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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Selection of Pipeline
Material of Construction
‐ Overview of Different Methodologies ‐

Sujit S. Laddha
Dr. Deepashri Nage

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Sujit Subhash Laddha
Education
• Master of Technology (Welding), NIT Trichy
• Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), University of Mumbai

Accreditation
• API Certified Corrosion & Materials Professional (License # 63171)
• API Certified Risk Based Inspection Professional (License # 63243)

Experience
• Corrosion Control & Management | Material Selection
• FEED Verification | Detailed Design | Risk Based Inspection
• Failure Analysis

Professional
• Member of NACE Gateway India Section (NIGIS)
• Associate Member of Institution of Engineers, India (AMIE)

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Crude Oil Reserves (As on 01‐04‐2016) Natural Gas Reserves (As on 01‐04‐2016)

Source: Indian Petroleum & Natural Gas Statistics (2015‐16)

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# Pipelines Length (Kms)
By the end of the 13th five year plan, India is
1 Crude Oil Pipelines (Onshore) 9365 expected to have a natural gas pipeline network of
2 Crude Oil Pipelines (Offshore) 488 around 31,432 kms with a design capacity of 782
MMSCMD with a nation wide gas grid and more
3 Gas Pipelines (Onshore) 16671
uniform pipeline network coverage in place.
4 Gas Pipelines (Offshore) 987
5 Product Pipelines (Onshore) 14975 “Vision 2030” Natural Gas Infrastructure in India 
(PNGRB)
TOTAL 42486
As on 31‐03‐2016

Pipeline Distribution

Crude Oil
Product 23%
35% Crude Oil
Natural Gas
Natural Gas
Product
42%

Source: Indian Petroleum & Natural Gas Statistics (2015‐16)

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Gas Transmission Network in India at end of 13th Five Year Plan

Source: “Vision 2030” Natural Gas Infrastructure in India (PNGRB)

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Pipelines are like arteries and 


veins for a country to meet 
energy requirements

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“Swiss Cheese” Model of Failure

Source: J Reason, "Human error: models and management". March 2000. British Medical Journal 320 (7237): 768–770.

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Pipeline Failure Data (USA: 1987‐2006)

Source: http://ops.dot.gov/stats/stats.htm

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Distribution of Incident Per Cause

Cause Distribution (%)
External Interference 48.4
Construction Defect/Material Failure 16.7
Corrosion 16.1
Ground Movement 7.4
Hot‐Tap Error 4.8
Other & Unknown 6.6

Source: EGIG 8th Report (Doc. No. EGIG 11.R.0402 – Version 2)

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Pipeline Failure by Corrosion
Unknown
Internal  4%
Corrosion
13%

External 
Corrosion
83%

External Corrosion Internal Corrosion Unknown

Source: EGIG 8th Report (Doc. No. EGIG 11.R.0402 – Version 2)

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

Approach for Pipeline Material Selection

Service 
Condition

Corrosion  Past 
Engineering 
Rate  Inspection 
Judgement
Estimation Records

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Corrosion  CRA
Rate Carbon 
Steel

Non‐
Past  PROCESS Metallic
Inspection

Engineering 
Judgement
Optimum Material

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Material Selection Flowchart

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Parameters Influencing Corrosion Rate

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Corrosion Rate Calculations

1710 ‐ C. de Waard and 
log 5.8 0.67 log 2 U. Lotz Equation

Vcor: Corrosion Rate
T: Temperature
pCO2: Partial Pressure of CO2
1 CR (inh):  Inhibited Corrosion Rate (mm/year)
100 CR (uninh): Uninhibited Corrosion Rate (mm/year)
IE: Inhibitor Efficiency (%)
IA: Inhibitor Availability (%)

CR(inh) 1

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Factors Affecting Choice of Material

Corrosion  Non‐metallic 
Resistant  Material
Alloy
Temperature
Temperature
Pressure
Chloride Glass Trans Temp
pH2S UV Resistance

pH Construction

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Past Inspection Records

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Judgement and Past Experiences

• Type & Corrosivity
Service • E.g. Raw Water, Produced Water, etc.

• Similar Field/Service
Experience • Past Record

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SUMMARY – Pipeline Material Selection

• Parameters ‐ CRE
Corrosion 
Rate / SLC • Factors – Material 
Selection

Inspection  • Actual Field CR
Records • Reliable Data

Engg.  • Service
Judgement • Experience

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Discussion

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L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering

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