to the DEF tank header. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. Proceed to Test Step 3.

Check for corrosion or loose wires. Result: The electrical connections are corroded and/or
loose.

Make the necessary repairs to the connectors. Turn the key-


switch to the OFF position for 2 minutes.

Repeat this procedure from Test Step 1.

3. Inspect the DEF Tank Header Proper opera- Result: The float was not operating properly.
tion of the float
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Repair the float, if possible. If the float cannot be repaired,
replace the DEF tank header. Refer to the Disassembly and
B. Remove tank header (2) from the DEF tank. Refer to Disassem- Assembly, “Manifold (DEF Heater) - Remove and Install”.
bly and Assembly, “Manifold (DEF Heater) - Remove and Install”.
Repeat this procedure from Test Step 1.
C. Inspect the DEF tank header for a stuck float.
Result: The float was operating properly.

Install a replacement DEF tank header. Refer to the Disas-


sembly and Assembly, “Manifold (DEF Heater) - Remove
and Install”.

If the fault is still present, contact the Dealer Solution Net-


work (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
88 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05952419

DEF Tank Temperature Is High


Table 110

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for DEF Tank Temperature Is High

J1939 Code Description Notes


The temperature of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in the DEF
tank has risen above 70° C (158° F) for at least 1 second.
Catalyst Tank Temperature : High - moderate severity
3031-16 The warning lamp will flash. The engine is derated.
(2)
The diagnostic code will clear when the DEF tank temperature
is below 65° C (149° F) for at least 2 seconds.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 89
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 33 g03715797
View of the coolant diverter valve
(1) Coolant outlet connection
(2) Electrical connector
(3) Coolant inlet connection

Illustration 34 g03715798
View of the DEF tank and DEF tank header unit
(4) Coolant inlet connection
(5) Electrical connector
(6) Coolant outlet connection

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
90 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 111
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Associated Codes Associated code Result: An associated code is present.

A. Connect to the electronic service tool. Troubleshoot the associated code. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes” for the correct
B. Check for diagnostic codes relating to the DEF tank temperature procedure.
sensor, the coolant diverter valve, or high coolant temperature.
Result: An associated code is not present.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check for Corrosion in the Connector to the Tank Header Corrosion Result: There is not corrosion in the connector to the
tank header or the coolant diverter valve.
A. Inspect electrical connector (2) for the coolant diverter valve. In-
spect electrical connector (5) for the DEF tank header. Refer to Proceed to Test Step 3.
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for further
information. Result: There is corrosion in the connector to the tank
header or the coolant diverter valve.

Repair or replace the connector. Cycle the keyswitch.

Return the unit to service.

3. Check the Coolant Supply and Return Lines for Correct Correct Result: The lines are installed correctly.
Installation installation
Proceed to Test Step 4.
A. Inspect coolant inlet (3) and outlet (1) lines from coolant diverter
valve. Make sure that the coolant is flowing in the correct direction. Result: The lines are not installed correctly.
Refer to Illustration 33 .
Correctly install the lines. Proceed to Test Step 5.
B. Inspect coolant inlet (4) and coolant outlet (6) . Make sure that
the coolant is flowing in the correct direction. Refer to Illustration 34
.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 91
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 111, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Check the Coolant Diverter Valve Solenoid for Correct Temperature rise Result: The DEF tank temperature did not increase.
Operation
Connect the coolant diverter valve to the wiring harness.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
B. Disconnect the wiring harness connector from coolant diverter
valve (2).
Result: The DEF tank temperature increased.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
The coolant diverter valve is not operating correctly. Re-
D. Connect to the electronic service tool. place the coolant diverter valve. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, “Solenoid Valve (DEF Heater Coolant) -
E. Start the engine. Allow the engine to warm up to operating Remove and Install”.
temperature.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
E. Use the electronic service tool to monitor the “DEF Tank Tem-
perature” .

C. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

5. Replace the DEF DEF Result: The fault has been eliminated.

A. Drain the DEF from the tank. Return the unit to service.

B. Refill the tank with DEF that meets ISO 22241 standards. Result: The fault is still present.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
92 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05952477

DEF Tank Temperature Is Low


Table 112

Diagnostic Trouble Code for DEF Tank Temperature Is Low

J1939 Code Description Notes


The DCU detects that the DEF tank temperature is not respond-
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Abnormal ing when the coolant diverter valve is activated.
3031-10
Rate of Change The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 93
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 113
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
Diagnostic Trou-
1. Check for Associated Diagnostic Trouble Codes ble Codes Result: An associated diagnostic trouble code is present.

A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. Troubleshoot the associated code. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Result: Diagnostic trouble code 3031-10 is present.
C. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co-
des relating to the coolant diverter valve or the DEF tank tempera- Proceed to Test Step 2.
ture sensor.

2. Check the Coolant Level of the Engine Coolant Level Result: The coolant level is full.

A. Determine if the engine coolant level is full. Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result:The coolant level is not full.

Add coolant to the system.

Determine the cause of low coolant. Refer to Trouble-


shooting, “Coolant Level Is Low” for additional information.

If adding coolant does not correct the fault, proceed to


Test Step 3.

3. Check the Engine Coolant Temperature Coolant Result: The coolant temperature is greater than 50° C
temperature (122° F).
A. Start the engine. Allow the engine to warm up to normal operat-
ing temperature. Proceed to Test Step 4.

B. Connect to the electronic service tool. Result: The coolant temperature is less than 50° C
(122° F).
C. Select the Status Parameters tab.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Coolant Temperature Is Low”
D. Check the coolant temperature. for troubleshooting information.

The temperature should be greater than 50° C (122° F).

4. Check for Coolant Leaks Leaks Result: There are no leaks in the supply or return lines.

A. Check for coolant leaks in the supply and return lines to the Proceed to Test Step 5.
DEF tank header.
Result: There are leaks in the supply or return lines.

Repair the leaks and refill the coolant system.

If the fault is still present, proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Inspect the Coolant Lines for Restrictions and Obstructions


Restrictions Result: There is a restriction in a line.
A. Check for a restriction or obstruction in the coolant lines be-
tween the engine and the DEF tank header. Repair or replace the lines with the restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

Result: The coolant lines are OK.


Proceed to Test Step 6.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
94 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 35 g03716402

Table 114
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Check the Electrical Connection at the DEF Tank Header Electrical Result: The electrical connector is not corroded or loose.
connections
A. Inspect electrical connector (1) for the DEF tank header. Refer Proceed to Test Step 7.
to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for further in-
formation. Refer to Illustration 35 . Result: The electrical connector is corroded and/or loose.

Check for corrosion or loose wires. Make the necessary repairs to the connectors. Cycle the
keyswitch.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

7. Check the Coolant Diverter Valve Operation Temperature rise Result: The DEF tank temperature increased.
Note: The coolant diverter valve will only operate if the DEF tank
temperature is less than 15° C (59° F). The fault appears to be resolved.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. If the active diagnostic code returns, contact the Dealer
Solution Network (DSN).
B. Start the engine.
Result: The DEF tank temperature did not increase.
C. Connect to the electronic service tool.
Replace the coolant diverter valve .
D. Monitor the “DEF Tank Temperature” for at least 20 minutes.
Make sure that there is a gradual rise in the DEF tank
temperature.

Note: If the DEF tank temperature reaches 17° C (62.° F), the
coolant diverter valve will close.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 95
Symptom Troubleshooting

i04079169

ECM Does Not Communicate


with Other Modules

Probable Causes
• Electrical connectors

• Electronic Control Module (ECM)


• CAN data link

Recommended Actions
1. Connect the electronic service tool to the
diagnostic connector. If the ECM does not
communicate with the electronic service tool, refer
to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tool Does
Not Communicate”.
2. Ensure that the following items are correctly
installed and undamaged. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

• P1 and P2 connectors on the ECM

• Wiring to display modules

• Wiring to other control modules

3. Verify that the CAN data link does not have an


open or short circuit. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“CAN Data Link Circuit - Test”.

i05952511

Electronic Service Tool Does


Not Communicate

Probable Causes
• Configuration of the communications adapter
• Electrical connectors

• Communication adapter and/or cables


• Electrical power supply to the diagnostic connector

• Electronic service tool and related hardware


• Electrical power supply to the Electronic Control
Module (ECM)

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
96 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 115
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Configuration of the Communications Adapter Communications Result: The correct “Communications Interface Device”
adapter is not selected.
A. Access “Preferences” under the “Utilities” menu on the configuration
electronic service tool. Select the correct “Communications Interface Device” .

B. Check for hardware that uses the same ports as the commu- Result: The correct port is not selected for use by the com-
nications adaptor. munication adapter.
Select the correct port for use by the communication
adapter.

Note: The most commonly used port is “COM 1” .

Result: Other hardware is sharing the same port with the


communications adaptor.

Exit or close the software programs for that device.

Result: The communications adaptor is correctly


configured.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Electrical Connectors Electrical Result: The connectors are not correctly installed.
connectors
A. Check for correct installation of the P1 and P2ECM connec- Repair or replace the connectors, as necessary.
tors and of the connector for the electronic service tool.
Result: The connectors are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Communication Adapter and/or Cables Comms adaptor Result: The firmware or driver files are not the most cur-
and cables rent files.
A. Check that the firmware and driver files are the most current
files for the type of communication adapter that is being used. Update the firmware or driver files to the most current files.

Verify that the correct cable is being used between the commu- Result: The cable between the communication adapter
nication adapter and the diagnostic connector. and the diagnostic connector is not correct.

B. Disconnect and then reconnect the cable that attaches the Replace the cable between the communication adapter
communication adapter to the diagnostic connector. and the diagnostic connector with the correct type.

C. Check the operating system on the laptop computer. Result: The laptop computer has a Windows operating
system.

Restart the laptop computer in order to eliminate the possi-


bility of a conflict in the software.

Result: The adaptor and cables are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 97
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 115, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Electrical Power Supply to the Diagnostic Connector Electrical power Result: Battery voltage is not present between terminals A
and B of the diagnostic connector.
A. Use a multimeter to check that battery voltage is present be-
tween terminals A and B of the diagnostic connector. Investigate the cause and repair, as necessary.

Note: If the communication adapter is not receiving power, the Result: Battery voltage is present between terminals A
LED display on the communication adapter will be off. and B of the diagnostic connector.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Electronic Service Tool and Related Hardware Hardware Result: The same fault occurs on a different engine.

A. Connect the electronic service tool to a different engine. Check the electronic service tool and the related hardware
for faults.
Note: This process eliminates the electronic service tool and
the related hardware as the fault. Result: The fault does not occur on a different engine.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Electrical Power Supply to the Electronic Control Mod- Power to ECM Result: The power supply to the ECM is incorrect.
ule (ECM)
Investigate the cause and repair, as necessary.
A. Check the power supply to the ECM. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Electrical Power Supply - Test”. Result: The power supply to the ECM is OK.

Note: If the ECM is not receiving battery voltage, the ECM will Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
not communicate.

i05873080 Recommended Actions


Engine Cranks but Does Not Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Start

Probable Causes
Note: Wait at least 30 seconds between attempts to
start the engine. The engine will not start unless the
keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position for at
least 30 seconds.

• Ground level shutdown switch


• Diagnostic codes

• Visible faults
• Air intake and exhaust system

• Fuel system
• Fuel filters

• Fuel rail Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)


• Fuel pump timing

• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
98 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 116
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Ground Level Shutdown Switch (If Equipped) Shutdown switch Result: The ground level shutdown switch has been
activated.
A. Ensure that the ground level shutdown switch has not been
activated. Deactivate the ground level shutdown switch.

Result: The ground level shutdown switch has not been


activated.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic codes Result:There are active diagnostic codes.

A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic Troubleshoot all active diagnostic codes before continuing
connector. with this procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
Trouble Codes”.
B. Crank the engine for 30 seconds.
Result: There are no active diagnostic codes.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Proceed to Test Step 3.
D. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic
codes.

3. Visible Faults Visible faults Result: Faults found during engine inspection.

A. Visually inspect the engine for the following faults: Make any repairs, as necessary.
Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start, pro-
·Missing components ceed to Test Step 4.
·Damaged components
·Damaged electrical cables or loose electrical cables Result: No faults found.
·Oil leaks
·Fuel leaks Proceed to Test Step 4.

B. Check for the correct levels of fuel, oil, and coolant.

C. If the ambient temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), make sure


that the correct specification of engine oil is used.

D. Check that the battery voltage is correct.

E. Use the electronic service tool to check the average crank-


ing speed of the engine. If the cranking speed is less than 150
rpm, investigate the cause of the low cranking speed.

F. Make sure that all fuel filters are correctly installed.

G. Drain any water from the primary fuel filter/water separator.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 99
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 116, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Air Intake and Exhaust System Defects Result: A defect was found in the air intake or exhaust
system.
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator.
Make any necessary repairs.
B. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start, pro-
ceed to Test Step 5.
C. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the following
defects: Result: No defects found in the air intake or exhaust
systems.
· Blockages
· Restrictions Proceed to Test Step 5.
· Damage to lines or hoses

5. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.
Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start, pro-
B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified ceed to Test Step 6.
fuel (wax).
Result: No defects found.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.
Proceed to Test Step 6.
D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure -
Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Sys-
tems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

6. Fuel Filters Engine start Result: The engine starts.

A. Replace the primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filter. Return the engine to service.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace”. Result: The engine does not start.

B. Attempt to start the engine. Proceed to Test Step 7.

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
100 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 36 g03705140
View of the fuel manifold (typical example)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 101
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 117
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

7. Fuel Rail Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) Fuel in container Result: Fuel is present in the container.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Install a replacement fuel manifold. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, “Fuel Manifold (Rail) - Remove and Install”.
B. Disconnect plastic tube assembly (4) from fuel manifold (1). When the fuel manifold has been replaced, use the elec-
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Manifold (Rail) - Re- tronic service tool to perform the “Rail Pressure Sensor
move and Install”. Replacement Reset” .

C. Securely seal the end of plastic tube assembly (4). Result: No fuel is present in the container.
Note: Plastic tube assembly (4) must be sealed to prevent air
ingress into the fuel system. Proceed to Test Step 8.

D. Attach a length of hose to fuel manifold (1) and secure with


a clip at position (3).

E. Place the other end of the hose into a container that is suit-
able for fuel. Ensure that the hose is secure and will not come
out of the container while the engine is running.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

G. Crank the engine for a maximum of 30 seconds.

H. After the engine has stopped, check the container for fuel.

8. Fuel Pump Timing Fuel pump timing Result: The fuel pump timing is incorrect.

A. Check the timing of the high-pressure fuel pump. Refer to Make any necessary adjustments.
Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Injection Tim- Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start, pro-
ing - Check”. ceed to Test Step 9.

Result: The fuel pump timing is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low compression Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the fol-
lowing list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.


Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start, con-
tact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

Result: No faults found.

Contact the DSN.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
102 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05963787

Engine Does Not Crank


Probable Causes

• Battery cables and batteries

• Switches and/or circuit breakers


• Safety interlock on the application

• Starting motor solenoid or starting circuit


• Starting motor and/or flywheel ring gear

• Engine accessories and transmission


• Hydraulic lock

Recommended Repairs
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
steps are listed.
Table 118
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Battery Cables and Batteries Batteries and Result: The batteries and cables are not OK.
cables
A. Inspect the main power switch, battery posts, and battery ca- Make the necessary repairs.
bles for loose connections and for corrosion. If the battery cables
are corroded, remove the battery cables and clean the battery Result: The batteries and cables are OK.
cables. Tighten any loose connections.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the batteries.

C. Charge the batteries.

Test the batteries. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Ad-


justing, “Battery - Test”.

2. Switches and/or Circuit Breakers Switches and/or Result: The switches and/or circuit breakers are not OK.
circuit breakers
A. Check any switches and/or circuit breakers that may interfere Make the necessary repairs.
with the engine cranking. Refer to the applications electrical
schematic for additional information. Result: The switches and/or circuit breakers are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 103
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 118, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Safety Interlock on the Application Safety interlocks Result: A safety interlock is preventing the engine from
starting.
A. Check that any safety interlock features on the application
are in the safe position. Refer to the OEM documentation for de- Disengage the safety interlock if it is safe to do so. If neces-
tails of any safety interlocks on the application. sary, repair the safety interlock.

Result: There are no safety interlocks preventing the en-


gine from starting.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Starting Motor Solenoid and Starting Circuit Starting motor Result: The starting motor solenoid and circuit are not OK.
solenoid and
A. Test the operation of the starting motor circuit. Refer to Sys- circuit Make the necessary repairs.
tems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Electric Starting System
- Test”. Result: The starting motor solenoid and circuit are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Starting Motor and/or Flywheel Ring Gear Starter pinion and Result: The starter pinion and flywheel ring gear are not
flywheel ring gear OK.
A. Test the operation of the starting motor. are OK
Make the necessary repairs.
B. Check the wiring for the starting motor. Refer to Systems Op-
eration, Testing, and Adjusting, “Electric Starting System - Test”. Result: The starting motor and flywheel ring gear are OK.

C. Check the pinion clearance. Inspect the pinion and the fly- Proceed to Test Step 6.
wheel ring gear for damage. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing
and Adjusting, “Electrical System” for additional information.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
104 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 118, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Engine Accessories and Transmission Engine accesso- Result: The engine accessories and transmission are not
ries and OK.
A. Ensure free movement of the driveline. transmission
Make the necessary repairs.
B. Remove and inspect any engine accessories that may lock
up the engine. Result: The engine accessories and transmission are OK.

The following list contains examples of engine accessories that Proceed to Test Step 7.
may lock up the engine:

· Hydraulic pump that is driven from the rear gear group


· Air compressor
· Engine oil pump
· Other components that are driven by the engine

7. Hydraulic Lock Hydraulic lock Result: The engine has a hydraulic lock.

Note: If an injector has been replaced, evacuate any fluids from Make the necessary repairs.
the cylinder and attempt to start the engine. Fuel will flow from
the cylinder head into the cylinders when a unit injector is Result: The engine rotates freely.
removed.
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
A. Check for fluid in the cylinders by removing the individual unit
injectors. Check for damaged seals.

B. If there was excessive fuel in the cylinder, replace the seals


and reinstall the injector. Drain any excess fuel from the cylinder
head.

C. If a mechanical problem is suspected, disassemble the en-


gine. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual. Inspect
the internal components for the following conditions:

· Seizure
· Broken components
· Bent components

i06003730 Recommended Actions


Engine Has Early Wear Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Probable Causes

• Contaminated oil

• Leaks in air intake system


• Engine History

• Low oil pressure


• Dirt in engine oil

• Incorrect oil
• Dirt in fuel

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 105
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 119
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Contaminated Oil Oil contains fuel Result: The engine oil is contaminated with fuel.

A. Check an oil sample for contamination with fuel. Refer to Trou- Investigate the cause. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Oil Con-
bleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”. tains Fuel”.

Result: The engine oil is not contaminated with fuel.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Leaks in Air Intake System Leaks in Air In- Result: Leaks found in air intake system.
take System
A leak in the air intake system may allow unfiltered air into the Repair any leaks.
engine.
Result: The air intake system is OK.
A. Inspect the air intake system for streaks which may indicate a
leakage of unfiltered air. Inspect all of the gaskets and the connec- Proceed to Test Step 3.
tions. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Air Inlet
and Exhaust System”.

3. Engine History Maintenance Result: The engine is not correctly maintained.


intervals
Make sure that the engine is maintained at the correct
A. Check that the engine has been serviced to the correct mainte- maintenance intervals. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-
nance intervals. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, nance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”
Result: The engine is correctly maintained.
B. Check the engine history for frequent starting and stopping in
cold conditions. Proceed to Test Step 4.

Note: Frequent starting and stopping of the engine can cause


early wear. Also, operation of the engine for short periods of time in
cold conditions can cause early wear.

4. Low Oil Pressure Low oil pressure Result: The engine has a history of low oil pressure. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Oil Pressure Is Low”.

A. Check for frequently logged diagnostic codes relating to low oil Result: There are no logged diagnostic codes for low oil
pressure. pressure.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Dirt in Engine Oil Dirt in engine oil Result: The engine oil shows signs of dirt or debris

A. Check the engine oil for dirt or debris. Drain the oil from the crankcase and refill the crankcase
with clean engine oil. Install new engine oil filters. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for more
information.

Result: The engine oil is clean.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
106 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 119, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Incorrect Oil Oil specification Result: The oil specification is incorrect.

A. Check that the engine is filled with oil of the correct specification. Drain the engine oil system and refill the engine oil sys-
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities tem. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “En-
and Recommendations”. gine Oil and Filter - Change”.

Result: The oil specification is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Dirt in Fuel Fuel and fuel Result: The fuel has contamination.
filters
A. Remove the fuel filters. Inspect the fuel filters for contamination. Determine the cause of any contamination and make the
necessary repairs.
Note: Contaminants in the fuel such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur
can lead to the formation of acids in the crankcase. Install new fuel filters. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-
nance Manual.
B. Obtain a fuel analysis.
Result: The fuel is not contaminated.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i06003770

Engine Has Mechanical Noise


(Knock)

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Electrical connections

• Fuel quality
• Correct lubrication

• Engine accessories
• Valve train components

• Gear train and lower end components


• Crankshaft

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 107
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 120
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are active codes.


codes
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with this
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot- procedure.
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.
Result: There are no active codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Electrical Connections Connectors Result: There are suspect connectors.

A. Check for the correct installation of the ECM P1 and P2 connec- Repair connectors that are suspect or replace connectors
tors. Check for correct installation of the fuel injector connectors. that are suspect.

Perform the “Wiggle Test” on the electronic service tool

Result: There are no suspect connectors.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Fuel Quality Fuel Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

A. Obtain a fuel analysis in order to confirm that the correct fuel is Note: Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for infor-
being used for the engine. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and mation on the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine.
Adjusting, “Fuel System Quality Test” for the proper procedure. If necessary,

Replace the fuel. Verify that the repair eliminated the noise.

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Correct Lubrication Lubrication Result: The oil passages are blocked or the engine does not
have correct lubrication.
A. Check for correct lubrication of the valve components. Check for
sufficient lubrication between the injector tappets and the rocker Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair eliminated
arms. the noise.

B. Check for blocked oil passages. Oil passages must be clean. Result: The oil passages are not blocked and the engine has
Clean any oil passages that are questionable. Refer to the Disas- proper lubrication.
sembly and Assembly for additional information.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
C. Inspect the engine oil filters for ferrous material.

D. Obtain an S-O-S oil analysis. The analysis will contribute to a


better understanding of oil contamination and the origin of the
contamination.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
108 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 120, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

5. Engine Accessories Engine Result An engine accessory is the source of the noise.
accessory
A. Attempt to isolate the source of the noise. Repair the engine accessory and/or replace the engine ac-
cessory, as necessary.

Result An engine accessory is not the source of the noise.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Valve Train Components Valve train Result: The valve train components are damaged.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair eliminated
Adjusting, “Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust”. the noise.

B. Check for damage to valve train components. Remove the valve Result: The valve train components are not damaged.
cover. Check the following items for damage:
Proceed to Test Step 7.
· Camshaft

· Valve springs

· Camshaft followers

· Rocker shaft

· Pushrods

Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

C. Check for valves that do not move freely. If necessary, remove


the cylinder head and inspect the valves.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for additional information.

7. Gear Train and Components of the Lower End Gear train Result: The gear train or lower end components are
damaged.
A. Inspect the gear train and lower end components.
Replace any damaged parts.

Result: The gear train or lower end components are not


damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Crankshaft Crankshaft Result: The crankshaft or the related components are dam-
aged or worn.
A. Inspect the crankshaft and the related components. Look for
worn thrust plates and wear on the crankshaft. Repair or replace any damaged parts. Verify that the repair
eliminated the noise.
B. Inspect the connecting rod bearings and the bearing surfaces
on the crankshaft. Make sure that the bearings are in the correct Result: The crankshaft or the related components are not
position. damaged or worn.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 109
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05873118

Engine Misfires, Runs Rough


or Is Unstable

Note: If the fault is intermittent and the fault cannot be


duplicated, refer to Troubleshooting, “Power Is
Intermittently Low or Power Cutout Is Intermittent”.

Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions,


test the engine under those conditions. Examples of
certain conditions are high rpm, full load, and engine
operating temperature. Troubleshooting the
symptoms under other conditions can give misleading
results.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Air Intake and Exhaust System
• Fuel System Inspection

• Throttle Position Sensor/Throttle Switches


• High-pressure fuel pump

• Low compression (cylinder pressure)


• Electronic unit injectors

• Individual malfunctioning cylinder

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
110 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 121
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are active codes.


codes
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with this
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot- procedure.
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.
Result: There are no active codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Air Intake and Exhaust System Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the air intake or exhaust
system.
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator.
Make any necessary repairs.
B. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable
Result: No defects found in the air intake or exhaust
C. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the following systems.
defects:
Proceed to Test Step 3.
· Blockages
· Restrictions
· Damage to lines or hoses

3. Fuel System Inspection Fuel supply Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified fuel Result: No defects found.
(wax).
Proceed to Test Step 4.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Oper-


ation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems Oper-


ation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation,


Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 111
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 121, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Throttle Position Sensor/Throttle Switches (if equipped) Electrical Result: The throttle response is not as expected.
connections
A. Turn the start switch to the ON position. If the maximum no-load speed cannot be obtained refer to
Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)”
B. Run the engine until the speed is equal to the maximum no-load and Troubleshooting, “Mode Selection - Test”.
speed.
If the engine speed is erratic refer to Troubleshooting,
C. Use the electronic service tool to make sure that the throttle is “Speed Control - Test”.
set to reach the maximum no-load speed.
Result: All responses are normal.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. High-Pressure Fuel Pump HP fuel pump Result: There are diagnostic codes associated with the
high-pressure fuel pump.
Note: The fuel injection pump that is installed by the factory is a
nonserviceable item. If any fault occurs within the fuel injection Diagnose the codes. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
pump, the fuel injection pump must be replaced. Trouble Codes”.

A. Use the electronic service tool to select the correct screen in or- If necessary, replace the high-pressure fuel pump.
der to display any diagnostic trouble codes that relate to the fuel in-
jection pump. Result: The high-pressure fuel pump is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Cylinder Result: The results of the compression test are outside
compression the specifications.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation, Test-
ing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Investigate the cause and rectify any faults.

Note: Possible causes of low compression are shown in


the following list:

· Loose glow plugs


· Faulty piston
· Faulty piston rings
· Worn cylinder bores
· Worn valves
· Faulty cylinder head gasket
· Damaged cylinder head

Result: The results of the compression test are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
112 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 121, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

7. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There are active diagnostic codes relating to the
codes fuel injectors.
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co-
des that relate to the electronic unit injectors. Troubleshoot any active diagnostic codes associated with
the fuel injectors. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
Trouble Codes”

Result: All injectors are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: There is not a noticeable change in the sound of
the engine for at least one cylinder.
A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic service
tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . As each cylin- Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is not
der is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from the engine. operating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylin-
When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a noticeable change in der that is operating below normal performance.
the sound of the engine.
Result: There is a noticeable change in the sound of the
engine for each cylinder.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05271038

Engine Overspeeds

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:


Table 122
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Engine Pressure Sensors

J1939 Description Notes


Code
190-15 Engine Speed : High - The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine speed has exceeded 3100 rpm for at least
least severe (1) 5 seconds.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) limits the flow If the engine speed exceeds the maximum rpm, the
of fuel in order to prevent the engine speed from ECM illuminates the warning lamp and an engine
exceeding the maximum rpm. When the engine overspeed diagnostic code is logged. No
speed has dropped to less than the maximum rpm, troubleshooting is required.
the engine overspeed diagnostic code will be reset.
The history of engine overspeeds can be viewed on
The following operating conditions can cause the the electronic service tool.
engine speed to exceed this value:
i06003891
• On a mobile machine, an incorrect transmission
gear is selected.
Engine Shutdown Occurs
• Use of an incorrect fuel Intermittently
• Combustible gases in the air inlet for the engine

Note: Use this procedure only if the engine shuts


down completely and the engine must be restarted.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 113
Symptom Troubleshooting

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Air Intake
• Electrical connectors

• Fuel supply
• Switches

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 123
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Codes Result: There are active codes.

Note: Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may cause Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with this pro-
an engine shutdown. cedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”

A. Connect the electronic service tool and check for active codes Result: There are no active codes.
and for logged codes.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Air Intake Blockages or Result: Blockages or restrictions found.


restrictions
A. Check the air filter for blockages or restrictions. Make any repairs, as necessary.

B. Check the air intake duct for blockages or restrictions. Result: The air intake system is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Electrical Connectors Connectors Result: There are suspect connectors.

A. Check for the correct installation of the ECM J1/P1 and the J2/ Repair connectors that are suspect or replace connectors that
P2 connectors. Check for correct installation of the fuel injector are suspect.
connectors.
Result: There are no suspect connectors.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
114 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 123, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified Result: No defects found.
fuel (wax).
Proceed to Test Step 5.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Op-


eration, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems Op-


eration, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation,


Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Sys-
tems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

5. Switches Switches Result: The shutdown switches and wiring are not OK.

A. Check the keyswitch input to the ECM. Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair eliminated
the fault.
B. Check any engine shutdown switches and associated wiring.
Result: The shutdown switches and wiring are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05953952

Engine Speed Does Not


Change

Note: Use this procedure only if the engine speed


does not change. This fault will not occur in an
application that operates at a constant engine speed.
Examples of these applications are generator sets
and pumps.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes

• Multi-position throttle switch (if equipped)


• Throttle position sensor

Recommended Repairs
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 115
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 124
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Codes Result: There are active diagnostic codes.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with this
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot- procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Codes”

B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active or recently Result: There are no active codes.
logged diagnostic codes.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Multi-position Throttle Switch (If Equipped) Throttle Result: The multi-position throttle switch is faulty.
Switch
Note: When the engine is operating and the fault occurs, the con- Repair or replace the multi-position throttle switch.
figuration of the throttle will not change. Check the configuration of
the throttle only if the engine has never run. Result: The multi-position throttle switch is OK.

A. Troubleshoot the multi-position throttle switch. Refer to Trouble- Proceed to Test Step 3.
shooting, “Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)”.

3. Throttle Position Sensor Throttle posi- Result: The throttle position sensor or the associated wiring
tion sensor is faulty.
A. If a fault is suspected in the throttle sensor, refer to Troubleshoot- faults
ing, “Speed Control (Analog) - Test”. Repair or replace the throttle position sensor or the associ-
ated wiring.

Result: The throttle position sensor and the associated wir-


ing are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i06026899

Engine Stalls at Low RPM


Probable Causes

• Diagnostic codes
• Accessory equipment

• Fuel system inspection


• Low compression (cylinder pressure)
• Electronic unit injectors

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
116 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 125
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: A code is active or logged.


code
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool and Troubleshoot any codes before continuing with this
the Electronic Control Module (ECM) . Refer to Troubleshooting, procedure.
“Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.
Result: A code is not active or logged.
B. Check if any codes are active or logged.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Accessory Equipment Accessories Result: An engine accessory is creating an excessive


load.
A. Check all accessory equipment for faults that may create exces-
sive load on the engine. Repair or replace the engine accessory.

Result: An engine accessory is not creating an excessive


load.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified fuel Result: No defects found.
(wax).
Proceed to Test Step 4.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation,


Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 117
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 125, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
compression cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing,
and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the fol-
lowing list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.

Result: No faults found.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There are active diagnostic codes for the fuel
codes injectors
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co-
des that relate to the fuel injectors. Troubleshoot the active diagnostic codes. Refer to Trou-
bleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”

Result: All injectors are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05874017 Recommended Actions


Engine Top Speed Is Not Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Obtained

Note: If this fault occurs only under load, refer to


Troubleshooting, “Acceleration Is Poor or Throttle
Response Is Poor”.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes

• Engine accessories and transmission


• ECM parameters

• Throttle signal from the throttle position sensor


• Air intake and exhaust system
• Fuel system inspection

• Fuel filters
• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

• Individual malfunctioning cylinders

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
118 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 126
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are active or logged codes.


codes
A. Establish communication between the electronic service Troubleshoot any codes before continuing with this procedure.
tool and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Trou-
bleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Result: There are no active or logged codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Engine Accessories and Transmission Engine accesso- Result: The engine accessories and transmission are not OK.
ries and
A. Check that the engine accessories and transmission are transmission Make the necessary repairs.
operating correctly.
Result: The engine accessories and transmission are OK.
B. Remove and inspect any engine accessories that may be
adding unexpected load to the engine. Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. ECM Parameters Parameters Result: The parameters are not configured correctly.

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct en- Correctly configure the parameters.
gine parameters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Configuration Parameters” for additional information. Verify that the configuration change eliminated the fault.

Result: The parameters are configured correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Throttle Signal From the Throttle Position Sensor (if Throttle position Result: The throttle position sensor or the associated wiring is
equipped) sensor faults faulty.

A. If a fault is suspected in the throttle sensor, refer to Trouble- Repair or replace the throttle position sensor or the associated
shooting, “Speed Control - Test”. wiring.

Result: The throttle position sensor and the associated wiring


are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Air Intake and Exhaust System Restrictions Result: The air filter is plugged.

A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Clean Clean or replace the air filter. Refer to the Operation and Main-
plugged air filters or replace plugged air filters. Refer to the tenance Manual for further information.
Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Result: There are restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust
B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions and/ system.
or leaks. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect”. Make the necessary repairs, Verify that the repair eliminated
the fault.

Result: There are no restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust


system.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 119
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 126, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified Result: No defects found.
fuel (wax).
Proceed to Test Step 7.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly


installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure -
Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Sys-
tems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System -
Prime”.

7. Fuel Filters Top speed Result: The engine reaches top speed.

A. Replace the primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filter. Return the engine to service.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel Sys-
tem Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace”. Result: The engine does not reach top speed.

B. Run the engine at top speed. Proceed to Test Step 8.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
120 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 126, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

8. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
compression cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the following
list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.

Result: No faults found.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: There is not a noticeable change in the sound of the
engine for at least one cylinder.
A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic serv-
ice tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . As Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is not op-
each cylinder is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from erating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that
the engine. When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a no- is operating below normal performance.
ticeable change in the sound of the engine.
Result: There is a noticeable change in the sound of the en-
gine for each cylinder.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955206

Engine Vibration Is Excessive

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting


for additional information on determining the cause of
this condition.

Probable Causes
• Engine supports

• Driven equipment
• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

• Electronic unit injectors


• Individual malfunctioning cylinder

Recommended Actions
Note: Complete the procedure in the order in which
the steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 121
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 127
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Engine Supports Engine Result: The mounts and brackets are loose and/or broken.
supports
A. Inspect the mounts and the brackets while you run the engine Replace the mounts and brackets that are loose and/or
through the speed range. Look for mounts and brackets that are broken.
loose and/or broken.
Result: The mounts and brackets are not loose and/or
B. Check the alignment of the following before operating the engine broken.
under load for any length of time:
Proceed to Test Step 2.
· Mounts
· Coupling

2. Driven Equipment Driven Result The driven equipment and the alignment are not
equipment OK.
A. Inspect the mounting bolts for the driven equipment. Inspect the
alignment and the balance of the driven equipment. Repair or replace the driven equipment.

B. Inspect the coupling. Result: The driven equipment and the alignment are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
compression cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation, Test-
ing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the fol-
lowing list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.

Result: No faults found.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
122 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 127, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There are active diagnostic codes for the fuel
codes injectors
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic co-
des that relate to the electronic unit injectors. Troubleshoot the active diagnostic codes. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”

Result: There are no active diagnostic codes for the fuel


injectors.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: There is not a noticeable change in the sound of
the engine for at least one cylinder.
A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic service
tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . As each cylin- Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is not
der is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from the engine. operating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder
When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a noticeable change in that is operating below normal performance.
the sound of the engine.
Result: There is a noticeable change in the sound of the
engine for each cylinder.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05874028

Exhaust Has Excessive Black


Smoke

If excessive black smoke is caused by a fault in the


engine, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
catalyst will allow some smoke to be visible. This
condition does not mean that the SCR has failed.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Parameters in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM)
• Air intake system or exhaust system

• Valve lash
• Turbocharger
• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

• Electronic unit injectors


• Individual malfunctioning cylinder

Recommended Actions
Note: Complete the procedure in the order in which
the steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 123
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 128
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Engine Derate Result: A diagnostic code is present.


or Diagnostic
Note: Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may cause Codes Troubleshoot the code. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
poor performance. Refer to in the electronic service tool. Trouble Codes”

A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active or logged Result: A diagnostic code is not present.
codes. Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Parameters in the Electronic Control Module (ECM) Parameters Result: The parameters are not correct.

A. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the correct pa- Input the correct parameters. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Cus-
rameters are being used. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Customer tomer Specified Parameters” for additional information.
Specified Parameters” for additional information.
Result: The parameters are correct.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Air Intake and Exhaust System Restrictions Result: There are restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust
system.
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Replace
a plugged air filters. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Make the necessary repairs, Refer to Systems Operation/
Manual. Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Exhaust System - In-
spect” for additional information.
B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions and/
or leaks. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Result: There are no restrictions in the air inlet or exhaust
“Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect” system.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Valve Lash Valve lash Result: The valve lash is not correct.

A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, Make any necessary repairs.
and Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect”.
Result: The valve lash is correct.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
124 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 128, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

5. Turbocharger Turbocharger Result: There is a fault on the turbocharger.

Note: The turbocharger that is installed on the engine is a non- Repair the turbocharger or replace the turbocharger. Refer to
serviceable item. If any mechanical fault exists, then the faulty Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger - Remove” and
turbocharger must be replaced. Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger - Install”.

A. Ensure that the mounting bolts for the turbocharger are tight. Result: The turbocharger is OK.

B. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not blocked Proceed to Test Step 6.
or restricted.

C. Check that the compressor housing for the turbocharger is


free of dirt and debris. Make sure that the housing is not
damaged.

D. Check that the turbine housing for the turbocharger is free of


dirt and debris. Make sure that the housing is not damaged.

E. Check that the turbine blades rotate freely in the


turbocharger.

F. Ensure that the wastegate on the turbocharger is adjusted


correctly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Turbocharger - Inspect”. If the wastegate actuator is faulty, re-
place the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Turbocharger - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,
“Turbocharger - Install”.

6. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
compression cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the follow-
ing list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.

Result: No faults found.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 125
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 128, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

7. Electronic Unit Injectors Diagnostic Result: There are active diagnostic codes for the fuel
codes injectors
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic
codes that relate to the electronic unit injectors. Troubleshoot the active diagnostic codes. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”

Result: There are no active diagnostic codes for the fuel


injectors.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: There is not a noticeable change in the sound of the
engine for at least one cylinder.
A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic serv-
ice tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . As Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is not
each cylinder is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from operating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder
the engine. When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a no- that is operating below normal performance.
ticeable change in the sound of the engine.
Result: There is a noticeable change in the sound of the en-
gine for each cylinder.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955208 Recommended Actions


Exhaust Has Excessive White Diagnostic Codes
Smoke Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Note: Some white smoke may be present during cold
start-up conditions and during acceleration after a
prolonged period at low idle. If the white smoke
persists, there may be a fault.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes

• ECM Flash file


• Starting aids

• Coolant temperature
• Cooling system

• Fuel quality
• Valve lash

• Low compression (cylinder pressure)


• Individual malfunctioning cylinder

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
126 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 129
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic codes Result: There are active diagnostic codes.

A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Troubleshoot any active codes before continuing with
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM) . Refer to Troubleshoot- this procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Trouble Codes”.

B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic Result: There are no active diagnostic codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. ECM Flash File Flash file Result: The latest flash file is not installed.

A. Verify that the latest flash file is installed in the ECM. Install the latest flash file. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Flash Programming” for the correct procedure. Verify
that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: The latest flash file is installed.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Glow Plugs Glow plugs Result: The glow plugs are not operating correctly.

A. Check the operation of the glow plug circuit. Refer to Trouble- Make the necessary repairs. Verify that the repair cor-
shooting, “Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test”. rected the fault.

Result: The glow plugs are operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Coolant Temperature Coolant Result: The water temperature regulator is not operat-
temperature ing correctly.
A. Check that the water temperature regulator is operating cor-
rectly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Water Replace the water temperature regulator. Verify that the
Temperature Regulator - Test”. repair corrected the fault.

Result: The water temperature regulator is operating


correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Cooling System Internal coolant Result: There is an internal coolant leak.


leak
A. Check for an internal coolant leak into the cylinder and/or the ex- Make the necessary repairs. Verify that the repair elimi-
haust. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling nated the fault.
System”.
Result: There is not an internal coolant leak.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 127
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 129, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Fuel Quality Fuel Result: The fuel quality is not OK.

A. Check the fuel quality. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Drain the fuel system and replace the fuel filters. Refer
Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”. to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel Sys-
tem Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Re-
B. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information on place” and Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine. System Filter - Replace”.

Fill the fuel system with fuel that meets the standard in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”.

Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Main-


tenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.

Verify that the procedure has eliminated the noise.

Result: The fuel quality is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Valve Lash Valve lash Result: The valve lash is excessive.

Note: Excessive valve lash will cause a change in the timing of the The hydraulic lifter will compensate for all normal wear
opening and closing of the inlet and exhaust valves. Excessive of the components of the valve train.
valve lash can cause a reduction of the flow of combustion air into Repair or replace any excessively worn or damaged
the engine. Reduced flow of combustion air will increase the fuel components of the valve train.
consumption rate.
Result: The valve lash is correct.
A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust”. Proceed to Test Step 8.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
128 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 129, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

8. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Low compression Result: Low compression is recorded on one or more
cylinders.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation, Test-
ing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Possible causes of low compression are shown in the
following list:
·Loose glow plugs
·Faulty piston
·Faulty piston rings
·Worn cylinder bores
·Worn valves
·Faulty cylinder head gasket
·Damaged cylinder head

Make any repairs, as necessary.


Attempt to start the engine. If the engine will not start,
contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

Result: No faults found.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders Cylinders Result: There is not a noticeable change in the sound
of the engine for at least one cylinder.
A. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the electronic service
tool to perform the manual “Cylinder Cut Out Test” . As each cylin- Investigate the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
der is cut out, listen for a change in the sound from the engine. not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault on any
When a cylinder is cut out, there should be a noticeable change in cylinder that is operating below normal performance.
the sound of the engine.
Result: There is a noticeable change in the sound of
the engine for each cylinder.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05874144

Exhaust System Contains Oil

Probable Causes
• Extended idle times

• Failed turbocharger seals


• Worn valve guide seals or faulty valve guide seals

• Worn valve guides


• Worn piston rings
Complete the procedure in the order in which the
steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 129
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 130
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Extended Idle Times Idle times Result The idle times are extensive.

A. Extended idle times will allow oil to pass into the exhaust Reduce the idle times.
system.
Result The idle times are not extensive.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Failed Turbocharger Seals Turbo seals Result: Oil is present in the inlet or exhaust manifold.

A. Check the inlet manifold and the exhaust manifold for oil. Replace the turbocharger. Verify the repair.

Result: Oil is not present in the inlet or exhaust manifold.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Worn Valve Guide Seals or Faulty Valve Guide Seals Valve guide Result: The valve guide seals are damaged.
seals
A. Inspect the valve guide seals for wear and for damage. Replace the valve guide seals. Verify the repair.

Result: The valve guide seals are not damaged.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Worn Valve Guides Valve guides Result: The valve guides are worn.

A. Inspect the valve guides for wear. Refer to the Specification If necessary, recondition the cylinder head. Verify the repair.
manual for the maximum permissible wear of the valve guides.
Result: The valve guides are not worn.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Worn Piston Rings Piston rings Result The piston rings are worn.

A. Remove the pistons. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Pis- Replace the piston rings. Verify the repair.
tons and Connecting Rods - Remove”.
Result The piston rings are not worn.
B. Remove the piston rings from the pistons. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, “Pistons and Connecting Rods - Disassemble” Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

C. Inspect the pistons and piston rings for wear or damage. Refer
to the “Specifications” manual for further information.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
130 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05874208

Fuel Consumption Is
Excessive

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes

• Misreading of fuel level


• Fuel leakage

• Fuel quality
• Quality of oil

• Engine accessories and transmission


• Coolant temperature
• Prolonged operation at idle speed

• Engine operating speed


• Air intake and exhaust system

• Cooling fan
• Reduced pressure of intake air

• Valve lash

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 131
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: A diagnostic code is present.


codes
Note: Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes indicate the Troubleshoot the diagnostic code and then verify that the
cause of high fuel consumption. fuel consumption is normal. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diag-
nostic Trouble Codes”.
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for active or logged
codes. Result: A diagnostic code is not present.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Misreading of Fuel Level Fuel level Result: Fuel consumption is normal for the operating
conditions.
Note: Misreading of the fuel gauge can give a false indication of
fuel consumption. Return the unit to service.

A. Monitor the fuel consumption over a period of 50 engine Result: Fuel consumption is high for the operating
hours. conditions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 131
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 131, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Fuel Leakage Fuel leaks Result: Evidence of a fuel leak is found.

A. Check the engine for signs of fuel leakage. Repair or replace the component that is leaking fuel.

Result: No evidence of a fuel leak is found.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Fuel Quality Fuel quality Result: The fuel quality does not meet specifications.

Note: The grade of the fuel affects the rate of fuel consumption. Drain the fuel system and replace the fuel filters. Refer to
Refer to the engines Operation and Maintenance Manual for ad- the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Pri-
ditional information. mary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace” and Oper-
ation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Filter -
Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics of the fuel. Replace”.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for information
on improving the characteristics of the fuel during cold-weather Fill the fuel system with fuel that meets the standard in the
operation. Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations”.

A. Check the fuel quality. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-
and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”. nance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.

B. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual for information Result: The fuel quality meets specifications.
on the proper characteristics of the fuel for the engine.
Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Quality of Oil Engine oil Result: The engine oil does not meet the required
quality specification.
Note: The nominal viscosity of the lubricating oil that is used in
the engine will affect the rate of fuel consumption. The viscosity Refill the oil system with oil of an acceptable quality. Refer to
of lubricating oil is defined by the SAE grade of the lubricating the applicable sections in the Operation and Maintenance
oil. The grade of the lubricating oil must be correct for the ambi- Manual.
ent conditions. Lubricating oil for high ambient temperatures will
affect fuel consumption in cold ambient temperatures. Result: The engine oil meets the required specification.

A. Check that the engine oil meets the required specification. Proceed to Test Step 6.
Refer to “Engine Oil” in the Operation and Maintenance Man-
ual, “Refill Capacities”.

6. Engine Accessories and Transmission Engine accesso- Result: The engine accessories and transmission are not
ries and OK.
A. Check that the engine accessories and transmission are oper- transmission
ating correctly. Make the necessary repairs.

B. Remove and inspect any engine accessories that may be Result: The engine accessories and transmission are OK.
adding unexpected load to the engine.
Proceed to Test Step 7.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
132 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 131, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

7. Coolant Temperature Coolant Result: The water temperature regulator is not operating
temperature correctly.
Note: The operating temperature of the engine will affect the rate
of fuel consumption. Operation of the engine below the correct Replace the water temperature regulator. Verify that the re-
temperature will increase fuel consumption. Failure of the water pair corrected the fault.
temperature regulator can prevent the engine from operating at
the correct temperature. Result: The water temperature regulator is operating
correctly.
A. Check that the water temperature regulator is operating cor-
rectly. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, Proceed to Test Step 8.
“Water Temperature Regulator - Test”.

8. Prolonged Operation at Idle Speed Extended idle Result: The engine is operating at idle speed for extended
operation periods.
Note: Prolonged operation of the engine at idle speed increases
fuel consumption. When possible, stop the engine to conserve fuel.

A. Check for extended periods of engine operation at idle speed. Result: The engine is not operating at idle speed for ex-
tended periods.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Engine Operating Speed Engine speed Result: The engine has been operated at an unsuitable
speed.
The operating speed of the engine will affect the rate of fuel
consumption. Operate the engine at a suitable speed.
High engine speed will increase fuel consumption. At high en-
gine speeds, internal power losses in the engine increase and Result: The engine has been operated at a suitable speed.
more power is required to drive the alternator and the fan. These
losses of power increase fuel consumption. Proceed to Test Step 10.
Lugging down the engine to a low engine speed will increase
fuel consumption. At low engine speeds, the combustion effi-
ciency of the engine is reduced and more fuel is required.
A. Check that the engine has been operated at a suitable engine
speed.

10. Air Intake and Exhaust System Air and Exhaust Result: The air filter is restricted.
System
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. restrictions Replace the air filter.

B. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the following Result: There are system restrictions.
defects:
Repair any defects in the air inlet and exhaust systems.
· Blockages
· Restrictions Result: The air intake and exhaust system is OK.
· Damage to lines or hoses
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and Proceed to Test Step 11.
Exhaust System - Inspect”.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 133
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 131, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

11. Cooling Fan Cooling fan Result: The cooling fan is operating excessively.

Excessive operation of the cooling fan will increase fuel Repair or replace the faulty cooling fan components.
consumption.
Result: The cooling fan is not operating excessively.
A. Check the operation of the cooling fan.
Proceed to Test Step 12.

12. Reduced Pressure of Intake Air Intake air Result: There is a leak in the intake air system.

Note: If the air pressure is lower than normal, the same power Repair the leak or replace the component that is causing the
can only be achieved by the following: leak.

· Higher engine speed Result: The turbocharger wastegate is not operating


· Injection of more fuel correctly.

Either of these conditions will increase the fuel consumption. Replace the turbocharger.

A. Check all pipes from the outlets of the turbocharger compres- Result: The air intake system and the wastegate are OK.
sor to the inlet manifold for leaks.
Proceed to Test Step 13.
B. Check for the correct operation of the wastegate in the turbo-
charger. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Turbocharger - Inspect”.

13. Valve Lash Valve lash Result: The valve lash is excessive.

Note: Excessive valve lash will cause a change in the timing of The hydraulic lifter will compensate for all normal wear of
the opening and closing of the inlet and exhaust valves. Exces- the components of the valve train.
sive valve lash can cause a reduction of the flow of combustion Repair or replace any excessively worn or damaged compo-
air into the engine. Reduced flow of combustion air will increase nents of the valve train.
the fuel consumption rate.
Result: The valve lash is correct.
A. Check the valve lash. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing,
and Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect”. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05667092

Fuel Contains Water

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:


Table 132
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for Fuel Contains Water

J1939 Description Notes


Code
97-15 Water In Fuel Indicator : The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the presence of water in the fuel for at least 60 seconds.
High - least severe (1)
If equipped, the warning lamp will come on.

The fault will be cleared when no fuel is detected for at least 0.6 seconds.

Note: Visual identification of water in the bowl may be Recommended Actions


impossible. Water may turn dark yellow in color in the
fuel system. The similarity in color would prevent the Note: Complete the procedure in the order in which
ability to differentiate the water from the fuel. the steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
134 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 133
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Drain the Fuel/Water Separator Bowl Fuel/water Result: The “Water-In-Fuel” warning disappears within 1
separator minute.
A. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Drain the fuel/water separator bowl. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Result: The “Water-In-Fuel” warning remains on.
- Drain”.
Proceed to Test Step 3.
C. If necessary, prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.

D. Turn the ignition key to the ON position. Do not start the engine.
Wait for 1 minute.

2. Confirm that there is no Water in the Fuel Water in fuel Result: The “Water-In-Fuel” warning does not reappear
within the 5 minutes.
Run the engine for 5 minutes.
Return the unit to service.

Result: The “Water-In-Fuel” warning reappears within the 5


minutes.

The fuel supply is contaminated with water. Drain the fuel


tank and then fill the fuel tank with clean fuel.

Repeat the procedure from Test Step 1.

3. Water-In-Fuel Switch Water in fuel Result: The Water-In-Fuel switch required a repair.
switch
A. Check the operation of the Water-In-Fuel switch. Refer to Trou- Repeat the procedure from Test Step 1.
bleshooting, “Water In Fuel - Test”.
Result The Water-In-Fuel switch is OK.

The fuel supply is contaminated with water. Drain the fuel


tank and then fill the fuel tank with clean fuel.

Repeat the procedure from Test Step 1.

i05875495

Fuel Rail Pressure Problem

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:


Table 134
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Fuel Rail Pressure

J1939 Description Notes


Code
157-0 Engine Injector Metering The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the following conditions:
Rail #1 Pressure : High -
most severe (3) The fuel rail pressure is greater than 199000 kPa (28863 psi) while the fuel rail Pressure Relief Valve
(PRV) has been activated.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 135
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 134, contd)


Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Fuel Rail Pressure

J1939 Description Notes


Code
157-2 Engine Injector Metering The ECM detects one of the following conditions:
Rail #1 Pressure : Erratic, The amount of fuel delivered by the high-pressure fuel pump is greater than 850 mL/min (29 oz/min) for
Intermittent, or Incorrect at least 2.5 seconds while the engine is at low idle.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

157-16 Engine Injector Metering The ECM detects one of the following conditions:
Rail #1 Pressure : High -
moderate severity (2) The fuel rail pressure is greater than 195000 kPa (28283 psi) for at least 1 second.
OR
The measured fuel rail pressure is greater than the desired fuel rail pressure for at least 3.5 seconds.
OR
The fuel pressure remains too high after the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position.

If the engine is running, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.
If the engine fuel pressure is high after the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position, the warning
lamp will come on the next time that the keyswitch is turned to the ON position.

157-17 Engine Injector Metering The ECM detects the fuel rail pressure is less than 13000 kPa (1886 psi)(or 16000 kPa (2321 psi) de-
Rail #1 Pressure : Low - pending on engine operating conditions).
least severe (1) The fault has been detected for at least 0.6 seconds.
The diagnostic code will clear if the rail pressure is within normal operating range for at least 0.5
seconds.
The warning lamp will flash. Fuel injection will be disabled.

157-18 Engine Injector Metering The ECM detects that the measured fuel rail pressure is lower than the desired fuel rail pressure for at
Rail #1 Pressure : Low - least 5 seconds. The threshold for this diagnostic code is dependent on engine speed.
moderate severity (2)
If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The shutdown lamp will come on. The engine will be derated.
The engine may shut down.

1239-0 Engine Fuel Leakage 1 : The ECM detects that the amount of fuel being delivered by the high-pressure fuel pump is too high for
High - most severe (3) the engine operating conditions.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

5571-2 High Pressure Common The ECM detects that the fuel rail pressure is out of the expected range after the fuel Pressure Relief
Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) has been opened.
Valve : Erratic, Intermit- This can either be high pressure (relief valve not fully open) or low pressure (fuel leak).
tent, or Incorrect
If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

5571-7 High Pressure Common The PRV has been activated.


Rail Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve : Not Responding The PRV activation is caused by another active diagnostic code. Troubleshoot any other active diagnos-
Properly tic codes. This diagnostic code will clear when the other fault has been rectified.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will shut down.

5571-10 High Pressure Common The ECM detects that the volume of fuel being delivered is too low to open the PRV during a PRV test.
Rail Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve : Abnormal Rate of If equipped, the warning lamp will flash.
Change Troubleshoot any other diagnostic codes before attempting to test the PRV again.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
136 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 134, contd)


Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Fuel Rail Pressure

J1939 Description Notes


Code
5571-14 High Pressure Common The ECM detects one of the following conditions:
Rail Fuel Pressure Relief The PRV has been open for a total of at least 300 minutes.
Valve : Special Instruction OR
The PRV has been activated at least 50 times.

Perform this procedure to identify the cause of the PRV activation before replacing the PRV.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

5571-16 High Pressure Common The ECM detects that the PRV is open.
Rail Fuel Pressure Relief
Valve : High - moderate If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.
severity (2) This code will be reset when the PRV is closed and the keyswitch has been cycled.

Use this procedure in order to troubleshoot abnormal


fuel rail pressure.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic trouble codes
• Electrical connectors

• Fuel filters
• Fuel rail pressure sensor
• Fuel system inspection

• Fuel rail Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)


• High-pressure fuel pump

Recommended Actions

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

NOTICE
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause personal
injury or death. Wait 60 seconds after the engine has
stopped to allow fuel pressure to purge before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 137
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 135
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic codes Result: One of the diagnostic codes listed in Table 134
is active.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic Result: A diagnostic code that is not listed in Table 134
codes. is active.

Troubleshoot the code. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diag-


nostic Trouble Codes”.

Result: There are no active diagnostic codes.

Return the engine to service.

2. Electrical Connectors Connectors Result: There are suspect connectors.

A. Check for the correct installation of the ECM J1/P1 and the J2/ Repair or replace connectors that are suspect.
P2 connectors. Check for correct installation of the connector on
the fuel rail pressure sensor. Result: There are no suspect connectors.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Fuel Filters Fuel filters Result: The filters have been replaced and the fault is
eliminated.
A. Replace the primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filters. Re-
fer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for further Return the unit to service.
information.
Result: The filters have been replaced and the fault is
still present.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
138 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 135, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Pressure sensor Result: The “Fuel Rail Pressure (absolute)” is more
than 5,000 kPa (725 psi).
A. Make sure that the engine has been shut down for at least 10
minutes. Use the electronic service tool to check the status of the Replace the fuel rail pressure sensor. Refer to Disas-
“Fuel Rail Pressure” sembly and Assembly, “Fuel Manifold (Rail) - Remove
and Install”.
When the fuel manifold has been replaced, use the elec-
tronic service tool to perform the “Rail Pressure Sensor
Replacement Reset” and the “Rail Pressure Valve
Learn Reset” .

Confirm that the fault has been eliminated.

Result: The “Fuel Rail Pressure (absolute)” is less than


5,000 kPa (725 psi).

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified fuel Result: No defects found.
(wax).
Proceed to Test Step 6.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Oper-


ation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems Oper-


ation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Operation,


Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System - Prime”.

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 139
Symptom Troubleshooting

Illustration 37 g03705140

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
140 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 136
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Fuel Rail Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) Fuel in container Result: Fuel is present in the container.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Install a replacement fuel manifold. Refer to Disassem-
bly and Assembly, “Fuel Manifold (Rail) - Remove and
B. Disconnect plastic tube assembly (4) from fuel manifold (1). Re- Install”.
fer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Manifold (Rail) - Remove When the fuel manifold has been replaced, use the elec-
and Install”. tronic service tool to perform the “Rail Pressure Sensor
Replacement Reset” and the “Rail Pressure Valve
C. Securely seal the end of plastic tube assembly (4). Learn Reset” .
Note: Plastic tube assembly (4) must be sealed to prevent air in-
gress into the fuel system. Result: No fuel is present in the container.

D. Attach a length of hose to fuel manifold (1) and secure with a Proceed to Test Step 7.
clip at position (3).

E. Place the other end of the hose into a container that is suitable
for fuel. Ensure that the hose is secure and will not come out of the
container while the engine is running.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

G. If the engine will start, use the electronic service tool to perform
the “High Rail Pressure Test” . This service test will run the engine
with an elevated fuel rail pressure for a limited time. At this pres-
sure, a PRV that is functioning correctly will remain closed. If the
engine will not start, crank the engine for a maximum of 30
seconds.

H. After the engine has stopped, check the container for fuel.

Result: There are no active diagnostic codes.


7. High-Pressure Fuel Pump Diagnostic codes
Return the engine to service.
A. If all previous Test Steps have not identified a fault, and a fuel
rail pressure diagnostic code is still active, replace the high-pres- Result: A diagnostic code that is not listed in Table 134
sure fuel pump. is active.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Injection Pump - Re-
move” and refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Injection Troubleshoot the code. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diag-
Pump - Remove”. nostic Trouble Codes”.

B. Run the engine and use the electronic service tool to check for
active diagnostic codes. Result: One of the diagnostic codes listed in Table 134
is still active.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05670411 Recommended Actions


Fuel Temperature Is High Fuel Level in Tank
Probable causes If the level in the fuel tank is low, the hot fuel from the
high-pressure fuel system can raise the temperature
in the fuel tank. Replenish the fuel tank at the earliest
opportunity.
• Fuel level in tank
Location of the Fuel Tank
• Location of the fuel tank
Make sure that the fuel tank is not close to a heat
source. If necessary, shield the fuel tank from the
heat source.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 141
Symptom Troubleshooting

i06017534

Inlet Air Is Restricted

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a fault


with the air flow through the air filter. If the air flow has
been restricted, the ECM will generate one of the
following codes:
Table 137
Code for Inlet Air Restriction
J1939 Description Information
Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the following
conditions:
The air filter restriction switch indicates that the air filter is
blocked.
107-15 Engine Air Filter 1 Differential Pressure : High - least severe (1)
The engine has been operating for at least 60 seconds.
The engine speed is at least 1800 rpm.
If equipped, the warning lamp will flash

The ECM detects that a 107-15 diagnostic code has been active
for at least 30 minutes.
Engine Air Filter 1 Differential Pressure: High - moderate severity
107-16
(2)
If equipped, the warning lamp will flash.
The engine will be derated.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.
Table 138
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check the Air Filter Element Plugged Air Filter Result: The air filter is clogged.

A. Check the air intake system for plugged air filters or for damaged Repair: Clean or replace the air filter. Verify that the
air filters. If the engine is equipped with an air intake precleaner, problem is resolved.
verify the proper operation of the air intake precleaner.
Result: The air filter is not clogged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check the Air Inlet Piping Damaged Air Inlet Result: The air inlet piping is damaged or has
Piping restrictions.
A. Check the air inlet piping for damage or restrictions.
Repair: Repair the piping or replace the piping. Verify
that the problem is resolved.

Result: The air inlet piping does not have damage or


restrictions.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Check the Enclosure Ventilation Enclosure Ventilation Result: The engine does not have sufficient
ventilation.
A. Check that the engine has been installed in an enclosure that is
sufficiently ventilated. Repair: Repair the ventilation for the enclosure. Veri-
fy that the problem is resolved.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
142 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05955248

Inlet Air Temperature Is High

Use this procedure to determine the cause of high air


inlet temperature.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• High ambient air temperature

• Intake air restriction and/or high altitude


• Intake air from a heated area

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 139
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are active or logged codes.


codes
A. Establish communication between the electronic service Troubleshoot any codes before continuing with this procedure.
tool and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Trou-
bleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary. Result: There are no active or logged codes.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. High Ambient Air Temperature Ambient Air Result: The ambient air temperature is not within the design
temperature specifications.
A. Determine if the ambient air temperature is within the de-
sign specifications for the cooling system and the air charge When possible, modify the cooling system and the air charge
cooler. cooler in order to make the system suitable for local
conditions.

Result: The ambient air temperature is within the design


specifications.

Operate the engine at a reduced load or operate the engine at


a reduced speed.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 143
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 139, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Intake Air Restriction and/or High Altitude Intake air Result: There is a suspected intake air restriction.
problem
Check for blocked air filters. Check for obstructions in the air
A. Measure the intake manifold pressure while the engine is intake.
operating under load. For specific data, refer to the Technical
Marketing Information (TMI) for the engine. Replace the air filters or remove the obstruction from the air
intake.
Note: Low air pressure at the air intake for the turbochargers
can be caused by a restriction in the air intake or a high alti- Result: High altitude operation is suspected of causing the
tude. When the pressure of the intake air is low, the turbo- symptom.
chargers work harder in order to achieve the desired intake
manifold pressure. This increases intake air temperature. Make sure that the settings for the engine are correct for the
altitude.

Result: There are no air restrictions or altitude issues.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Intake Air from a Heated Area Intake air Result: The intake air is from a heated area.
temperature
A. Ensure that the air inlet system is not receiving air from a If necessary, relocate the air supply to the intake manifold to
heated area. the outside of the engine enclosure.

Check for air leaks in the pipe between the air inlet and the in-
let to the turbocharger compressor.

Result: The intake air is not from a heated area.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955263

Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is


High

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:


Table 140
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for High Intake Manifold Air Pressure

J1939 Code Description Notes

1127-16 Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : High - moderate The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the ac-
severity (2) tual intake manifold air pressure is greater than the desired
intake manifold air pressure by 50 kPa (7.25 psi) for at
least 10 seconds.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be


derated.

If the actual intake manifold pressure is within 25 kPa


(3.6 psi) of the desired intake manifold air pressure for at
least 11 minutes, the code will reset.

Probable Causes
• Air inlet and exhaust restrictions

• Turbocharger wastegate
• Wastegate regulator
This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
144 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 141
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Air Inlet and Exhaust Restrictions Air inlet and ex- Result: Defects found in the air inlet or exhaust systems.
haust system
A. Check the air filter for damage. Repair any defects. Replace damaged components.

B. Check the air inlet and exhaust system for restrictions and/ Result: The air inlet and exhaust systems are OK.
or leaks. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect”. Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Turbocharger Wastegate Turbocharger Result: There is a suspected fault in the wastegate or the
wastegate wastegate actuator.
A. Check the operation of the turbocharger wastegate.
Replace the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
B. Check the operation of the wastegate actuator. Refer to bly, “Turbocharger - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,
Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Turbocharger - “Turbocharger - Install”.
Inspect”.
Result: The wastegate and the wastegate actuator operate
correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Wastegate Regulator Wastegate Result: Diagnostic codes are present that relate to the waste-
regulator gate regulator.
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for diagnostic trou-
ble codes that relate to the wastegate regulator. Rectify the cause of any related codes. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

Result: There are no diagnostic codes that relate to the waste-


gate regulator.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955265

Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is


Low

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 145
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 142
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for Low Intake Manifold Air Pressure

J1939 Code Description Notes

1127-18 Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : Low The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the following conditions:
- moderate severity (2)
The actual intake manifold air pressure is less than the desired intake manifold
air pressure for at least 10 seconds. The difference between the two values is
dependent on engine operating conditions.
The engine speed is between 1000 rpm and 4000 rpm.
The engine coolant temperature is greater than 45° C (113° F).
There are no active 102 diagnostic codes for the intake manifold air pressure
sensor.
An active regeneration is not in progress.
There are no other active engine derates.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.
The fault will be cleared when the intake manifold air pressure is within the ac-
ceptable range for at least 11 minutes.

Probable Causes
• Intake air filter

• Air intake system


• Wastegate regulator

• Turbocharger

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 143
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Intake Air Filter Air filter Result: The air filter is blocked.

A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Replace the air filter element. Refer to the Operation and Main-
tenance Manual, “Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace”.
B. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable.
Result: The air filter is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Air Intake System Air intake Result: The air intake system is blocked, restricted, damaged,
or loose.
A. Check the air intake system for the following defects:
Make all necessary repairs to the air intake system.
· Blockages
· Restrictions Result: The air intake system is OK.
· Damage to the air intake ducts and hoses
· Loose connections and air leaks Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
146 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 143, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Wastegate Regulator Wastegate Result: Diagnostic codes are present that relate to the waste-
regulator gate regulator.
A. Use the electronic service tool to check for diagnostic trou-
ble codes that relate to the wastegate regulator. Rectify the cause of any related codes. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

Result: There are no diagnostic codes that relate to the waste-


gate regulator.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Turbocharger Turbocharger Result: There is a fault with the turbocharger.

Note: The turbocharger that is installed on the engine is a Replace the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
nonserviceable item. If any mechanical fault exists, then the bly, “Turbocharger - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,
turbocharger must be replaced. “Turbocharger - Install”.

A. Check that the compressor housings for the turbochargers Result: The turbocharger is OK.
are free of dirt and debris.
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
B. Check that the turbine housings for the turbochargers are
free of dirt and debris.

C. Check that the turbine blades rotate freely in the


turbochargers.

i05955273

Intake Manifold Air


Temperature Is High

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the


intake manifold air for excessive temperature.
Use this procedure to determine the cause of high
intake manifold air temperature.

Probable Causes
• Coolant level

• Air-to-air aftercooler (ATAAC)


• Cooling fan

• Air inlet and exhaust system


• Ambient temperature
• Altitude

• Running condition

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 147
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 144
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Coolant Level Coolant Result: The coolant level is low.

A. Check that the coolant is filled to the correct level. Fill the coolant system to the correct level. Refer to the Opera-
tion and Maintenance Manual, “Coolant Level - Check”.
Note: If the coolant level is too low, air will get into the cooling
system. Air in the cooling system will cause a reduction in Result: The coolant level is OK.
coolant flow.
Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Air-to-Air Aftercooler (ATAAC) ATAAC Result: The ATAAC has excessive debris or is damaged.

A. Check the ATAAC for debris or damage. Clear the debris from the ATAAC or replace the ATAAC.

Note: Debris between the fins of the ATAAC core restricts air Result: The ATAAC is OK.
flow through the core.
Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Cooling Fan Cooling fan Result: The cooling fan is not operating correctly.

A. Check the operation of the cooling fan. Investigate the cause of the incorrect fan operation

Note: A fan that is not turning at the correct speed can result Result: The cooling fan is operating correctly.
in insufficient airflow through the aftercooler core.
Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Air Intake and Exhaust System Air intake and Result: The air intake or exhaust system is blocked, restricted,
exhaust damaged, or loose.
A. Check the air intake and exhaust system for the following
defects: Make all necessary repairs to the air intake system.

· Blockages Result: The air intake and exhaust system is OK.


· Restrictions
· Damage to the air intake ducts and hoses Proceed to Test Step 5.
· Loose connections and air leaks

5. Ambient Temperature Ambient Result: The ambient air temperature is high.


Temperature
A. Check for a high ambient temperature. Operate the engine at reduced speed or reduced power.

Note: When outside temperatures are too high, there is insuffi- Result: The ambient air temperature is OK.
cient temperature difference between the outside air and the
intake air. Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
148 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 144, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Altitude Altitude Result: The engine is being operated at high altitude.

A. Check for operation at high altitude. Operate the engine at reduced speed or reduced power.

Note: The cooling capacity of the ATAAC is reduced as the Result: The engine is not being operated at high altitude.
engine is operated at higher altitudes.
Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Running Condition Running Result: The engine is operating in the lug condition.
condition
A. Check that the engine is not operating in the lug condition. Reduce the load on the engine or, if possible, increase the
power rating of the engine.
Note: When the load that is applied to the engine is too large,
the engine will run in the lug condition. When the engine is Result: The engine is not operating in the lug condition.
running in the lug condition, engine rpm does not increase
with an increase of fuel. This lower engine rpm causes a re- Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
duction in coolant flow through the system.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 149
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05955277

NOx Conversion Is Low


Table 145

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for NOx Conversion Is Low

J1939 Description Notes


Code
The ECM detects that the difference in NOx between the engine out NOx sensor and the
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst
tailpipe out NOx sensor is not within the expected range.
4364-17 Conversion Efficiency : Low - least
This value is measured when all other engine sensors are reading within a valid range and
severe (1)
the exhaust gas volume is in a steady state.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Table 146
Required Tools

Tool Part Number Part Description Qty

A T400236 Kit - Test 1

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
150 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 147
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Other Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic trou- Result: There is at least one other active diagnostic code
ble code
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Note: Troubleshoot all other active diagnostic codes be-
and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Troubleshoot- fore continuing with this procedure.
ing, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes” for
further information.
B. Check for active diagnostic codes
Result: A 4364-17 code is active or logged.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Check the DEF Quality DEF quality Result: The DEF quality is within the acceptable range.
standards
A. Use Tooling A to measure the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Proceed to Test Step 3.
quality.
Result: The DEF quality is not within the acceptable
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Diesel Ex- range.
haust Fluid Quality - Test” for the correct procedure.
Drain the DEF fluid from the tank. Refill the tank with DEF
that meets ISO 22241 quality standards.

3. Inspect All the DEF Lines for Leaks Leaks Result: The lines are leaking, damaged, pinched, or
disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine.
Make the necessary repairs.
B. Use the electronic service tool to perform the “DEF Dosing Sys-
tem Verification Test ” in order to pressurize the system. Refer to Result: The lines are not leaking, damaged, pinched, or
Troubleshooting, “Service Tool Features” for more information. disconnected.

C. Visually inspect all DEF lines from the DEF tank to the DEF in- Proceed to Test Step 4.
jector. Look for pinched, damaged, or disconnected lines.

D. Inspect the lines for leakage.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

4. Check for Exhaust Leaks Exhaust leaks Result: Exhaust leaks are found.

A. Start the engine. Repair or replace the component that is causing an ex-
haust leak.
B. Check the exhaust system for leaks or damage.

C. Check all exhaust connections from the turbo outlet to the SCR Result: There were no exhaust leaks found.
outlet (tailpipe outlet).
Proceed to Test Step 5.
D. Check for damage to the exhaust system insulation.

DEF dosing Result: The quantity collected is not within the acceptable
5. Perform the “ DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test”” range.

A. Perform the “DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test” . Refer to Sys- Replace the DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and As-
tems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Aftertreatment SCR Sys- sembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and
tem Dosing Test” for the correct procedure. Install”.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 151
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 147, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
Result: The quantity collected is within the desired range.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Check the DEF Pressure Line Restrictions, ob- Result: There are restrictions in the DEF pressure line.
structions, or
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes. leaks Proceed to Test Step 7.

B. Remove the DEF pressure line between the DEF pump and the Result: There are no restrictions or leaks in the lines.
DEF injector.
Proceed to Test Step 7.
C. Check for ice, urea deposits, or debris in the DEF pressure line.

7. Check the Engine Breather System Breather System Result: Fault found in the engine breather system.

A. Ensure that the crankcase breather filter has been replaced ac- Make any necessary repairs.
cording to the maintenance interval schedule. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Result: The engine breather system is OK.
Replace”.
B. Check for correct operation of the crankcase pressure relief Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
valve. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Crankcase Breather Ejects Oil”.

i05948730

NRS Mass Flow Rate Problem

This procedure covers the following diagnostic


trouble code:
Table 148
Diagnostic Trouble Codes

J1939 Code Code Description Comments


2659-2 Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation 1 Mass Flow Rate : Erratic, Intermittent, or The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will per-
Incorrect form a check on the Exhaust Gas Recircula-
tion (EGR) system when the engine is at
normal operating temperature and low idle.
This diagnostic code will become active when
the intake manifold pressure does not vary by
at least 1 kPa (0.14 psi) when the EGR valve
is operated over the full range.
The warning lamp will come on.

Probable Causes
• Diagnostic codes
• Electrical connectors and harness

• Air inlet and exhaust system

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
152 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 149
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic codes Result: A diagnostic code for the EGR valve is active or
logged.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connec-
tor. If necessary, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Rectify the EGR valve code. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Di-
Tools”. agnostic Trouble Codes”.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Result: A 2659-2 diagnostic code is active.

C. Use the electronic service tool to check for active or logged Proceed to Test Step 2.
codes.

2. Inspect the Electrical Connectors and the Harness Connectors and Result: An electrical connector or a cable is not correctly
harness installed.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Install the connector or cable correctly.
B. Inspect the connectors for the components in the EGR sys-
tem. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connector - Inspect”. Result: The harness is faulty.

C. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in any Install a replacement harness.
suspect connector and the connections at the ECM.
Result: The harness and connectors are OK.
D. Check that the ground connection on the ECM and the nega-
tive terminal on the battery are correctly installed. Proceed to Test Step 3.

E. Check the ground connection on the ECM for abrasions and


pinch points.

F. Check the harness for abrasion and pinch points from the
EGR components to the ECM.

H. Check that any suspect connector is installed correctly.

3. Check the Air Inlet and Exhaust System Air inlet and ex- Result: The air inlet system has a leak or is restricted.
haust system
A. Check the air inlet system for leaks and for restrictions. Clear any restrictions in the air inlet system.

B. Check the exhaust system for leaks and for restrictions. Repair any air leaks in the air inlet system.

Result: The exhaust system has a leak or is restricted.

Clear any restrictions in the exhaust system.

Repair any air leaks in the exhaust system.

If the fault is still present, contact the Dealer Solution Net-


work (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 153
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05955289

Oil Consumption Is Excessive


Probable Causes

• Misreading oil level

• Oil leaks
• Engine crankcase breather

• Oil level
• Air intake and exhaust system

• Turbocharger
• Low compression (cylinder pressure)

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 150
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Misreading Oil Level Oil level Result: The oil consumption is less than 0.1% of the fuel
consumption.
A. Accurately measure the consumption of oil and fuel over a
period of 50 engine hours. Oil consumption is within specification. Return the unit to
service

Result: The oil consumption is greater than 0.1% of the fuel


consumption.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Oil Leaks Oil leaks Result: An oil leak is identified.

A. Check for evidence of oil leaks on the engine. Rectify the cause of the oil leak.

B. Check for evidence of oil in the coolant. Result: Oil is present in the coolant.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Coolant Contains Oil”.

No oil leaks are identified

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

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154 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 150, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Engine Crankcase Breather Breather Result: The engine crankcase breather is blocked or
restricted.
A. Check the engine crankcase breather for blockage or
restrictions. Clear the blockage or restriction.

B. Check for excessive oil from the outlet of the breather. Result: Excessive oil is ejected from the outlet of the breather.

C. Check the centrifugal breather for a mechanical failure. Investigate the cause of the excessive oil content in the breath-
er flow. If necessary, replace the element in the breather. Refer
D. Check for oil around the crankcase breather pressure relief to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Crankcase
valve. Breather Element - Replace”.

Result: There is oil around the crankcase breather pressure


relief valve.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Crankcase Breather Ejects Oil”.

Result: No oil is ejected through the breather.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Oil Level Oil level Result: The oil level in the engine is high.

A. Check for a high oil level in the engine. Make sure that the oil is not contaminated with fuel. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.

Make sure that the oil is not contaminated with coolant. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Coolant”.

Remove the excess oil.

Result: The oil level is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Air Intake and Exhaust System Air intake and Result: The air filter restriction indicator has operated or the
exhaust system air filter is blocked.
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped.
Make sure that the air filter is clean and serviceable. If neces-
Check the air intake and the exhaust system for the following sary, replace the air filter.
defects:
Result: The air intake or the exhaust system is blocked, re-
· Blockages stricted, or damaged.
· Restrictions
· Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and hose Repair the air intake or the exhaust system, as required.

Result: The air intake or the exhaust system is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

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UENR4504 155
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 150, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Turbocharger Turbocharger Result: The oil drain for the turbocharger is blocked or
restricted.
Note: The turbocharger that is installed on this engine is a
nonserviceable item. If any mechanical fault exists, then the Remove the blockage or restriction. If necessary, replace the
turbocharger must be replaced. oil drain line.

A. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not blocked Result: The turbocharger has an internal oil leak.
or restricted.
Replace the turbocharger.
B. Check the turbocharger for evidence of an internal oil leak.
Result: The turbocharger is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Cylinder Result: The results of the compression test are outside the
compression specifications.
A. Perform a compression test. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing, and Adjusting, “Compression - Test”. Investigate the cause and rectify any faults.

Note: Possible causes of low compression are shown in the


following list:

· Loose glow plugs


· Faulty piston
· Faulty piston rings
· Worn cylinder bores
· Worn valves
· Faulty cylinder head gasket
· Damaged cylinder head

Result: The results of the compression test are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955303

Oil Contains Coolant


Probable Causes

• Engine oil cooler


• Cylinder head gasket

• Cylinder head
• Cylinder block

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
156 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 151
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Engine Oil Cooler Oil level Result: Evidence of coolant in the oil system is identified.

A. Drain the engine lubricating oil and coolant from the engine. Install a new oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Check for leaks in the oil cooler assembly. “Engine Oil Cooler - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cooling “Engine Oil Cooler - Install” for the correct procedure.
System” for the correct procedure.
Result: No evidence of coolant in the oil system is found.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Cylinder Head Gasket Cylinder head Result: The cylinder head gasket is faulty or shows signs of
gasket leakage.
A. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and As-
sembly, “Cylinder Head - Remove” for the correct procedure. Install a new cylinder head gasket.
Inspect the cylinder head gasket for faults and any signs of
leakage. Result: The cylinder head gasket is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

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UENR4504 157
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 151, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Cylinder Head Cylinder head Result: The cylinder head is not within specification for
flatness.
A. Check the cylinder head for flatness. Refer to Systems Op-
eration, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cylinder Head - Inspect” for Install a new cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
the correct procedure. bly, “Cylinder Head - Install” for the correct procedure.

B. Check the mating face of the cylinder head for faults and Result: The cylinder head shows signs of a fault or leakage.
signs of leakage. If a fault is found, replace the cylinder head.
If signs of leakage are found, determine the cause of the leak- Install a new cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
age. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cyl- bly, “Cylinder Head - Install” for the correct procedure.
inder Head - Inspect” for the correct procedure.
Result: An internal core plug in the cylinder head shows signs
C. Check the internal core plugs in the cylinder head for signs of leakage.
of leakage.
Replace the faulty core plug.

Result: The cylinder head is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Cylinder Block Cylinder block Result: The top face of the cylinder block has a fault.

A. Inspect the top face of the cylinder block for faults and signs Replace the cylinder block.
of leakage.
Result: The top face of the cylinder block shows signs of
leakage.

Determine the cause of the leakage. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Cylinder Block - Inspect” for the
correct procedure.

Result: The cylinder block is OK.

Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,


“Cylinder Head - Install”.

Remove the oil filter element. Install a new engine oil filter ele-
ment. Fill the engine with clean engine oil to the correct level.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil
and Filter - Change” for more information.

Fill the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and Mainte-


nance Manual for more information.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05955310 A closed cup flash test can be performed in order to


detect fuel dilution. The flash test is designed to
Oil Contains Fuel measure the volatile parts of the fuel that are
remaining in the oil. Detecting less volatile fuel is
difficult. The less volatile fuel reduces the accuracy of
the flash test.
Measuring Fuel Dilution Since the flash test does not accurately detect
fuel dilution, do not use the flash test as the only
Diesel fuel is chemically similar to the lubricants that measure of fuel dilution. Instead, verify the dilution
are used in diesel engines. A slow fuel leak will blend by the following methods:
the fuel into the oil. Normal operating temperatures
may cause volatile parts of the fuel to vaporize. The • Gas chromatograph fuel dilution test
fuel that remains in the oil is less volatile.
• Oil viscosity

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158 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

The test that uses a gas chromatograph is designed


to measure fuel dilution in crankcase oils. The gas
chromatograph can identify the small chemical
differences between diesel fuel and lubricating oil.
Even though the gas chromatograph provides a more
accurate measure of fuel dilution, always verify the
results with the viscosity test.
A significant level of fuel dilution reduces oil viscosity.
If an unacceptable level of fuel dilution is suspected,
the kinematic viscosity of the oil must be measured.
Fuel dilution that is greater than 10 percent will
usually cause viscosity that is less than the specified
viscosity grade. If the oil is still within the specified
viscosity grade, fuel dilution has not reached an
unacceptable level.

Verifying Fuel Dilution


Always verify fuel dilution by the combination of a
viscosity test and a gas chromatograph test. If the
result is in excess of 10 percent, investigate the
cause.
1. Obtain an oil test kit. Refer to table
Table 152
Oil Test Kits
Region Part Number

North America and South 29990014


America
Rest of the world 29990011

2. Follow the instructions that are supplied with the oil


test kit.
3. Obtain a sample of the oil from the engine. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations - Engine Oil”.

4. Complete the form that is included with the oil test


kit.
5. Send the oil sample for analysis. Follow the
instructions that are included with the oil test kit.

Probable Causes
• Fuel injector seals

• Fuel injector tip

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.

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UENR4504 159
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 153
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Fuel Injector Seals Fuel injector Result: Injector seals are damaged.
seals
A. Check for signs of damage to the seals for the fuel Replace any damaged injector seals.
injectors. Change the engine oil and perform the “Engine Oil Life Reset”
. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil and
Filter - Change”.

Result: All injector seals are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Fuel Injector Tip Fuel injector tip Result: A fuel injector is damaged.

A. Check for signs of damage to the fuel injectors. Check the Replace the fuel injector. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
fuel injector tip for cracks or breakage. “Electronic Unit Injector - Remove” and Disassembly and As-
sembly, “Electronic Unit Injector - Install”.
Change the engine oil and perform the “Engine Oil Life Reset”
. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil and
Filter - Change”.

Result: All fuel injectors are OK.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05673615

Oil Pressure Is Low

This procedure covers the following diagnostic code:


Table 154
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for Low Engine Oil Pressure

J1939 Description Notes


Code
100-17 Engine Oil Pressure : Low The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the engine oil pressure is low.
- least severe (1)
The engine speed is greater than 500 RPM.

If equipped, the warning lamp will come on and the oil pressure lamp will come on.

NOTICE
Do not operate the engine with low oil pressure.
Engine damage will result. If measured oil pressure is
low, discontinue engine operation until the fault is
corrected.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the


engine oil pressure.

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160 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Probable Causes
• Visible Leaks
• Engine oil level
• Oil specification

• Engine oil filter


• Engine oil pressure switch

• Engine oil relief valve


• Engine oil cooler

• Fuel in the engine oil


• Piston cooling jets

• Engine oil suction tube


• Engine oil pump

• Bearing clearance

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 155
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Visible Leaks Visible leaks Result: There are visible oil leaks.

A. Thoroughly inspect the engine for oil leaks. Repair any leaks.

Result: There are no visible oil leaks

Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Engine Oil Level Oil level Result: The engine oil level is low.

A. Check the engine oil level. Fill the oil system to the full mark on the dipstick.

Result: The engine oil level is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Oil Specification Oil specification Result: An incorrect specification of engine oil is being used.

A. Check that engine oil of the correct specification is being Drain the oil system and refill the oil system with engine oil of
used. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill the correct specification. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Capacities and Recommendations”. Manual, “Engine Oil and Filter - Change”.

Result: The engine contains oil of the correct specification.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

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UENR4504 161
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 155, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Engine Oil Filter Oil filter Result: The oil filter is blocked.

A. Remove the engine oil filter. Refer to the Operation and Install a new oil filter. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil and Filter - Change”. Manual, “Engine Oil and Filter - Change” for further
information.
B. Inspect the engine oil filter for evidence of blockage.
Result: The oil filter is OK.

Install a new oil filter. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance


Manual, “Engine Oil and Filter - Change” for further
information.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Engine Oil Pressure Switch Engine Oil Pres- Result: There is a fault with the oil pressure switch circuit.
sure Switch
A. Ensure that the engine oil pressure switch is operating cor- Make any necessary repairs. Refer to Troubleshooting,
rectly. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test (En- “Switch Circuits - Test (Engine Oil Pressure Switch)”.
gine Oil Pressure Switch)”.
Result: The oil pressure switch circuit is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Engine Oil Relief Valve Damage Result: The engine oil relief valve is damaged.

A. Inspect the engine oil relief valve for damage. Replace the oil relief valve. Refer to Disassembly and Assem-
bly, “Engine Oil Relief Valve - Remove and Install”.

Result: The engine oil relief valve is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Engine Oil Cooler Oil cooler Result: The oil cooler has signs of damage or restriction.

A. Check the oil cooler for signs of damage or restrictions. Install a new oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Engine Oil Cooler - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,
“Engine Oil Cooler - Install”.

Result: The oil cooler is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Fuel in the Engine Oil Oil Result: The oil contains fuel.
contamination
A. Check fuel contamination of the engine oil. Refer to Trou- Refer to Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
bleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
Result: The oil is not contaminated.

Proceed to Test Step 9.

(continued)

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162 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 155, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

9. Piston Cooling Jets Piston cooling Result: A piston cooling jet is cracked, damaged, or missing.
jets
A. Inspect the piston cooling jets for cracks, damage, or miss- Install a new piston cooling jet. Refer to Disassembly and As-
ing jets. sembly, “Piston Cooling Jets - Remove and Install”.

Result: The piston cooling jets are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Engine Oil Suction Tube Oil suction tube Result: The inlet screen on the oil suction tube is blocked with
debris.
A. Check the inlet screen on the oil suction tube and remove
any material that may be restricting oil flow. Remove the debris from the inlet screen.

B. Check the joints of the oil suction tube for cracks or a dam- Result: The oil suction tube is cracked.
aged joint.
Install a new oil suction tube.
Note: Cracks or damage may allow air leakage into the supply
to the oil pump. The oil suction tube is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 11.

11. Engine Oil Pump Oil pump Result: A component in the oil pump is not within
specification.
A. Inspect the components of the engine oil pump for exces-
sive wear. Repair the oil pump or replace the oil pump, if necessary. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Pump - Remove”
and Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Pump - Install”.

The oil pump is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 12.

12. Bearing Clearance Bearing Result: An engine bearing is not within specification.
clearance
A. Inspect the engine components for excessive bearing clear- Install a new bearing. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly.
ance or damaged bearings. Inspect the following components
for excessive bearing clearance: Result: All engine bearings are within specification.

· Crankshaft main bearings If the fault is still present there may be an open circuit condition
· Connecting rod bearings in the oil pressure switch circuit. Refer to Troubleshooting,
· Camshaft front bearing “Switch Circuits - Test (Engine Oil Pressure Switch)”.
· Idler gear bearing

i05955328 Probable Causes


Power Is Intermittently Low or • Diagnostic codes
Power Cutout Is Intermittent • Electrical connectors

• ECM connection
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine does not • Fuel system inspection
shut down completely.
• Air inlet and exhaust system

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 163
Symptom Troubleshooting

Recommended Actions
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.

Note: The procedures have been listed in order of


probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 156
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: There are active or logged codes.


codes
A. Establish communication between the electronic service Troubleshoot any codes before continuing with this procedure.
tool and the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Refer to Trou- Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.
bleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”, if necessary.
Result: There are no active or logged codes.
B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic
codes. Proceed to Test Step 2.

2. Electrical Connectors Electrical Result: An electrical connector is damaged.


connectors
A. Check all electrical connectors for damage. Refer to Trou- Repair the electrical connector or replace the electrical
bleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”. connector.

B. Make sure that all the connector seals are in place and that Result: A connector seal is displaced or missing or an electri-
the connectors have been correctly installed. cal connector is not correctly installed.

Repair the electrical connector or replace the electrical


connector.

Result: All electrical connectors are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. ECM Connection ECM connection Result: An ECM connector is not correctly installed.

Repair the electrical connector or replace the electrical


A. Check that the P2/J2 and P1/J1 connectors are correctly connector.
installed.
Result: Both ECM connectors are correctly installed.
Note: If a fault is suspected with the ECM power or ground
connections, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Sup- Proceed to Test Step 4.
ply - Test”.

(continued)

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164 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 156, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Fuel System Inspection Fuel System Result: A defect was found in the fuel system.

A. Check that the fuel shut-off valve is in the OPEN position. Make any necessary repairs.

B. If the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), check for solidified Result: No defects found.
fuel (wax).
Proceed to Test Step 5.
C. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

D. Check that the low-pressure fuel lines are correctly


installed.

E. Check the pressures in the fuel system. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure -
Test”

F. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel Quality - Test”.

G. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Systems Opera-


tion, Testing, and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”.

H. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Refer to Sys-
tems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Fuel System -
Prime”.

5. Fuel Filters Fault cleared Result: The fault has been rectified.

A. Replace the primary fuel filter and the secondary fuel filter. Return the engine to service.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel Sys-
tem Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace”. Result: The fault is still present.

B. Run the engine in the conditions that the fault occurred. Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Air Inlet and Exhaust System Defects Result: A defect was found in the air intake or exhaust
system.
A. Check the air filter restriction indicator.
Make any necessary repairs.
B. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable
Result: No defects found in the air intake or exhaust systems.
C. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the following
defects: Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

· Blockages
· Restrictions
· Damage to lines or hoses

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 165
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05918565

SCR Catalyst Has Incorrect Inlet Temperature


Table 157

Diagnostic Trouble Code for SCR Catalyst Has Incorrect Inlet Temperature

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Tem- The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the difference between
4337-10 perature : Abnormal Rate of Change the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst intake temperature and
the ambient air temperature is implausible.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.
Table 158
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Diagnostic Trouble Codes Diagnostic trou- Result: A 4337-10 diagnostic code is active or recently
ble codes logged.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the engine. Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Connect to the electronic service tool. Result: An associated code other than 4337-10 is active
or recently logged.
C. Check for active or recently logged diagnostic trouble codes. Troubleshoot the logged or active code. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

2. Check the Exhaust System Exhaust System Result: The exhaust system has a gas leak.

A. Check the exhaust system for gas leaks between the turbo- Make the necessary repairs.
charger the exhaust tail pipe.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnos-
B. Check for gas leaks around all of the sensors in the aftertreat- tic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
ment system.
Result: The exhaust system insulation is damaged or
C. Check for missing or damaged exhaust system insulation. missing.

Make the necessary repairs.

Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnos-


tic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: The exhaust system is OK.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

3. Install a Replacement SCR Inlet Temperature Sensor Diagnostic code Result: The 4337-10 diagnostic code is no longer active.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Return the unit to service.

B. Install a replacement SCR inlet temperature sensor. Refer to Result: The 4337-10 diagnostic code is still active.
Disassembly and Assembly.
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
C. Start the engine.

D. Use the electronic service tool to check for an active 4337-10 di-
agnostic code.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
166 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

i05901698

SCR Warning System Problem

Operator Level Inducement


Inducements are engine derates or other actions
intended to prompt the operator to repair or maintain
the emission control system.
Inducement strategies are control actions required by
EPA/ARB Tier 4 and EU Stage IV regulations. An
inducement strategy ensures prompt correction of
various failures in the engine NOx emission control
system. The strategy requires actions to limit engine
performance and defines required the following
indications while the control actions are imposed:

• Lamps
• Messages

• Audible alarms
Table 159
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for SCR Warning System Problem

J1939 Code Description Notes

This code is a Level 1 inducement associated with an emission acti-


Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Opera-
5245-15 vated fault.
tor Inducement Active : High - most severe (3)
The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on.

This code is a Level 2 inducement associated with an emission acti-


vated fault.
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Opera-
5245-16 The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on and the Action Lamp
tor Inducement Active : High - moderate severity (2)
is flashing.
The engine is derated.

This code is a Level 3 inducement associated with an emission acti-


vated fault.
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Opera- The Emissions System Malfunction lamp is on, the Action lamp is
5245-0
tor Inducement Active : High - most severe (3) flashing, and the warning horn may sound.
The engine is derated.
The engine may shut down.

This code is a Level 1 inducement associated with an emission acti-


Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity :
5246-15 vated fault.
High - least severe (1)
The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on.

This code is a Level 2 inducement associated with an emission acti-


vated fault.
Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity :
5246-16 The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on and the Action Lamp
High - moderate severity (2)
is flashing.
The engine is derated.

This code is a Level 3 inducement associated with an emission acti-


vated fault.
Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity : The Emissions System Malfunction lamp is on, the Action lamp is
5246-0
High - most severe (3) flashing, and the stop lamp is on.
The engine is derated.
The engine may shut down.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 167
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 159, contd)


Diagnostic Trouble Codes for SCR Warning System Problem
This code is a Level 1 inducement associated with an emission acti-
Emission Control System Operator Inducement Se-
5826-15 vated fault.
verity : High - least severe (1)
The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on.

This code is a Level 2 inducement associated with an emission acti-


vated fault.
Emission Control System Operator Inducement Se-
5826-16 The Emissions System Malfunction Lamp is on and the Action Lamp
verity : High - moderate severity (2)
is flashing.
The engine is derated.

Associated Codes
Troubleshoot any associated diagnostic codes listed
in Table 160 that are present. Refer to “Inducement
Type” in Table 160 for the correct Inducement table.
Table 160
Associated Codes
J1939 Code Code Description Inducement Type

27-3 EGR #1 Valve Position : Voltage Above Normal EGR Inducement

27-4 EGR #1 Valve Position : Voltage Below Normal EGR Inducement

Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Voltage Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement


102-3
Normal
Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Voltage Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement
102-4
Normal
Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Data Drifted EGR Inducement
102-20
High

Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Data Drifted EGR Inducement


102-21
Low
Engine Intake Manifold #1 Temperature : Voltage SCR/Electrical System Inducement
105-3
Above Normal
Engine Intake Manifold #1 Temperature : Voltage Be- SCR/Electrical System Inducement
105-4
low Normal
Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : High - EGR Inducement
157-0
most severe (3)

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Erratic, EGR Inducement


157-2
Intermittent, or Incorrect

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : High - EGR Inducement


157-16
moderate severity (2)

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Low - EGR Inducement


157-18
moderate severity (2)

Battery Potential / Power Input #1 : Voltage Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement


168-3
Normal
Battery Potential / Power Input #1 : Voltage Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement
168-4
Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature : Voltage Above EGR Inducement
173-3
Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature : Voltage Below EGR Inducement
173-4
Normal
Engine Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Control Valve : Cur- EGR Inducement
1076-5
rent Below Normal

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
168 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 160, contd)


Engine Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Control Valve : Cur- EGR Inducement
1076-6
rent Above Normal
Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : High - mod- EGR Inducement
1127-16
erate severity (2)

Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : Low - mod- EGR Inducement


1127-18
erate severity (2)

Engine Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Drive : Current EGR Inducement


1188-5
Below Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Pressure : Voltage Above EGR Inducement
1209-3
Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Pressure : Voltage Below EGR Inducement
1209-4
Normal

1231-9 J1939 Network #2 : Abnormal Update Rate SCR/Electrical System Inducement

1239-0 Engine Fuel Leakage 1 : High - most severe (3) EGR Inducement

1761-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Level : Data Error SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation 1 Mass Flow Rate EGR Inducement


2659-2
: Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect

Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Con- EGR Inducement


2791-5
trol : Current Below Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Con- EGR Inducement
2791-6
trol : Current Above Normal

2840-12 ECU Instance : Failure SCR/Electrical System Inducement

3031-12 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Failure SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : High - SCR/Electrical System Inducement


3031-16
moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Erratic, Intermittent, SCR/Electrical System Inducement


3216-2
or Incorrect
Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Current Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3216-5
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Current Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3216-6
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Abnormal Rate of SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3216-10
Change

3216-19 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Data Error SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Erratic, Intermittent, SCR/Electrical System Inducement


3226-2
or Incorrect
Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Current Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3226-5
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Current Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3226-6
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Abnormal Rate of SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3226-10
Change

3226-19 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Data Error SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Dosing Unit Input Lines : Not SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3362-7
Responding Properly

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Heater : Current Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement


3363-5
Normal

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 169
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 160, contd)


Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Heater : Current Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3363-6
Normal
Sensor Supply Voltage 1 : Erratic, Intermittent, or SCR/Electrical System Inducement
3509-2
Incorrect
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Erratic, Inter- DEF Quality Inducement
3516-2
mittent, or Incorrect

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Special DEF Quality Inducement


3516-14
Instruction

3521-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Property : Data Error SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment #1 SCR System State : Not Respond- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4332-7
ing Properly

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Abso- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4334-0
lute Pressure : High - most severe (3)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Abso- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4334-7
lute Pressure : Not Responding Properly

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Abso- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4334-10
lute Pressure : Abnormal Rate of Change

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Abso- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4334-16
lute Pressure : High - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Abso- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4334-18
lute Pressure : Low - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #1 : Current Be- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4354-5
low Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #1 : Current SCR/Electrical System Inducement
4354-6
Above Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Current Be- SCR/Electrical System Inducement
4355-5
low Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Current SCR/Electrical System Inducement
4355-6
Above Normal
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Intake Gas Temper- SCR/Electrical System Inducement
4360-3
ature : Voltage Above Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Intake Gas Temper- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4360-4
ature : Voltage Below Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Outlet Gas Temper- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4363-3
ature : Voltage Above Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Outlet Gas Temper- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4363-4
ature : Voltage Below Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Conversion Effi- SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4364-17
ciency : Low - least severe (1)

Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Erratic, Intermittent, or SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4377-2
Incorrect

4377-4 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Voltage Below Normal SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Not Responding SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4377-7
Properly

4377-19 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Data Error SCR/Electrical System Inducement

Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 Gas Sensor Heater SCR/Electrical System Inducement


4383-5
Control : Current Below Normal

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
170 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

(Table 160, contd)


Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 Gas Sensor Heater SCR/Electrical System Inducement
4383-6
Control : Current Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Intake NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5024-5
Current Below Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Intake NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5024-6
Current Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5031-5
Current Below Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5031-6
Current Above Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5394-3
Voltage Above Normal

Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : SCR/Electrical System Inducement


5394-4
Voltage Below Normal

Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : SCR/Electrical System Inducement


5394-5
Current Below Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5394-6
Current Above Normal
Engine Throttle Actuator #1 : Not Responding EGR Inducement
5419-7
Properly

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Below SCR/Electrical System Inducement


5435-5
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Above SCR/Electrical System Inducement
5435-6
Normal
High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief EGR Inducement
5571-7
Valve : Not Responding Properly

High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief EGR Inducement


5571-16
Valve : High - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater SCR/Electrical System Inducement


5706-5
: Current Below Normal

Table 161
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Associated Codes Associated Result: There are associated diagnostic codes.
Codes
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. Troubleshoot the associated codes. Refer to Trouble-
shooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes” for the proper
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. procedure.

C. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic


codes.

Inducement for low-level DEF


Before engine operation, ensure that the DEF tank is
full. Also, ensure that there is an adequate supply of
DEF in order to refill the DEF tank.

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UENR4504 171
Symptom Troubleshooting

Table 162
DEF in Tank Level
Warning Stop Indicator DEF Low Lev- Emission Mal- DEF in Tank Engine Power Time Comment Action
Indicator el Indicator function Level
Indicator
OFF OFF OFF OFF - Full Power - Normal None
Operation

OFF OFF On Solid OFF Less than 20 Full Power - Low DEF Indi- Stop Engine
Percent cator Active and Fill DEF
Tank
ON Solid OFF ON Solid ON Solid Less than Ten Full Power - Level 1 Indica-
Percent tors Active
ON Flashing OFF On Solid ON Flashing Less than Five Engine will Derate Timer A Level 2 In-
Slowly Slowly Percent Start to be Starts. ducement is
Derated Active
ON Flashing ON Solid ON Flashing ON Flashing Empty Tank Derate to en- Start of 30 Mi- A Level 3 in-
Fast Fast Fast gine Power nute Timer ducement is
Active
ON Flashing ON Solid ON Flashing ON Flashing Engine will A Level 3 In-
Fast Fast Fast Only Operate ducement is
at Low Idle. Active

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172 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

Inducement for Poor DEF Quality


Table 163
Inducement for Poor DEF Quality

Warning Stop Indicator DEF Quality Emission Mal- Engine Power Time Comment Action
Indicator Indicator function
Indicator
OFF OFF OFF OFF Full Power - Normal None
Operation

On Solid OFF On Solid On Solid Full Power Start of 50 Mi- DEF Quality Out Stop Engine
nute Timer of Range Level and Check DEF
1 Inducement is Quality.
Active Refer to Sys-
tems Operation
ON Flashing OFF ON Solid ON Flashing Start of Engine Start of 40 Mi- A Level 2 In-
Testing and Ad-
Slowly Slowly Derate nute Derate ducement is
justing, “Diesel
Ramp Active
Exhaust fluid
ON Flashing ON Solid ON Solid ON Flashing Full Engine At 210 Minutes A Level 3 In- Quality - Test”
Fast Fast Derate. ducement is for More
Active Information.
Low Idle (RPM)
Only

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 173
Symptom Troubleshooting

SCR/Electrical System Inducements


Table 164
SCR System Inducements

Warning Indicator Stop Indicator Emission Malfunc- Engine Power Time Comment Action
tion Indicator
OFF OFF OFF Full Power - Normal Operation None

ON Solid or Slow OFF ON Solid Start of Engine Timer Starts, 240 A Level 1 Induce- Troubleshoot any as-
Flashing (1) Power Derate Minutes Before Full ment is Active sociated diagnostic
Derate codes. Refer to
ON Flashing OFF ON Flashing Derate to Engine A Level 2 Induce- Troubleshooting, “Di-
Slowly Slowly Power and Speed ment is Active agnostic Trouble
Codes”.
ON Flashing Fast ON Solid ON Flashing Fast Full Engine Derate A Level 3 Induce-
ment is Active
Low Idle (RPM)
Only
(1) Lamp mode will depend on the issue that has been identified.

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174 UENR4504
Symptom Troubleshooting

EGR System Inducements


Table 165
EGR System Inducements

Warning Indicator Stop Indicator Emission Malfunc- Engine Power Time Comment Action
tion Indicator
OFF OFF OFF Full Power - Normal Operation None

ON Solid or Slow OFF ON Solid Start of Engine Timer Starts, 210 A Level 1 Induce- Troubleshoot any as-
Flashing (1) Derate Minutes Before Full ment is Active sociated diagnostic
Derate codes. Refer to Trou-
ON Flashing OFF ON Flashing Derate to Engine A Level 2 Induce- bleshooting, “Diag-
Slowly Slowly Power and Speed ment is Active nostic Trouble
Codes”.
(1) Lamp mode will depend on the issue that has been identified.

i05956248

Valve Lash Is Excessive


Probable Causes

• Lubrication

• Valve train components

Recommended Actions
Note: The procedures have been listed in order of
probability. Complete the procedures in order.
Table 166
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Lubrication Lubrication Result: The oil flow to the valve mechanism is insufficient.

A. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Refer to Disassembly Make sure that the passages for the engine oil are clear.
and Assembly, “Valve Mechanism Cover - Remove and In-
stall” for the correct procedure. Result: The oil flow to the valve mechanism is OK.

B. Crank the engine and check the lubrication in the valve Proceed to Test Step 2.
compartment. Ensure that there is adequate engine oil flow in
the valve compartment. The passages for the engine oil must
be clean.

Note: Do not run the engine with the valve mechanism cover
removed.

2. Valve Train Components Valve train Result: A valve train component is worn, bent, or not clean.
components
A. Inspect the following components of the valve train for ab- Repair or replace the component. Refer to Disassembly and
normal or excessive wear, straightness, and cleanliness: Assembly.

· Rocker arms Note: If the camshaft is replaced, new valve lifters must also
· Pushrods be installed.
· Hydraulic lifters
· Camshaft Result: All the valve train components are OK.
· Valve stems
· Rocker shafts Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 175
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

Troubleshooting with a
Diagnostic Code

i05883110

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

The following table lists all the J1939 diagnostic


trouble codes for the engine. The table includes a
description for each code and the recommended
troubleshooting procedure that must be performed.
Table 167

J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure


27-3 EGR #1 Valve Position : Voltage Above Normal Valve Position - Test

27-4 EGR #1 Valve Position : Voltage Below Normal Valve Position - Test

29-3 Accelerator Pedal Position #2 : Voltage Above Normal Speed Control (Analog) - Test

29-4 Accelerator Pedal Position #2 : Voltage Below Normal Speed Control (Analog) - Test

51-3 Engine Throttle Position : Voltage Above Normal Valve Position - Test

51-4 Engine Throttle Position : Voltage Below Normal Valve Position - Test

91-3 Accelerator Pedal Position #1 : Voltage Above Normal Speed Control (Analog) - Test

91-4 Accelerator Pedal Position #1 : Voltage Below Normal Speed Control (Analog) - Test

97-15 Water In Fuel Indicator : High - least severe (1) Fuel Contains Water

100-2 Engine Oil Pressure : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Switch Circuits - Test (Oil Pressure Switch)

100-17 Engine Oil Pressure : Low - least severe (1) Oil Pressure Is Low

102-3 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

102-4 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

102-20 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Data Drifted High Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

102-21 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Pressure : Data Drifted Low Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

105-3 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Temperature : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

105-4 Engine Intake Manifold #1 Temperature : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

Engine Air Filter 1 Differential Pressure : Erratic, Intermittent, or


107-2 Switch Circuits - Test (Air Filter Restriction Switch)
Incorrect

107-15 Engine Air Filter 1 Differential Pressure : High - least severe (1) Inlet Air Is Restricted

Engine Air Filter 1 Differential Pressure : High - moderate se-


107-16 Inlet Air Is Restricted
verity (2)

108-3 Barometric Pressure : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

108-4 Barometric Pressure : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test

110-3 Engine Coolant Temperature : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

110-4 Engine Coolant Temperature : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

110-15 Engine Coolant Temperature : High - least severe (1) Coolant Temperature Is High

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
176 UENR4504
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
110-16 Engine Coolant Temperature : High - moderate severity (2) Coolant Temperature Is High

152-2 Number Of ECU Resets : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect ECM Memory - Test

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : High - most severe


157-0 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
(3)

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Erratic, Intermittent,


157-2 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
or Incorrect
Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Voltage Above
157-3 Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test
Normal
Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Voltage Below
157-4 Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test
Normal
Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Abnormal Rate of
157-10 Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test
Change

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : High - moderate se-


157-16 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
verity (2)

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Low - least severe


157-17 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
(1)

Engine Injector Metering Rail #1 Pressure : Low - moderate se-


157-18 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
verity (2)

166-2 Engine Rated Power : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect ECM Memory - Test

166-14 Engine Rated Power : Special Instruction ECM Memory - Test

168-3 Battery Potential / Power Input #1 : Voltage Above Normal Electrical Power Supply - Test

168-4 Battery Potential / Power Input #1 : Voltage Below Normal Electrical Power Supply - Test

172-3 Engine Air Inlet Temperature : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

172-4 Engine Air Inlet Temperature : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

173-3 Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

173-4 Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

174-3 Engine Fuel Temperature 1 : Voltage Above Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

174-4 Engine Fuel Temperature 1 : Voltage Below Normal Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test

190-8 Engine Speed : Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, or Period Speed/Timing - Test

190-15 Engine Speed : High - least severe (1) Engine Overspeeds

Accelerator Pedal #1 Low Idle Switch : Erratic, Intermittent, or


558-2 Idle Validation - Test
Incorrect
This code indicates that an engine idle shutdown is about
593-31 Engine Idle Shutdown has Shutdown Engine
to occur. This code does not represent a fault.

This code indicates that an engine idle shutdown has oc-


594-31 Engine Idle Shutdown Driver Alert Mode
curred. This code does not represent a fault.

623-6 Red Stop Lamp : Current Above Normal Indicator Lamp - Test

624-6 Amber Warning Lamp : Current Above Normal Indicator Lamp - Test

630-2 Calibration Memory : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Injector Data Incorrect - Test

637-11 Engine Timing Sensor : Other Failure Mode Speed/Timing - Test

639-9 J1939 Network #1 : Abnormal Update Rate CAN Data Link - Test

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 177
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
639-14 J1939 Network #1 : Special Instruction CAN Data Link - Test

651-2 Engine Injector Cylinder #01 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Injector Data Incorrect - Test

651-5 Engine Injector Cylinder #01 : Current Below Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

651-6 Engine Injector Cylinder #01 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

651-13 Engine Injector Cylinder #01 : Out of Calibration Injector Data Incorrect - Test

652-2 Engine Injector Cylinder #02 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Injector Data Incorrect - Test

652-5 Engine Injector Cylinder #02 : Current Below Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

652-6 Engine Injector Cylinder #02 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

652-13 Engine Injector Cylinder #02 : Out of Calibration Injector Data Incorrect - Test

653-2 Engine Injector Cylinder #03 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Injector Data Incorrect - Test

653-5 Engine Injector Cylinder #03 : Current Below Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

653-6 Engine Injector Cylinder #03 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

653-13 Engine Injector Cylinder #03 : Out of Calibration Injector Data Incorrect - Test

654-2 Engine Injector Cylinder #04 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Injector Data Incorrect - Test

654-5 Engine Injector Cylinder #04 : Current Below Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

654-6 Engine Injector Cylinder #04 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

654-13 Engine Injector Cylinder #04 : Out of Calibration Injector Data Incorrect - Test

676-5 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Current Below Normal Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

676-6 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Current Above Normal Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

676-19 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Data Error Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

677-3 Engine Starter Motor Relay : Voltage Above Normal Relay - Test (Start Relay)

677-5 Engine Starter Motor Relay : Current Below Normal Relay - Test (Start Relay)

677-6 Engine Starter Motor Relay : Current Above Normal Relay - Test (Start Relay)

Engine Speed Sensor #2 : Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width,


723-8 Speed/Timing - Test
or Period

976-2 PTO Governor State : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Power Take-Off - Test

1041-2 Start Signal Indicator : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Relay - Test (Start Relay)

Engine Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Control Valve : Erratic, Inter-


1076-2 Solenoid Valve - Test
mittent, or Incorrect

Engine Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Control Valve : Current Below


1076-5 Solenoid Valve - Test
Normal
Engine Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Control Valve : Current Above
1076-6 Solenoid Valve - Test
Normal

1081-6 Engine Wait to Start Lamp : Current Above Normal Indicator Lamp - Test

This code indicates that the engine will shut down to a long
1109-31 Engine Protection System Approaching Shutdown period at low idle in cold ambient conditions. This code
does not indicate a fault.
Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : High - moderate se-
1127-16 Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is High
verity (2)

(continued)

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178 UENR4504
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
Engine Turbocharger 1 Boost Pressure : Low - moderate se-
1127-18 Intake Manifold Air Pressure Is Low
verity (2)

Engine Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Drive : Current Below


1188-5 Solenoid Valve - Test
Normal
Engine Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Drive : Current Above
1188-6 Solenoid Valve - Test
Normal
Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Exhaust Gas Pres-
1209-3 Engine Exhaust Gas Pressure : Voltage Above Normal
sure Sensor)

Sensor Signal (Analog, Active) - Test (Exhaust Gas Pres-


1209-4 Engine Exhaust Gas Pressure : Voltage Below Normal
sure Sensor)

1213-6 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) : Current Above Normal Indicator Lamp - Test

Continuously Monitored Systems Support/Status : Erratic, Inter-


1221-2 ECM Memory - Test
mittent, or Incorrect

Another diagnostic code has requested engine speed


limitation.
The warning lamp will flash. The engine speed is limited to
Continuously Monitored Systems Support/Status : Special
1221-14 1200 rpm.
Instruction
Troubleshoot all other diagnostic codes. If this code is the
only active diagnostic code, replace the ECM. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Replacing the ECM”.

1231-9 J1939 Network #2 : Abnormal Update Rate CAN Data Link - Test

1239-0 Engine Fuel Leakage 1 : High - most severe (3) Fuel Rail Pressure Problem

1485-7 ECM Main Relay : Not Responding Properly Relay - Test (ECM Main Relay)

1485-14 ECM Main Relay : Special Instruction Relay - Test (ECM Main Relay)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank Level : Low - most


1761-1 DEF Tank Level Is Low
severe (3)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank Level : Not Re-


1761-7 DEF Tank Sensor - Test
sponding Properly

1761-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Level : Data Error DEF Tank Sensor - Test
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation 1 Mass Flow Rate : Erratic,
2659-2 NRS Mass Flow Rate Problem
Intermittent, or Incorrect

Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Control : Cur-


2791-5 Motorized Valve - Test
rent Below Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Control : Cur-
2791-6 Motorized Valve - Test
rent Above Normal
Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Control : Not
2791-7 Motorized Valve - Test
Responding Properly

2797-6 Engine Injector Group 1 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

2797-7 Engine Injector Group 1 : Not Responding Properly Injector Solenoid - Test

2798-6 Engine Injector Group 2 : Current Above Normal Injector Solenoid - Test

2840-12 ECU Instance : Failure ECM Memory - Test

2840-14 ECU Instance : Special Instruction Relay - Test (ECM Main Relay)

Mode Selection - Test


Engine Operator Primary Intermediate Speed Select : Erratic,
2880-2 OR
Intermittent, or Incorrect
Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 179
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
Mode Selection - Test
Engine Operator Primary Intermediate Speed Select : Voltage
2880-3 OR
Above Normal
Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)

Mode Selection - Test


Engine Operator Primary Intermediate Speed Select : Voltage
2880-4 OR
Below Normal
Switch Circuits - Test (Throttle Switch)

Accelerator Pedal #2 Low Idle Switch : Erratic, Intermittent, or


2970-2 Idle Validation - Test
Incorrect
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Not Responding
3031-7 DEF Tank Sensor - Test
Properly

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Abnormal Rate of


3031-10 DEF Tank Temperature Is Low
Change

3031-12 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Failure DEF Tank Sensor - Test

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : High - moderate se-


3031-16 DEF Tank Temperature Is High
verity (2)

3216-2 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect NOx Sensor - Test

3216-5 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Current Below Normal NOx Sensor - Test
3216-6 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Current Above Normal NOx Sensor - Test

3216-10 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Abnormal Rate of Change NOx Sensor - Test

3216-19 Aftertreatment #1 Intake NOx : Data Error NOx Sensor - Test

3226-2 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect NOx Sensor - Test

3226-5 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Current Below Normal NOx Sensor - Test
3226-6 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Current Above Normal NOx Sensor - Test

3226-7 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Not Responding Properly NOx Sensor - Test

3226-10 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Abnormal Rate of Change NOx Sensor - Test

3226-19 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Data Error NOx Sensor - Test


3226-21 Aftertreatment #1 Outlet NOx : Data Drifted Low NOx Sensor - Test
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Dosing Unit Input Lines : Not Respond-
3362-7 DEF Pressure Does Not Respond
ing Properly

3363-5 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Heater : Current Below Normal Solenoid Valve - Test (Coolant Diverter Valve)

3363-6 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Heater : Current Above Normal Solenoid Valve - Test (Coolant Diverter Valve)

3509-2 Sensor Supply Voltage 1 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Sensor Supply - Test

3510-2 Sensor Supply Voltage 2 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Sensor Supply - Test

3511-2 Sensor Supply Voltage 3 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Sensor Supply - Test

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Erratic, Intermittent, or


3516-2 DEF Concentration Is Incorrect
Incorrect

3516-14 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Concentration : Special Instruction DEF Concentration Is Incorrect

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Temperature 2 : Voltage


3519-3 DEF Tank Sensor - Test
Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Temperature 2 : Voltage
3519-4 DEF Tank Sensor - Test
Below Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Properties : Voltage Be-
3520-4 DEF Tank Sensor - Test
low Normal

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
180 UENR4504
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
3520-12 Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Properties : Failure DEF Tank Sensor - Test

3521-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Property : Data Error DEF Tank Sensor - Test

Aftertreatment #1 SCR System State : Not Responding


4332-7 DEF Line Heater - Test
Properly

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-0 DEF Pressure Is High
: High - most severe (3)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-3 DEF Pump Pressure Sensor - Test
: Voltage Above Normal

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-4 DEF Pump Pressure Sensor - Test
: Voltage Below Normal

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-7 DEF Pressure Does Not Respond
: Not Responding Properly

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-10 DEF Pressure Does Not Respond
: Abnormal Rate of Change

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-16 DEF Pressure Is High
: High - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-18 DEF Pressure Is Low
: Low - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-20 DEF Does Not Purge
: Data Drifted High

Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Doser Absolute Pressure


4334-21 DEF Does Not Purge
: Data Drifted Low
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Temperature : Ab-
4337-10 SCR Catalyst Has Incorrect Inlet Temperature
normal Rate of Change

4354-5 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #1 : Current Below Normal DEF Line Heater - Test
4354-6 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #1 : Current Above Normal DEF Line Heater - Test

4354-12 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Failure Replace the Heater Control Unit (HCU)

4355-5 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Current Below Normal DEF Line Heater - Test
4355-6 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Current Above Normal DEF Line Heater - Test

4355-12 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater #2 : Failure Replace the Heater Control Unit (HCU)

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Intake Gas Temperature : Volt-


4360-3 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
age Above Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Intake Gas Temperature : Volt-


4360-4 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
age Below Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Outlet Gas Temperature : Volt-


4363-3 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
age Above Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Outlet Gas Temperature : Volt-


4363-4 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
age Below Normal

Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Conversion Efficiency : Low -


4364-17 NOx Conversion Is Low
least severe (1)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor Speed :


4374-7 DEF Pump - Test
Not Responding Properly

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor Speed : Ab-


4374-10 DEF Pump - Test
normal Rate of Change

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 181
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor Speed :
4374-15 DEF Pressure Is Low
High - least severe

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor Speed :


4374-16 DEF Pump - Test
High - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor Speed :


4374-18 DEF Pump - Test
Low - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump Drive Command : High - moderate


4375-16 DEF Pump - Test
severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump Drive Command : Low - moderate


4375-18 DEF Pump - Test
severity (2)

4376-5 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Return Valve : Current Below Normal DEF Return Valve - Test
4376-6 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Return Valve : Current Below Normal DEF Return Valve - Test

4377-2 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

4377-4 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Voltage Below Normal Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

4377-7 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Not Responding Properly Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

4377-12 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Failure Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

4377-19 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Data Error Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

4377-20 Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 : Data Drifted High Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)

Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 Gas Sensor Heater Control : Cur-


4383-5 Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)
rent Below Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 Gas Sensor Heater Control : Cur-
4383-6 Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)
rent Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NH3 Gas Sensor Heater Control : Not
4383-7 Sensor (Data Link Type) - Test (Ammonia Sensor)
Responding Properly

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Intake Gas Temper-


4765-3 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
ature : Voltage Above Normal

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Intake Gas Temper-


4765-4 Sensor Signal (Analog, Passive) - Test
ature : Voltage Below Normal

Aftertreatment 1 Intake NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Current Be-


5024-5 NOx Sensor - Test
low Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Intake NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Current
5024-6 NOx Sensor - Test
Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Intake NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Not Re-
5024-7 NOx Sensor - Test
sponding Properly

Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Current Be-


5031-5 NOx Sensor - Test
low Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Current
5031-6 NOx Sensor - Test
Above Normal
Aftertreatment 1 Outlet NOx Sensor Heater Ratio : Not Re-
5031-7 NOx Sensor - Test
sponding Properly

5099-6 Engine Oil Pressure Low Lamp Data : Current Above Normal Indicator Lamp - Test

Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity : High - most


5245-0 SCR Warning System Problem
severe (3)

Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Operator Induce-


5245-6 Indicator Lamp - Test
ment Active : Current Above Normal

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
182 UENR4504
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Operator Induce-
5245-15 SCR Warning System Problem
ment Active : High - least severe (1)

Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic Reduction Operator Induce-


5245-16 SCR Warning System Problem
ment Active : High - moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity : High - most


5246-0 SCR Warning System Problem
severe (3)

Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity : High - least


5246-15 SCR Warning System Problem
severe (1)

Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement Severity moderate


5246-16 SCR Warning System Problem
severity (2)

5324-7 Engine Glow Plug 1 : Not Responding Properly Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

5325-7 Engine Glow Plug 2 : Not Responding Properly Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

5326-7 Engine Glow Plug 3 : Not Responding Properly Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

5327-7 Engine Glow Plug 4 : Not Responding Properly Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

5357-31 Engine Fuel Injection Quantity Error for Multiple Cylinders ECM Memory - Test

Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : Voltage


5394-3 DEF Injector - Test
Above Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : Voltage Be-
5394-4 DEF Injector - Test
low Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : Current Be-
5394-5 DEF Injector - Test
low Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : Current
5394-6 DEF Injector - Test
Above Normal
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Valve : Not Re-
5394-7 DEF Module Does Not Respond
sponding Properly

5419-5 Engine Throttle Actuator #1 : Current Below Normal Motorized Valve - Test

5419-6 Engine Throttle Actuator #1 : Current Above Normal Motorized Valve - Test

5419-7 Engine Throttle Actuator #1 : Not Responding Properly Motorized Valve - Test

5435-5 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Below Normal DEF Pump - Test

5435-6 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Above Normal DEF Pump - Test

5435-7 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Not Responding Properly DEF Pump - Test

Replace the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) filter.


Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Orifice Flow : Not
5485-7 Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel Ex-
Responding Properly
haust Fluid Filter - Clean/Replace”.

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater Relay : Voltage Above


5491-3 DEF Line Heater - Test
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater Relay : Voltage Below
5491-4 DEF Line Heater - Test
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater Relay : Current Above
5491-5 DEF Line Heater - Test
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater Relay : Not Responding
5491-7 DEF Line Heater - Test
Properly

5491-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater Relay : Data Error DEF Line Heater - Test

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 183
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code

(Table 167, contd)


J1939 Code Description Refer to Procedure
High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve : Er-
5571-2 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
ratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect

High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve : Not


5571-7 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
Responding Properly

High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve : Ab-


5571-10 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
normal Rate of Change

High -Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve : Spe-


5571-14 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
cial Instruction
High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Pressure Relief Valve : High -
5571-16 Fuel Rail Pressure Problem
moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : Current


5706-5 DEF Line Heater - Test
Below Normal
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : Current
5706-6 DEF Line Heater - Test
Above Normal

5706-12 Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : Failure Replace the Heater Control Unit (HCU)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : High -


5706-16 DEF Pump - Test
moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : Low -


5706-18 DEF Pump - Test
moderate severity (2)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater Command


5707-15 DEF Pump - Test
: High - least severe (1)

Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater Command


5707-17 DEF Pump - Test
: Low - least severe (1)

This code indicates that the temperature signal from the


Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing Unit Heater Tem- SCR outlet temperature sensor is invalid. Replace the SCR
5798-10
perature : Abnormal Rate of Change outlet temperature sensor. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly.

Emission Control System Operator Inducement Severity : High -


5826-15 SCR Warning System Problem
least severe (1)

Emission Control System Operator Inducement Severity : High -


5826-16 SCR Warning System Problem
moderate severity (2)

Diesel Exhaust Fluid Quality Malfunction : Current Above


5841-6 Indicator Lamp - Test
Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Control Module Relay Control : Current
5965-5 Relay - Test (SCR Relay)
Below Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Control Module Relay Control : Current
5965-6 Relay - Test (SCR Relay)
Above Normal
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Control Module Relay Control : Not Re-
5965-7 Relay - Test (SCR Relay)
sponding Properly

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Control Module Relay Control : Special


5965-14 Relay - Test (SCR Relay)
Instruction

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184 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Diagnostic Functional
Tests

i05901834

CAN Data Link - Test

Use this procedure if a fault is suspected in the CAN


data link. This procedure also covers the following
diagnostic codes:
Table 168
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the CAN Data Link

J1939 Description Notes


Code
639-9 J1939 Network #1 : Abnormal Update Rate The ECM detects that another controller has incorrectly stopped transmitting a
J1939 speed request (TSC1) or another controller has incorrectly started trans-
mitting a J1939 speed request.
The warning lamp will come on.

639-14 J1939 Network #1 : Special Instruction Another controller has incorrectly stopped transmitting a signal on the CAN 1 data
link.

The warning lamp will come on.


The engine limp home strategy will be enabled.

1231-9 J1939 Network #2 : Abnormal Update Rate The ECM has detected that the CAN 2 data link is not functioning.
The warning lamp will come on.

The following background information is related


to this procedure:
The CAN data link is also known as J1939 data link.
The data link is an industry standard for sending data
between different devices in the same application.
High speed data is transferred via the data link. The
data link cannot be accurately tested without
complicated equipment. The data link requires a
resistance of 60 Ohms between the two wires in order
to transmit the data correctly. This resistance is made
up of two 120 Ohm resistors. The two resistors are
known as “Terminating Resistors” . The terminating
resistors should be at opposite ends of a data link
circuit. If this resistance is not present, then the data
will be intermittent or unreadable.
Note: The wiring for the J1939 data link is a shielded
twisted pair cable. If the wiring is damaged, the
replacement type must be shielded twisted pair cable.

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UENR4504 185
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 38 g03717599
Schematic diagram of the CAN 1 datalink

Illustration 39 g03717152
Schematic diagram of the CAN 2 datalink

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186 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 40 g03717619
Typical view of the pin locations on the P1 connector
(23) CAN 2 +
(45) CAN 2 -
(46) CAN 1 +
(47) CAN 1 -

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UENR4504 187
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 169
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was found.
wire or
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. connector Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
B. Inspect the connectors in the circuit for the CAN data link. codes. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connectors - Inspect” for Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
details. found.

C. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires that are as- Proceed to Test Step 2.
sociated with the CAN data link.

D. Check all of the wiring associated with the CAN data link for
abrasions and pinch points.

2. Check the Data Link Terminating Resistance Between 50 Result: The resistance is less than 50 Ohms - there is a
Ohms and 70 short circuit in the harness.
A. Disconnect the P1 connector from the ECM. Ohms
Repair the connectors or the harness and/or replace the con-
B. Measure the resistance between the P1:46 and P1:47. nectors or the harness. Ensure that all of the seals are cor-
rectly in place and ensure that the connectors are correctly
C. Measure the resistance between the P1:23 and P1:45. connected.
Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.

Result: The resistance is between 110 and 130 Ohms - one


of the terminating resistors may have failed.

One of the terminating resistors is located within the ECM.


Measure the resistance across the two ECM pins for the
CAN data link in order to check this resistor.
Locate the other terminating resistor and remove the termi-
nating resistor from the harness. The terminating resistor
may be located in other ECMs on the data link. Refer to the
Electrical Schematic for the application.
Measure the resistance of the two terminating resistors.
If one of the terminating resistors is incorrect, replace the
faulty terminating resistor.
If the two terminating resistors are between 50 and 70 Ohms
each, proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: The resistance is greater than 150 Ohms.

Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: The resistance is between 50 and 70 Ohms

This is the correct resistance. The fault may be in the con-


nection to other devices on the data link.
Proceed to Test Step 3.

(continued)

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188 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 169, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Check the Data Link Wiring Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Ohms greater than 5 Ohms - there is an open circuit or high resist-
A. Disconnect each of the connectors that connect other devices ance in the wiring.
on the data link.
Repair the connectors or the harness and/or replace the con-
B. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:46 and nectors or the harness.
each of the CAN 1 + pins for other devices on the CAN 1 data link. Ensure that all seals are correctly in place and ensure that
Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:23 and the connectors are correctly connected.
each of the CAN 2 + pins for other devices on the CAN 2 data link.
Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:46 and agnostic codes and then verify that the repair has eliminated
pin F on the diagnostic connector. the fault.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:47 and Result: All measured resistances are less than 5 Ohms.
each of the CAN 1 - pins for other devices on the CAN 1 data link.
Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:45 and Proceed to Test Step 4
each of the CAN 2 - pins for other devices on the CAN 2 data link.

E. Use a multimeter in order to measure the resistance between


P1:47 and pin G on the diagnostic connector.

4. Check the Other Devices on the CAN Data Link Other devi- Result: At least one of the other devices is not operating
ces are OK correctly.
A. Use the appropriate service tools in order to diagnose other de-
vices on the data link. Use the appropriate service tools in order to repair other devi-
ces on the data link.

Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.

Result: The other devices are operating correctly.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 189
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05919720

DEF Injector - Test


Table 170

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the DEF Injector

J1939 Code Description Notes


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a short circuit to battery voltage on the pos-
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid itive side of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) injector circuit.
5394-3 Dosing Valve : Voltage Above The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal The negative side of the DEF injector circuit does not have an open circuit.
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid The ECM detects a short circuit to ground on the positive side of the DEF injector circuit.
5394-4 Dosing Valve : Voltage Below The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

The ECM detects an open circuit or a short circuit to ground on the circuit for the DEF in-
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid
jector. This fault is only detected when the DEF injector is not being activated.
5394-5 Dosing Valve : Current Below
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid The ECM detects a high current condition or short to battery on the circuit for the DEF in-
5394-6 Dosing Valve : Current Above jector. This fault is only detected when the DEF injector is being activated.
Normal The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test


This test is used with the DEF Test Kit to measure the
amount of DEF that the SCR dosing system is
delivering. The test can also be used to confirm that
there is an acceptable spray pattern from the DEF
Injector.

Note: The DEF injector must be removed from the


exhaust system during this test and placed in an
appropriate container. Failure to do so could result in
issues with the SCR system operation. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, “Aftertreatment SCR System
Dosing Test”.
For the purposes of this procedure, the “DEF Dosing
System Accuracy Test”
Navigate to the following screens in order to access
the “DEF Dosing System Accuracy Test” :

• Diagnostics
• Diagnostic Tests

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190 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 41 g03725285
Schematic diagram for the DEF injector circuit

Illustration 42 g03725312
View of the pin locations on the J2 ECM connector for
the DEF injector
(3) DEF injector return
(18) DEF injector supply

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 191
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 171
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
wire or found.
A. Check the fuses. connector
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the J2/P2 ECM connector.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was found.
C. Inspect the connector for the DEF injector.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector.
D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
connector and the DEF injector. codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

E. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF injector for abra-
sions and pinch points.

2. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: A 5394-6 diagnostic code is recently logged.
Trouble
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Codes Proceed to Test Step 3.
and the ECM. If necessary, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic
Service Tools”. Result: A 5394-5 diagnostic code is active or recently
logged.
B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic
codes. Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: A 5394-3 diagnostic code is active or recently


logged.

Proceed to Test Step 5.

Result: A 5394-4 diagnostic code is active or recently


logged.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

3. Create an Open Circuit at the DEF Injector Connector Diagnostic Result: A 5394-5 diagnostic code is not active with the DEF
codes injector disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF injector and the
B. Disconnect the connector for the DEF injector. P2 ECM connector.
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
D. Use the electronic service tool to check for active 5394-5 diag-
nostic codes. Result: A 5394-5 diagnostic code is active with the DEF in-
jector disconnected.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Install a replacement DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and
Install”.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

4. Create a Short Circuit at the DEF Injector Connector Less than 5 Result: A 5394-5 diagnostic code is still active with the jump-
Ohms er installed.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF injector and the
B. Disconnect the harness connector from DEF injector. P2 ECM connector.
Replace the faulty wiring.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
192 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 171, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
C. Fabricate a jumper wire that is 150 mm (6 inch) long. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
D. Install the jumper between terminal 1 and terminal 2 on the har-
ness connector for the DEF injector. Result: A 5394-5 diagnostic code is not active with the jump-
er installed.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Install a replacement DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and
F. Use the electronic service tool to check for active 5394 diagnos- Assembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and
tic codes. Install”.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
G. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

5. Check the DEF Injector Supply Wiring for a Short to Battery Voltage Result: The measurement indicates voltage on terminal 1 of
the harness connector for the DEF injector.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF injector and the
B. Disconnect the connector for the DEF injector. Disconnect the P2 ECM connector.
P2 connector from the ECM.
Result: There is no voltage present on terminal 1 of the har-
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. ness connector for the DEF injector.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 1 on Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
the harness connector for the DEF injector and a suitable engine
ground.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

6. Check the DEF Injector for a Short to Ground Greater than Result: The measured resistance is less than 1 k Ohm.
1 k Ohm
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The DEF injector is shorted to ground.
Install a replacement DEF injector. Refer to Disassembly and
B. Disconnect the connector for the DEF injector. Assembly, “DEF Injector and Mounting - Remove and
Install”.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 1 Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
on the DEF injector and engine ground. codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: The measured resistance is greater than 1 k Ohm.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Check the DEF Injector Wiring for a Short to Ground Greater than Result: The measured resistance is less than 1 k Ohm.
1 k Ohm
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The wiring between the DEF injector and the P2 ECM con-
nector is shorted to ground.
B. Disconnect the P2 connector from the ECM. Replace the faulty wiring.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P2:18 and codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
engine ground.
Result: The measured resistance is greater than 1 k Ohm.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 193
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05902649

DEF Line Heater - Test


Table 172

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the DEF Line Heaters

J1939 Code Description Notes


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) pres-
sure line heater is not effectively heating the DEF.
Aftertreatment #1 SCR System
4332-7 The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.
State : Not Responding Properly
When this diagnostic code is active, check for an associated diagnostic code which could
indicate the cause of the DEF temperature not responding.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF suction and return line heater circuit that is
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Re- most likely an open circuit.
4354-5 agent Line Heater #1 : Current Be- The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
low Normal The warning lamp will come on.
The warning lamp may flash and the engine may be derated.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF suction and return line heater circuit that is
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Re-
most likely a short circuit.
4354-6 agent Line Heater #1 : Current
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Above Normal
The warning lamp will come on.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF pressure line heater circuit that is most
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Re- likely an open circuit.
4355-5 agent Line Heater #2 : Current Be- The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
low Normal The warning lamp will come on.
The warning lamp may flash and the engine may be derated.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF pressure line heater circuit that is most
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Catalyst Re-
likely a short circuit.
4355-6 agent Line Heater #2 : Current
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Above Normal
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects the voltage to the Heater Control Unit (HCU) is high.
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater
5491-3 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Relay : Voltage Above Normal
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

The ECM detects the voltage to the HCU is low.


Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater
5491-4 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Relay : Voltage Below Normal
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater The ECM detects an over temperature fault from the HCU.
5491-5
Relay : Current Below Normal The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

The ECM detects that the HCU is not responding.


Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater
5491-7 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Relay : Not Responding Properly
The warning lamp will come on.

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Line Heater The ECM has stopped receiving data over the CAN data link from the HCU.
5491-19
Relay : Data Error The warning lamp will come on.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF pump heater circuit that is most likely an
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust open circuit.
5706-5 Fluid Pump Heater : Current Below The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal The warning lamp will come on.
The warning lamp may flash and the engine may be derated.

This code indicates there is a fault in the DEF pump heater circuit that is most likely a
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust
short circuit.
5706-6 Fluid Pump Heater : Current Above
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the fault.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
194 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

The Heater Control Unit (HCU) supplies battery


voltage to the DEF line heaters. If there is a fault on
one of the DEF line heaters, the HCU will send a
diagnostic message to the engine Electronic Control
Module (ECM).
DEF Line Heater Overrides
The electronic service tool can be used to override
each of the three outputs from the HCU individually.
Navigate to the following menus in order to access
the DEF line heater overrides:
• Diagnostics

• Diagnostic Tests
• Override Parameters
There are three DEF line heater overrides available:

• DEF Pump Heater Override


• DEF Backflow and Suction Line Heater Override

• DEF Pressure Line Heater Override

Illustration 43 g03718797
Schematic diagram of the DEF heater circuit

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 195
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 44 g03718801
View of the pin locations for the DEF line heaters on
the J1 connector
(23) CAN 2 +
(45) CAN 2 -

Illustration 45 g03718804
View of the pin layout on the HCU
(G1) DEF pump heater
(G2) DEF suction line and return line heater
(G4) DEF pressure line heater
(87) Switched battery (+)
(31) Battery (-)
(DI) CAN 2 (-)
(30) Battery (+)
(ST) CAN 2 (+)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
196 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 173
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
wire or found.
A. Check the fuses. connector
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the J1/P1 ECM connector.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was found.
C. Inspect the connectors for the DEF line heaters and the HCU.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector.
D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
connector, the HCU connector, and the line heaters. codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

E. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF line heaters for
abrasions and pinch points.

2. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: One of the diagnostic codes listed in Table 172 is
Trouble active.
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool Codes
and the ECM. If necessary, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Proceed to Test Step 3.
Service Tools”.
Result: A 1231-9 diagnostic code is active.
B. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic A fault exists on the CAN data link. Troubleshoot this diag-
codes. nostic code before continuing with this procedure. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “CAN Data Link - Test”.
Result: None of the preceding diagnostic codes are active.

If one of the preceding diagnostic codes is recently logged,


an intermittent fault may exist.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connector - Inspect” in
order to identify intermittent faults.

3. Check the Power Supply and Ground for the HCU 10 V to 14 V Result: One of the voltage measurements is not within the
expected range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
There is a fault in the power supply wiring to the HCU.
B. Disconnect the connector for the HCU. Check the fuses. If the fuses are OK, there is an open circuit
in the power supply wiring to the HCU. If a fuse is blown,
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. there may be a short circuit in the power supply wiring to the
HCU.
D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between the following
points: Result: Both voltage measurements are not within the ex-
pected range
· Terminal 87 and terminal 31 on the harness connector for the
HCU. The fault is most likely in the ground wiring for the HCU.
Terminal 30 and terminal 31 on the harness connector for the HCU.
Repair the faulty wiring or replace the faulty wiring.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: Both voltage measurements are within the expected


range.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the CAN Data Link for the HCU Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Ohms greater than 5 Ohms.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 197
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 173, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
B. Disconnect the harness connector from the HCU. Disconnect Replace the wiring between the HCU and the P1 connector
the P1 connector from the ECM. on the ECM.

C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the follow- Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
ing points: codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

· Terminal DI on the harness connector for the HCU and P1:45. Result: Both resistance measurements are less than 5
· Terminal ST on the harness connector for the HCU and P1:23. Ohms.

Reconnect the HCU harness connector and the P1 ECM


connector. Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Check the Power Supply to the DEF Line Heaters 10 V to 14 V Result: All voltage measurements are within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 7.
B. Disconnect the connector for the DEF pressure line, the DEF
suction line, and the DEF pump module. Result: At least one of the voltage measurements is not
within the expected range.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

D. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Pressure Proceed to Test Step 6.
Line Heater Override” .
Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 1 on the
harness connector for the DEF pressure line heater and a suitable
ground.

E. Use the electronic service tool to deactivate the “DEF Pressure


Line Heater Override” .

F. Disconnect the connector for the DEF suction line heater.

G. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Backflow


and Suction Line Heater Override” .
Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 1 on the
harness connector for the DEF suction line heater and a suitable
ground.

H. Use the electronic service tool to deactivate the “DEF Backflow


and Suction Line Heater Override” .
I. Disconnect the connector for the DEF pump module.

J. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Pump Heater
Override” .
Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 11 on
the harness connector for the DEF pump module and a suitable
ground.

K. Use the electronic service tool to deactivate the “DEF Pump


Heater Override” .

L. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

6. Check the Wiring Between the HCU and the Line Heaters less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Ohms greater than 5 Ohms.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Replace the wiring between the HCU and the DEF line
heaters.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
198 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 173, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
B. Disconnect the HCU from the harness. Disconnect the connec- Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
tor for the DEF pressure line, the DEF suction line, and the DEF codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
pump module.
Result: All resistance measurements are less than 5 Ohms.
C. Use a suitable multimeter to take the following resistance
measurements: Install a replacement HCU.

·G1 on the HCU harness connector to terminal 11 on the DEF Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
pump module harness connector. codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
·G2 on the HCU harness connector to terminal 1 on the DEF suc-
tion line heater harness connector.
·G4 on the HCU harness connector to terminal 1 on the DEF pres-
sure line heater harness connector.

7. Check the Wiring Between the DEF Suction Line Heater and Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5 Ohms.
the DEF Return Line Heater Ohms
Replace the wiring between the DEF suction line heater and
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. the DEF return line heater.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
B. Disconnect the DEF suction line heater and the DEF return line codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
heater.
Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 2
on the DEF suction line heater harness connector and terminal 1 Proceed to Test Step 8.
on the DEF return line heater harness connector.

8. Check the DEF Line Heaters Continuity Result: At least one of the resistance measurements indi-
cates an open circuit.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Replace the line heater that indicates an open circuit.
B. Disconnect the DEF pressure line heater, the DEF suction line Note: If the suspect heater is the DEF pump heater, the DEF
heater, the DEF return line heater, and the DEF pump module. pump module must be replaced.

C. Use a multimeter to take the following resistance Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
measurements: codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

· Terminal 1 to terminal 2 on each of the DEF line heaters Result: All resistance measurements indicate continuity.
·Terminal 11 to terminal 12 on the DEF pump module
Leave the line heaters disconnected. Proceed to Test Step 9.

9. Check the Ground Connections for the DEF Line Heaters Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Ohms greater than 5 Ohms
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. One of the DEF heaters is not grounded correctly.

B. Use a multimeter to take the following resistance Check the ground connections for the DEF heaters. If neces-
measurements: sary, replace the ground wiring for the DEF heaters.

· Terminal 2 on the DEF pressure line heater harness connector to Result: All resistance measurements are less than 5 Ohms.
a suitable ground
· Terminal 2 on the DEF return line heater harness connector to a Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
suitable ground
Terminal 12 on the DEF pump module harness connector to a suit-
able ground

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 199
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05907680

DEF Pump - Test

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
200 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 174
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the DEF Pump

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the Diesel Exhaust
Fluid (DEF) pump speed is not responding as expected to the speed
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor
4374-7 command from the ECM.
Speed : Not Responding Properly
The ECM has restarted the pump 5 times since the last keyswitch cycle.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM Detects that the DEF pump motor speed has deviated from the
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor
4374-10 required speed between 4.5 and 5.5 seconds.
Speed : Abnormal Rate of Change
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump speed is
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor greater than 86 percent.
4374-16
Speed : High - moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump speed is
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Motor less than 4 percent.
4374-18
Speed : Low - moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump control is
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump Drive Command : High - greater than 86 percent.
4375-16
moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump control is
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump Drive Command : Low - less than 4 percent.
4375-18
moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects low current condition on the DEF pump motor circuit for
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Below at least 0.5 seconds.
5435-5
Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the DEF pump motor circuit
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Current Above for at least 0.2 seconds.
5435-6
Normal The SCR relay is closed.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM is unable to communicate with the DEF pump module for three
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Pump State : Not Responding
5435-7 consecutive attempts.
Properly
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump temperature
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : is greater than 86 percent.
5706-16
High - moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump temperature
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater : is less than 4 percent.
5706-18
Low - moderate severity (2) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump temperature
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater command signal is greater than 86 percent.
5707-15
Command : High - least severe (1) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the PWM duty cycle for the DEF pump temperature
Aftertreatment #1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pump Heater command signal is less than 4 percent.
5707-17
Command : Low - least severe (1) The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 201
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 46 g03720343
Schematic diagram for the DEF pump

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
202 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 47 g03720378
View of the pin locations on the P1 connector for the
DEF pump
(72) DEF pump motor control signal
(76) DEF pump motor signal feedback

Illustration 48 g03720379
Pin locations on the DEF pump module connector
(2) DEF pump motor control signal/feedback
(4) DEF pump motor (-)
(9) DEF pump motor (+)

DEF Dosing System Verification Test


This test primes the dosing system. The test is used
to ensure that the DEF pump is able to build
adequate pressure.
This test turns on the DEF pump. During this time, the
DEF pump will pressurize the entire DEF dosing
system. The DEF injector will open briefly. The DEF
pump will purge the system at the end of the test.
Navigate to the following menu options in order to
access the “DEF Dosing System Verification Test” :

• Diagnostics
• Diagnostic Tests

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 203
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 175
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
connector found. The fuses are OK
A. Check the fuses.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the P1/J1 ECM connectors.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was
C. Inspect the connector for the DEF pump module. found. A fuse is blown.

D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector. Re-
connector and the connector for the DEF pump. place any blown fuses.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
E. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF pump for abra- nostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
sions and pinch points.

2. Check for Active or Recently Logged Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trou- Result: A 4374-7 or 4374-10 diagnostic code is active or
ble Codes recently logged.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” Proceed to Test Step 3.

B. Look for active or logged diagnostic codes. Result: One of the following diagnostic codes is active or
recently logged:

·4374-16
·4374-18
·4375-16
·4375-18
·5435-5
·5435-6
·5706-16
·5706-18
·5707-15
·5707-17

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: A 5435-7 diagnostic code is active or recently


logged.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

3. Check for Frozen DEF Frozen DEF Result: The DEF heaters were not working correctly.

A. If the ambient temperature is below 0° C (32° F), check that the Make any necessary repairs. Refer to Troubleshooting,
DEF heaters are working correctly. Refer to Troubleshooting, “DEF “DEF Line Heater - Test”.
Line Heater - Test”.
Result: The DEF lines are not frozen. The DEF heaters
are working correctly.

Replace the DEF pump module.


Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.

4. Check the Power Supply to the DEF Pump Motor 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
204 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 175, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Check the fuse. If the fuse is blown, there may be a short
in the wiring between the DEF pump module and the
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF pump module. SCR relay.
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 9.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 9 on If the fuse is not blown, proceed to Test Step 5.
the harness connector for the DEF pump module and a suitable
ground. Result: The measured voltage is within the expected
range.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 6.

5. Check the Wiring Between the DEF Pump Module and the Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5
SCR Relay Ohms Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump module
and the SCR relay.
B. Disconnect the SCR relay. Replace the faulty wiring.
Proceed to Test Step 9.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 9
on the harness connector for the DEF pump module and terminal Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.
87 on the harness connector for the SCR relay.
There may be a fault in the circuit for the SCR relay. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Relay - Test (SCR Relay)” in order to
Troubleshoot this circuit.

Less than 5
6. Check the Ground Wiring for the DEF Pump Motor Ohms Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5
Ohms.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
There is a fault in the ground connection for the DEF
B. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 4 pump motor.
on the harness connector for the DEF pump module and a suitable Check the ground connections. If necessary, replace the
ground. ground wiring for the DEF pump module.

Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Check the DEF Pump Motor Signal/Feedback Wiring for an Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Open Circuit Ohms greater than 5 Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump module
connector and the P1 ECM connector.
B. Disconnect the DEF pump module connector. Disconnect the Replace the faulty wiring.
P1 connector from the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 9.

C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the follow- Result: Both resistance measurements are less than 5
ing points: Ohms.

· Terminal 2 on the DEF pump module harness connector and Proceed to Test Step 8.
P1:72
· Terminal 2 on the DEF pump module harness connector and
P1:76

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 205
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 175, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

8. Check the DEF Pump Motor Signal/Feedback Wiring for a Greater than 1 k Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Short Circuit Ohm less than 1 k Ohm.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. There is a short in the DEF pump signal feedback wiring.
Replace the faulty wiring.
B. Disconnect the P1 connector from the ECM. Proceed to Test Step 9.

C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:72 and Result: All resistance measurements are greater than 1
all other terminals on the P1 connector except P1:76. k Ohm.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:76 and Proceed to Test Step 9.
all other terminals on the P1 connector except P1:72.

9. Run the “ DEF Dosing System Verification Test”” Test Successful Result: The “DEF Dosing System Verification Test”
completed successfully. There are no active diagnostic
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. codes.

B. Reconnect all electrical connectors and reinstall any DEF lines Return the engine to service.
that may have been removed.
Result: A diagnostic code other than those listed in Table
C. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. 174 is active.

D. Start the engine. Troubleshoot any other diagnostic codes. Refer to Trou-
bleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.
E. Use the electronic service tool to run the “DEF Dosing System
Verification Test” . Result: The “DEF Dosing System Verification Test” was
not successful. One of the diagnostic codes listed in Ta-
F. Check that the “DEF Dosing System Verification Test” com- ble 174 is still active.
pleted successfully and that none of the diagnostic codes listed in
Table 174 are active. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05921439

DEF Pump Pressure Sensor -


Test

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes.


Table 176
Diagnostic Trouble Codes

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects that the signal from the Diesel Exhaust Fluid
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Dosing Re-
(DEF) pump pressure sensor is greater than 4.75 V for at least 1 second.
4334-3 agent Absolute Pressure : Voltage
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Above Normal
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects that the signal from the DEF pump pressure sensor is less than 0.25 V
Aftertreatment #1 SCR Dosing Re-
for at least 1 second.
4334-4 agent Absolute Pressure : Voltage
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Below Normal
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
206 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 49 g03726274
Schematic diagram for the DEF pump pressure sensor

Illustration 50 g03726284
View of the pin locations on the P2 ECM connector
for the DEF pump pressure sensor
(5) DEF pump pressure sensor ground
(7) DEF pump pressure sensor supply (+5 V)
(56) DEF pump pressure sensor signal

Illustration 51 g03720379
Pin locations on the DEF pump module connector
(8) DEF pump pressure sensor ground
(9) DEF pump pressure sensor signal
(10) DEF pump pressure sensor supply (+5 V)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 207
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 177
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
connector was not found.
A. Inspect the P2/J2 ECM connector.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the connector for the DEF pump.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
C. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the was found.
ECM connector and the connector for the DEF pump.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged
D. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF pump for abra- connector.
sions and pinch points. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
diagnostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates
the fault.

2. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trouble Result: There is an active or logged , 4334-3 or
Codes 4334-4 diagnostic code.
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool
and the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” Proceed to Test Step 3.

B. Check for active or logged codes.

3. Check the Sensor Supply and Ground Wiring 4.9 V to 5.1 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the
expected range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump
B. Disconnect the DEF pump connector. and the P2 ECM connector.
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Proceed to Test Step 5.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 8 Result: The measured voltage is within the ex-
and terminal 10 on the harness connector for the DEF pump. pected range.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Voltage on the Sensor Signal Wiring 4.9 V to 5.1 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the
expected range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position for 2 minutes.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump
B. Disconnect the connector for the DEF pump. and the P2 ECM connector.
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 5.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 8 Result: The measured voltage is within the ex-
and terminal 9 on the harness connector for the DEF pump. pected range.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Install a replacement DEF pump module.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
diagnostic codes and verify that the repair elimi-
nates the fault.
Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Perform a DEF Dosing System Verification Test Diagnostic codes Result: The diagnostic code did not return.

A. Start the engine. Return the unit to service.

B. Use the electronic service tool to perform the “DEF Dosing Sys- Result: The diagnostic code returned.
tem Verification Test” .
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
208 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.
If the procedure did not correct the issue, Contact the
Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 209
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05910333

DEF Return Valve - Test


Table 178

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the DEF Return Valve

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a low current condition on
Aftertreatment #1 DEF Return Valve : Current Below the circuit for the DEF purging pump.
4376-5
Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a high current condition on


Aftertreatment #1 DEF Return Valve : Current Below the circuit for the DEF purging pump.
4376-6
Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

Illustration 52 g03721197
Schematic diagram for the DEF purging pump

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
210 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 53 g03722975
View of the pin location on the P2 connector for the
DEF purging pump
(45) DEF purging pump ground

Illustration 54 g03721538
Pin locations on the DEF pump module connector for
the DEF purging pump
(3) DEF purging pump (-)
(5) DEF purging pump (+)

DEF Dosing System Purge Test


This test verifies that the DEF purging process is
working correctly by purging the DEF pump and lines.
This service test is used to purge the DEF system.
This test turns on the DEF purging pump, causing the
DEF to be pumped from the injector back into the
tank. Purging allows the system to de-pressurize and
empty prior to repair work.
Navigate to the following menu options in order to
access the “DEF Dosing System Purge Test” :
• Diagnostics
• Diagnostic Tests

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 211
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 179
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
connector found. The fuses are OK
A. Check the fuses.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the P1/J1 ECM connectors.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was
C. Inspect the connector for the DEF pump module. found. A fuse is blown.

D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector. Re-
connector and the connector for the DEF pump. place any blown fuses.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
E. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF pump for abra- nostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
sions and pinch points.

2. Check for Active or Recently Logged Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trou- Result: A 4376-5 diagnostic code is active or recently
ble Codes logged.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: A 4376-6 diagnostic code is active or recently


B. Look for active or logged diagnostic codes. logged.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

3. Check the Power Supply to the DEF Purging Pump 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Check the fuse. If the fuse is blown, there may be a short
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF pump module. in the wiring between the DEF pump module and the
SCR relay.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Replace the faulty wiring.
Proceed to Test Step 7.
D. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Dosing Sys-
tem Purge Test” . Result: The measured voltage is within the expected
range.
E. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 5 on
the harness connector fro the DEF pump and a suitable ground. Proceed to Test Step 5.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

4. Check the Wiring Between the DEF Pump Module and the Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5
SCR Relay Ohms Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump module
and the SCR relay.
B. Disconnect the SCR relay. Replace the faulty wiring.
Proceed to Test Step 7.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 5
on the harness connector for the DEF pump module and terminal Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.
87 on the harness connector for the SCR relay.
There may be a fault in the circuit for the SCR relay. Refer
to Troubleshooting, “Relay - Test (SCR Relay)” in order to
Troubleshoot this circuit.

Diagnostic codes
5. Create a Short Circuit at the DEF Pump Module Connector

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
212 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 179, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Result: The 4376-5 diagnostic code is still active with the
jumper installed.
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF pump module.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump module
C. Fabricate a jumper wire that is 150 mm (6 inch) long. and the ECM.
Replace the faulty wiring.
D. Install the jumper wire between terminal 3 and terminal 5 on the Proceed to Test Step 7.
harness connector for the DEF pump module.
Result: A 4376-6 diagnostic code is active with the jump-
E. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. er installed.

F. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Dosing Sys- Install a replacement DEF pump module.
tem Purge Test” . Proceed to Test Step 7.

G. Check for active diagnostic codes.

H. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Remove the jumper


wire.

6. Create an Open Circuit at the DEF Pump Module Connector Diagnostic codes Result: The 4376-6 diagnostic code is still active with the
DEF pump module disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between the DEF pump module
B. Disconnect the DEF pump module connector. connector and the P1 ECM connector.
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 7.

D. Use the electronic service tool to activate the “DEF Dosing Sys- Result: A 4376-5 diagnostic code is active with the DEF
tem Purge Test” . pump module disconnected.

E. Check for active diagnostic codes. Install a replacement DEF pump module.
Proceed to Test Step 7.
F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

7. Run the “ DEF Dosing System Purge Test”” Diagnostic codes Result: The test completed successfully and there are
no active diagnostic codes.
A. Reconnect all connectors.
Return the engine to service.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Result: The test did not complete successfully. A 4376
C. Use the electronic service tool to run the “DEF Dosing System diagnostic code is active.
Purge Test”
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
D. Check for active diagnostic codes.
Result: A diagnostic ode other than a 4376 code is
active.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes” in


order to troubleshoot any other diagnostic codes.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 213
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05914177

DEF Tank Sensor - Test


Table 180

Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the DEF Tank Sensor

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank Level : Not The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects an invalid signal from the
1761-7
Responding Properly Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank level sensor for at least 5 seconds.

The ECM detects a loss of signal from the DEF tank level sensor for at
least one second.
1761-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Level : Data Error
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Not Re- The ECM detects an invalid signal from the DEF tank temperature sensor
3031-7
sponding Properly for at least 5 seconds.

The ECM detects an error message from the DEF tank temperature sen-
sor for at least one second.
3031-12 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Tank Temperature : Failure
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a short circuit to battery voltage in the DEF temperature
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Temperature 2 : sensor circuit for at least 2 seconds.
3519-3
Voltage Above Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a short circuit to ground in the DEF temperature sensor
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Temperature 2 : circuit for at least 2 seconds.
3519-4
Voltage Below Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a short circuit to battery voltage in the DEF quality sen-
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Properties : Volt- sor circuit for at least 2 seconds.
3520-4
age Below Normal The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects an error message from the DEF quality sensor for at
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Properties : least 2 seconds.
3520-12
Failure The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a loss of signal from the DEF tank sensor unit for at
least one second.
3521-19 Aftertreatment #1 DEF Property : Data Error
The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
214 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 55 g03721809
Schematic diagram for the DEF tank header unit

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 215
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 56 g03721884
View of the pin locations on the P1 connector for the
DEF tank header unit.
(23) CAN 2 +
(45) CAN 2 -

Illustration 57 g03722336
View of the connector for the DEF tank header unit
(1) CAN C -
(2) CAN C +
(3) Ground
(4) Battery +

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
216 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 181
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was not
connector found. The fuses are OK
A. Check the fuses.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Inspect the P1/J1 ECM connectors.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was
C. Inspect the connector for the DEF tank header unit. found. A fuse is blown.

D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the ECM Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector. Re-
connector and the connector for the DEF tank header unit. place any blown fuses.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
E. Check all of the wiring associated with the DEF tank header unit nostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
for abrasions and pinch points.

2. Check for Active or Recently Logged Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trou- Result: One or more of the diagnostic codes listed in Ta-
ble Codes ble 180 is active.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” Proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: There is an active diagnostic code relating to the


B. Look for active or logged diagnostic codes. CAN data link.

Refer to Troubleshooting, “CAN Data Link - Test” before


returning to this procedure.

Result: One or more of the diagnostic codes listed in Ta-


ble 180 is recently logged.

There may be an intermittent fault. Refer to Troubleshoot-


ing, “Electrical Connector - Inspect” in order to identify in-
termittent faults.

3. Check the Power Supply to the Auxiliary Main Relay 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
There is a fault in the power supply wiring between the
B. Disconnect the auxiliary main relay. auxiliary main relay and battery (+).
Replace the faulty wiring.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 30 fault.
on the harness connector for the auxiliary main relay and a suitable
ground. Result: The measured voltage is within the expected
range.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Power Supply from the ECM Main Relay 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
B. Disconnect the auxiliary main relay.
Result: The measured voltage is within the expected
C. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 86 range.
on auxiliary main relay and a suitable ground.
Proceed to Test Step 6.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 217
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 181, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
Less than 5
5. Check the Wiring Between the Auxiliary Main Relay and the Ohms Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5
ECM Main Relay Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The fault is in the wiring between the auxiliary main relay
and the ECM main relay.
B. Disconnect the auxiliary main relay. Replace the faulty wiring.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
C. Disconnect the ECM main relay. nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.
D. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal
86 on the harness connector for the auxiliary main relay and termi- Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.
nal 87 on the harness connector for the ECM main relay.
There may be a fault in the circuit for the ECM main relay.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Relay - Test (ECM Main Re-
lay)” in order to troubleshoot this circuit.

6. Check the Ground Connections for the Auxiliary Main Relay 10 V to 14 V Result: At least one of the voltage measurements is not
and the DEF Tank Header Unit within the expected range.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Check the ground connections. If necessary, replace the
ground wiring for the auxiliary main relay and the DEF
B. Disconnect the auxiliary main relay. tank header unit.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
C. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit. nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.
D. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Result: Both voltage measurements are within the ex-
E. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between the following pected range.
points:
Reconnect the auxiliary main relay. Proceed to Test Step
· Terminal 30 and terminal 85 on the harness connector for the 7.
relay
· Terminal 30 on the harness connector for the relay and terminal 3
on the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

7. Check the Power Supply to the DEF Tank Header Unit 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 8.
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit.
Result: The measured voltage is within the expected
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. range.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage between terminal 4 on Proceed to Test Step 9.
the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit and a suitable
ground.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

8. Check the Wiring Between the DEF Tank Header Unit and Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5
the Auxiliary Main Relay Ohms Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Check the fuse. If the fuse is blown there may be a short
in the wiring.
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit. If the fuse is OK, there is an open circuit in the wiring.
Replace the faulty wiring.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
218 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 181, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
C. Disconnect the auxiliary main relay. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
D. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between terminal 4 fault.
on the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit and termi-
nal 87 on the harness connector for the auxiliary main relay. Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.

Install a replacement auxiliary main relay.


Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.

9. Check the CAN Data Link Wiring for the DEF Tank Header Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is
Unit Ohms greater than 5 Ohms.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. The fault is in the wiring between the DEF tank header
unit and the P1 ECM connector.
B. Disconnect the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit.
Result: Both resistance measurements are less than 5
C. Disconnect the P1 connector from the ECM. Ohms.

D. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the follow- Install a replacement DEF tank header unit.
ing points: Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and verify that the repair eliminates the
· Terminal 1 on the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit fault.
and P1:45
· Terminal 2 on the harness connector for the DEF tank header unit
and P1:23

If this procedure did not correct the fault, contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05915105

ECM Memory - Test

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:


Table 182
Diagnostic Trouble Code for the ECM Memory

J1939 Code Description Notes

152-2 Number Of ECU Resets : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect The software in the Electronic Control Module (ECM) has
reset while the engine was running.

There may be a brief loss of electrical power.


The indicator lamps may come on for 2 seconds (lamp
test).

166-2 Engine Rated Power : Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect The ECM has detected an error during a software upgrade.

If equipped, the warning lamp will come on.

166-14 Engine Rated Power : Special Instruction The ECM has detected a rating mismatch in the software.

If equipped, the warning lamp will flash and the shutdown


lamp will come on.
The engine will be shut down. The engine will not start.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 219
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 182, contd)


1221-2 Continuously Monitored Systems Support/Status ; Erratic, The ECM continuously monitors the operating conditions of
Intermittent, or Incorrect the engine. If there is an irregularity that is not detected by
the engine sensor diagnostics, this code will become
active.

If equipped, the warning lamp will come on.

2840-12 ECU Instance : Failure The ECM detects that the flash file that is installed is
invalid.

If equipped, the warning lamp will come on.

5357-31 Engine Fuel Injection Quantity Error for Multiple Cylinders The ECM detects that the number of requested fuel injec-
tions is not compatible with the engine hardware.
No lamps will come on.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
220 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 183
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Active or Recently Logged Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Result: A 1221-2 diagnostic code is active or recently
codes logged.
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools”. Make a note of all other active or recently logged diagnostic
codes. Troubleshoot all other codes before continuing this
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. If the engine will start, procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble
then run the engine. Codes”.
If 1221-2 is the only active or recently logged diagnostic
C. Monitor the electronic service tool for active and/or recently code, proceed to Test Step 2.
logged diagnostic codes.
Result: A 152-2 diagnostic code is active or recently logged.
D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Make a note of all other active or recently logged diagnostic
codes. Troubleshoot all other codes before continuing this
procedure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble
Codes”.
If 152-2 is the only active or recently logged diagnostic code,
proceed to Test Step 3.

Result: A 166-X or 2840-12 diagnostic code is active or re-


cently logged.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Result: A 5357-31 diagnostic code is active.

Check for other active diagnostic codes relating the fuel sys-
tem. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.
If there are no other codes relating to the fuel system, pro-
ceed to Test Step 3.

2. Clear the Diagnostic Code and Attempt to Start the Engine 1221-2 diag- Result: The 1221-2 diagnostic code is no longer active.
nostic code
A. Use the electronic service tool to clear the 1221-2 diagnostic Return the engine to service.
code.
Result: The 1221-2 diagnostic code is still active.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. If the engine will start,
then run the engine for at least 10 minutes. Proceed to Test Step 3.

C. Operate the engine over the full duty cycle in order to replicate
the conditions in which the fault occurred.

D. Stop the engine. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

E. Use the electronic service tool to check for an active or recently


logged 1221-2 diagnostic code.

3. Check the Battery Supply Voltage to the ECM Battery Result: The ECM is receiving the correct voltage.
voltage
A. Check that the ECM is receiving the correct battery voltage. Re- Proceed to Test Step 4.
fer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Power Supply - Test”.
Result: Make any necessary repairs. Refer to Troubleshoot-
ing, “Electrical Power Supply - Test”.
Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
codes and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
If the diagnostic code is still active, proceed to Test Step 4.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 221
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 183, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

4. Re-Flash the ECM Diagnostic Result: The diagnostic code is no longer active.
codes
A. Ensure that the correct rating of flash file for the engine is Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic
installed. codes.
Return the engine to service.
B. Ensure that the latest software is installed on the ECM. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Flash Programming”. Result:The diagnostic code is still active.

C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 5.

D. Use the electronic service tool to check for active diagnostic


codes.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

5. Check if a Replacement ECM Eliminates the Fault Diagnostic Result: There are no active diagnostic codes with the re-
codes placement ECM.
A. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
Reconnect the suspect ECM. If the fault returns with the sus-
B. If the Dealer Solution Network (DSN) recommends the use of a pect ECM, replace the ECM.
replacement ECM, install a replacement ECM. Refer to Trouble- Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
shooting, “Replacing the ECM”. agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.
C. Use the electronic service tool to recheck the system for active
diagnostic codes. Result: The diagnostic code is still present with the replace-
ment ECM.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05956277

Electrical Connector - Inspect The connection of any electrical equipment and


the disconnection of any electrical equipment
may cause an explosion hazard which may result
Most electrical faults are caused by poor connections. in injury or death. Do not connect any electrical
The following procedure will assist in detecting faults equipment or disconnect any electrical equipment
with connectors and with wiring. If a fault is found, in an explosive atmosphere.
correct the condition and verify that the fault is
resolved.
Intermittent electrical faults are sometimes resolved
by disconnecting and reconnecting connectors. It is
very important to check for diagnostic codes
immediately before disconnecting a connector. Also
check for diagnostic codes after reconnecting the
connector. If the status of a diagnostic code is
changed due to disconnecting and reconnecting a
connector, there are several possible reasons. The
likely reasons are loose terminals, improperly
crimped terminals, moisture, corrosion, and
inadequate mating of a connection.
Follow these guidelines:
• Never break the insulation of a wire in order to
access a circuit for measurements. Illustration 58 g01131019
Seal for a three-pin connector (typical example)
• If a wire is cut, always install a new terminal for the
repair.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
222 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 184
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
1. Check Connectors for Moisture and Corrosion Harness, Result: A fault has been found with the harness or the
connectors, connectors.
A. Inspect all the harnesses. Ensure that the routing of the wiring and seals are
harness allows the wires to enter the face of each connector at a OK. Repair the connectors or the wiring, as required. Ensure that
perpendicular angle. Otherwise, the wire will deform the seal bore. all of the seals are correctly installed. Ensure that the con-
This will create a path for the entrance of moisture. Verify that the nectors have been reattached.
seals for the wires are sealing correctly. If corrosion is evident on the pins, sockets or the connector,
use only denatured alcohol to remove the corrosion. Use a
B. Ensure that the sealing plugs are in place. If any of the plugs are cotton swab or a soft brush to remove the corrosion.
missing, replace the plug. Ensure that the plugs are inserted cor- If moisture was found in the connectors, run the engine for
rectly into the connector. several minutes and check again for moisture. If moisture re-
appears, the moisture is wicking into the connector. Even if
C. Disconnect the suspect connector and inspect the connector the moisture entry path is repaired, it may be necessary to re-
seal. Ensure that the seal is in good condition. If necessary, replace place the wires.
the connector. Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
D. Thoroughly inspect the connectors for evidence of moisture fault.
entry. Result: The harness, connectors, and seals are in good
Note: It is normal to see some minor seal abrasion on connector condition.
seals. Minor seal abrasion will not allow the entry of moisture.
If moisture or corrosion is evident in the connector, the source of Proceed to Test Step 2.
the moisture entry must be found and the source of the moisture
entry must be repaired. If the source of the moisture entry is not re-
paired, the fault will recur. Simply drying the connector will not recti-
fy the fault. Check the following items for the possible moisture
entry path:
· Missing seals
· Incorrectly installed seals
· Nicks in exposed insulation
· Improperly mated connectors
Moisture can also travel to a connector through the inside of a wire.
If moisture is found in a connector, thoroughly check the connector
harness for damage. Also check other connectors that share the
harness for moisture.
Note: The ECM is a sealed unit. If moisture is found in an ECM
connector, the ECM is not the source of the moisture. Do not re-
place the ECM.

2. Check the Wires for Damage to the Insulation The wiring is Result: There is damage to the harness.
OK
A. Carefully inspect each wire for signs of abrasion, nicks, and Repair the wires or replace the wires, as required.
cuts. Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
Inspect the wires for the following conditions: agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
· Exposed insulation fault.
· Rubbing of a wire against the engine
· Rubbing of a wire against a sharp edge Result: The wires are free of abrasion, nicks, and cuts and
the harness is correctly clamped.
B. Check all of the fasteners for the harness and the strain relief
components on the ECM in order to verify that the harness is cor- Proceed to Test Step 3.
rectly secured. Also check all of the fasteners in order to verify that
the harness is not compressed. Pull back the harness sleeves in
order to check for a flattened portion of wire. A fastener that has
been overtightened flattens the harness. This damages the wires
that are inside the harness.

3. Inspect the Connector Terminals Terminals are Result: The terminals of the connector are damaged.
aligned and
undamaged Repair the terminals and/or replace the terminals, as
required.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 223
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 184, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
A. Visually inspect each terminal in the connector. Verify that the Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
terminals are not damaged. Verify that the terminals are correctly agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
aligned in the connector and verify that the terminals are correctly fault.
located in the connector.
Result: The terminals are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

Illustration 59 g01802454
A typical example of the lock wedge.
(1) Lock wedge

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
224 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 185
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
4. Perform a Pull Test on Each Wire Terminal Connection Pull test OK Result: A wire has been pulled from a terminal or a terminal
has been pulled from the connector in the 30 N (6.7 lb) pull
A. Ensure that the locking wedge for the connector is installed cor- test.
rectly. Terminals cannot be retained inside the connector if the lock-
ing wedge is not installed correctly. Replace the terminal. Replace damaged connectors, as
required.
B. Perform the 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each wire. Each terminal Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
and each connector should easily withstand 30 N (6.7 lb) of ten- agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
sion and each wire should remain in the connector body. This test fault.
checks whether the wire was correctly crimped in the terminal and Result: All terminals pass the pull test.
whether the terminal was correctly inserted into the connector.
Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Check Individual Pin Retention into the Socket The sockets Result: Terminals are damaged.
provide good
A. Verify that the sockets provide good retention for the pins. Insert retention for Replace the damaged terminals. Verify that the repair elimi-
a new pin into each socket one at a time in order to check for a the new pin. nates the problem.
good grip on the pin by the socket. Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
fault.
Result: The terminals are OK.

Proceed to Test Step 6.

6. Check the Locking Mechanism of the Connectors The connec- Result: The locking mechanism for the connector is dam-
tors are aged or missing.
A. Ensure that the connectors lock correctly. After locking the con- locked and
nectors, ensure that the two halves cannot be pulled apart. are not Repair the connector or replace the connector, as required.
damaged Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged di-
B. Verify that the latch tab of the connector is correctly latched. Also agnostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the
verify that the latch tab of the connector returns to the locked fault.
position.
Result: The connectors are in good condition.

Reconnect all connectors. If there are still active diagnostic


codes, refer to Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Trouble Codes”.

i05915658

Electrical Power Supply - Test

This procedure tests that the correct voltage is being


supplied to the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
This procedure covers the following codes:

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 225
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 186
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Electrical Power Supply Circuit
168-3 Battery Potential / Power Input 1 : Voltage This code indicates that the battery circuit to the ECM has excessive voltage while the
Above Normal engine is running.
The ECM detects the following conditions:

The battery voltage is high for at least 5 seconds.

The keyswitch is in the ON position.

The engine is not cranking.

The warning lamp will come on.

168-4 Battery Potential / Power Input 1 : Voltage This code indicates that the battery circuit for the ECM has low voltage while the engine
Below Normal is running.
The ECM detects the following conditions:

The battery voltage is low for at least 5 seconds.

The keyswitch is in the ON position.

The engine is not cranking.

The ECM will normally log the diagnostic code. If battery voltage disappears without re-
turning, the ECM will not log this diagnostic code and the engine will shut down.
The engine may experience changes in the engine rpm, and intermittent engine shut-
downs or complete engine shutdowns while the conditions that cause this diagnostic
code are present.

Battery+ voltage is supplied through P1: 1, 3, and 5.


The battery- is supplied through P1: 2, 4, and 6. The
ECM receives the keyswitch signal at P1:54 when the
keyswitch is in the ON position or in the START
position. When the ECM detects battery voltage at
this input, the ECM will activate the main relay. When
battery voltage is removed from this input, after a
short time (up to 60 seconds) the ECM will deactivate
the main relay.
The cause of an intermittent power supply to the ECM
can occur on either the positive side or on the
negative side of the battery supply circuit.
Usually, battery power to the diagnostic connector is
available and the battery power to the data link
connector is independent of the keyswitch. Therefore,
although the electronic service tool can be powered
up, there may be no communication with the engine
ECM. The engine ECM requires the keyswitch to be
in the ON position in order to maintain
communications. The ECM may power down a short
time after connecting the electronic service tool if the
keyswitch is in the OFF position.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
226 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 60 g03722958
Schematic diagram for the electrical power supply circuit
Not all connectors are shown. Refer to the Electrical Schematic for the application.

Illustration 61 g03722982
View of the pin locations on the P1 connector for the
electrical power supply circuit
(1) Battery+
(2) Battery ground
(3) Battery+
(4) Battery ground
(5) Battery+
(6) Battery ground
(8) Start Signal
(28) ECM main relay
(54) Ignition key switch

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 227
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 187
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was found. A
or connector fuse is blown.
A. Check the fuses.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector. Replace
B. Thoroughly inspect the battery connections and the con- any blown fuses
nections to the relays. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic co-
Connector - Inspect” for details. des. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

C. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the Result: All connectors, pins, and sockets are correctly con-
ECM connector that are associated with electrical power sup- nected and/or inserted and the harness is free of corrosion, of
ply circuit. abrasion or of pinch points.

D. Check the harness for abrasion and for pinch points from Proceed to Test Step 2.
the battery to the ECM.

2. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes or Logged Diagnos- Diagnostic Result: There are no active 168 diagnostic codes at this time.
tic Codes codes
If the fault is intermittent, refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic Connector - Inspect”.
connector. If the ECM is receiving no battery voltage, proceed to Test Step
3.
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position and start the engine.
Result: There is an active 168-3 diagnostic code.
C. Monitor the active diagnostic code screen on the electronic
service tool. Check and record any active diagnostic codes or Proceed to Test Step 3.
logged diagnostic codes.
Note: Wait at least 30 seconds in order for the diagnostic co- Result: There is an active 168-4 diagnostic code.
des to become active.
Proceed to Test Step 4.

3. Check the Alternator Alternator Result: The alternator is faulty.

A. Test the alternator for correct operation. Refer to Systems Replace the alternator.
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Alternator - Test”. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic co-
des and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: The alternator is operating correctly.

Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Battery Battery load test Result: The battery does not pass the load test. The measured
passed voltage is less than 11 VDC.
A. Load-test the battery. Use a suitable battery load tester. Re-
fer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Battery - Recharge or replace the faulty battery.
Test” for the correct procedure. Use the electronic service tool in order to clear all logged diag-
nostic codes and then verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: The battery passes the load test. The measured volt-
age is at least 11 V.

Check the wiring between the battery and the ECM. Refer to
the Electrical Schematic for the application. Make any neces-
sary repairs.
If the fault is still present, contact the Dealer Solution Network
(DSN).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
228 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

i05916432

Glow Plug Starting Aid - Test

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes:


Table 188
Diagnostic Trouble Codes for the Glow Plug Start Aid Circuit

J1939 Description Notes


Code
676-5 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Current Below The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a low current condition in the control circuit
Normal for the Glow plug Control Unit (GCU) for at least 0.7 seconds.
The warning lamp will come on.

676-6 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Current Above The ECM detects a high current condition in the control circuit for the GCU for at least
Normal 0.2 seconds.
The ECM will attempt to activate the glow plug control unit for a further five attempts after
the diagnostic code becomes active.
The warning lamp will come on.

676-19 Engine Glow Plug Relay : Data Error The ECM detects one of the following conditions:
The diagnostic signal from the GCU indicates that there is an error in the GCU.
OR
The diagnostic signal from the GCU is invalid.
The warning lamp will come on.

5324-7 Engine Glow Plug 1 : Not Responding The ECM detects the following conditions:
Properly
The diagnostic signal from the GCU indicates that there is a short in the circuit for the
glow plug for cylinder number 1.

5325-7 Engine Glow Plug 2 : Not Responding The ECM detects the following conditions:
Properly
The diagnostic signal from the GCU indicates that there is a short in the circuit for the
glow plug for cylinder number 2.

5326-7 Engine Glow Plug 3 : Not Responding The ECM detects the following conditions:
Properly
The diagnostic signal from the GCU indicates that there is a short in the circuit for the
glow plug for cylinder number 3.

5327-7 Engine Glow Plug 4 : Not Responding The ECM detects the following conditions:
Properly
The diagnostic signal from the GCU indicates that there is a short in the circuit for the
glow plug for cylinder number 4.

The following background information is related The GCU transmits a diagnostic signal back to the
to this procedure: engine ECM. If the GCU detects a fault for one of the
glow plugs, a diagnostic code will become active for
The starting aid is used to improve the engine starting that glow plug.
when the engine is cold. With the keyswitch in the ON
position, the Electronic Control Module (ECM) will
monitor the coolant temperature and the engine air
inlet temperature in order to decide if the glow plugs
need to be switched ON. If the glow plugs are
required, then the ECM will activate the glow plug
control unit for a controlled period. While the glow
plug control unit is activated, the glow plug control
unit will supply power to the glow plugs.
Glow plugs are used for temperatures that are below
5° C (41° F).

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 229
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 62 g03723539
Schematic diagram for the glow plug starting aid circuit
Not all connectors are shown. Refer to the Electrical Schematic for the application.

Illustration 63 g03724059
View of the pin locations on the P1 connector for the
Glow Plug Control unit (GCU)
(22) GCU diagnostic return
(26) GCU control signal
(41) GCU ground

Illustration 64 g02674096
View of the pin locations on the GCU
(1) Glow plug cylinder 3
(2) Glow plug cylinder 1
(3) GCU diagnostic return
(4) Battery +
(5) GCU ground
(6) Glow plug cylinder 4
(7) Glow plug cylinder 2
(8) Glow plug control

Glow Plug Starting Aid Override


Activate this override using the electronic service tool.
This override is used to check that the glow plugs are
functioning correctly. The override will remain active
until switched off using the electronic service tool.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
230 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Navigate to the following menu options in the


electronic service tool in order to access the “Glow
Plug Starting Aid Override” :
• Diagnostics

• Diagnostic Tests
• Override Parameters
Table 189
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector was found. A
or connector fuse is blown.
A. Check the fuses.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged connector. Replace
B. Inspect the terminals on the GCU. Refer to Troubleshoot- any blown fuses
ing, “Electrical Connector - Inspect” for details. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic co-
des. Verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
C. Inspect the connectors between the GCU and the glow
plugs. Result: All connectors, pins, and sockets are correctly con-
nected and/or inserted and the harness is free of corrosion, of
D. Inspect the terminals on the P1/J1 ECM connector and all abrasion or of pinch points.
other connectors associated with the glow plug circuit.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
E. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the
ECM connector that are associated with glow plug circuit.

F. Check the harness for abrasion and for pinch points from
the glow plugs to the GCU, and from the GCU to the ECM.

2. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes or Logged Diagnos- Diagnostic Result: A 5324-7, 5325-7, 5326-7, or 5327-7 diagnostic code is
tic Codes codes active or recently logged.

A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic Proceed to Test Step 3.
connector.
Result: A 676-XX diagnostic code is active or recently logged
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start the
engine. Proceed to Test Step 6.

C. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug Result: An active diagnostic code or a recently logged diagnos-
start aid. tic code was not displayed.

D. Check for active diagnostic codes or recently logged diag- In order to identify intermittent faults, refer to Troubleshooting,
nostic codes. “Electrical Connector - Inspect”.

E. Use the electronic service tool to turn off the glow plug start
aid.

F. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 231
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 189, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Check the Glow Plug for the Suspect Cylinder Resistance Result: The measurement indicates an open circuit between
the glow plug and the ground point.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The glow plug is faulty.
B. Disconnect the connectors for the glow plugs in any sus-
pect cylinders. Refer to Table 188 in order to identify which Replace the suspect glow plug. Refer to Disassembly and As-
cylinders are suspect. sembly, “Glow Plugs - Remove and Install”.

C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug start
suspect glow plug connector and a suitable engine ground. aid and verify that the repair eliminates the fault. Clear all
logged diagnostic codes.

Result: The measurement indicates that there is a resistance


between the glow plug and the ground point.

The glow plug is OK.


Proceed to Test Step 4.

4. Check the Glow Plug Wiring for an Open Circuit Less than 5 Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is greater
Ohms than 5 Ohms.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between the suspect glow plug and the
B. Disconnect the connectors for any suspect glow plugs. Dis- GCU.
connect the connector for the GCU. Check all wiring between the suspect glow plug and the GCU.
Refer to the Electrical Schematic for the application.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the Make any necessary repairs.
harness connector for the suspect glow plug and the appropri-
ate terminal on the GCU connector. Result: All resistance measurements are less than 5 Ohms.

Reconnect all connectors. Proceed to Test Step 5.

5. Check the Glow Plug Wiring for a Short Circuit Greater than 1 k Result: The measured resistance is less than 1 k Ohm.
Ohm
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. There is a short to ground in the wiring for the suspect glow
plug.
B. Disconnect the connector for the suspect glow plug. Check the wiring between the suspect glow plug and the GCU.
Refer to the Electrical Schematic for the application.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between the Make any necessary repairs.
harness connector for the suspect glow plug and engine
ground. Result: The measured resistance is greater than 1 k Ohm.

The wiring is OK.


Install a replacement GCU.
Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug start
aid and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
232 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 189, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Check that the GCU is Receiving the Correct Voltage 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Check the fuse for the GCU. If the fuse is blown, replace the
B. Disconnect the GCU. fuse.
If the fuse is replaced and the fault reoccurs, there is a short in
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ONposition. the wiring between the battery supply and pin 4 on the GCU.
If the fuse is not blown, there is an open circuit in the wiring be-
D. Measure the voltage between pin 4 on the harness connec- tween the battery supply and pin 4 on the GCU.
tor for the GCU and a suitable ground. Repair the faulty wiring or replace the faulty wiring. Reconnect
the GCU. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow
plug start aid and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
Clear all logged diagnostic codes.

Result: The measured voltage is within the expected range.

Proceed to Test Step 7.

7. Check That the GCU is Grounded Correctly 10 V to 14 V Result: The measured voltage is not within the expected
range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
The fault is in the wiring between pin 5 on the harness connec-
B. Disconnect the GCU. tor for the GCU and P1:41.
Inspect the 9-pin engine interface connector. Repair the faulty
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. wiring or replace the faulty wiring. Use the electronic service
tool to override the glow plug start aid and verify that the repair
D. Measure the voltage between pin 4 and pin 5 on the har- eliminates the fault.
ness connector for the GCU. Clear all logged diagnostic codes.

Result: The measured voltage is within the expected range.

Proceed to Test Step 8.

8. Check the Type of Active Diagnostic Code Diagnostic Result: A 676-5 diagnostic code is active
Codes
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Proceed to Test Step 9.

B. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug Result: A 676-6 diagnostic code is active
starting aid.
Proceed to Test Step 11.
C. Check for active diagnostic codes.
Result: A 676-19 diagnostic code is active
D. Use the electronic service tool to turn off the glow plug start-
ing aid. Proceed to Test Step 13.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 233
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 189, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

9. Create a Short Circuit at the Harness Connector for the Diagnostic Result: A 676-6 diagnostic code is active with the jumper
GCU codes installed.

A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Install a replacement GCU.


Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug starting
B. Disconnect the GCU. aid and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
Clear all logged diagnostic codes.
C. Fabricate a jumper wire that is 15 cm (6 inch) long.
Result: A 676-5 diagnostic code is active with the jumper
D. Install the jumper wire between pin 5 and pin 8 on the har- installed.
ness connector for the GCU.
Proceed to Test Step 10.
E. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

F. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug


starting aid.

G. Check for active diagnostic codes.

H. Use the electronic service tool to turn off the glow plug start-
ing aid.

I. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

J. Remove the jumper wire.

10. Check the Resistance Between the GCU and the ECM Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is not within the expected
Ohms range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
There is an open circuit or high resistance in the wiring between
B. Disconnect the GCU. Disconnect the P1/J1 connector. pin 8 on the harness connector for the GCU and P1:26.
Inspect the 9-pin engine interface connector. Repair the faulty
C. Measure the resistance between pin 8 on the harness con- wiring or replace the faulty wiring.
nector for the GCU and P1:26.
Result: The measured resistance is within the expected range.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

11. Create an Open Circuit at the GCU Harness Connector Diagnostic Result: A 676-5 diagnostic code is active with the GCU
codes disconnected.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Install a replacement GCU.
B. Disconnect the GCU. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug starting
aid and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Clear all logged diagnostic codes.

D. Use the electronic service tool to override the glow plug Result: A 676-6 diagnostic code is active with the GCU
start aid. disconnected.

E. Check for active diagnostic codes. Proceed to Test Step 12.

F. Use the electronic service tool to turn off the glow plug start
aid.

G. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
234 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 189, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

12. Check the GCU control Wire for a Short Circuit Greater than 1 k Result: At least one of the resistance measurements is not
Ohm within the expected range.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
There is a short circuit in the wiring between the GCU connec-
B. Disconnect the P1/J1 connector. Disconnect the GCU. tor and the P1 ECM connector.
Repair the faulty wiring or replace the faulty wiring.
C. Use a multimeter to measure the resistance between P1:26 Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged diagnostic co-
and all other terminals on the P1 connector. des and verify that the repair eliminates the fault.

Result: All resistance measurements are within the expected


range.

Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

13. Check the Diagnostic Return Wire From the GCU Less than 5 Result: The measured resistance is greater than 5 Ohms.
Ohms
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. There is an open circuit or high resistance in the wiring.
Repair the faulty wiring or replace the faulty wiring.
B. Disconnect the GCU. Disconnect the P1/J1 connector.
Result: The measured resistance is less than 5 Ohms.
C. Measure the resistance between pin 3 on the harness con-
nector for the GCU and P1:22. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05921512

Idle Validation - Test

This procedure covers the following diagnostic codes.


Table 190
Diagnostic Trouble Codes

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
Accelerator Pedal 1 Low Idle Switch : The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of the following conditions:
558-2
Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect The signal voltage from the throttle pedal is less than 1.05 V for 0.3 seconds while the idle
validation switch is not active.
Accelerator Pedal 2 Low Idle Switch : The signal voltage from the throttle pedal is greater than 1.25 V for 0.3 seconds while the
2970-2 idle validation switch is active.
Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect
The warning lamp will flash. The engine will be derated.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

If the application is equipped with two throttles, the


engine will use the second throttle until the fault is
repaired.
If a second throttle is not installed or if the second
throttle has a fault, the following conditions will occur:

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 235
Diagnostic Functional Tests

• The engine will default to limp home mode.

• If the engine speed is higher than the speed in limp


home mode, the engine will decelerate to limp
home mode.

• If the engine speed is lower than the speed in limp


home mode, the engine speed will remain at the
current speed.

• The engine will remain at this speed while the


diagnostic code remains active.

• All inputs from the faulty throttle are ignored by the


ECM until the fault is repaired.
• All inputs from the repaired throttle will be ignored
by the ECM until the keyswitch has been cycled.
The IVS may be installed. The IVS is required for
mobile applications. The IVS is part of the throttle
position sensor. The IVS is CLOSED when the low
idle is set.
The configuration parameters for the throttle and for
the IVS thresholds are programmed into the ECM.
Use the electronic service tool in order to display the
configuration parameters for the throttle and for the
IVS.
If the IVS operates outside of the programmed range,
then the engine speed may not respond to changes in
the throttle position.
The electronic service tool may be used for the
following:

• If necessary, reset the IVS threshold for an existing


IVS.
• If necessary, view the IVS change point and reset
the IVS thresholds when a new throttle assembly
is installed.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
236 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 65 g03726319
Schematic diagram for the Idle Validation Switch (IVS) switch circuit

Illustration 66 g03726324
View of the pin locations on the P1 connector for the
IVS circuit
(42) IVS 2
(67) IVS 1

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 237
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 191
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Check for Active Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trouble Result: There is an active or logged , 558-2 or
Codes 2970-2 diagnostic code.
A. Establish communication between the electronic service tool
and the ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” Proceed to Test Step 2.

B. Check for active or logged codes.

2. Check the Operation of the IVS Switch state Result: The IVS state changes from CLOSED
(ON) to OPEN (OFF).
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 3.
B. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector.
Result: The IVS does not operate
C. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Proceed to Test Step 4.
D. Use the electronic service tool in order to check the current
“Throttle Configuration” .

E. Select the “SERVICE” option from the drop-down menu of the


electronic service tool.

F. Select the “Throttle Configuration” option on the electronic


service tool. Select the appropriate “Throttle Configuration” sum-
mary from the menu on the left of the screen. The IVS window for
the throttle will indicate “YES” if an IVS is installed.

G. Select the “Throttle status” function on the electronic service


tool. Select “Status” function and then select “Throttles” function.

H. The throttle is set in the low idle position.

I. Operate the throttle slowly. The IVS status should change from
CLOSED (ON) to OPEN (OFF).

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
238 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 191, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

3. Check the IVS Threshold Switch operation Result: The IVS switch operates within the “Idle
Validation Min OFF Threshold” and the “Idle Vali-
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. dation Max ON Threshold” parameters.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. The fault appears to be resolved.


Return the engine to service.
C. Use the electronic service tool in order to check the current
“Throttle Configuration” . Result: The IVS switch cannot operate within the
“Idle Validation Min OFF Threshold” and the “Idle
D. Select the “SERVICE” option from the drop-down menu of the Validation Max ON Threshold” parameters
electronic service tool.
Proceed to Test Step 10.
E. Select the “Throttle Configuration” option on the electronic
service tool. Select the appropriate “Throttle Configuration” sum-
mary from the menu on the left of the screen. The IVS window for
the throttle will indicate “YES” if an IVS is installed. Make a note
of the “Idle Validation Min OFF Threshold” parameters that are
displayed in the “Throttle Configuration” menu of the electronic
service tool. Make a note of the “Idle Validation Max ON Thresh-
old” parameters that are displayed in the “Throttle Configuration”
menu of the electronic service tool.

F. To select the “Throttle status” function on the electronic service


tool, select “Status” function and then select “Throttles” function.

G. The throttle is set in the low idle position.

H. Operate the throttle slowly. The IVS status should change from
CLOSED (ON) to OPEN (OFF).

4. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
connector was not found.
A. Inspect the P1/J1 ECM connector.
Proceed to Test Step 5.
B. Inspect the connectors for the throttle position sensors.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
C. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the was found.
ECM connector and the connector for the throttle position sensors.
Repair the damaged wire or the damaged
D. Check all of the wiring associated with the throttle position sen- connector.
sors for abrasions and pinch points. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
diagnostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates
the fault.

5. Check the Voltage at the IVS Switch 7.9 V to 12.2 V Result: The voltage is within the expected range.

A. Disconnect the IVS harness connector. Proceed to Test Step 6.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Result: The voltage is not within the expected
range.
C. Use a suitable multimeter to measure the voltage between the
IVS terminal on the harness connector and a suitable ground. Proceed to Test Step 7.

D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 239
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 191, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

6. Check that the IVS is Grounded 7.9 V to 12.2 V Result: The voltage is within the expected range.

A. Disconnect the IVS harness connector. Proceed to Test Step 9.

B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Result: The voltage is not within the expected
range. The fault is in the ground wire for the sus-
C. Use a suitable multimeter to measure the voltage between the pect IVS.
IVS terminal on the harness connector the ground terminal on the
harness connector. Replace the faulty wiring. Refer to the OEM for
more information on the wiring for the IVS.
D. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
diagnostic codes and verify that the repair elimi-
nates the fault.

7. Check the Application Harness for an Open Circuit Less than 5 Ohms Result: The measured resistance is less than 5
Ohms.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 8.
B. Disconnect the connector for the suspect IVS. Disconnect the
P1 connector. Result: The measured resistance is greater than
5 Ohms.
C. If the IVS 1 is suspect, use a suitable multimeter to measure the
resistance between the IVS terminal on the harness connector to There is an open circuit or high resistance in the
P1:76. wiring between the IVS and the ECM.
If the IVS 2 is suspect, use a suitable multimeter to measure the Replace the faulty wiring.
resistance between the IVS terminal on the harness connector to Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
P1:42. diagnostic codes and verify that the repair elimi-
nates the fault.

8. Check the Application Harness for a Short Circuit Greater than 1 k Ohm Result: All resistance measurements are greater
than 1 k Ohm.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).
B. Disconnect the suspect IVS connector. Disconnect the P1
connector. Result: At least one of the measured resistances
is less than 1 k Ohm.
C. If the IVS 1 is suspect, use a suitable multimeter to measure the
resistance between P1:76 and all other terminals on the P1 There is a short in the wiring between the connec-
connector. tor for the suspect IVS and the P1 connector.
If the IVS 2 is suspect, use a suitable multimeter to measure the Replace the faulty wiring.
resistance between P1:42 and all other terminals on the P1 Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
connector. diagnostic codes and verify that the repair elimi-
nates the fault.

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
240 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 191, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

9. Check the IVS at the Sensor Less than 10 Ohms at Result: The IVS indicates the expected
low idle. resistance.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Greater than 2000 Ohms No fault is indicated at this time. Recheck the har-
B. Disconnect the IVS. at high idle. ness for intermittent connections.

C. Set the throttle to low idle. Result: At least one of the resistance measure-
ments is outside of the expected range.
D. Check the resistance of the IVS.
Replace the IVS or replace the throttle sensor.
E. Set the throttle to high idle. Refer to OEM documentation for information on
the throttle sensor.
F. Check the resistance of the IVS. Proceed to Test Step 10.

10. Check the IVS Calibration The IVS operates within Result: The IVS operates within the “Idle Valida-
the “Idle Validation Min tion Min OFF Threshold” and the “Idle Validation
A. Connect the electronic service tool to the diagnostic connector. OFF Threshold” and the Max ON Threshold” values that are shown on the
“Idle Validation Max ON “Configuration” menu of the electronic service
B. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Threshold” values that tool.
are shown on the “Con-
C. Select the “Throttle Configuration” option on the electronic figuration” menu of the Return the engine to service.
service tool. Select the appropriate “Throttle Configuration” sum- electronic service tool.
mary from the menu on the left of the screen. The IVS window for Result: The IVS does not operate within the “Idle
the throttle will indicate “YES” if an IVS is installed. Make a note Validation Min OFF Threshold” and the “Idle Vali-
of the “Idle Validation Min OFF Threshold” parameters that are dation Max ON Threshold” values that are shown
displayed in the “Throttle Configuration” menu of the electronic on the “Configuration” menu of the electronic
service tool. Make a note of the “Idle Validation Max ON Thresh- service tool.
old” parameters that are displayed in the “Throttle Configuration”
menu of the electronic service tool. Proceed to Test Step 11.

D. Select the “Throttle status” function on the electronic service


tool. Select “Status” function and then select “Throttles” function.

E. Set the throttle to low idle.

F. Operate the throttle slowly toward high idle. The raw percentage
values for the throttle that are shown on the electronic service tool
should increase and the IVS status should change from CLOSED
(ON) to OPEN (OFF) position. Make a note of the raw reading for
the throttle when the IVS reading changes from the CLOSED posi-
tion to the OPEN position. Repeat this step in order to obtain accu-
rate raw percentage values for the throttle. The noted value should
be within the previously noted “Idle Validation Min OFF Threshold”
and “Idle Validation Max ON Threshold” limits.

G. The throttle is set to the full throttle position or the high idle
position.

H. Operate the throttle slowly toward low idle. The raw percentage
values for the throttle that are shown on the electronic service tool
should decrease and the IVS status should change from OPEN
(OFF) to CLOSED (ON) position. Make a note of the raw reading
for the throttle when the IVS reading changes from the OPEN posi-
tion to the CLOSED position. Repeat this step in order to obtain
accurate raw percentage values for the throttle. The noted value
should be within the previously noted “Idle Validation Min OFF
Threshold” and “Idle Validation Max ON Threshold” limits.

Fault cleared

(continued)

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 241
Diagnostic Functional Tests

(Table 191, contd)


Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results
11. Use the Electronic Service Tool to Reset the IVS Threshold Result: The fault is cleared after programming
Limits the new calculated values.

The electronic service tool can be used to change the “Idle Valida- Return the engine to service.
tion Min OFF Threshold” and the “Idle Validation Max ON Thresh-
old” in order to suit the type of throttle that is installed. The limits Result: The fault is not cleared.
are shown in the “Throttle Configuration” screen which is located
in the “Service” menu. Contact the Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

A. Refer to Test Step 8 and record the raw value of the throttle sig-
nal when the idle validation switch changes from the CLOSED po-
sition to the OPEN position.
Note: The default value for the “Idle Validation Min OFF Thresh-
old” is 21%. The lowest value that should be set is 5%. The de-
fault value for the “Idle Validation Max ON Threshold” is 25%.
The maximum value that is expected is 28%.

B. Set the “Idle Validation Min OFF Threshold” to 3% below the


raw value that was previously recorded.

C. Set the “Idle Validation Max ON Threshold” to 3% above the


raw value.

D. Enter the new threshold limits into the electronic service tool.
Click “Submit” on the electronic service tool screen.

E. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position and wait at least 5 sec-
onds. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.

F. Repeat Test Step 8. Check that the IVS operates within the
newly set threshold limits.

Complete the procedure in the order in which the


steps are listed.
If the procedure did not correct the issue, Contact the
Dealer Solution Network (DSN).

i05922215

Indicator Lamp - Test

Use this procedure under the following


circumstances:

• The lamps are not receiving battery voltage.


• The lamps are not operating correctly.

• One of the following diagnostic codes is active:

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
242 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 192
Diagnostic Trouble Codes

J1939 Code Description Comments


Code
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a high current condition on the stop lamp cir-
cuit for at least 0.3 seconds.
Red Stop Lamp : Current Above
623-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
No lamps will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the warning lamp circuit for at least 0.3
seconds.
Amber Warning Lamp : Current
624-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Above Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
No lamps will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the wait to start lamp circuit for at least 0.3
seconds.
Engine Wait to Start Lamp : Current
1081-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Above Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the circuit for the MIL lamp for at least 0.3
seconds.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) :
1213-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
Current Above Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the low oil pressure lamp circuit for at least
0.3 seconds.
Engine Oil Pressure Low Lamp Data
5099-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
: Current Above Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the circuit for the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic level lamp for at least 0.3 seconds.
5245-6 Reduction Operator Inducement Ac- The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
tive : Current Above Normal The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
The warning lamp will come on.

The ECM detects a high current condition on the DEF quality lamp circuit for at least 0.3
seconds.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Quality Mal-
5841-6 The battery voltage is at least 10 V.
function : Current Above Normal
The ECM is attempting to activate the lamp.
The warning lamp will come on.

Follow the troubleshooting procedure in order to identify the root cause of the problem.

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
UENR4504 243
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Illustration 67 g03726847
Typical schematic of the circuit for the indicator lamps

Illustration 68 g03726859
Pin locations on the P1 connector for the indicator
lamps
(48) DEF level lamp
(50) Wait to start lamp
(51) Shutdown lamp
(69) Low oil pressure lamp
(74) DEF quality lamp
(92) Warning lamp
(94) MIL lamp

This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE
244 UENR4504
Diagnostic Functional Tests

Table 193
Troubleshooting Test Steps Values Results

1. Inspect Electrical Connectors and Wiring Damaged wire or Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
connector was not found. The fuses are OK.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
Proceed to Test Step 2.
B. Check the fuses.
Result: A damaged wire or damaged connector
C. Thoroughly inspect the P1 connector and the lamp connections. was found. a fuse is blown.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electrical Connector - Inspect” for
details. Repair the damaged wire or the damaged con-
nector. Replace any blown fuses.
D. Perform a 30 N (6.7 lb) pull test on each of the wires in the P1 Use the electronic service tool to clear all logged
connector that are associated with the indicator lamps. diagnostic codes. Verify that the repair eliminates
the fault.
E. Check the harness for abrasions and for pinch points from the
battery to the ECM.

2. Check for Recently Logged Diagnostic Codes Diagnostic Trouble Result: At least one of the lamps did not come on
Codes during the lamp test.
A. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Note: Lamp Test When the keyswitch is turned to the ON position, Lamp function Proceed to Test Step 3.
the ECM will activate the lamps for 2 seconds.
Result: One of the diagnostic codes listed in Ta