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# HYDROSTATICS:

𝐶𝐵𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 =
𝐿𝑝𝑝 ∗ 𝐵 ∗ 𝑇

𝐴𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝
𝐶𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 = 𝐶𝑥 =
𝐵∗𝑇
𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒
𝐶𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 =
𝐿𝑝𝑝 ∗ 𝐵

𝐶 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 = 3
𝑜𝑟 "𝐹𝑎𝑡𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠" 𝐿
( 𝑝𝑝⁄10)

∇ 𝐶𝐵𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘
𝐶𝑝 = 𝐶𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 = =
𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝐿𝑝𝑝 ∗ 𝐴𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 𝐶𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝

∇ ∇ 𝐶𝐵𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘
𝐶 𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = = =
𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝐿𝑝𝑝 ∗ 𝐵 ∗ 𝑇 ∗ 𝐶𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑇 ∗ 𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝐶𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒

̅̅̅̅̅ 𝐾𝑀 − ̅̅̅̅
𝐺𝑀 = ̅̅̅̅̅ 𝐾𝐺 = ̅̅̅̅ 𝐵𝑀 − ̅̅̅̅
𝐾𝐵 + ̅̅̅̅̅ 𝐾𝐺

∑𝑖 (𝑤𝑖 ∗ ̅̅̅̅
𝑘𝑔𝑖 )
̅̅̅̅
𝐾𝐺 =

1
𝑇𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 = ∗ (𝑇𝐴𝑓𝑡 + 𝑇𝐹𝑤𝑑 )
2

𝑡 = 𝑇𝐴𝑓𝑡 − 𝑇𝐹𝑤𝑑
• 𝑡 > 0 then “Trim by the stern”
• 𝑡 < 0 then “Trim by the bow”

## ∇𝐻𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝜌𝐻𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑑𝑇 = 𝑇𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛𝐻𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 − 𝑇𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = ( − 1) Zubaly 56
𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝜌𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑀𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑤 ∗ 𝑑 ∗ sin(𝜃)
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 Zubaly 79

𝑤∗𝑑
̅̅̅̅̅
𝐺𝑀 =
∆ ∗ tan(𝜃)

̅̅̅̅
𝐺𝑍 = ̅̅̅̅̅
𝐺𝑀 ∗ sin(𝜃)

## • GZ is the “righting arm”

• If 𝐺𝑍 > 𝐺𝑀 then ship is unstable

𝑀𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝
𝐿𝐶𝐹 =
𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒
• The LCF is at the centroid of the waterplane
• LCF: The point at which a weight would cause parallel sinkage
• A ship trims about its center of flotation without changing displacement
• The displacement corresponding to the draft at the center of flotation is the true displacement

## 𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 [𝑚2] 𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 [𝑓𝑡 2]

𝑇𝑃𝐶 & 𝑇𝑃𝐼 = 𝜌 ∗ 𝑔 ∗ 𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 ∗ 𝑡 = &
97.56 420

∆ ∗ 𝑮𝑴𝑳 ∆ ∗ 𝑩𝑴𝑳
𝑀𝑇𝐶 = ≈
100 ∗ 𝐿𝑝𝑝 100 ∗ 𝐿𝑝𝑝

𝐼𝐿
𝐵𝑀𝐿 =

𝐼𝑇 Zubaly 66
𝐵𝑀𝑇 =

## “Transverse Moment of Inertia of a ship’s waterplane”

𝐿
2 For rectangular waterplane, IT=(1/12)*L*B3
𝐼𝑇 = ∗ ∫ 𝑦 3 𝑑𝑥
3 0

Assumes parallel
1 Mid-Body
𝐴𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝐵 ∗ 𝑇 − 2 ∗ (𝑟 2 − ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 𝑟 2 )
4

Morrish Formula
1 𝑇 ∇
̅̅̅̅ = 𝑇 − ∗ ( +
𝐾𝐵 )
3 2 𝐴𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒

∆𝑀𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 = 𝜌𝑀 ∗ ∇𝑀

∆𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑖𝑠ℎ 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 = 𝜌𝐸 ∗ 𝑔𝐸 ∗ ∇𝐸

𝜌𝑆𝑊
𝛾𝑆𝑊 =
𝜌𝐹𝑊

## RESISTANCE AND PROPUSLION:

𝑉
Froude Number, 𝐹𝑛 =
√𝑔∗𝐿

## Total Resistance Coefficient, 𝐶𝑇 = 𝐶𝑅 + 𝐶𝐹

𝑅𝑅 𝑉2
Residuary Resistance Coefficient, 𝐶𝑅 = 1 ≡ 𝑓 (𝑔∗𝐿)
∗𝜌∗𝑆∗𝑉 2
2
• RR is the Residual Resistance (in kN or lbs)
• S is wetted surface area (in m2 or ft2)
• V is speed (in m/s or ft/sec)

## 𝑅𝐹 𝑉∗𝐿 Reynold’s Number

Frictional Resistance Coefficient, 𝐶𝐹 = 1 ≡ 𝑓( ) = 𝑓(𝑅𝑛)
∗𝜌∗𝑆∗𝑉 2 𝑣
2
𝜇
• Kinematic viscosity, 𝑣 =
𝜌
o μ is the dynamic viscosity (kg/(m*s))
o ρ is the fluid density (kg/m3)
See PNA Vol. 2 pg. 13
0.075
ITTC (1957) Friction Resistance Coefficient Approximation, 𝐶𝐹 = (𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑅𝑛−2)2
10

## Effective Power (in kW), 𝑃𝐸 = 𝑅𝑇 ∗ 𝑉

1 For Drag from control
• Total Resistance (in kN), 𝑅𝑇 = ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑆 ∗ 𝑉 2 ∗ 𝐶𝑇 surfaces see PNA Vol. 2 pg. 37
2
o ATTC: CT ≈ 0.002414
o ITTC: CT ≈ 0.002364
• V is speed (in m/s)

𝑇
Thrust Constant, 𝐾𝑇 =
𝜌∗𝐷 4 ∗𝑛2

𝑄
Torque Constant, 𝐾𝑄 =
𝜌∗𝐷 5 ∗𝑛2

𝑃𝐵
Brake Torque (in kN-m), 𝑄 =
2∗𝜋∗𝑛
• Brake Power (in kW), PB
• n is revolutions per second (or rpm/60)
𝑉𝑎
Advance Coefficient, 𝐽 =
𝑛∗𝐷

𝑉−𝑉𝑎
Taylor Wake Fraction, 𝑊𝑇 =
𝑉
V ~ Ship speed
Va ~ Speed of fluid at propeller

## Taylor Wake Factor (or Froude Wake Factor), 𝑊𝐹 = 1 − 𝑊𝑇

2
Ideal Efficiency, 𝜂𝐼 =
1+(𝐶𝑇 +1)1/2

𝑇𝐻𝑃
Propeller Efficiency Behind Ship, 𝜂𝐵 or 𝜂𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 =
𝐷𝐻𝑃

𝐾 𝐽
Open Water Efficiency, 𝜂0 = ( 𝑇 ) ∗
𝐾𝑄 2∗𝜋

𝜂
Relative Rotational Efficiency, 𝜂𝑟 = 𝜂𝐵0

𝐸𝐻𝑃
Hull Efficiency, 𝜂𝐻 =
𝑇𝐻𝑃

𝐸𝐻𝑃
Propulsive Efficiency, 𝜂𝑃 =
𝑆𝐻𝑃
• 𝜂𝑃 ≈ 0.6 for well-designed props

𝑅𝑇
Thrust Deduction Factor, 𝑡 = 1 −
𝑇

1 𝑅𝑅
𝑅𝑇 = 𝑅𝐹 + 𝑅𝑅 = ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑆 ∗ 𝑉 2 ∗ (𝐶𝐹 + 𝐶𝐴 ) + ( ) ∗ ∆𝑆ℎ𝑖𝑝
2 ∆
WAVE MECHANICS:
From PNA Vol. 3 pg. 8
Wave Number:
2𝜋 𝜔2
𝑘= =
𝐿𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑔

Surface Profile:
z0 = z̅ ∗ cos(𝑘(𝑥 − 𝑉𝑐 𝑡)) ≈ z̅ ∗ cos(𝑘𝑥 − 𝜔𝑡) z is amplitude

Velocity Potential:
F = −z̅ ∗ 𝑉𝑐 ∗ 𝑒 𝑘z ∗ sin(𝑘(𝑥 − 𝑉𝑐 ∗ 𝑡))

Wave Celerity:
𝐿𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑔 ∗ 𝐿𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 1/2 𝑔 ∗ 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑔
𝑉𝑐 = =( ) = =
𝑇 2𝜋 2𝜋 𝜔

Wave Length:
𝑉𝑐 2 𝑔 ∗ 𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 2
𝐿𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 = 2𝜋 ∗ =
𝑔 2𝜋

Wave Period:
2𝜋 ∗ 𝐿𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 1/2
𝑇𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒 = ( )
𝑔

FLUIDS:

𝑃ℎ = 𝜌𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 ∗ ℎ

𝐹 = 𝑃ℎ ∗ 𝐴

## DYNAMIC STABILITY: See SNAME Practice

Exam problem #2
𝜋 2𝜋
𝜑=𝜃 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 ∗( ) ∗ sin ( ∗ 𝑡)
𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 180° 𝑇
𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑠

𝑑2𝜑 𝜋 2𝜋 2 2𝜋
𝛼= 2
= − 𝜃 𝑅𝑜𝑙𝑙 ∗ ( ) ∗ ( ) ∗ sin ( ∗ 𝑡)
𝑑𝑡 𝐴𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 180° 𝑇 𝑇
𝑖𝑛 𝐷𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑠

𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 = 𝑚 ∗ 𝑟 ∗ 𝛼
SUB-SYSTEMS:

## Darcy-Weisbach Pipe Friction Factor: (See pg. 18 in Lindeburg Quick Reference)

𝐿 𝑉2
• Head Loss due to Friction in Pipe: ℎ𝑓 = 𝑓 ∗ ( ) ∗ ( )
𝐷 2𝑔
𝑄
• Average Velocity of Fluid in Pipe: 𝑉 =
𝐴
o Q is the volumetric flow rate
o A is the unit cross-sectional wetted area
• 𝐿 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 Wetted Perimeter

## • Hydraulic Diameter (If circular cross section then D ≡ Internal Diameter):

4∗𝐴
𝐷=
𝑃
o A is the cross-sectional area
o P is the wetted perimeter
• Friction Factor: (For full-flowing circular pipe)

## 0.2479 − 0.0000947 ∗ (7 − log(𝑅𝑒 ))4

𝑓= 2
𝜀 7.366
(log ( + ))
3.615 ∗ 𝐷 𝑅𝑒 0.9142

STRUCTURES:

Distributed Load, W, acting along the length of stiffener with uniform pressure, P, and frame spacing, S:

𝑊 =𝑃∗𝑆

## Small-Deflection Theory Beam Distributed Load, W:

𝑑4𝑦
𝑊 =𝐸∗𝐼∗
𝑑𝑥 4
Sheer Effects
See Hughes Equation 3.7.6
Determinant Shear Flow – Shear flow in open sections

Indeterminant Shear Flow – Shear flow in closed, multi-cell sections See Hughes pgs. 112 - 119

## Application to a transverse section through the hull girder

See Hughes Figure 3.22
Shear Stress in Beams or Thin-Walled Sections: on pg. 112

𝑉∗𝑄
𝜏𝑎𝑣𝑔 = Analogous to 𝜎 =
−𝑀∗𝑦
𝐼∗𝑡 𝐼
(See Mechanics of Materials pg. 377)
V ~ Vertical shear force
I ~ Moment of Inertia of cross-section
t ~ Thickness of the member where the shear stress is to be determined
Q ~ First moment about the N.A.

Tertiary Stresses

## Bending of a cylindrical plate, per unit width (i.e. a=1):

See Hughes Figure 9.1
• Moment of Inertia, IPlate:
𝑡3
𝐼𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 =
12

## • Section Modulus, ZPlate:

𝑡2
𝑍𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 =
6

• Distributed Load, W:
𝑊 = 𝑃𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 ∗ 𝑎 = 𝑃𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚

## • Maximum Moment, MMax:

(𝑃𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 ∗ 𝐿𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 2 )
𝑀𝑀𝑎𝑥 =
8

## • Maximum Stress, σMax:

𝑃𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 ∗ 𝐿𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 2
( )
8
𝜎𝑀𝑎𝑥 =
𝑡2
( )
6

## • Maximum Deflection, δMax:

(5 ∗ 𝑃𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 ∗ 𝐿𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 4 )
𝛿𝑀𝑎𝑥 = See Hughes Figure 9.1
(384 ∗ 𝐷)

𝐸 ∗ 𝑡3
𝐷=
12 ∗ (1 − 𝑣 2 )

## where v is Poisson’s ratio

Mohr’s Circle: (See pg. 429 in Mechanics of Materials)
𝜎𝑥 +𝜎𝑦
• 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 = τmin
2
• 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 + 𝑅
Point 2: (σy, -τxy)
• 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 𝑅
• tan(2 ∗ 𝜃𝑃 ) =
2∗𝜏𝑥𝑦 R
𝜎𝑥 −𝜎𝑦
σ1 or σmax
𝜎𝑥 −𝜎𝑦 2 +𝜎
• 𝑅 = 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √( ) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 2 σ2 or σmin 2*θP
2

## If Circular Cylinder in Torsion: Point 1: (σx, τxy)

• 𝜎𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 0
• So, τmax
𝑇∗𝑐
O 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅 =
𝐽 +𝜏
O 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑚𝑖𝑛 = −𝑅

## Angle of Twist in Circular Cylinder:

𝑇∗𝐿
• ∅ = 𝐽∗𝐺
T ~ Torque
L ~ Length of cylinder
J ~ Polar Moment of Inertia
G ~ Material Modulus of Rigidity

CONSTANTS:

## Steel Elastic Modulus, 𝐸𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 ≈ 29.6 ∗ 106 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Steel Poisson Ratio, 𝑣 ≈ 0.3
Steel Density ≈ 0.284 lbs/in3 (or 7.85 g/cm3)

## Atmospheric Pressure = 14.696 lbs/in2 ( or 1.0133x105 Pa)

DEFINITIONS:

• After Perpendicular (AP): The vertical line at the point of intersection of the LWL and the centerline of the
rudderstock.
• Afterbody: That portion of a ship’s hull abaft midships.
• Bilge Radius: The radius of the circular arc forming the bilge.
• Bow: The forward of the ship
• Breadth at Loaded Waterline (BWL): Maximum moulded breadth at the loaded waterline.
• Cubic Bales: The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet within a ship cargo hold to the inside of the
cargo battens, on the frames and to the underside of the deck beams.
• Deadrise (Rise of Floor): The amount by which the line of the outer bottom plating amidships rises above
the baseline. Therefore, it is the difference in height between the baseline and the point where the straight
line through the bottom flat surface intersects the vertical line through the side of the moulded surface at its
widest point.
• Deck Camber: The rise of the deck of the ship in going from the side to the centre. In older ships the camber
curve used to be parabolic but in modern ships straight line camber curves are used or there may be no
camber at all on decks.
• Depth Moulded (D): The vertical distance at amidships from the baseline to the underside of the plating of
the main deck.
• Design Waterline (DWL) or Load Waterline (LWL): The waterline at which the ship will float when loaded
to its designed draught.
• Draught (T): The vertical distance from the waterline at any point on the hull to the bottom of the ship.
• Flat of Keel (Half Siding): The width of flat bottom plating on each side of the centre girder.
• Forebody: That portion of a ship’s hull forward midships.
• Forward Perpendicular (FP): The vertical line at the point of intersection of the LWL and the forward end
of the immersed part of the ship’s hull.
• Freeboard (f): The vertical distance from the waterline to the deck at side. The freeboard is equal to the
difference between the depth at side and the draught at any point along the ship.
• Grain cubic: The maximum space available for the cargo within a ship's hold in cubic meter, incorporating
all volume inside the shell plating of the hull and to the underside of the upper deck plating. Grain Cubic
occupies a larger cargo volume than the ship's Bale Cubic rating.
• Gross tonnage: The capacity of the spaces in the ship's hull and of the enclosed spaces above the deck
available for cargo, stores, fuel, passengers, and crew.
• Hull: The structural body of a ship including shell plating, framing, decks and bulkheads.
• Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP): The distance measured parallel to the base at the level of the
design waterline from the after perpendicular to the forward perpendicular.
• Length of Entrance (LE): The length from the forward perpendicular to the forward end of parallel middle
body, or maximum section.
• Length of Parallel Middle Body (LP): The length over which the midship section remains unchanged.
• Length of Run (LR): The length from the section of maximum area or the after end of parallel middle body to
waterline termination or other designated point on the stern.
• Length of Waterline (LWL): The waterline at which the ship will float when fully loaded .
• Length Overall (LOA): The total length of the ship from one end to the other, including bow and stern
overhangs.
• Length Overall Submerged (LOS): The total submerged length of the ship from one end to the other,
including the bulbous bow.
• Luffing: Horizontal translation
• Maximum Beam or Breadth (BM): Extreme beam (breadth), from outside to outside of the shell plating.
• Metacentric Radius: ̅̅̅̅̅𝐵𝑀
• Midships: The point midway between the forward and after perpendiculars.
• Moulded Beam or Breadth (B): The distance from the inside of plating on one side to a similar point on the
other side measured at the broadest part of the ship.
• Moulded Displacement: The displacement of a ship based on moulded dimensions
• Moulded Surface: The inside surface of the skin, or plating, of a ship.
• Net tonnage: The gross tonnage less the spaces used for the accommodation of the ship's master, officers,
crew, and the navigation and propulsion machinery.
• Parallel Middle Body: The portion of the ship over which the midship section remains unchanged. In this
part of the ship water lines and buttocks have no curvature; that is, all the fore and aft lines are
• Port: The left side of the ship when looking forward
• Righting Arm: ̅̅̅̅
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• Sallying: Producing rolling motion of a vessel by running a group of people in unison from side to side
• Starboard: The right side of the ship when looking forward
• Stern: The after end of the ship
• Slewing: Rotating about a central axis
• Total Displacement: Moulded displacement modified by adding the thickness of shell plating and the
volume of appendages.
• Trim: The difference between the draughts forward and aft.
• Tumblehome: The amount the top of the side shell slopes back toward the centerline between the point of
widest breadth and the deck at side
• Wetted Surface: The area of the underwater hull and appendages, measured in square meters.

ACRONYMS:

## • FSC: Free-Surface Correction

• FSM: Free-Surface Moment
• ASD: Allowable Strength Design (see pg. 2-6 in Steel Construction Manual)
• LRFD: Load and Resistance Factor Design (see pg. 2-6 in Steel Construction Manual)
• AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction
• DBT: Ductile to Brittle Transition (Temperature)
• Q&T: Quenched and Tempered
• BEP: Best Efficiency Point
• NPSHA: Net Positive Suction Head Available
• COS: Condition of Service
• COP: Coefficient of Performance