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COMPILED AND SUBMITTED BY SRUTHI NAIR
AIM TO ANALYSE SOFT DRINKS .
Inference 8. Conclusion 9. Introduction 4. Manufacturing Process 5. Experiment. Certificate 3. Acknowledgement 2. Chemical Analysis 7. Observation.CONTENT 1. Bibliography . Highlights 6.
for his adroit handling. Ompal for acting as abettor and rendering help from time to time. I thank him again. MUKESH TEWATIA for infusing enthusiasm and motivation in me. . I would also like to have the opportunity to extend my regards to Laboratory Assistant Mr. without which this project would be abortive and nugatory.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to pay my heartfelt gratitude to my Teacher MR. concrete guidance and incredible corporation to my project.
conducted by CBSE. ROLL NO.E. This project may be considered as a part of the chemical practical examination A. (TEACHER ) .C.I.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project on SOFT DRINKS ANALYSIS undertaken by SRUTHI NAIR of Class XII (Science Group) has completed this project under my supervision fulfilling the required conditions.S.S.
soft drinks are also called soda pop. cocoa and undiluted fruit and vegetable juices are not considered soft drinks. The characteristic fizz and sparkle of soft drinks is the result of carbonationodissolving carbon dioxide in the soft drinks during processing (see Carbon Dioxide). Because they contain carbonated water. Soft drinks are nonalcoholic carbonated or non carbonated beverages. or spirits. Soft drinks including cola beverages. usually containing a sweetening agent. soda. and ginger ale and root beer. edible acids and natural or artificial flavors. and they therefore concentrated this gaseous carbon dioxide to make soft drink. milk. . or soda water. mineral-rich waters that flowed from the springs at well-known European spas. Early experimenters believed that the effervescence was the source of the reputed healthful properties of the waters.INTRODUCTION The term soft drink was originated to distinguish nonalcoholic beverages from hard liquor. fruit-flavoured drinks. or pop (See also Soda Fountain). tea. The first attempts to make carbonated soft drinks were the result of a desire to duplicate the naturally effervescent. Coffee.
. In some bottling plants the water-treatment equipment may simply consist of a sand filter to remove minute solid matter and activated carbon purifier. A series of filtration systems produces the high quality water that is fresh. While it has not been conclusively proved that carbonation offers a direct medical benefit. as well as to ensure adequate liquid intake.MANUFACTURING PROCESS HOW SOFT DRINKS ARE MADE WATER Although water is most often taken from a safe municipal supply. CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBONISATION Carbon dioxide gas gives the beverage its sparkle and tangy taste and prevents spoilage. WATER Soft drinks are mostly water. clean and clear. the amount of impurities in the municipal supply may vary from time to time. carbonated beverages are used to alleviate postoperative nausea when no other food can be tolerated. it usually is processed further to ensure uniformity of the finished product. So the quality of the water going into soft drink is very important.
and a preservative when necessary. ADDING BUBBLES IN A GAS After the flavors are added to the water. the bottler brings it to life by adding carbon dioxide. Therefore. WARM UP Throughout the manufacturing process. Now. a tasteless. an acidulant for tartness. flavouring. natural gas. soft drinks are usually chilled. It is transferred under pressure to a filling machine. odorless. every container is sprayed with warm water to bring it to room temperature and dried before moving on to shipping. The filling machine squirts just the right amount into squeaky clean containers which are immediately sealed for freshness. . condensation would form on the outside of the container and make cartons and cases wet. the result is a great taste. but slightly boring beverage. If they are transferred this way. FILLING UP Now the soft drinks are ready to put into a container.THE FLAVOUR Flavouring syrup is normally a concentrated solution of a sweetener (sugar or artificial). with a machine called a carbonator.
bundled into large pallets and whisked away. tin-free steel. If not. aluminium. placed in cartons or trays. they are applied. or plastic cans. . foil pouches.PACKAGING AND VENDING Soft drinks are packaged in glass or plastic bottles. treated cardboard cartons. Many soft drink containers have labels pre-printed before they arrive at the soft drink plant. or in large stainless steel containers.
necessary because they help protect the Crops. Limca. in agricultural fields as well as at home . increase yields and ensure food security. Fanta. Faring the worst in the “health test” were Mirinda Lemon followed by Coca-Cola. controlling Pests. PML tested the cold drink samples for 16 organochlorine pesticides 12 organophosphorus pesticides and 4 synthetic pyrethroides of all of these are commonly used in India as insecticides.RECENT CONTROVERSY OF PESTICIDES IN SOFT DRINKS Pesticides refer to any substance that is used for preventing. These are necessary evils. The Pollution Monitoring Laboratory (PML) of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) places in the public domain it analysis of the contents of 12 cold drink brands sold in Delhi. but evil because they are poisons if consumed Continuously for a long period of time or in large quantities. Orange. 7Up. Mirinda. repelling. rodents and insects. Pepsi. Thums Up and Spirite. 12 brands of cold drinks put to the test in the coolest event of our times. Three bottles of each of the 12 brands were purchased from markets and analyzed to see if they are contained pesticides. destroying. Mountain Dew.
HIGHLIGHTS NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS Soft Drinks. It is also a confirmed mutagen ó t can t inker with the body is chromosomal set-up. 1 can (12fl.0g Carbohydrate : 38g Total Fat : 0. Malathion gets activate in the human liver to produce malaoxon.0g HEALTH BENEFITS AND CONCERNS . Oz.0g Fiber : 0.) (355ml) Calories : 147 Protein : 0.The test found organochlorine pesticides LINDANE: This deadline insecticide damages the body is central nervous system as well as immune system and is a confirmed carcinogen. It found organ phosphorus pesticides CHLOROPYRIFOS: Especially dangerous for mothers-to-be and babies as it is a suspected neuroteratogen (it causes malformations in fetuses). deadly for the nervous system. this pesticide was found in 100 per cent of the samples MALATHION: Detected in 97 per cent of the samples.
in some soft drinks. Gastritis Caffeine. increases soft Avoiding caffeine-containing drinks should therefore aid in the healing of gastritis. including many soft drinks. there are many other sources of caffeine. many doctors recommend that women trying to get pregnant avoid caffeine. Insomnia The effects of caffeine stimulant last up to 20 hours. For this reason. Besides regular coffee. II. caffeinated beverages (such as some soda pop) should be avoided. and while not every study finds that caffeine reduces female fertility. COCA COLA PEPSI . DRINKS TAKEN FOR STUDY I.Female infertility Soft drinks are a source of caffeine. Hypoglycemia Even modest amounts of caffeine may increase symptoms of hypoglycemia. stomach found acid. so some people will have disturbed sleep patterns even when their last cup of coffee was in the morning.
Then the stopwatch noted the time for which effervescence took place. COLOR The color of each drink was noted. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE . FLAVOUR The flavour of each drink was noted by taking a sip. CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENT TEST The bottles wee taken and opened with a bottle opener.PHYSICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Bottles were numbered in order of drink taken.
TEST FOR SUCROSE MOLISCHS TEST A small quantity of each of drinks was taken in different test tubes. Then a few drops of molischs reagent was added. Of Fehling solution A and Fehling solution B were added and kept in boiling water bath. TOLLENS REAGENT TEST Tollens reagent is ammonical silver nitrate solution. sulphuric acid was slowly poured along test tube. It was added to each test tube containing soft drinks and then these test tubes were heated in boiling hot . Violet coloration shows the presence of sucrose. BENEDICTS SOLUTION TEST Soft drinks were taken in different test tubes. Then small amount of benedicts solution was added to test tubes. Formation of reddish brown precipitate indicate presence of glucose. A reddish brown precipitate indicated the presence of glucose. TEST FOR GLUCOSE FEHLINGS SOLUTION TEST Equal amount of soft drinks were taken in different test tubes and one to two ml. One ml of conc.
Appearance of yellow precipitate of iodine indicate the presence of ethanol. . Appearance of silver mirror indicates of aldehydes. TEST FOR ETHYL ALCOHOL IODOFORM TEST To the test tubes containing soft drinks. sodium hydroxide and iodine was added.water bath.
COCA COLA EXPERIMENT Time for which fumes come out Color Ph value Flavour Molisch’s reagent+sulphuric Acid+sample Fehling’s solution A+Fehling’s solution B+sample+heat Tollen’s reagent+sample+heat Sodium hydroxide+Iodine+sa mple OBSERVATION INFERENCE 55 second Dark brown 2 Cola Violet color Reddish brown precipitate Silver mirror Yellow precipitate Acidic nature Sucrose confirmed Glucose confirmed Aldehyde confirmed Ethanol confirmed .
PEPSI EXPERIMENT Time for which fumes come out Color Ph value Flavour Molisch’s reagent+sulphuric Acid+sample Fehling’s solution A+Fehling’s solution B+sample+heat Tollen’s reagent+sample+heat Sodium hydroxide+Iodine+sa mple OBSERVATION INFERENCE 52 second Dark brown 3 Cola Violet color Reddish brown precipitate Silver mirror Yellow precipitate Acidic nature Sucrose confirmed Glucose confirmed Aldehyde confirmed Ethanol confirmed .
SPRITE EXPERIMENT Time for which fumes come out Color Ph value Flavour Molisch’s reagent+sulphuric Acid+sample Fehling’s solution A+Fehling’s solution B+sample+heat Tollen’s reagent+sample+heat Sodium hydroxide+Iodine+sa mple OBSERVATION INFERENCE 33 second Pale yellow 3 Lemon Violet color Reddish brown precipitate Silver mirror Yellow precipitate Acidic nature Sucrose confirmed Glucose confirmed Aldehyde confirmed Ethanol confirmed .
Glucose was present in all drinks 4. Drinks also contained some amount of ethanol .RESULT 1. Carbon dioxide under pressure was in order of time taken Sprite<Coca cola<Pepsi 2. Sucrose was present in all drinks 3.
These drinks do not contain fruit juices. These soft drinks contain dyes preservatives etc.CONCLUSION From this we conclude that all soft drinks have certain amount of glucose. . It is not possible to detect all contents of these drinks due to limited equipments available in the lab. but are artificially flavoured. and ethanol besides having carbon dioxide gas under pressure. sucrose.
4.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Comprehensive lab manual Rohit Publication lab manual Britannica Online Encyclopedia Other internet sources. 3. 2. .
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