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Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

Supply Chain Management: Literature


Review and Some Issues
Jinesh Jain*, G. S. Dangayach*, G. Agarwal*, Soumya Banerjee**

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malaviya National


Institute Technology, Jaipur(India)
Email: jineshjain1234@rediffmail.com, dangayach@ gmail.com, agarwal.drg@gmail.com
**Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Birla Institute of
Technology, Mesra (Ranchi)
Email: soumyabanerjee@bitmesra.ac.in

Submitted: 10/12/2009
Accepted: 31/01/2010
Appeared: 16/01/2010
HyperSciences.Publisher

Abstract: Supply chain Management has assumed a significant role in firm's performance and has
attracted serious research attention over the last few years. A literature review reveals a considerable
spurt in research in theory and practice of SCM. Combining and informing on features of Supply
Management and distribution Management. This integration has resulted in the concept of extended
enterprise and the supply chain is now manifest as the collaborative supply chain across intercompany
borders to maximize the value across the entire supply chain. A large number of research papers have
been published in various journals in last two decades. In this paper an attempt is made to review the
status of literature on Supply Chain Management. A literature classification scheme is proposed. A total
of 588 articles from 13 refereed academic journals are classified into articles in five methodologies i.e.
Exploratory, Normative, Methodology, Literature Review and Hypothesis testing. This literature review
finds that exploratory type of research is mostly preferred it is expected that with the maturity of SCM
the hypothesis testing method will pick up. The articles are further categorized in fifteen categories on
the basis of content analysis. Based on this review, some possible research issues are identified.
Keywords: SCM, Supply Chain strategy, Literature Review.
1. INTRODUCTION those with average performance.

In the current competitive scenario supply chain management Traditionally, Supply Chain Management (SCM) has been a
assumes a significant importance and calls for serious melting pot of various aspects, with influences from logistics
research attention, as companies are challenged with finding and transportation, operations management and materials and
ways to meet ever-rising customer expectations at a distribution management, marketing, as well as purchasing
manageable cost. To do so, businesses must search out and information technology (IT). Ideally, the all-
which parts of their supply-chain process are not competitive, encompassing philosophy of SCM embraces each of these
understand which customer needs are not being met, functions to produce an overall supply chain strategy that
establish improvement goals, and rapidly implement ultimately enhances firm performance (Croom et al. 2000;
necessary improvements. Wisner and Tan 2000). In actuality, the literature is still very
fragmented and although several studies purport to discuss
Previously manufacturers were the drivers of the supply supply chain issues, most of the existing research only
chain - managing the pace at which products were examines one link of the chain, or most importantly only
manufactured and distributed. Today, customers are calling focuses on one ingredient in the supply chain performance
the shots, and manufacturers are scrambling to meet mix. Six major movements can be observed in the evolution
customer demands for options/styles/ features, quick order of supply chain management studies. Creation, Integration,
fulfillment, and fast delivery. Manufacturing quality - a Globalization, Specialization Phases One and Two, and SCM
long-time competitive differentiator - is approaching parity 2.0 These phases are given in Table 1.
across the board, so meeting customer’s specific demands for
product delivery has emerged as the next critical opportunity The six stage evolutionary era depicts that in a particular era
for competitive advantage. Companies that learn how to which strategy was emphasized. For instance in the sixth era
improve management of their supply chain will become the information Technology was given priority and IT enabled
new success stories in the global market place. Study on supply chain was the burning issue.
Benchmarking shows significant cost differences between
organizations that exhibit best-in-class performance and

Copyright © 2010 HyperSciences_Publisher. All rights reserved 11 www.hypersciences.org


Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

Table 1. Era in the Evolution of Supply Chain Management

S. Era Description
No.
1 Creation Era The term supply chain management was first coined by an American
industry consultant in the early 1980s. However the concept of supply
chain in management, was of great importance long before in the early 20th
century, especially by the creation of the assembly line.
2 Integration Era This era of supply chain management studies was highlighted with the
development of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) systems in the 1960s
and developed through the 1990s by the introduction of Enterprise
Resource Planning (ERP) systems.
3 Globalization Era This era is characterized by the globalization of supply chain management
in organizations with the goal of increasing competitive advantage,
creating more value-added, and reducing costs through global sourcing
4 Specialization Era In the 1990s industries began to focus on “core competencies” and adopted
Phase - One a specialization model. Companies abandoned vertical integration, sold off
Outsourced non-core operations, and outsourced those functions to other companies.
Manufacturing and
Distribution
5 Specialization Era Specialization within the supply chain began in the 1980s with the
Phase Two - Supply inception of transportation brokerages, warehouse management, and non
Chain Management as asset based carriers and has matured beyond transportation and logistics
a Service into aspects of supply planning, collaboration, execution and performance
management.

6 Supply Chain Web 2. 0 is defined as a trend in the use of the World Wide Web that is
Management 2. 0 meant to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among
(SCM 2. 0) users.

SCM research has included a number of literature reviews presents various connotations given by various researchers;
and historical studies published in the top scholarly journals then a literature classification scheme is explained and a
in the fields of logistics, logistic management, purchasing and research agenda is suggested after identifying the gaps
SCM (Croom et al. 2000; Carter and Ellram 2003; between theory and practice of SCM.
Rungtusanatham et al. 2003). SCM literature reviews have
also been done in the past. However, for the most part these 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
reviews have been descriptive (offering basic frequencies for
topics covered etc.) or normative. Given the increasing focus 2.1 Supply Chain Management definitions
on SCM in both academic and practitioner literature streams,
a review of the concepts, topics, analysis methods and levels SCM has been interpreted by various researchers. Based on
of analysis across thirteen academic journals was undertaken. the relatively recent development of the supply chain
This research investigates the history of the SCM literature literature, it is not surprising that there has been much debate
looking at the various trends and developments in the field as to a specific SCM definition. Ganeshan and Harrison
through a historical analysis covering the 18-year-period (1995) has defined SCM as a network of facilities and
between 1990 and mid 2008. During this period, SCM distribution options that performs the functions of
evolved into a more prominent area of research (Mentzer et. procurement of materials, transformation of these materials
al. 2001). the objective of this study is to provide an into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution
extensive literature review on supply chain management. of these finished products to customers. Lee & Corey (1995)
More specifically, the purpose of this study is to: stated that SCM consists of the integration activities taking
place among a network of facilities that procure raw material,
• Define what constitutes supply chain management transform them into intermediate goods and then final
research. products, & deliver products to customers through a
• Classify SCM research articles according to their distribution system. Christopher (1998) defined the supply
approach and methodologies. chain as the network of organizations that are involved,
• Explore the trend in the SCM research and suggest a through upstream and downstream linkages, in the different
research agenda for future work. processes and activities that produce value in the form of
products and services in the hands of the ultimate customer.
The organization of this paper is as follows: the next section SCM is the " strategic and systematic coordination of the

12
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

traditional business functions and the tactics across these 2001). various connotations of supply chain management
business functions within a particular firm and across given by other researchers are given in Table 2.
businesses within a supply chain, for the purposes of
improving the long-term performance of the individual
companies and the supply chain as a whole" (Mentzer et al.

Table 2. Various Connotations of Supply Chain Management Reported In the Literature


S. Researchers Year Definition
No.
1. Chopra and 2001 “A supply chain consists of all stages involved, directly or indirectly, in
Meindl fulfilling a customer request”.
2. Mentzer et al. 2001 “The systemic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions
and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company
and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of
improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the
supply chain as a whole.”
3. Handfield & 1999 “A supply chain encompasses all activities associated with the flow and
Nichols transformation of goods from the raw material stage, through to the end
user, as well as the associated information flows”.
4. Christopher 1998 “The supply chain is the network of organizations that are involved,
through upstream and downstream linkages, in the different processes and
activities that produce value in the form of products and services in the
hands of the ultimate customer”.

5. Lee & Corey 1995 “The integration activities taking place among a network of facilities that
procure Raw material, transform them into intermediate goods and then
final products, & deliver Products to customers through a distribution
system”
6. Ganeshan and 1995 “A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that
Harrison performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these
materials intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these
finished products customers.”
7. Cooper & 1993 “SCM is an integrative philosophy to manage the total flow of distribution
Ellram channel from the supplier to ultimate user”
8. Cavinato 1992 "The supply chain concept consists of actively managed channels of
procurement and distribution. It is the group of firms that add value along
product flow from original raw materials to final customer”.
9. Towil, Naim, 1992 "The supply chain is a system, the constituent parts of which include
and Wikner material suppliers, production facilities, distribution services, customers
linked together via the feed forward flow of materials and the feedback
flow information”
10. Scott & 1991 “supply chain is used to refer to the chain linking each element of the
Westbrook process from, raw materials through to the end customer”
11. Novak & Simco 1991 "The supply chain management covers the flow of goods from supplier
through manufacturer and distributor to the end-user”

product manufactured. These networks obtain supplies and


Now from author’s point of view the definition of supply components, change these materials into finished products
chain and supply chain management can be depicted as and then distribute them to the customer. Managing the chain
“supply chain is the stream of processes of moving goods of events in this process is what is known as supply chain
from the customer order through the raw materials stage, management. Effective management must take into account
supply, production, and distribution of products to the coordinating all the different pieces of this chain as quickly
customer. All firms have supply chains of varying degrees, as possible without losing any of the quality or customer
depending upon the size of the organization and the type of satisfaction, while still keeping costs down”.

13
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

The supply chain not only includes the manufacturer and period, we examined 588 articles over 18 years. This not
suppliers, but also transporters, warehouses, retailers, and only makes for a more in-depth review, but provides a larger
customers themselves. It is clear that supply chain base from which to chart the maturation of the SCM field. It
management has a significant role to play and needs critical also helps to assess gaps in the literature and project future
attention in the corporate setting. trends, thereby underscoring the importance and robustness
of this study. Finally, Burgess et al., include books,
2.2 The Literature, Theory and Practice of SCM manuscripts and conference proceedings while this research
focuses solely on published articles in peer reviewed SCM
Numerous articles dealing with the theory and practice of journals.
SCM have been published over the reviewed period of last 18
years, but the topic is still under considerable development Carter and Ellram (2003) surveyed the articles published in
and debate. Richard Lamming (1996) has given a general the Journal of Supply Chain Management for the total period
review on lean supply chain in which Lean supply has been of 35 years since its launching i.e. for 1965 to 1999. Their
characterized as “beyond partnership”. Lean supply is the objective was to offer a greater understanding of the
system of purchasing and supply chain management required evolution of purchasing and supply research over the first 35
to underpin lean production. . Ben-Daya et al. (2008) years of the Journal of Supply Chain’s existence, and to
explored the topic in a particular context, i.e. The industrial provide guidance and prescriptions for future supply
district (ID), that constitutes a specific production model management research. They observed that nearly 90% of the
where complex SC networks can be identified. SC journal articles under study consisted of normative literature,
cooperation may take on several forms in IDs and may methodology reviews, and exploratory studies. They further
produce several benefits (e. g. Upgrading quality and noted that the use of hypothesis testing had increased
reducing costs). significantly over the past 10 years of their review (1989-
1999), yet they consider that a greater use of hypothesis
Vaart and Pieter (2003) drawn conclusions on the need for an testing and the scientific method is recommended as the
inter-disciplinary approach, combining the technical and Supply Management discipline continued to mature. Carter
relational aspects from the respective fields of system & Ellram (2003) further recommended more literature
dynamics and collaboration in order to deliver superior order reviews leading to the introduction of theoretical frameworks
replenishment performance. Gunasekaran and Ngai (2005) of supply management, and the use of more sophisticated
indicated that E-Business, product, and service-quality, all research modeling techniques such as MANOVA/
have a significant direct effect on customer behavioral discriminant analysis and inferential statistical techniques.
intentions to purchase again. Balakrishnan and Cheng (2005) They classified the articles based on a modification of the
reviewed and update the methodology based on spreadsheet categories used by ISM, and proposed 32 categories for clear
that provided enhanced solutions in complex environments and unambiguous classification, which has proved to be a
with multiple products and bottleneck situations. Nagarajan milestone and has been used in subsequent literature reviews
and Sosic (2004) reviewed literature dealing with buyer by several researchers. The authors conclude that purchasing
vendor coordination models that have used quantity discount and supply management, as a scientific discipline, is
as coordination mechanism under deterministic environment maturing. It is interesting to note that the authors have
and classified the various models. consistently used the terms ‘purchasing’ and ‘supply’
management, which speaks a lot about the stage of
Based on this conceptualization of SCM, the existing development of the discipline of ‘Supply Chain Management’
literature was examined, in an effort to identify the extent to till 1999.
which these underlying elements were present in SCM
academic research to date. A review of previous literature Croom et al. (2000) analyze 84 studies on SCM in terms of
studies, as highlighted in Table 3 (Appendix A), provides the level of analysis and research methodologies, but the time
basis for how this review extends our understanding of SCM period for their data collection is ambiguous. Their study
research. represents an early attempt to categorize the SCM literature.
Significant growth has taken place both in the practice and
Burgess et.al. (2006) reviewed 100 randomly selected theory of Supply chain Management since this attempt,
articles from 614 usable articles found in the ABI/Inform making it necessary for reviews of current knowledge and
Database across a 19 year (1985 to 2003) period.. Their literature. Finally they describe and categorize the research
sample addressed manufacturing and consumer goods methods into two dimensions: theoretical and empirical and
industries, and the research articles reviewed by them focused do not provide the number of articles associated with each
on a more narrowly defined operations management approach level of analysis.
to Supply Chain Management. They classified the articles
into four groups, namely (1) Descriptive features of SCM, (2) Rungtusanatham et.al. (2003) carried out a comprehensive
Definition issues, (3) Theoretical concerns and (4) Research review of 285 SCM articles published in 6 operations
methodological issues. They found SCM to be a relatively management journals during a period of 21 years from 1980-
young field with exponential growth in interest from 2000. They noticed the occurrence of major changes in the
researchers in the recent past. The importance of this last 5 years of their sampling period, and that two topics
research in contrast to Burgess et al. (2006) is that instead of stood out as showing fastest ascendancy to prominence-
sampling 100 articles from a pool of 614 over a 5-year operations strategy and supply chain management. They

14
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

observed that the SCM related articles increased significantly This section presents the methodology used in this research.
after the first half of 1990s, thereby implying the increased Initial stage of the process involved data collection. In order
interest of researchers in this field and accelerated growth of to develop an extensive database of academic articles within
this discipline. It shows that SCM is a booming and growing the SCM field, several citation and identification methods
field, and offers plenty opportunities in research. were used. (1) A basic search was carried out using search
criteria based on the presence of the phrases "supply chain
Giunipero et.al. (2008) in a recent literature review of a management" and/or "supply chain" in the abstract and/or
decade of SCM literature note that the literature, in reality, title, in order to capture articles concentrating on the broader
is still very fragmented and although several studies purport supply chain concept, and (2) Publication in one of the
to discuss supply chain issues, most of the existing research thirteen listed academic journals. The journal selection was
only examines one link of the chain, or more importantly developed after investigating those that had been examined in
only focuses on one ingredient in the supply chain previously published articles which was supplemented by an
performance mix. They pointed out that the SCM literature intelligent internet scanning of the journals to determine
reviewed by them revealed several gaps identified by them as those where articles on SCM appeared during the review
(1) Small sample sizes (2) One-tier investigations (3) Limited period. For example, the Journal Supply Chain Management
methodological analysis (4)Lack of longitudinal studies, and was studied by Carter and Ellram (2003), while
(5) Limited global supply chain analysis. Rungtusanatham et al. (2003) examined six Operation
Management Journal. Other academic journals, such as the
In view of this discussion, the authors conclude that a broader Journal of Business Logistics, Industrial Marketing
view of SCM is needed in order to develop a wider consensus Management, the International Journal of Logistics
and resolve the present conceptual and research Management and International Journal of Physical
methodological confusion. In contrast to single journal Distribution and Logistic Management were selected based
review, or limited random review, this research surveys on the volume of SCM-oriented articles published in each
thirteen academic journals and reviews 588 research-based outlet, as well as their rankings by Baumgartner and Pieter’s
articles published during an 18-year period from 1991 to mid (2003) and Kumar and Kwon (2004).
2008, thereby covering the entire significant period of SCM
emergence to its evolution as a strong discipline. The authors The initial search yielded a total of 965 articles related to
these articles in terms of research method, and data analysis SCM. Articles addressing only a single dimension of SCM
techniques to discover the extent of research trend. like marketing, logistics, or operations focus were eliminated
from the list, as the objective of this literature review is to
In summary, this research extends the previous literature concentrate on multi-dimensional issues specifically. This
reviews by: process eliminated articles that, for example, may have
• Specifically focusing on multi facet SCM work in contained the phrase "supply chain management", as well as
scholarly journals, "logistics", "marketing,” or "operations" but had purely a
• Reviewing the current 18 years period during which one-dimensional marketing, operations, or logistics focus. A
SCM grew as a discipline and academic research in final count of 588 empirical and non-empirical articles
this field gained importance and increased involving multi-dimensional treatment of the broader SCM
significantly. concept was thus obtained for further study.
• Providing an investigation of the research methods The selected articles were analyzed and classified for:
and data analysis, using an established subject (a) Type of Research Methods
categorization scheme and reviewing publication (b) Content analysis
and providing insight in to the research methods and
data analysis method used in current literature. 3.1 Type of Research performed

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Table 4. Explanation of Categories of Research Methods
Sl. Category Explanation
No.
1 Normative Literature “Research that examines what ought to be and what individuals and organizations
ought to do” (Mentzer and Kahn 1995).
2 Literature Reviews A review and synthesis of existing literature , the result of which is the development
of a framework, propos ions, or normative prescriptions grounded in the existing
literature
3 Exploratory Studies Research that makes observations of supply management for the purpose of
developing theories, but leaves the testing of the theories for other studies “
4 Methodology Reviews A review of research methodologies used in the field of supply management. A
‘how to” article includes articles that review /introduce an academic research
methodology as well as a practitioners’ methodology.
5 Hypothesis Testing Articles that introduce and then test research hypothesis or propositions.

15
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

Mentzer and Kahn (1995) recommended a typology for Development/Selection and Management; (9) Out Sourcing;
classification of research articles based on the type of (10) Environmental/Social Responsibility; (11)
research. They devised a classification system comprising of International/Global supply chain concepts.; (12) Buyer
five categories namely normative literature, Literature Behavior; (13) Transportation & Logistics (14) Human
reviews, exploratory studies, Methodological reviews and Resource Management; (15) MRP, legal Regulations and
Hypothesis testing. The explanation of different research Negotiations. These particular categories were selected
methods is given in Table 4. because they are based on a classification summary provided
by the ISM, as seen in Carter and Ellram (2003). The
3.2 Content Analysis research goal was to systematically capture trends, gaps and
the future direction for the SCM field as depicted in the SCM
A Content Analysis enables one to determine the nature of literature and covered by a wide cross-section of articles of
content, identify the patterns, and estimate the relationships thirteen journals.
between the research papers being analyzed.
Descriptions for each topic category were then assigned
Content analysis methodologies was employed to both code appropriately. These categorical descriptions and the issues
and categorize the selected articles into one of the 15 covered are expanded upon in Table 5. This Table provides a
categories adapted from Carter and Ellram (2003) and useful categorization for future researchers in examining the
displayed in Table 5. The 15 categories used in this study are various elements of the supply chain. For example, articles
(1) SCM Strategy; (2) SCM Frameworks, Trends and in the SCM strategy area focused on the strategic aspects
Challenges; (3) Alliances/Relationships; (4) E- within the chain studying theories such as the resource based
Commerce/World Wide Web; (5) Time-Based Strategies; view, agency theory and risk management.
(6) Computer Application & EDI (7) Quality; (8) Supplier
Table 5. Details of Content Categories
Sl. Category Description and topics covered
No.
1 SCM Strategy It includes resource based view, competitive advantage, agency theory and risk
management.
2 SCM Frameworks, Trends It includes future trends, supply chain definitions and benefits/ problems of scm.
And Challenges
3 Alliances Or Relationships It includes commitment, trust, conflict, intra and inter-firm relationship building
etc.
4 Transportations & Logistics It includes procurement of transportation and logistics services.
5 World Wide Web and E- It includes e-procurement, e-integration and website content
Commerce
6 Time Based Strategy It includes just in time , cycle time supply chain agility and flexibility, inventory
management etc.
7 Quality It includes ISO and quality management practices
8 Environmental and Social It includes environmental policies, government regulations recovery and scrap and
Responsibility surplus
9 Outsourcing It includes third party logistic and contract manufacturing.
10 Human Resource Issues It includes hiring issues, psychological issues, job performance, training, pay and
promotions etc.
11 Supplier Development It includes supplier selection criteria, supplier training and improvement, supplier
/Selection and Management monitoring, management and assessment.
12 Computer Application and It includes use of information technology and computer applications.
Electronic Data Interchange
13 Buyer Behavior It includes decision making, purchasing motivation and risk management
including dealing with uncertainty and shortages, new product development, and
internal integration
14 International/Global Supply It includes global logistic cultural issues and international logistics.
Chain
15 Manufacturing Resource It includes planning of manufacturing resources and all legal and regulatory issues
Planning, Legal and along with negotiations.
Regulatory Issues

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Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

4. OBSERVATION & DISCUSSIONS Earlier literature reviews provided the basis of selecting the
relevant journals, which was supplemented by an intelligent
It is seen from the preliminary discussion that 588 articles internet scanning of the journals to determine those where
were found in 13 journals after selecting for multi-faceted articles on SCM appeared during the review period. A
ness of the articles, and approximately 370 articles were journal-wise count of the short listed SCM articles appearing
dropped from the analysis, as they pertained to treatment of in these journals is shown in Table 6.
only one single parameter.
Table 6. Distribution of Reviewed SCM Publications
S. Cumulative
Journal Name Frequency Percentage
No. percentage
1 The Journal of Supply Chain Management 138 23. 46 23. 46
2 International Journal of Production Economics 107 18. 20 41. 66
3 European Journal of Operational Research 74 12. 59 54. 25
4 Journal of Operations Management 60 10. 20 64. 50
5 IJ of Logistics Research and Applications 38 6. 46 70. 96
6 Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management 37 6. 29 77. 25
7 Journal of Business Logistics 28 4. 76 82. 01
8 IJ of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 25 4. 25 86. 26
9 The IJ of Logistics Management 24 4. 08 90. 34
10 IJ of Operations & Prod Mgmt. (IJOPM) 20 3. 40 93. 74
11 OMEGA 19 3. 23 96. 97
12 The IJ of Industrial Mgmt & Data Systems 13 2. 21 99. 18
13 Industrial Marketing Management and others 5 0. 82 100
Total 588 100
(25.31%) that examines what ought to be and what
It is seen from Table 6 that 64. 50% of the selected articles individuals and organizations ought to do” (Mentzer and
appeared in only 04 Journals, out of which also, The Journal Kahn 1995). After that Methodology Reviews (15.15%),
of Supply Chain Management contributed the lion’s share – Literature Review (9.56 %) and Hypothesis testing (6. 31
138 articles forming 23.46% of all the 588 articles across 13 %) follows. This indicates that more research is needed in
journals. However the wide ranging interest and activity in hypothesis testing research method.
SCM is evinced by the fact that there are ten Journals with
twenty or more articles. A journal-wise, year-wise categorization of the 588 articles is
presented in Table 8. The Table 8 shows that the topic of
The data of Table 7 depicts that Exploratory Research SCM has seen a major research thrust over the recent years,
Method (43.37%) that makes observations of supply and 30% of the selected articles have appeared in the last 2
management for the purpose of developing theories, but years only, 54.08% in the last 4 years.
leaves the testing of the theories for other studies, dominated
over other methods and closely followed by Normative study
Table 7. Classification of articles By Method of Research
1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006
Total Comm.
- - - - - - %
No. %
1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008
Exploratory 5 6 21 39 76 108 255 43. 37 43.37
Normative 2 6 15 26 42 58 149 25. 31 68.68
Methodology - 2 4 8 28 47 82 15. 15 83.93
Reviews
Literature 2 3 2 8 14 29 58 9. 56 93.59
Review
Hypothesis 1 2 - 6 15 13 37 6. 31 99.90
Testing
Total 10 19 42 87 175 255 588 100

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Table 8. Journal-wise and Year-wise number of selected publications

Total
Journal
08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91
Name

Journal of
SCM
21 11 11 20 15 12 10 12 4 6 3 3 2 3 3 2 0 0 138

I.J. of Prod.
Economics
18 25 12 12 16 8 4 3 2 2 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 107

European j.
of Operation 16 12 7 10 15 1 3 5 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 74
Research
Journal of
Operation 8 12 7 6 7 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 60
Management
IJ of
Logistic
Research &
1 2 4 5 2 3 5 2 4 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 38
Application
Journal of
Purchasing &
Supply
8 7 4 2 3 8 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37
Management
Journal of
Business 3 8 7 4 2 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28
Logistics
IJ of Physical
distribution
3 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 25
& Logistic
management
Int. Journal
of Logistic 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 24
Management
IJ of
Operation & 5 2 3 3 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 20
Prod. Mgmt.
Omega 2 7 6 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19
IJ of
Industrial
Mgmt. &
1 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 13
Data Systems
Industrial
Marketing 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05
Management
Total 88 91 69 70 67 45 30 35 22 16 17 9 7 5 7 4 2 4 588
Percentage
14. 97

15. 48

11. 73

11. 90

11. 39

7. 65

5. 10

5. 95

3. 74

2. 72

2. 89

1. 53

1. 19

0. 85

1. 19

0. 68

0. 34

0. 68

100

Cum %
14. 97

30. 45

42. 18

54. 08

65. 47

73. 12

78. 22

84. 17

87. 91

90. 63

93. 52

93. 05

96. 24

97. 09

98. 28

98. 96

99. 30

99. 98

18
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

As expected, the Journal of Supply Chain Management 


Figure 2 Categorywise trend of No of papers per year from
carried the maximum number of articles (138), closely 2001-08 (in top five categories)
followed by international Journal of Production Economics
25
with 107 articles. It is pointed out here that while the actual
number of total articles published was much more, as is also SCM Strategy
20
evinced by previous literature reviews reporting a large
SCM framework,
number of articles, the lower count presented here by the

No. of papers
15 Challenges And Trends
authors is due to the elimination of those articles which Alliances/Relations
focused on only single parameters of the supply Chain. The 10
World Wide Web and
discussed articles are those which focus on multi- E0Commerce
functionality of the supply chain. It is therefore concluded 5 Time Based Strategy

that this particular aspect i.e. Multi-functionality of the


Supply Chain and related issues has only recently received 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
the attention of the researchers, which accounts for the recent
Year
steep rise in the publications reflected in the Table 9
(Appendix B).
Fig. 2. Categorywise trend of No of papers per year from
All the 588 selected journal articles were categorized into the 2001-08 (in top five categories)
15 categories specified in section 3. 03 above. The category
Supply Chain Strategy received maximum attention of the 4.1 Supply Chain Management Strategy
researchers with a total of 127 (21. 60%) papers appearing
during the survey period on this topic. SCM frameworks, Given the relative recency of SCM for researchers, as well as
Trends and Challenges were the topic which received the how it continues to evolve, Supply Chain Strategy SCM
next most attention with a total of 101 papers (17. 17%). Frameworks, Trends and Challenges should remain an
Alliance/ relations with 83 papers (14.11%), World-wide web important topic going forward. In other words, at some point
& e-Commerce with 54 papers (9. 18%) were the other in the future, the lines between categories such as these may
important topics with others categories individually having become blurred because IT and e-commerce are continually
less number of papers. Time-based Strategy attracted 39 integrated into the frameworks and strategies of supply chain.
papers (6. 63%) and Computer applications and EDI has 36 Giunipro et al. (2008) in his review of SCM literature up to
papers 6.12%. All other categories individually contribute 2006 observed that articles on e- commerce peaked in 2004.
less than 5%, and collectively 148 papers (25. 17%). This is The authors find from their data which specifically looks at
clearly visible in Figure 1. only those papers which address multiple aspects of supply
chain gained in numbers only from 2005 and 7, 7, 10 and 8
Figure 1 Distribution of articles in top six categories numbers of papers were published in year 2005, 2006, 2007
and 2008 respectively. This shows that the impact of rapid
140
development of Information Technology has manifested in
120 SCM Strategy development in supply chain field and further developments
100 SCM framework, Challenges in multidimensional aspects of scm will increase in terms of
And Trends
their value to SCM researchers and managers in the coming
No. of papers

80 Alliances/Relations
years. For a successful integrated supply chain continuous
World Wide Web and
60
E0Commerce
flow of information is necessary. Our study confirms the
Time Based Strategy observation of Giunipro et al. (2008) that traditional areas
40
Computer Application and EDI
such as Quality, Human resource and Supplier Development
20 areas have remained fairly stable, and this trend continues.
0
However, the field of Environmental and Social
1 Responsibility has seen an increased activity, reflecting the
category
heightened government and public concerns and industry
awareness in these areas. (Cruz, 2008). Literature on green
Fig. 1. Distribution of articles in top six categories supply chain is emerging (Zhu and Sarkis, 2004) and gaining
prominence and represents a research area with a huge
A general rising of interest in almost all the 15 categories is potential.
seen from the Table 9. However, the rise of interest in SCM
Strategy is much more than in other topics, and when There was very little discussion on the global supply chain up
compared to the total trend, we can see the interest very to 2006 (Giunipro et al., 2008). Our study found no
clearly in Figure 2. appreciable increase in numbers of papers published in this
field in 2007 (publication =4) and in year 2008 (publication
A detailed analysis of top four categories is described =3). Therefore this field is still developing and has a lot of
afterwards. potential for research. This confirms the findings of Giunipro

19
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

et al (2008) that this field should continue to see increased supplier systems. Zhao et.al. (2007) discuss the value of
activity given the increased emphasis on global business. early order commitment in a two-level supply chain. Adhitya
et.al. (2007) developed a model-based rescheduling
Integrating supply chain strategy with the overall firm framework for managing abnormal supply chain events.
strategy is an important consideration to maximize
profitability (Tan et al. 1998). This has resulted in a sharp 4.3 Supplier Alliances/Relationships
increase in the literature concerning SCM Strategy, and 21.
6% of the articles included in our literature review are seen to The resurgence of publications in this area was observed by
belong to this category, even though Time-based strategies Giunipro et al. (2008) and explained as a result of a general
have been separately categorized and add an additional trend within industries of moving away from simple
6.71%, making the attention on Strategy as 28.31% of the transaction and contractual-based relationships, and toward
total articles. The articles dealing with strategy are observed more long-term relational forms of collaboration between
to be concentrating on various aspects, mainly on Risk parties involved in supply chain activities. The development
Management in Supply Chains, Competitive Advantages, of these long-term, strategic relationships between buyers and
Resource based Views and Agency theory, Strategic sellers within the supply chain has been previously shown to
Alliances, Strategic Alliances (Sandelands 1994; Carr and offer opportunities to create considerable competitive
Pearson 1999), Strategic Performance Measures (Tan, advantage (Tanner 1999). Ghosal and Moran (1996)
Kannan and Handfield 1998; Gunasekaran, Patel and cautioned that many firms were recognizing these
Tirtiroglu 2001) and Supply Chain Forecasting (McCarthy implications and as a result were attempting to adopt a more
and Golicic 2002). Gong (2008) highlights flexibility as an collaborative and trusting relationship between the two
important determinant of Strategy and proposes an economic parties. The publication of relationship-oriented SCM
model for evaluation of Supply Chain Flexibility. articles is seen to more than double within a decade from 5.
88% in 1998 to 13. 64% in 2008, underlining the growing
Also, most of these articles only investigated strategy importance of this field. The authors feel that a substantial
alignment between the firm and one key supplier rather than activity will be seen in the coming years in this field as more
a chain investigation. The idea of a supply chain and more companies from the developing world go global.
organization has been presented (Ketchen and Giunipero
2004), but this has yet to be systematically investigated. 4.4 World Wide Web and E-commerce
Additionally, there is still considerable work yet to be done in
terms of merging existing strategic management literature WWW and E-commerce is the fourth largest area of growth
with theoretical work being conducted in the SCM field. in supply chain literature. As shown in Figure 1, 54 of the
588 total articles, or approximately 9%, fall into this
4.2 SCM Frameworks, Trends and Challenges category. A steady growth in the number of articles in this
area of research is seen in the Table-9. The Internet has
SCM Frameworks, Trends and Challenges represent the revolutionized the communication process, and made
second largest area of recent growth within the supply chain availability of information instantaneous across the globe.
field. As shown in Figure 1, 101 of the 588 total articles, or This has greatly improved the co-ordination of the various
approximately 17.38%, fall into this category. While SCM activities like Production planning, Purchasing, Materials
has, in some form or other, existed for several decades, the management, Distribution, Customer service and Sales
true value of SCM to the organization’s growth and forecasting of a Supply Chain, thereby enabling and
profitability targets has been realized only recently with the empowering the supply chain. The has resulted in the
emergence of global supply chains and information emergence of new business-to-business (B2B) supply chains,
technology advances. The development and mechanics of and business-to-consumer (B2C) supply chains, with several
supply chains have become very complex, and Blackhurst et techniques like e-Tender and e-Auctions gaining popularity
al. (2005) showed as to how supply chain complexity can and facilitating the speeding up of the supply chain. Thus E-
make the modeling of the chain a multifaceted task. The commerce impacts supply chain management in various ways
authors have concentrated only on those articles which focus including Cost efficiency, Changes in the distribution system,
on the multi-faceted aspects of the Supply Chain and examine Customer orientation, Shipment tracking, Shipping notice,
the inter-dependence and co-ordination of two or more facets Freight auditing, Shipping Documentation and Labeling,
of the Supply Chain. Online Shipping Inquiry etc. Agatz et.al (2007) presented a
review of E-fulfillment and multi-channel distribution.
Several authors have examined several aspects of the SCM
and contributed to enhance overall understanding of multi- This is a fascinating and developing area, and holds
faceted SCM. This category also includes several definitions unpredictable and interesting developments in reserve.
and frameworks which were developed for multi-dimensional Depending upon the developments in the field of Information
SCM (Sanders et.al. (2007). Jüttner and Baker (2007) Technology, surprise developments in Supply Chain in the
examine aspect of integrating marketing and supply chain form of E-commerce and WWW based SCM applications are
management. Sanders et.al. (2007) suggested a sure to emerge in the future.
Multidimensional Framework for Understanding Outsourcing
Arrangements. Frizelle and Efstathiou (2007) report a study
the impact of operational complexity on the cost in customer–

20
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

5. FUTURE AREAS FOR RESEARCH chain present another problem. A normal researcher can
work at one location, and trade, tariff, financial and
As evident from the literature, supply chain management has diplomatic barriers often prevent the researcher from
been the topic of interest for researchers in recent past. It accessing the other parts of a global supply chain. Earlier
offers almost unlimited possibilities of exploration as the research has suffered from a major drawback pointed out in
market dynamics are widely varying among economies, Giunipero et.al. (2008) who cited Malhotra and Grover
regions, climate zones, time zones, political systems, (1998) as reporting that 30% of the operations management
countries, population demographics, markets, and so on. The survey studies they assessed suffered from statistical
field will continue to grow as the world is integrated into one conclusion errors due to small sample sizes. Tanner (1999)
great global marketplace, and the researchers are faced with suggested involving trade associations to increase access to
new scenarios from time to time. more companies and increase sample sizes.

Supply chain management is an exploding field, both in 6. CONCLUSION


research and in practice. Major international consulting firms
have developed large practices in the field of supply chain, The review of literature and its categorization has highlighted
and the number of research papers in the field is growing the popularity of SCM as a field of research. SCM Strategy,
rapidly. Firms operate in global environments, deal with SCM Frameworks, Trends and Challenges;
multiple suppliers and customers, are required to manage Alliances/Relationships and WWW and E commerce are the
inventories in new and innovative ways, and are faced with principal areas of research and publication in the SCM
possible channel restructuring. The field promises to domain. In this paper attempt has been made to review the
continue growing as the research advances and as firms literature on SCM. We have presented a literature
continue to apply new knowledge in their global networks. It classification scheme in line with the suggestion made by
would be almost impossible to foray into the unknown and Mentzer & Kahn (1995). We have categorized the articles in
predict the future course research in SCM is likely to take. five methodologies of SCM i.e. Exploratory, Normative,
However, there are a few issues within SCM which are Methodology, Literature Review and Hypothesis testing.
identified as suitable and appropriate for further research
exploration. A literature review reveals a considerable spurt in research in
Some issues for future research: theory and practice of SCM. Combining and informing on
features of Supply Management and distribution
5.1 Demand Driven Supply Chains Management. This integration has resulted in the concept of
extended enterprise and the supply chain is now manifest as
Aligning supply and demand in today’s complex and the collaborative supply chain across inter company borders
dynamic manufacturing environment can be challenging at to maximize the value across the entire supply chain.
best. Many companies spend much amount of time and
resources in an attempt to better predict demand. But still,
static forecasts are often out of date within hours of creation, We hope this study contributes to a better understanding of
making some question the real value of traditional planning the direction in SCM research. Regarding the methodologies
tools as it relates to near-term demand volatility. used by researchers, the Exploratory reviews has been the
most used, followed by the Normative study,
5.2 Supply chain in Food and Service industry is also a Methodological reviews, Literature review and Hypothesis
prominent field of research. testing. This literature review finds that exploratory type of
research is mostly preferred it is expected that with the
While the objectives to be addressed by future research are maturity of SCM the hypothesis testing method will pick up.
outlined broadly above, certain barriers exist to deter the Content wise categorization revealed that paper on supply
research in these fields. With the expansion of the supply chain strategy dominates over others so the papers in the field
chain to a global status, the average researcher is left high of supplier development and management and environmental
and dry, with little or no access to the corporate data, and social responsible categories should also be promoted.
problems and with little resource to look into the status and
devise solutions. Large MNC’s tend to be severely There is an increased interest in SCM and Internet by
confidential and closed, and fend for their own, particularly academicians and practitioners. Some directions for further
in the developing economies where the possibilities of research that we have identified are: to conduct empirical
research largely exist. Due to this reason, most research has studies about the impact of Internet on several e-SCM
been limited to individual aspects of SCM with limited data, processes, as for example the reverse and demand
and mostly has been empirical research. Large consultants management processes which, so far, have only been
do have access to corporate working and data, and that is considered by a couple of authors. Another important area of
perhaps one reason that more and more information is sought research is the application of decision models and
by researchers on the Internet, where one can find secondary technologies on Internet. As more and more firms have high
and processed data like the reports of major consultants like quality and real-time information available, the use of these
McKinsey. The researcher community needs to find a way decision technologies will increase, since they add significant
around this problem. value to the members of a supply chain.
Geographic distances between the different parts of a supply

21
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

The SCM is continuously redefining itself. Past literature Cavinato (1992). “A Total Cost/Value Model for Supply
reviews provided valuable results, they were based upon the Chain Competitiveness,” Journal of Business Logistics,
random selection of articles, book chapters and conference (13: 2), 1992, pp 285-301.
proceedings (Croom et al. 2000; Burgess et al., 2006). Other Christopher M. (1998), Logistics & Supply Chain
literature reviews were either more focused on operations Management:Strategies for Reducing Costs and
management or examined a single journal (Carter and Ellram Improving Services, Pitman Publishing, and London.
2003; Rungtusanatham et al., 2003).A review of suspended Chopra S. and Meindl's (2001) book, Supply Chain
data collection in 2003 (Burgess et al. 2006) was carried out. Management: Strategy, Planning, and Operation,
The aim of this study was to provide an up-to-date and Prentice Hall of India.
extensive review of the SCM literature that was focused on a Cooper M., D. Lambert and J. Pagh. , “Supply Chain
broad definition of the SCM concept. Also, the most recent Management: More than a New Name for Logistics, "
literature review was given by Giunipero et al (2008) in The International Journal of Logistics Management, (8:
which they had given past present and future implications of 1), 1997, pp. 1-13.
SCM. Cooper M. C. and L. M. Ellram. , “Characteristics of Supply
Chain Management and the Implications for Purchasing
It is our hope that researchers will use the gaps identified and Logistics Strategy, " International Journal of
herein to generate much needed conceptual and empirical Logistics Management, (4: 2), 1993, pp. 13-24.
work in the SCM literature, thereby creating a body of Cooper O. P. and M. Tracey, “Supply Chain Integration via
literature that is more heavily influenced by a deeper analysis Information Technology: Strategic Implications and
of the supply chain on a chain wide or network basis. Future Trends, " International Journal of Integrated
Supply Management, (1: 3), 2005, pp. 237-257.
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23
Appendix A. TABLE 3
Table 3. SCM Related Literature Reviews

Researchers & Methodology Scope Key Findings


Year (Sampling Period); #
of Journals
Giunipero et al. Reviewed 405 articles published in nine academic journals Nine (09) Years (1997- There is ample opportunity for a wide range of methodological tools
(2008) over a 10-year period. 2006); Nine academic to analyze.
Journals.
Burgess et al Reviewed randomly selected 100 articles found in Nineteen years (1985- Consensus is lacking on SCM definition; Research methods
(2006) ABI/Inform Global ProQuest database. Analyzed articles in mid-2003) 31 random employed are mostly analytical, conceptual, empirical survey
four types: descriptive features of SCM, literature Journals or case studies.
definition issues, theoretical concerns, and research
methodological issues.
Carter & Ellram Reviewed articles published in the journal of Supply Chain Thirty Five years The most common type of research performed was Exploratory
(2003) Management over a 35-year period. (1965-99); one journal Review, Hypothesis testing being the least common method.
Rungtusanatham Reviewed 285 survey articles published in six operational Twenty-One (21) Years SCM oriented articles increased significantly after first half of
et al. (2003) Management Journals. (1980-2000); Six OM 1990’s.

24
Journals.
Croom et al. Reviewed 84 papers on SCM in terms of level of analysis Time period not Primary categories in SCM literature are defined, including Strategic
(2000) and used ProQuest, Anbar and BIDS packages. mentioned Journal, Management, Logistics, and Marketing, Relationship, Partnerships,
Books and conference Best Practices, and Organizational behaviors.
proceedings
Appendix B. TABLE 9

View publication stats


Table 9. Category-wise and year-wise number of selected articles
Category 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 Total %
SCM Strategy 20 18 14 18 19 11 5 8 7 7 5 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 127 21. 60
SCM framework, 12 15 10 12 18 9 6 8 4 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 101 17. 17
Challenges And Trends
Alliances/Relations 12 12 6 12 8 6 4 4 4 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 0 0 83 14. 11
World Wide Web and 8 10 7 7 0 4 2 3 1 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 54 9. 18
Ecommerce
Time Based Strategy 8 6 9 1 5 2 1 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 39 6. 63
Computer App. and EDI 7 4 6 6 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 6. 12
Quality 3 3 4 3 4 2 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 28 4. 76
Supplier Development and 4 8 0 5 4 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 25 4. 25
Management
Out Sourcing 3 2 3 2 0 1 3 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 20 3. 40
Env. And Social 4 8 3 2 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 3. 06
Responsibility

25
Int. /Global Supply Chain 3 4 2 3 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 18 3. 06
Buyer Behavior 3 0 5 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 2. 21
Transportation and 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 11 1. 87
Logistics
Human Resource Issues 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 1. 70
MRP, legal Issues and 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0. 85
Negotiations.
Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1-2010/Iss.1)

Total 88 91 69 70 67 45 30 35 22 16 17 09 07 05 07 04 02 04 588 100.00


Percentage

7. 65
5. 10
5. 95
3. 74
2. 72
2. 89
1. 53
1. 19
0. 85
1. 19
0. 68
0. 34
0. 68

14. 97
15. 48
11. 73
11. 90
11. 39
Jain et al. / Supply Chain Management: Literature Review and Some Issues / pp. 11-25

Cum. Percentage

14. 97
30. 45
42. 18
54. 08
65. 47
73. 12
78. 22
84. 17
87. 91
90. 63
93. 52
93. 05
96. 24
97. 09
98. 28
98. 96
99. 30
99. 98