ABSTRACT

PAPER PRESENTATION ON

“The NanoRobots”

Presented By: M.TAMIZKUDIMAGAL VII SEM, CSE. [52107104067]

&

S.RAJALAKSHMI VII SEM, CSE. [52107104043]

PALLAVAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KANCHIPURAM DISTRICT THIMMASAMUDRAM

decades. Nanoparticle — A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. This has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine System Engineered To Enhance Therapeutic Effects Of Injectable Drugs ( A proof-of-concept study on a new multistage delivery system for imaging and therapeutic applications has been proposed in Nature Nanotechnology. FEATURES: Nanomedicine.ABSTRACT DEFINTION & INTRODUCTION : . It has been suggested that a fleet of nanorobots might serve as antibodies or antiviral agents in patients with compromised immune systems. that is. a process called selfreplication.A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions. Nanorobots have potential applications in the assembly and maintenance of sophisticated systems. Nanoparticle LIST OF MEDICAL TOPICS Heat shock protein — Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a group of proteins the expression of which is increased when the cells are exposed to elevated. Toward Development Of An 'Eggshell- . a process known as molecular manufacturing.Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology and related research.It covers areas such as nanoparticle drug delivery and possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) and nanovaccinology. machines. or circuits. In theory. There are numerous other potential medical applications. or centuries. or in diseases that do not respond to more conventional measures. unblocking of arteries affected by plaques. including repair of damaged tissue. Nanorobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices. Ingredient in Big Macs. and perhaps the construction of complete replacement body organs. Nanoscale systems can also operate much faster than their larger counterparts because displacements are smaller. nontoxic form that can be injected into a patient. they can remain operational for years. this allows mechanical and electrical events to occur in less time at a given speed. Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. Nanorobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units. A major advantage of nanorobots is thought to be their durability. dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less. where 1 nm = 10-9 meter. Sodas Stabilizes Gold Nanoparticles for Medical Use The potential of gold nanoparticles to detect and treat cancer has been hindered by the difficulty of making them in a stable.

• • clots: Blood clots can cause complications ranging from muscle death to a stroke.and-yolk' Anticancer Nanomedicine Scientists in Hong Kong are reporting synthesis and early laboratory tests of a new nanostructure that they believe may lead to the design of an anticancer nanomedicine Little Answers To World's Biggest Problems: Top 10 Nanotech Applications To Aid Poor Nanotechnology could be harnessed to address some of the world's most critical development Is Nanotechnology Safe? Interactions Between Nanomaterials And Biological Systems Explored Tremendous growth in the development of nanomaterials with enhanced performance characteristics which are being used for commercial and medical applications prompts researchers to take a proactive. But according to the inventions that now are going on. Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque. side effects will be minimized without a loss in the medication's effectiveness. Nanorobots could travel to a clot and break it up. • Fighting cancer: Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients. The clottocyte carries a small mesh net that dissolves into a sticky membrane upon contact with blood plasma. which would then enter the bloodstream.. the advantages from these nano robots are very-very high as compare to that of disadvantages. The robots could either attack tumors directly using lasers. Jr. The robot must also be small enough so that it doesn't block the flow of blood itself. Doctors believe that by delivering small but precise doses of medication to the patient. • Parasite Removal: Nanorobots could wage micro-war on bacteria and small parasitic organisms inside a patient. which could then travel elsewhere in the body and cause more problems. It Breaking up blood .000 times faster than the body's natural clotting mechanism [source: Freitas].the robot must be able to remove the blockage without losing small pieces in the bloodstream. Doctors could use clottocytes to treat hemophiliacs or patients with serious open wounds. According to Robert A. This application is one of the most dangerous uses for nanorobots -. APPLICATIONS & ADVANTAGES OF THE NANO ROBOTS The Nano Technology Nano Robots have so many feature thsimilarly there is also a possibility of risks & dangerous or disadvantages may also be their. clotting could be up to 1. microwaves or ultrasonic signals or they could be part of a chemotherapy treatment. • Helping the body clot: One particular kind of nanorobot is the clottocyte. the man who designed the clottocyte. IN MEDICAL FIELD: Treating arteriosclerosis: Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries. Nanorobots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis by physically chipping away the plaque along artery walls. delivering medication directly to the cancer site. or artificial platelet. Freitas.

A nanorobot could break up the crystalline structures at • • the joints. lenses and junctions.. providing relief from the symptoms. IN TELECOMMUNICATION: In the telecommunications industry.• might take several nanorobots working together to destroy all the parasites. battery life. decreasing the likelihood of infection. Using nanoceramic material as the covering for batteries absorbs electromagnetic waves and prolongs . For example. nanotechnology will play an important role in the coming years particularly with respect to fiber optics. Nanotechnology has numerous energy-related applications. IN SPORTS: Nanotechnology is already being used for several sports and recreation related applications. Nanopolymers provide high-performance insulation for energy transmission lines and decrease energy loss across long distances. In telecommunications more generally. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies. reduce friction with the water. Gout: Gout is a condition where the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste from the breakdown of fats from the bloodstream. nanotech tennis rackets and golf clubs are lighter. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser. Nanocrystalline materials can be made with finer resolution than standard fibers for enhanced optic cables. though it wouldn't be able to reverse the condition permanently. switches. the fields of nanotechnology and holotechnology will overlap in the design of the projection screens and user interfaces IN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL FIELD: Many human illnesses and injuries Cleaning wounds: Nanorobots could help remove debris from wounds. and can be engineered to provide more motion control. In this area. They would be particularly useful in cases of puncture wounds. Nanotech coatings on swim suits repel water. and allow swimmers to go faster. Nanophotonics is the application of nanotechnology to the transformation of electricity to light or light to electricity . stronger. but also they can be used in many fields such as in electronics fields also (In nano circuits) etc. Breaking up kidney stones: Kidney stones can be intensely painful -.the larger the stone the more difficult it is to pass. This waste sometimes crystallizes at points near joints like the knees and ankles. nanocrystals or nanophosphores can make this transformation with greater efficiency than traditional incandescent lighting or solar panels. but it's not always effective. where it might be difficult to treat using more conventional methods. OTHER FIELD: IN ELECTRONICS: Not only these types of nanorobots are useful in the Biotechnology. People who suffer from gout experience intense pain at these joints.

application of nanotechnology to the practice of medicine and biomedical research opens up new opportunities to treat illnesses. to accompany soldiers and alert them to any poisons or dangerous biological substances in the air. even in loadbearing applications. Accordingly. Smartdust (A group of very small robots) may eventually be used to monitor traffic and better direct it. there are on going advances in nanofluidics and carbon nanotube flow sensors that may become their building blocks. Nanopharmacology is the application of nanotechnology to the discovery of new molecular entities with pharmacological properties. Artificial bone cement without nanotechnology can work for small applications. Applications of these sensors are seemingly without end. deconstruct pathologic or abnormal material or cells such as cancer or plaque. artificial bone paste made with nanoceramic particles shows considerable promise for bone repair and replacement. to track defects in products as they come off of an assembly line. In addition to delivering pharmaceuticals as discussed above. If one sterilizes the bone to reduce the chances of disease. nanotech medical robots ("nanomedibots") may be able to: monitor body function. then this can weaken the bone. As nanotechnology and biotechnology advance. Although nanomedibots have not been developed. Nanotechnology is a branch of science that deals with particles 1100 nanometers in size. and enhance human functioning beyond what is possible with macroscale techniques. Grafts of natural bone can carry disease or trigger immune rejection by the host. and enhance human health and functioning. without invasive surgery. There are promising applications of nanotechnology in the field of orthopedics. It is also used for delivery of pharmaceuticals to targeted locations or specific types of tissue in the body. Every aspect of life one examines opens up new avenues for smartdust. and even to enter human bodies and check for physiological problems. repair damaged tissue at the molecular level. or destroy cancerous tissue that has gone away. repair injuries. Nanoparticles can attach to certain cells or tissues and provide medical images of their location and structure. Hollow nanocapsules with pharmaceutical contents can attach to cancer cells and release their payloads into them maximizing targeted delivery and minimizing systemic side effects. Experts believe possible dangers of .have their origins in nanoscale processes. However. but tends to not have sufficient strength for load-bearing bone replacement. At the nanoscale level. Nanomedibots may repair vital tissue damaged by injury or disease. the distinctions between mechanical and biological processes blur. to follow people around and track their activities. Nanotechnology is also useful for individualized matching of pharmaceuticals to particular people to maximize effectiveness and minimize side effects. nanomedibots and engineered beneficial microorganisms may be integrated.

Their ability to interact with other living systems increases because they can easily cross the skin. Other nanoparticles have also been shown to have adverse effects. yet they behave in ways unlike graphite making the classification a potentially dangerous one. As an example. when this investment is compared to the comparatively scant research into nanotech health issues. size and shape of nanoparticles affect the level of toxicity. In 2004 British scientist Vyvyan Howard published initial findings that indicated gold nanoparticles might move through a mother's placenta to the fetus. Once inside the body. some scientists become concerned. and in some cases the blood/brain barriers. experts report smaller particles are more bioactive and toxic.. there may be further biochemical reactions like the creation of free radicals that damage cells. graphite's properties are well known and it holds specific position in toxicology guidelines. can cause cadmium poisoning in humans. The fish also exhibited changed gene markers in their livers. While the body has built-in defenses for natural particles it encounters. and more importantly. indicating their entire physiology was affected. Billions of dollars are being spent to incorporate nanoparticles into products that are already being marketed to the public. the danger of nanotechnology is that it is introducing entirely new type of particles. In March 2004 tests conducted by environmental toxicologist Eva OberdÃrster.which are legally categorized as graphite. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports . So the body can take some time to adjust with it. with Southern Methodist University in Texas found extensive brain damage to fish exposed to fullerenes for a period of just 48 hours at a relatively moderate dose of 0.nanotechnology lie in how these tiny particles might interact with the environment. preempting the ease of uniform categories even when considering a single element.D. Experts say the issue is that elements encountered at the nanoscale behave differently than their larger counterparts. lung. the fullerenes killed water fleas. In general. In a concurrent test. with the human body. also called quantum dots.5 parts per million (commiserate with levels of other kinds of pollution found in bays). and as far back as 1997 scientists at Oxford discovered nanoparticles used in sunscreen created free radicals that damaged DNA. Research from University of California in San Diego in early 2002 revealed cadmium selenide nanoparticles. Highest at risk are workers employed by manufacturers producing products that contain nanoparticles. Nobel winning physicist Richard Smalley of Rice University discovered carbon nanotubes and fullerenes (buckyballs) nanoparticles of carbon . an important link in the marine food chain. Ph. Complicating the dangers of nanotechnology.

playing with the building blocks of life itself. some believe we may be paving the way to our own destruction. The sudden advent of nanofactories producing clean. Stocks would be critically affected and the likelihood of economic upheaval. Poor nations might use biomass (carbon-rich trees) as fuel for nanofactories. durable products could lead to 'disposable thinking' where products are created en mass and discarded in abundance. similar to that depicted in Gattica ? If we do not embrace AIenhancement and nanoaugmentation will intelligent machines ultimately decide we are unnecessary? POTENTIAL DANGERS: If potential benefits of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) sound too good to be true. high. overwhelming recycling needs and the environment. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND EXISTENTIAL DANGERS : The use of nanofactories to make countless cheap. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND ROBOTICS : One of the most controversial dangers of molecular nanotechnology is that it will open the door to computers that think faster than the human brain. and are we as a race headed towards total dependency on machinery to the extent it becomes part of our biology? Will there be equity or will a new class divide be created.theoretically anything allowable by the laws of physics can be created fast and cheap. and antisocial groups of all stripes would be incredibly . Will nations secretly create armies of AIenhanced. Requirements include a few square feet for the nanofactory. there is one caveat the potential dangers of molecular nanotechnology. governments. Criminals. Skilled labor. leading to increased deforestation. durable. NIOSH publishes safety guidelines and other information for those employed in the nanoindustry. cheap. factory workers. ECONOMIC IMPACT: Another high concern among the potential dangers of molecular nanotechnology is that many predict MNT will arrive suddenly and in full force. the software. or in this case nanoblocks -. and an electrical outlet.over 2 million Americans are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and they believe this figure will rise to 4 million in the near future. When nanofactories can arrange atoms into structures . As robotics and AI combine to relieve humans of doing tasks that machines can do better. faster and cheaper. products would adversely impact most sectors in the job market. nano-augmented (think bionic ) supersoldiers to fight wars? Will politicians opt for AIenhancements? Nano-augmentation? Who will it be available to. terrorists. and many lines of distribution would no longer be needed as corporations switched to nanotechnology or folded. giving machines a superior edge. disturbed individuals.

finally we wish all the scientists.empowered by such technology. "opensource" international cooperation is another option that runs its own risks. . environment. Additional potential dangers of molecular nanotechnology threaten the economy. it will be useful for man to cure many diseases & to lead a fantastic life. while attempts to stranglehold the technology would likely result in independent. But in these technologies there is a possible danger also. and control in the public sector could lead to inequitable benefits and an Orwellian society. Unilateral. and world peace. human rights. who are going to invent the nanorobots. covert development. To invent this kind of special featured nanorobots in the safe kind which will be in the non hazardous to the living kind. CONCLUSION From these types of inventions. The rush to gain supremacy through nanoweaponry could lead to a new arms race. However.