EM paper cylindrical waave

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

EM paper cylindrical waave

© All Rights Reserved

- Physics 2C Syllabus
- Linear and Nonlinear Optics with a Single Metal Nanoparticle
- Analysis of Terahertz Wave Propagation
- Suitable
- Iris BCarnochan Figures
- Newsletter Volume 004 (July 15, 2010)
- pbw2008_7
- Electrical
- Research presentation on Si-nanowire based inverter
- GDX
- Automatic Level Pentax AP 220 224 228
- Friedberg Virtual Window Intro
- 2013-Measurement of Rotor Vibration Through Photographic Images
- CV of Ulhas S.docx
- Mosfet de Nanohilo
- 5.4 Vibrational Spectroscopy
- Physics for Information Science - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers
- Optical System(V1.1)
- Fiber Optics 1
- 005-Size and Shape Characterisation of Plates Particles for Paint Industries

You are on page 1of 15

Plane wave scattering from a plasmonic nanowire array spacer-separated from a plasmonic

film

This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text.

(http://iopscience.iop.org/2053-1591/3/6/065004)

View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more

Download details:

IP Address: 129.93.16.3

This content was downloaded on 07/06/2016 at 11:28

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 doi:10.1088/2053-1591/3/6/065004

PAPER

separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm

RECEIVED

14 September 2015

REVISED

24 February 2016

ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION

Arun Thomas1, Rahul Trivedi1 and Anuj Dhawan

31 March 2016 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India

1

PUBLISHED Both the authors contributed equally to this work.

31 May 2016

E-mail: adhawan@ee.iitd.ac.in

Keywords: plasmonic nanowires, spacer layer, analytical solution, full-wave solution, RCWA, thickness sensing, refractive index sensing

Abstract

In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the electromagnetic response of a plasmonic

nanowire–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm system. The analytical solution presented in this paper is a full-wave

solution, which is used to compute the ﬁelds scattered by the plasmonic nanostructure system on

illumination by a plane electromagnetic wave. The physical structure comprises of an array of

plasmonic nanowires made of a plasmonic metal such as gold or silver placed over a plasmonic ﬁlm of

the same material and separated from it by a dielectric spacer such as silica or alumina. Such a

nanostructure exhibits a spectrum that is extremely sensitive to various geometric and electromagnetic

parameters such as spacer thickness and spacer refractive index, which makes it favourable for various

sensing applications such as chemical and biological sensing, strain sensing, position sensing,

vibration sensing, and thickness sensing. We report a comparison of our analytical solution with a

numerical rigorous coupled wave analysis of the same structure with the plasmonic medium being

treated as local in nature.

1. Introduction

Surface plasmons, i.e. coherent oscillations of the conduction band electrons at metal–dielectric interfaces, can

be excited by both photons [1–3] and electrons [4]. While propagating surface plasmons can be optically exited

at the interfaces of metallic thin ﬁlms, nano-gratings, and metallic thin ﬁlms containing arrays of nanoholes,

localised surface plasmons can be optically excited in metallic nanoparticles in solution and nanopillars (or their

arrays) on substrates [1–7]. Optical excitation of surface plasmons at metal–dielectric interfaces at certain

wavelengths leads to large enhancements of optical near-ﬁelds in the vicinity of the metal–dielectric interfaces

[1–5].

Recently, there have been several studies of optical properties of complex plasmonic structures comprising

of plasmonic nanoparticles separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm by a thin dielectric spacer layer [7–11]. Plasmon

resonances in the near-ﬁeld and far-ﬁeld spectra associated with such plasmonic structures are highly dependent

on the spacer layer thickness, which typically lies between 1 and 10 nm. Moreover, very large enhancement of the

EM ﬁelds occurs in the spacer material at the resonant wavelengths. These properties make such a plasmonic

structure suitable for applications such as chemical and biological sensing, strain sensing, position sensing,

vibration sensing, and thickness sensing [8]. Measurements of shifts in plasmon resonances associated with such

plasmonic structures upon changes of thickness of the spacer layer can enable the development of highly

sensitive position, strain, pressure, or vibration sensors based. Chemical and biological sensors based on these

nanostructures can also be based on measurements of shifts of plasmon resonance wavelengths upon change of

the thickness of the spacer layer—which could be caused by the binding of chemical or biological molecules

(such as antigens, nucleic acids, etc)—to receptor molecules in the spacer layer. The chemical and biological

sensing could also be based on modulation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering [13–18] or ﬂuorescence

signals upon attachment of an analyte molecule (such as antigens, nucleic acids, etc) to a receptor molecule on

the spacer layer.

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Although there are several experimental studies [9–11] of such plasmonic structures (plasmonic

nanostructures spacer-separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm), there are only a few reports [12] of accurate theoretical

analysis of the electromagnetic response of these structures. Accurate theoretical analysis (both analytical and

numerical) of the electromagnetic response of these structures can enable proper design and engineering of these

complex structures for the different applications. In this paper, we describe the theoretical analysis (both

analytical and numerical) of plane wave scattering from an array of plasmonic nanowires that is separated from a

plasmonic thin ﬁlm by a spacer layer.

The analytical solution presented in this paper is a full-wave solution, which can be used to compute the

ﬁelds scattered by the plasmonic nanostructure system (plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic thin ﬁlm)

on illumination by a plane electromagnetic wave. Several authors have presented analytical solutions of the

electromagnetic ﬁelds around individual metallic nanoparticles or nanowires and their assemblies as well as

from assemblies of dielectric cylinders [19–27], but very few authors have presented solutions which take into

account the presence of the plane substrate underneath the nanostructures [28, 29]. There is no previous report

of a full-wave analytical solution of this plasmonic nanostructure system, i.e. a plasmonic nanowire array

separated from a plasmonic thin ﬁlm by a spacer layer (see ﬁgure 1).

Numerical analysis of a plasmonic nanostructure–spacer–ﬁlm system has been carried out before using

methods such as FDTD [12], Green’s function method and ﬁnite element method [11]. Although numerical

methods enable us to model and analyse complicated geometries, the analytical solution has its advantages in

accuracy and better convergence as well as in lower computational time. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of

our analytical method, we present an exhaustive comparison of our full-wave analytical solution with a

numerical method such as rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) of the same plasmonic structure. There is no

previous report of a comparison of a full-wave analytical solution—of plane wave scattering from this

nanostructure system (plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic thin ﬁlm)—with the results obtained

using RCWA.

The numerical method (RCWA) also enables the calculation of the scattered ﬁelds and reﬂection spectra

from this nanostructure system (plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic thin ﬁlm) having nanowires of

complex geometrical cross-sections—calculation of scattered ﬁelds for some of these geometries may not be

possible using analytical calculations. To demonstrate this, we carried out RCWA calculations of reﬂectance

spectra from this plasmonic nanostructure system comprising of nanowires with race track-shaped cross-

sections (having different aspect ratios (ARs)) separated from a plasmonic thin ﬁlm by a spacer layer.

The nanostructure system (plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm) described in this paper can

be fabricated by ﬁrst depositing a smooth thin ﬁlm (>100 nm thick) of plasmonic metal (such as gold or silver)

using electron beam evaporation or sputter deposition. This would be followed by deposition of a thin

dielectric spacer layer (<10 nm) on the metallic thin ﬁlm by employing processes such as atomic layer

deposition [11], layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polyelectrolytes [8, 9], and developing self-assembled

monolayers of amine-terminated alkanethiols [10]. Processes such as atomic layer deposition can enable

development of sub-5 nm spacer layers on top of thin ﬁlms of plasmonic metals such as gold or silver.

Controllable deposition of thin ﬁlms (1–5 nm thick) of several dielectric materials such as silica (SiO2),

alumina (Al2O3), etc has been carried out extensively using atomic layer deposition [11]. LBL deposition of

polyelectrolytes has been employed for developing sub-5 nm (even sub-1 nm) thin spacer layers on plasmonic

metal thin ﬁlms [8]. Finally, arrays of plasmonic nanowires can be fabricated on top of the spacer layer by

employing nanolithography processes [32–36] such as electron beam lithography [33], deep UV lithography,

nano imprint lithography, or focused ion beam milling [32]. It has to be noted that the plasmonic nanowires

fabricated using one of the nanolithographic processes described above will have square (or rectangular)

cross-sections with rounded corners. As the spacing between adjacent nanowires described in our calculations

is 50 nm, these structures are easy to fabricated using electron beam lithography [33], resist development

followed by electron beam evaporation of the plasmonic metals, and ﬁnally metal lift-off.

In this section we approach the problem of obtaining the far-ﬁelds and near-ﬁelds of the nanostructure deﬁned

above. We deal with the case of a transverse magnetic excitation, wherein the problem can be formulated as a

boundary value problem in Hz (r, f ) alone. A schematic ﬁgure of the nanostructure is shown in ﬁgure 2(a).

Figure 2(b) shows the choice of coordinate system for the solution.

Consider a plane wave at frequency w propagating at an angle a with the x-axis (a time dependence of

exp (-iwt ) is assumed and suppressed throughout the paper):

2

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 1. 3D Schematic of the nanostructure analysed in this paper. The nanostructure comprises of a periodic array of cylindrical

plasmonic (gold) nanowires separated from a plasmonic (gold) ﬁlm by a dielectric spacer. The ﬁgure also shows the excitation of the

system by an incident plane wave resulting in a scattered (reﬂected) wave.

Figure 2. (a) Schematic ﬁgure showing the plasmonic nanostructure being excited by a plane wave of wave vector ki. The plasmonic

material has a permittivity function ε(ω) and the nanoparticle is separated from the substrate of the same material by a spacer of

permittivity εs. (b) Schematic ﬁgure showing the choice of coordinates in the solution.

inc

H = Hz zˆ = zH

ˆ 0 exp (ik 0 (x cos a + y sin a)) . (1)

The net magnetic ﬁeld in vacuum Hzvac (r, f ) can be expressed as a sum of the incident magnetic ﬁeld, given

by equation (1), and the scattered magnetic ﬁeld Hzsca (r, f ): Hzvac (r , f ) = Hzinc (r , f ) + Hzsca (r , f ). The net

magnetic ﬁeld inside the nanowires is denoted by Hzwire (r, f ). The unknown ﬁelds, Hzwire (r, f ) and Hzsca (r, f )

satisfy:

2Hzwire + k 2Hzwire = 0, (2)

2Hzsca + k 02 Hzsca = 0, (3)

metal. A 2D solution to the Helmholtz equation, 2v + k 2v = 0 in the cylindrical coordinates can be expressed

3

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

as a linear combination of cylindrical wave-functions of the form Jn (kr ) exp (inf ) and Hn(1) (r , f ) exp (inf ). The

incident magnetic ﬁeld given by equation (1), for instance, can be expressed as [37, 38]:

¥

Hzinc (r , f) = å i n exp ( - ina) Jn (k 0 r ) exp (inf) . (4)

n =-¥

The incident electromagnetic ﬁelds induce dipole oscillation in the nanowires, which emit their own ﬁelds.

These scattered ﬁelds can be written as a sum of the electromagnetic ﬁelds directly radiated by the cylinders and

the ﬁelds reﬂected off the spacer–vacuum interface: Hzsca (r , f ) = Hzrad (r , f ) + Hzrefl (r , f ). The radiated ﬁelds

can be expanded as superposition of outgoing cylindrical waves emitted by each of the nanowires:

¥

Hzrad = å Sm, n Hn(1) (k 0 rm) exp (infm) , (5)

n =-¥

where (rm, fm) are the cylindrical coordinates of the point of observation in the coordinate system centred at

(x , y ) º (mb, 0), which is also the centre of the mth cylinder from the origin. Note that the structure is periodic

in the x direction, with periodicity b, therefore:

Sm, n = Sm - 1, n exp (ik 0 b cos a) (6)

or equivalently:

Sm, n = Sn exp (ik 0 mb cos a) , (7)

where Sn are to be determined. Note that Hzrefl can be expressed as the sum of two components, Hzrefl

,I

corresponding to the direct reﬂection of the incident ﬁeld and Hzrefl

,R corresponding to the reﬂection of the

radiated ﬁeld. It is straightforward to compute Hzrefl

,I :

Hzrefl

¥

= G (k 0 cos a) exp (2ik 0 sin a) å i n exp (ina) Jn (k 0 r ) exp (inf) , (8)

n =-¥

where G (k x ) is the plane-wave reﬂection coefﬁcient of the interface at y = d expressed as a function of the

, R , we follow the method presented by Borgi et al [28]. As a ﬁrst step,

parallel wave vector k x . To compute Hzrad

HZrad is fourier transformed into a superposition of plane waves:

¥ ¥

òk =-¥ òk =-¥ H˜ z

rad

Hzrad = (kx , k y ) exp (i (kx x + k y y )) dkx dk y . (9)

x y

The reﬂected ﬁeld corresponding to each of the plane wave components in equation (9) can be computed

using the plane-wave reﬂection coefﬁcient. Hzrad

, R can therefore be expressed as:

¥ ¥

òk =-¥ òk =-¥ G (kx ) H˜ z

rad

,R =

Hzrad (kx , k y ) exp (i (kx x + k y (2d - y ))) dkx dk y . (10)

x y

¥

òk

rad

F˜ rad (kx , y ) = H˜ z (kx , k y ) exp (ik y y ) dk y . (11)

y =-¥

¥

,R =

Hzrad òk x =-¥

G (kx ) F˜ rad (kx , 2d - y ) exp (ikx x ) dkx . (12)

To cast Hzrad

, R into a more usable form, we make use of the following identity, which allows us to evaluate the

Fourier transform of Hn(1) (k 0 r ) exp (inf ). with respect to x [39]:

1 ¥ 1 exp (iy k 0 - kx )

2 2 ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞⎞

2p ò-¥ Hn(1) (k 0 r ) exp (inf) exp ( - ikx x ) dx =

p k 02 - kx2

exp ⎜ - in cos-1 ⎜ x ⎟ ⎟ for y > 0. (13)

⎝ ⎝ k0 ⎠ ⎠

Using equations (5), (11) and (13), F˜ rad (k x , y ) can be written as:

¥ ¥

Sm, n exp (i ( ym k 02 - kx2 - kx mb)) ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞⎞

F˜ rad (kx , y ) = å å exp ⎜ - in cos-1 ⎜ x ⎟ ⎟ .

⎝ k0 ⎠ ⎠

(14)

n =-¥ m =-¥ p k 0 - kx ⎝

2 2

4

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

With (x m, ym) º (x - mb, y ) being the Cartesian coordinates of the point of observation in the coordinate

system centred at (x , y ) º (mb, 0). Therefore, from equation (12), Hzrefl

, R can be expressed as:

¥

òk =-¥ G (kx ) F˜

rad

,R =

Hzrad (kx , 2d - y ) exp (ikx x ) dkx ,

x

¥ ¥

S m, n ¥ exp (i ((2d - ym ) k 02 - kx2 + kx x m )) ⎛ ⎛ k ⎞⎞

= å å p

n =-¥ m =-¥

òk =-¥

x

G (k x )

k 02 - kx2

exp ⎜ - in cos-1 ⎜ x ⎟ ⎟ dkx ,

⎝ ⎝ k0 ⎠ ⎠

¥ ¥ ¥ exp (2id k 02 - kx2 ) ¥

S m, n

= å å p

n =-¥ m =-¥

òk =-¥ x

G (k x )

k 02 - kx2

å

p =-¥

Jp (k 0 rm) exp (ipfm)

⎛ ⎛ k ⎞⎞

´ exp ⎜ - i ( p - n) cos-1 ⎜ x ⎟ ⎟ dkx ,

⎝ ⎝ k0 ⎠ ⎠

¥ ¥ ¥

= å å å Sm, n ¡p - n Jp (k 0 rm) exp (ipfm) ,

n =-¥ m =-¥ p =-¥

(15)

where

¡n =

p òk =-¥x

G (k x )

k 02 - kx2

exp ⎜in cos-1 ⎜ x ⎟ ⎟ dkx .

⎝ ⎝ k0 ⎠ ⎠

(16)

¥

Hzrefl = G (k 0 cos a) exp (2ik 0 d sin a) å i n exp (ina) Jn (k 0 r ) exp (inf)

n =-¥

¥ ¥ ¥

+ å å å Sn ¡p - n Jp (k 0 rm) exp (i ( pf + mk 0 b cos a)) . (17)

n =-¥ m =-¥ p =-¥

The magnetic ﬁeld inside the nanowire centred at (0, 0) can be expanded as:

¥

Hzwire = å An Jn (kr ) exp (inf) , (18)

n =-¥

To evaluate An and Sm, n, we impose the boundary conditions (continuity of the parallel

component of E and H ) at r = a :

[Hzcyl ]r = a = [Hzinc + Hzrad + Hzrefl ] ,

⎡ ¶H cyl ⎤ ⎡ ¶H cyl ¶Hzrad ¶Hzrefl ⎤

⎢ z ⎥ =⎢ z + + ⎥ . (19)

⎣ ¶r ⎦r = a ⎣ ¶r ¶r ¶r ⎦r = a

To apply the boundary conditions it is convenient to express the displaced cylindrical wave functions in

terms of the undisplaced cylindrical harmonics using the Graf’s addition theorems (for r < b and m ¹ 0)

[40]:

⎛ H (1) (k r ) exp (inf )⎞ ¥ ⎛T H ⎞

⎜⎜ n 0 m m ⎟

⎟= å ⎜ n - p, m ⎟ Jp (k 0 r ) exp (ipf) , (20)

⎝ Jn (k 0 rm) exp (infm) ⎠ ⎜ J ⎟

p =-¥ ⎝ Tn - p, m ⎠

where

TnH, m = ( - 1)n Hn(1) (k 0 mb) if m > 0,

= Hn(1) (k 0 mb) if m < 0, (21)

TnJ, m = (- 1)n Jn (k 0 mb) if m > 0,

= Jn (k 0 mb) if m < 0. (22)

Using the boundary conditions given by equation (19) and eliminating An we obtain:

¥

å Qp, n Sp + Ip = 0, (23)

p =-¥

5

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 3. (a) Schematic showing the layered plasmonic structure analysed in this paper. The nanowires are placed periodically on top

of a stratiﬁed structure consisting of a dielectric spacer and an underlying plasmonic ﬁlm. (b) Schematic from RSoft simulations

showing the position of the source of the incident electromagnetic radiation in one period.

where

Qp, n = dn, p ⎢ n 0 n 0 n 0 n

⎥

⎣ kJn¢ (k 0 a) Jn (ka) - k 0 Jn (k 0 a) Jn¢ (ka) ⎦

¥ ¥ ¥

+ å å exp (ik 0 mb cos a) ¡q - p TqJ- n, m + å exp (ik0 mb cos a) T pH- n,

m =-¥

(24)

q =-¥ m =-¥

m¹0

Note that till now, no signiﬁcant approximations have been introduced in the above analysis. However to

obtain numerical estimates for the ﬁelds, it is essential to truncate equation (23) above a particular upper bound

on p. Equation (21) then becomes a set of linear equations that can numerically solved to obtain Sn .

The analytical solution presented in section 2.1 can be used to compute various optical parameters such as

reﬂectance and near ﬁeld enhancements related to the nanostructure. It is of great interest to compare the

analytical solution with an independent numerical method so as to gauge the accuracy and applicability of the

analytical solution. The numerical method used to compute the spectra of the periodic nanostructure analysed

in this paper is the rigorous coupled wave analysis (abbreviated as RCWA) or the fourier modal method.

The RCWA method is a semi-analytical method based on the Floquet theorem [41], which decomposes the

spatial dependence of a harmonic electromagnetic ﬁeld in a periodic structure as a linear combination of the

Bloch functions (spatial harmonics) of the nanostructure. Hench and Strakos have presented a complete

analytical treatment of the simple case of a rectangular grating on an underlying substrate using the Bloch states

in their paper [42]. The general RCWA method for gratings of an arbitrary shape (such as array of nanowires on

substrate) divides the entire space into layers perpendicular to the direction of periodicity. If the layer thickness is

much smaller than the dimensions of the grating, within a layer the grating boundary can be considered to be

almost rectangular and therefore the electromagnetic ﬁelds inside each layer can be expressed as a linear

combination of the rectangular Bloch functions. Imposition of the boundary conditions at the layer boundary as

well as the grating boundary results in a system of linear equations, which may be solved after truncating the

space harmonics beyond an upper bound to obtain the electromagnetic ﬁelds in space. The applicability of this

method to structures with dimensions in the nanometre range is well established [43–48].

A two dimensional schematic diagram—of periodically arranged gold nanowires over the goldﬁlm with a

thin oxide layer between them—is shown in ﬁgure 3. For the RCWA simulations used in this paper, convergence

in the optical ﬁelds was achieved with twelve spatial harmonics, for the smallest spacer thickness (t=2 nm). We

took a coarse index resolution in the y direction. The dielectric constant of gold was computed using the

Lorentz–Drude model [30, 31] described below:

6

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

p (w ) 6

Dn

=1-å , (26)

0 n = 1 a n w + ibn w - c n

2

where Δε1: 1589.516, Δε2: 50.19525, Δε3: 20.91469, Δε4: 148.4943, Δε5: 1256.973, Δε6: 9169; a1: 1, a2: 1, a3: 1,

a4: 1, a5: 1, and a6: 1; b1: 0.268419, b2: 1.220548, b3: 1.747258, b4: 4.406129, b5: 12.63, and b6: 11.21284; c1: 0, c2:

4.41745, c3: 17.66982, c4: 226.0978, c5: 475.1387, and c6: 4550.765.

A quantity of interest related to the optical response of a nanostructure is its reﬂectance R, which is deﬁned as the

ratio of the scattered power ﬂowing through an area to the incident power passing through the same area. To

obtain estimates for the reﬂectance R, the summation in equation (23) was truncated above a bound N on p and

the resulting system of linear equations were numerically solved to obtain Sn, thereby making it possible to

numerically evaluate the scattered ﬁelds and thus the reﬂectance. The integral gn in equation (15) was evaluated

numerically using the Gaussian quadrature rule and the summations in the deﬁnition of Qp, n in equation (24)

were evaluated to convergence within an error of 10-4 . The value of N required in achieving convergence in the

optical ﬁelds depended upon the dimensions of the nanostructure. It was found in our computations that N

varied from 25 for t=8 nm to 50 for t = 2 nm to achieve convergence in R to an accuracy of 10-4 and showed

a weak dependence on the other parameters such as wire radius (a) and wire to wire gap (w = b - 2a ).

Figure 4 shows the variation of reﬂectance with λ for different spacer thicknesses calculated from the

analytical solution as well as using the RCWA simulation. The radius of the cylinders (a) was taken to be 30 nm

and the gap between adjacent cylinders (w) was taken to be 50 nm. The reﬂectance curves were evaluated for

different spacer materials: silica (ns=1.45), dense ﬂint glass N-SF2 (ns=1.65), and alumina (ns=1.75).

The exciting wave was incident at an angle of 75° with the normal (α=15°). It can be observed from ﬁgure 4

that the analytical calculations and the RCWA simulation results—related to the primary plasmon resonance

wavelengths (indicated by the smallest minima in the reﬂectance versus λ curve)—had a good agreement. The

primary plasmon resonance wavelengths predicted by the analytical calculations and RCWA simulations

differed by ∼20 nm or less for most of the spacer thicknesses and refractive indices (see ﬁgures 4(b), (d),

and (f)).

It can also be observed from ﬁgure 4 that decreasing the spacer thickness leads to an increase in the

resonant wavelength. For example a ∼600 nm red-shift is observed for a change in the spacer thickness from

12 to 2 nm, in the case of some spacer materials such as alumina (see ﬁgure 4(f)). Decreasing the spacer

thickness leads to a greater coupling between the plasmonic nanowires and the plasmonic ﬁlm and hence leads

to a reduction in the restoring forces acting on the conduction band electrons of the plasmonic materials. A

decrease in the restoring forces results in a decrease in the corresponding resonant frequency and hence an

increase in the resonant wavelength. Our analytical electromagnetic solution and RCWA simulations predict

similar variations in the resonant wavelength. The extremely large shifts in the plasmon resonance

wavelengths with the changes in spacer thickness can enable the development of very sensitive biological and

chemical sensors that are based on measuring the change in thickness of the spacer layer between the

plasmonic nanostructures and the underlying plasmonic ﬁlm upon attachment of chemical or biological

molecules to binding sites on the spacer layer.

It is also observed that the diameter of the cylindrical nanowires has a considerable effect on the resonances

of the system. Keeping t, w and ns ﬁxed, the reﬂectance curves for different values of a (i.e. the nanowire radius)

are plotted in ﬁgure 5. It is observed that the reﬂectance spectra shows a red-shift on increasing the wire

diameter. This is to be expected because increasing the diameter of the nanowire results in greater conﬁnement

of the ﬁeld energy in the spacer material and therefore a greater coupling between the ﬁelds of the plasmonic

nanowires and the plasmonic ﬁlm. Moreover, changing the nanowire diameter (a) without changing the face to

face spacing (w) between the nanowires changes the periodicity ‘b’ of the nanowire array (where b=2a+w),

which also affects its resonances.

The discrepancies between the analytical calculations and RCWA simulations arise due to the inaccuracy of

the numerical method (RCWA) as compared to the analytical calculations. This is because the accuracy of the

results of the RCWA method are dependent on the number of harmonics taken. Moreover, RCWA uses the

Floquet's theorem assumption for periodic nanostructures, whereas no such assumption is made in the

analytical solution. The authors would like to mention that the analytical solution presented in our paper is more

accurate than RCWA as it is a full-wave analytical solution of this plasmonic nanostructure system (i.e. a

plasmonic nanowire array separated from a plasmonic thin ﬁlm by a spacer layer) with no assumptions such as

the Floquet's theorem assumption for periodic nanostructures.

The authors would like to highlight that the analytical model takes signiﬁcantly less computational time and

resources as compared to the RCWA method. Moreover, as the dimensions are made smaller, RCWA takes

7

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 4. Comparison of reﬂectance spectra obtained using analytical calculations and RCWA simulations—for an Au nanowire array

separated from an Au ﬁlm, the spectra being obtained for different spacer layer thicknesses ‘t’ and for following spacer refractive

indices: (a) ns=1 .45, (c) ns=1.65, and (e) ns=1.75. Variation of the resonant wavelength (λres) with ‘t’ for: (b) ns=1 .45, (d)

ns=1.65, and (f) ns=1.75. Nanowire radius a=30 nm, α=15°, and ‘cylinder to cylinder’ gap w=50 nm.

much more computational time as compared to the analytical method as larger number of harmonics are

required for smaller values of the spacer layer thickness or the nanowire diameters. The analytical method is also

more accurate than the RCWA method for a given computational time.

8

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 5. Comparison of reﬂectance spectra obtained using analytical calculations and RCWA simulations—for an Au nanowire array

separated from an Au ﬁlm, the spectra being obtained for different nanowire radii ‘a’ and for the following spacer refractive indices: (a)

ns=1 .45, (c) ns=1.65, and (e) ns=1.75. Variation of the resonant wavelength (λres) with ‘a’ for: (b) ns=1 .45, (d) ns=1.65, and

(f) ns=1.75. Spacer thickness t=2 nm, α=15°, and ‘cylinder to cylinder’ gap w=50 nm.

The authors want to highlight that the previous reports of the analytical solutions for any type of plasmonic

nanostructure in a plasmonic nanostructure–spacer–plasmonic thin ﬁlm system have not considered the optical

ﬁeld radiated by the top plasmonic nanostructures (separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm by a dielectric spacer) to be

incident on the substrate (spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm system) at multiple angles. In fact, the radiated ﬁeld has been

9

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 6. Comparison of reﬂectance spectra of an Au nanowire array separated from an Au ﬁlm, for different aspect ratios ‘AR’ of the

nanowires, and for the following spacer layer thicknesses ‘t’: (a) t=2 nm, (b) t=4 nm and (c) t=6 nm. Nanowire width

‘B’=30 nm, α=15°, spacer layer refractive index ns=1.45, and ‘cylinder to cylinder’ gap w=50 nm.

previously approximated to be normally incident on the substrate [12]. In the analytical solution proposed in

this paper, we are not making any assumptions, and the optical ﬁeld radiated by the plasmonic nanocylinders is

considered to be incident on the substrate at multiple angles. The authors also want to highlight that a full-wave

analytical solution of spherical plasmonic nanoparticles (spacer-separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm) without

making the assumption of normal incidence—i.e. taking the optical ﬁeld radiated by the top plasmonic

nanoparticle or nanoparticle array to be incident on the substrate (spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm system) at multiple

angles—would become considerably complex even for a single spherical nanoparticle, and would be very

complex for a 2D array of periodic plasmonic nanoparticles. Moreover, the authors would like to mention that

while it is possible to carry out the analysis of 2-dimensionally periodic structures using the RCWA numerical

method, an analytical solution of a nanowire with the current cross-sectional proﬁle is only possible for a 1D

array of nanowires, i.e. when the cylinders are inﬁnitely long in the z-direction.

10

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 7. (a) Schematic showing the plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm structure simulated using rigorous coupled

wave analysis. The structure consists of an array of cylindrical Au nanowires (nanowire diameter being 60 nm) separated from the

plasmonic ﬁlm by a spacer with refractive index ns=1.45 and thickness=4 nm. The separation between neighbouring Au

nanowires was taken to be 50 nm. Light was incident on the plasmonic nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm structure at an angle of

75° to the normal, (b) reﬂectance spectra obtained for this structure. Electric ﬁeld enhancement (|E|/(|E0|) calculated On-resonance (at

890 nm) for: (c) Ey (electric ﬁeld in the Y direction) and (d) Ex (electric ﬁeld in the X direction). Electric ﬁeld enhancement (|E|/(|E0|)

calculated Off-resonance (at 720 nm) for: (e) Ey (electric ﬁeld in the Y direction) and (f) Ex (electric ﬁeld in the X direction), where E0 is

the incident electric ﬁeld.

RCWA simulations enable the calculation of the reﬂection spectra from a plasmonic nanowire array–

spacer–plasmonic thin ﬁlm system containing nanowires of complex cross-sectional geometries, which may not

be possible using analytical calculations. The authors would like to mention that the cross-sectional geometry of

the plasmonic nanowires has a signiﬁcant effect on the electromagnetic ﬁelds around the plasmonic nanowires.

Hence, it is very important to precisely model the geometry of the nanowires. Figure 6 shows reﬂectance spectra

(obtained using RCWA simulations) from a plasmonic nanostructure system comprising of nanowires with race

track-shaped cross-sections (having different ARs) separated from a plasmonic thin ﬁlm by a spacer layer. It can

be observed from ﬁgure 6 that an increase in ARs of the nanowire cross-section leads to a red-shift in the

11

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

Figure 8. The effect of refractive index of the spacer layer on the reﬂectance spectra—obtained using analytical calculations and

RCWA simulations—for an Au nanowire array spacer-separated from an Au ﬁlm. Nanowire radius a=30 nm, α=15°, ‘cylinder to

cylinder’ gap w=50 nm, and spacer thickness t=2 nm.

plasmon resonance wavelengths. This is because of the greater ﬁeld conﬁnement and an increase in ﬁeld

coupling between the nanowire array and the gold ﬁlm, when the AR of the nanowire cross-section is increased.

Moreover, as the AR of the nanowire cross-section is increased, several other dips in the reﬂectance spectra are

observed, which correspond to the excitation of other plasmonic modes in this structure. As the AR of the

nanowire cross-section is increased, each region consisting of a plasmonic nanowire, the spacer, and an

underlying plasmonic ﬁlm behaves like an MIM plasmonic waveguide, and other plasmonic waveguide modes

are observed. It has to be noted that analytical solutions for this nanostructure system cannot be easily obtained

for values of ARs other than 1.

We also calculated the electric-ﬁeld enhancement at the resonance wavelength (On-resonance) and away

from the resonance wavelength (Off-resonance), as shown in ﬁgure 7. It can be seen from ﬁgure 7(b) that the

plasmon resonance wavelength for the nanowire array–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm structure is at 890 nm. We can

observe from ﬁgures 7(c) and (e) that the electric-ﬁeld enhancement for the electric-ﬁeld in the Y direction is

much higher for the On-resonance case (16.38) as compared to the Off-resonance case (3.78). Similarly, we can

observe from ﬁgures 7(d) and (f) that the electric-ﬁeld enhancement for the electric-ﬁeld in the X direction is

also higher for the On-resonance case (8.13) as compared to the Off-resonance case (1.89).

Changing the refractive index of the spacer material also has a considerable effect on the reﬂectance of the

system. An increase in the refractive index of the spacer results in an increase in the reﬂection coefﬁcient Γ(kx).

An increase in the reﬂection coefﬁcient results in a greater coupling between the ﬁelds of the nanowire and the

gold ﬁlm, thus resulting in red-shifts of the plasmon resonances of the system. Figure 8 shows the variation in the

reﬂectance spectra of the system with spacer refractive index. Such a large dependence of the resonance

wavelength (a ∼400 nm shift for a change in refractive index from 1 to 1.45) on the refractive index of the spacer

material can be employed for sensing of the spacer materials—either chemical or biological molecules or

inorganic thin ﬁlms, or for sensing of the molecules binding to these materials.

Hence, tuning the geometric parameters—of a plasmonic nanowire–spacer–plasmonic ﬁlm system—can

enable the optimal design of plasmonic devices employed for sensing applications such as position sensing, ﬁlm

thickness detection, as well as chemical and biological sensing.

4. Conclusion

This paper presented a full-wave electromagnetic solution to determine the optical ﬁelds scattered by an array of

plasmonic nanowires separated from a plasmonic ﬁlm by a dielectric spacer. The problem of computing the

spatial ﬁelds was formulated as a boundary value problem. The analytical solution was compared to an

independent numerical method (RCWA) and it was observed that the analytical solution agreed with the

simulation results. It was found that the reﬂectance spectra (i.e. the reﬂectance versus wavelength of the incident

light) showed minimas at wavelengths that strongly depended on the geometry and the electromagnetic

properties of the structure. The effect of parameters—such as spacer thickness, nanowire diameter, and spacer

refractive index—on the reﬂectance spectra was analysed. The effects observed in the reﬂectance spectra were

similar to those predicted by the numerical simulations. An accurate analytical solution helps gain insight and an

12

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

in-depth understanding of the behaviour of the optical properties of the nanostructure and hence would be an

invaluable resource for designing devices suited to various position and material sensing applications.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the sponsors of this work: Department of Electronics and Information

Technology (DEITY), Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) of the Government

of India under grant number RP02395, Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the Government of

India under grant number RP03055, as well as the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) of the Government of

India under grant number RP02829 for their support.

References

[1] Bohren C F and Huffman D R 1998 Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (New York: Wiley)

[2] Maier S A 2007 Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (New York: Springer)

[3] Raether H 1988 Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Berlin: Springer)

[4] Cai W, Sainidou R, Xu J J, Polman A and de Abajo F J G 2009 Efﬁcient generation of propagating plasmons by electron beams Nano

Lett. 9 1176–81

[5] Brongersma M L and Kik P G 2007 Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Berlin: Springer)

[6] Novotny L and Hecht B 2006 Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

[7] Mock J J, Hill R T, Degiron A, Zauscher S, Chilkoti A and Smith D R 2008 Distance-dependent plasmon resonant coupling between a

gold nanoparticle and gold ﬁlm Nano Lett. 8 2245–52

[8] Mock J J, Smith D R and Schultz S 2003 Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles

Nano Lett. 3 485

[9] Mubeen S, Zhang S, Kim N, Lee S, Kramer S, Xu H and Moskovits M 2012 Plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles separated from a

gold mirror by an ultra-thin oxide Nano Lett. 12 2088–94

[10] Hill R T, Mock J J, Huchnall A, Wolter S D, Jokerst N M, Smith D R and Chilkoti A 2012 Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution

ACS Nano 6 9237–46

[11] Circai C, Hill R T, Mock J J, Urzhumov Y, Fernndez-Domnguez A I, Maier S A, Pendry J B, Chilkoti A and Smith D R 2012 Probing the

ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement Science 337 1072–4

[12] Trivedi R, Thomas A and Dhawan 2014 A full-wave electromagentic analysis of a plasmonic nanoparticle separated from a plasmonic

ﬁlm by a thin spacer layer Opt. Express 22 19970−19989

[13] Campion A and Kambhampati P 1998 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering Chem. Soc. Rev. 27 241

[14] Chang R K and Furtak T E 1982 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (New York: Plenum)

[15] Kneipp K, Moskovits M and Kneipp H 2006 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Physics and Applications (Berlin: Springer)

[16] Sharma B, Frontiera R R, Henry A, Ringe E and Van Duyne R P 2012 SERS: materials, applications, and the future Mater. Today 15

16–25

[17] Han X X, Zhao B and Ozaki Y 2009 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for protein detection Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394 1719

[18] Nie S and Emory S R 1997 Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering Science 275 1102–6

[19] Gomez-Medina R, Laroche M and Saenz J J 2006 Extraordinary optical reﬂection from subwavelength cylinder arrays Opt. Express 14

3730–7

[20] Pritz J and Woods L M 2008 Surface plasmon polaritons in concentric cylindrical structures Solid State Commun. 146 345–50

[21] Ohtaka K, Ueta T and Amemiya K 1988 Calculation of photonic bands using vector cylindrical waves and reﬂectivity of light for an

array of dielectric rods Phys. Rev. B 57 2550

[22] Gomez-Medina R and Saenz J J 2004 Unusually strong optical interactions between particles in quasione-dimensional geometries Phys.

Rev. Lett. 93 243602

[23] Kushta T and Yasumoto K 2000 Electromagnetic scattering from periodic arrays of two circular cylinders per unit cell Prog.

Electromagn. Res. 29 69–85

[24] Laroche M, Albaladejo S, Gomez-Medina R and Saenz J J 2006 Tuning the optical response of nanocylinder arrays: an analytical study

Phys. Rev. B 74 245422

[25] Ohtaka K and Numata H 1979 Multiple scattering effects in photon diffraction for an array of cylindrical dielectrics Phys. Lett. A 73

411–3

[26] Yasumoto K, Toyama H and Kushta T 2004 Accurate analysis of two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering from multilayered

periodic arrays of circular cylinders using lattice sums technique IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52 2603–11

[27] McPhedran R C, Botten L C, Asatryan A A, Nicorovici N A, Robinson P A and de Sterke C M 1999 Calculation of electromagnetic

properties of regular and random arrays of metallic and dielectric cylinders Phys. Rev. E 60 7614

[28] Borghi R, Gori F, Santarsiero M, Frezza and Schettini G 1996 Plane-wave scattering by a perfectly conducting circular cylinder near a

plane surface: cylindrical-wave approach J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13 483–93

[29] Borghi R, Gori R and Santarsiero M 1996 Plane-wave scattering by a set of perfectly conducting circular cylinders in the presence of a

plane surface J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13 2441–51

[30] Johnson P B and Christy R W 1972 Optical constants of the noble metals Phys. Rev. B 6 4370–9

[31] Dhawan A, Norton S J, Gerhold M D and Vo-Dinh T 2009 Comparison of FDTD numerical computations and analytical multipole

expansion method for plasmonics-active nanosphere dimers Opt. Express 17 9688–703

[32] Li S, Pedano M L, Chang S, Mirkin C A and Schatz G C 2010 Gap structure effects on surface- enhanced Raman scattering intensities for

gold gapped rods Nano Lett. 10 1722–7

[33] Acimovic S S, Kreuzer M P, Gonzlez M U and Quidant R 2009 Plasmon near-ﬁeld coupling in metal dimers as a step toward single-

molecule sensing ACS Nano 3 1231–7

[34] Fischbein M D and Drndic M 2007 Sub-10 nm device fabrication in a transmission electron microscope Nano Lett. 7 1329–37

13

Mater. Res. Express 3 (2016) 065004 A Thomas et al

[35] Auzelyte V, Dais C, Farquet P, Grtzmacher D, Heyderman L J and Luo F 2009 Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at the Paul

Scherrer institut J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8 021204

[36] Gates B D, Xu Q, Stewart M, Ryan D, Willson C G and Whitesides G M 2005 New approaches to nanofabrication: molding, printing,

and other techniques Chem. Rev. 105 1171–96

[37] Weber H J and Arfken G B 2003 Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Harcourt: Academic)

[38] Wyld H W 1973 Mathematical Methods for Physics (Reading: Perseus)

[39] Cincotti G, Gori F and Santarsiero M 1993 Plane wave expansion of cylindrical functions Opt. Commun. 95 192–8

[40] Abramowitz M and Stegun I A 1965 Handbook of Mathematical Functions (New York: Dover)

[41] Kuchment P A 2003 Floquet Theory for Partial Differential Equations: Operator Theory (Basel: Birkhäuser)

[42] Hench J J and Strakos Z 2008 The RCWA method—a case study with open questions and perspectives of algebraic computations

Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 331–57

[43] Kim D, Byun K M and Kim S J 2005 Design study of highly sensitive nanowire enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors using

rigorous coupled wave analysis Opt. Express 13 3737–42

[44] Kanamori Y, Hane K, Sai H and Yugami H 2001 100 nm period silicon antireﬂection structures fabricated using a porous alumina

membrane mask Appl. Phys. 78 142–3

[45] Jensen T R, Kelley L, Lazarides A and Schatz G C 1999 Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters J. Cluster

Sci. 10 295–317

[46] Park S, Lee G, Song S H, Oh C H and Kim P S 2003 Resonant coupling of surface plasmons to radiation modes by use of dielectric

gratings Opt. Lett. 28 1870–2

[47] Lerm J 2000 Introduction of quantum ﬁnite-size effects in the Mies theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar

approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters Eur. Phys. J. D 10 265–77

[48] Moreno E, Erni D, Hafner C and Vahldieck R 2002 Multiple multipole method with automatic multipole setting applied to the

simulation of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructure J. Am. Opt. Soc. A 19 101–11

14

- Physics 2C SyllabusUploaded bySean Ma
- Linear and Nonlinear Optics with a Single Metal NanoparticleUploaded bydeltaduong
- Analysis of Terahertz Wave PropagationUploaded byflplpz590
- SuitableUploaded bygee45
- Iris BCarnochan FiguresUploaded byFoxman2k
- Newsletter Volume 004 (July 15, 2010)Uploaded bygtcope
- pbw2008_7Uploaded bychimataraghuveer
- ElectricalUploaded byLalit Attri Bhartiya
- Research presentation on Si-nanowire based inverterUploaded byDharamvir Kumar
- GDXUploaded bysightbd
- Automatic Level Pentax AP 220 224 228Uploaded byRiki Indosurta
- Friedberg Virtual Window IntroUploaded byLuisa
- 2013-Measurement of Rotor Vibration Through Photographic ImagesUploaded bytanha56313955
- CV of Ulhas S.docxUploaded byUlhas
- Mosfet de NanohiloUploaded byRodrigo Lobo
- 5.4 Vibrational SpectroscopyUploaded byNurfitri Heryati
- Physics for Information Science - Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answersUploaded byBrainKart Com
- Optical System(V1.1)Uploaded bykenito1
- Fiber Optics 1Uploaded byNourhanGamal
- 005-Size and Shape Characterisation of Plates Particles for Paint IndustriesUploaded byRichard Cabana Tito
- 230059498-survey-traverse-by-total-station.docxUploaded byci_bala
- 2K6 EN 102- APR. 2011Uploaded byMunavirFiroz
- Lecture 3Uploaded byOliver58
- An Investigation of the Influence of Lighting Conditions ConfUploaded byvarun kuamr
- PDF6 Lecture6 CT 2012Uploaded bySrivatsava Srilu
- Lecture 4Uploaded byKhan Muhammad Ibrahim
- 2-Introduction_to_External_Flash.pdfUploaded byJunneezGoh
- Output of Rebar ScanningUploaded byUjjal Regmi
- Geometrical MeasurementsUploaded byRaghu Krishnan
- Espejo sUploaded byAlejandro Cardenas

- Phenol on AC and Zeolite XUploaded byEnrique Alejandro Ovando
- IMPCO Master Parts Catalog Dec 2013 LoresUploaded byMartín Barcenas
- PROSAVE Smart High Velocity Press-Vacuum Relief ValveUploaded bypescarra-1
- 0602 Exhaust Valve + MEUploaded byLuis Rolando Castro Escobar
- ISO 22000 ImplementationUploaded byÖko-Abenteuer Oxapampa-Asháninka-Yánesha
- A new mathematical model for a competitive vehicle routing problem.pdfUploaded byVuong Bui Viet
- Rectangular to Circular Waveguide TransitionsUploaded byAntonio P. Souza Junior
- steelwise.pdfUploaded byJagatheesh Radhakrishnan
- 03 Claw CouplingsUploaded byMehman Nasibov
- =Change_Management_Toolkit.pdfUploaded byDrMlad
- Jan 2016 AssignmentUploaded byDinesh Valavala
- Renewable EnergyUploaded byMona
- Breakaway Valve > TB - AUS4W-50 Break-away ValveUploaded byapi-3752216
- cwnaUploaded byMinnThuWinn
- h11 & h13 Tool and Die SteelUploaded byPavan Kumar
- Analysis of the Eyes on Face Images for Compliance with ISO:ICAO Requirements.pdfUploaded byMarcelo Cobias
- Timken Practical Data for Metallurgists Handbook (2)Uploaded byjuliocr79
- Glo MacsUploaded byMurugan Raja
- Distillation Column DesignUploaded byAmit Chakraborty
- TEchnical Guide to Cenvat Credit IcaiUploaded bysivarraman1968
- Open FoundationUploaded bynandi_scr
- What is the Definition of a World CityUploaded byEmii
- Sibelius Quick Start GuideUploaded byMusicLearning
- educ546 applying the tools- doddUploaded byapi-458204380
- Unix Production SupportUploaded byretheesh123456
- Volvo Wheel Loader L60F to L90FUploaded byAshok Subramaniyan
- Pak China ForumUploaded byabedinz
- DOTC Executive Report on Fare RestructuringUploaded byanakpawispartylist
- math in my future project militaryUploaded byapi-334137347
- preliminary-credential-competency-checklist-2014 2014-01-27Uploaded byapi-280007862