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I. LABOR LAW IN GENERAL A.

Labor Law, Defined

B. Labor Law Classification

C. Labor Law and the Constitution – See Art. XIII (Secs. 3, 1-2, 11); Art. II (Secs. 9, 10,
13, 14, 18)
Cases:
 Calalang vs Williams, 70 Phil 726
 Globe Mackay Cable and Radio Corp. vs NLRC, 206 SCRA 701
 Garcia vs. NLRC, 234 SCRA 638
 Philippine Geothermal, Inc. vs NLRC, 236 SCRA 378

D. Construction in favor of labor vis-a-vis management rights


Cases:
 Union of Filipro Employees vs. Vivar, Jr., 205 SCRA 2000
 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. vs. NLRC, G.R. 116542, July 30, 1996
 Colgate Palmolive Philippines, Inc. vs. Ople, G.R. No. 73681, June 30, 1988

E. Implementing Rules and Regulations (Article 5, Labor Code


Cases:
 Shell Philippines vs. Central Bank, 162 SCRA 628
 IBAAEU vs. Inciong, G.R. L-52415, October 23, 1984

F. Applicability (Article 6, Labor Code)


Cases:
 Juco vs. NLRC & NHC, G.R. 98107, August 18, 1997
 PNOC-Energy Dev. Corp. vs. NLRC, G.R. No.100947, May 31, 1993
 Republic vs. CA, G.R. 87676, Dec. 20, 1989
 E. Lasco vs. UN Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration, G.R. 109095-
109107, February 23, 1995

II. WORK RELATIONSHIP


A. Definitions: Arts. 97(a-c); 167 (f-g); 212 (e-f); Policy Instruction No. 40 (1979) –
Employment in Broadcast Industry
Case(s):
 Uy vs. Villanueva, 526 SCRA 73
 United Pepsi Cola Supervisory Union (UPSU) vs. Laguesma, 288 SCRA 15

B. Employer-Employee Relationship
Factual Test
Case(s):
 Television and Production Exponents, Inc. vs. Servana, 542 SCRA 578
 Remington Industrial Sales Corp. vs. Castaneda, 507 SCRA 391
Established
Case(s):
 Miguel vs. JCT Group, Inc. 453 SCRA 529
 Wack-Wack Golf and Country Club vs. NLRC, 456 SCRA 280
Factors
Case(s):
 Pacific Consultants International Asia, Inc. vs. Schonfeld, 516 SCRA 209
 Gabriel vs. Bilon, 515 SCRA 29
 Philippine Global Communicators vs. De Vera, 459 SCRA 260
Control Test
Case(s):
 Lopez vs. Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Systems, 462 SCRA 425
 UERMCC-RDU vs. Laguesma, 230 SCRA 139
 Transport Corp. vs. Ejandra, 428 SCRA 725
 Insular Life vs. NLRC, 179 SCRA 459
 Tongko vs The Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. (Phils), Inc., G. R. No. 167622, 7
November 2008, see also same case promulgated on June 29, 2010 and January 25,
2011
 Olympia Housing, Inc. vs. Lapasora, et al., G.R. No. 187691, January 13, 2016
Economic Test
Case(s):
 Sevilla vs. CA, 160 SCRA 171 Francisco vs. NLRC, 500 SCRA 690
Agreement
Case(s):
 Chavez vs. NLRC, 478 SCRA (2005)
 San Miguel Corp. vs. Abella, 461 SCRA 392
 Sonza vs. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp., 431 SCRA 381
 Insular Life Assurance Co. vs. NLRC, 287 SCRA 476
Broadcast-Talents-Performers
Case(s):
 Television, etc. vs. Servana, 542 SCRA 578
 Dumpit-Murillo vs. CA, 524 SCRA 290
 ABS-CBN vs. Nazareno, 503 SCRA 204
Method Wage Payment
Case(s):
 Almirez vs. Infinite Corp., 481 SCRA 364
 Lazaro vs. SSS, 435 SCRA 472
Proof
Case(s):
 Domasig vs. NLRC, 261 SCRA 779
 Mcleod vs. NLRC, 512 SCRA 222
Absence of Relationship
Case(s):
 Lopez vs. Bodega City, 532 SCRA 56
 Abante vs. Lamadrid, 430 SCRA 368
Denial
Case(s):
 R. Transport Corp. vs. Ejaneira, 428 SCRA 724

C. Independent Contractor and Labor Contractor Only - Articles 106 to 109; DOLE
Department Order No. 174, series of 2017
Department Circular No. 01, series of 2017

Cases:
 Philippine Airlines vs. Ligan, February 29, 2008 , G. R. NO. 146408
 San Miguel Corporation vs. Aballa, June 28, 2005, G. R. NO. 149011
 Meralco Industrial Engineering Services vs. NLRC, March 14, 2008
 Manila Electric Company vs. Benamira, July 14, 2005
 DOLE Phils. vs. Esteva, November 30, 2006
 Aliviado vs. Procter and Gamble, March 9, 2010
 Temic Automotive vs. Temic Automotive Phils. Employees Union, December 23, 2009
 Smart Communications vs. Astorga, January 28, 2008
 Coca-Cola Bottlers vs. Agito, February 13, 2009
 Manila Water vs. Dalumpines, October 4, 2010
 Babas vs. Lorenzo Shipping, December 15, 2010
 Teng vs. Pahagac, November 17, 2010
 Diamond Farms vs. Farms Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Multi-purpose Cooperative,
January 13, 2016
 Manila Memorial Park Cemetery vs. Luiz, February 3, 2016

III. PRE-EMPLOYMENT - Recruitment & Placement of Workers – Arts. 13, 16, 18, 25 –
39; see pertinent Implementing Rules and Regulations
A. What constitutes recruitment & placement?
B. Who can undertake recruitment and placement?
C. Overseas Employment –Republic Act No. 8042; Republic Act No. 10022
Cases:
 People of the Philippines vs. Panis, 142 SCRA 664 (1986)
 People of the Philippines vs. Bautista, G. R. No. 113547, 9 February 1995
 Boneng vs. People of the Philippines, G. R. No. 133563, 4 March 1999
 Rodolfo vs. People of the Philippines, G. R. No. 146964, 10 August 2006
 Marsaman Manning Agency, Inc. vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 127195, 25 August 1999
 Serrano vs. Gallant Maritime, Services, Inc., G. R. No. 167614, 24 March 2009
 Skippers United Pacific, Inc. v. Doza and Pert/CPM Manpower Exponent Co., Inc. vs.
Vinuya, G.R. NO. 197528 - September 5, 2012
 Sameer Overseas Placement Agency, Inc. vs. Cabiles, G.R. No. 170139, August 05, 2014
 Tangga-An vs. Philippine Transmarine Carriers, Inc., et al., G.R. No. 180636; March 13,
2013
(end of midterms coverage)

IV. EMPLOYMENT OF NON-RESIDENT ALIENS – Arts. 40-41; see also Revised


Guidelines for the Issuance of Alien employment Registration Certificate (DOLE
Department Order No. 41- 03, series of 2003)
Cases:
 General Milling Corp., et al. vs. Torres, et al., G. R. No. 9366, 22 April 1991
 Almodiel vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 100641, 14 June 1993

V. TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT OF SPECIAL WORKERS A. Apprentices – Sections 57-


72, Labor Code
Cases:
 Nitto Enterprises vs. NLRC, 29 September 1995
 Century Canning Corporation vs. CA, G. R. No. 152894, 17 August 2007
B. Learners – Sections 73-77
C. Handicapped Workers – Sections 78-81; See also Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
(RA No. 7277)
Case(s):
 Bernardo, et al. vs. NLRC, et al., G. R. No. 122917, 12 July 1999

VI. CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT – Arts. 82-90; Book III, Rule , IA, II, Omnibus Rules
Implementing the Labor Code
A. Hours Regulation
Rationale and Enforcement
Case(s):
 Manila Terminal Co., Inc. vs. CIR, 91 Phil 625 (52)
B. Coverage – Arts. 82, 276, Labor Code
1. Exemption – Managerial Employees
Cases:
 Penaranda vs. Baganga Plywood Corp., 489 SCRA 94
 Asia Pacific Christening, Inc. Vs. Farolan, 393 SCRA 454
 National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority vs. NAWASA Consolidated Unions, 11
SCRA 766
2. Tests- Field Personnel
Case(s):
 Union of Filipro Employees, vs Vivar, et al., G.R. No. 79255, 20 January 1992
 National Sugar Refineries Corporation, 24 March 1993
3. Rationale Exemption – Piece Worker
Case(s):
 Red vs. Coconut Products, Ltd. Vs. CIR, 17 SCRA 553
C. Normal Hours of Work – Art. 83
D. Hours of Work – Art. 84
1. General Principles in Determining Hours Worked
2. Idle Time
Case(s):
 National Development Co. vs. CIR, 6 SCRA 763
 Luzon Stevedoring Co. vs. Luzon Marine Department Union, 101 Phil 257
3. Continuous Work
Case(s):
 State Marine Corp. vs. Cebu Seamen’s Association, 7 SCRA 294
4. Waiting Time
Case(s):
 Arica vs. NLRC, 170 SCRA 776
5. Travel Time
Case(s):
 Rada vs. NLRC, 205 SCRA 69

E. Meal Period – Art. 85


Case(s):
 Phil. Airlines vs. NLRC, 302 SCRA 582
 Pan-American Airways vs. Pan-American Employees Association, 1 SCRA 527
F. Overtime Work and Offsetting Prohibition – Arts. 87-90 1. Definition and Ratio
Case(s):
 Letran, etc. vs. NLRC, 543 SCRA 26
 PNB vs. PNB Employees Association, 115 SCRA 507
2. Contract of Employment
Case(s):
 Manila Terminal Co., Inc. vs. CIR, 91 Phil 625
 Engineering Equipment Inc. vs. MOLE, 138 SCRA 616
3. Proof of Work
Case(s):
 Lagatic vs. NLRC, 285 SCRA 251
 Dacut vs. CA, 550 SCRA 260
 Cagampan vs. NLRC, 195 SCRA 633
4. Basis for Computation
Case(s):
 PNB vs. PNB Employees Association, 115 SCRA 507
5. Waiver or Quitclaim
Case(s):
 Pampanga Sugar Development Corp., Inc. vs. CIR, et al., G. R. No. L-39387, June 29,
1982
6. Compressed Work Week – See DOLE Department Advisory No. 02 (series of 2004)
and DOLE Department Advisory No. 02 (Series of 2009)
G. Night Work – Art. 86
Case(s):
 Shell Oil Co. Vs. National labor Union, 81 Phil 315
H. Weekly Rest Periods – Arts. 82, 91-93, Book III, Rule III, Omnibus Rules
Case(s):
 Manila Electric Co. vs. Public Utilities Employees Assoc., 79 Phil 409
I. Holidays – Arts. 94-95, 169, Labor Code; Exec. Order No. 203 (1984). Book III, Rule
IV, Omnibus Rules; PD No. 1083 (1977), RA 9492
Case(s):
 Mantrade/FMC Division Employees and Workers Union vs. Bacungan, 144 SCRA 510
 San Miguel Corp. vs. CA, 375 SCRA 311
 Asian Transmission Corp. vs. CA, 425 SCRA 478 Jose Rizal College vs. NLRC, 156 SCRA
27
 Agga vs. NLRC, 298 SCRA 285
 Wellington Investment vs. Trajano, 245 SCRA 561
 Union of Filipro Employees vs. Vivar, et al., G.R. No. 79255, January 20, 1992
J. Leaves – Art. 95, Labor Code; Book III, Rule V, Omnibus Rules; See also RA 8187, RA
8972 (Secs. 2, 6, 8), RA 8292 (Sec. 14A)
1. Service Incentive Leave – Art. 95, Labor Code
Case(s):
 Makati Haberdashery, Inc. vs. NLRC, 179 SCRA 449
 Auto Bus Transport Systems, Inc. vs. Bautista, 458 SCRA 578
 Sentinel Security Agency, Inc. vs. NLRC, 295 SCRA 123
2. Vacation and Sick Leave
Case(s):
 Mcleaod vs. NLRC, 512 SCRA 222

VII. WAGES – Articles 97-119 of the Labor Code; Book III, Rules VII-VIII, Omnibus
Rules A. Coverage – Arts. 97 (b, c, e); Art. 98, Labor Code
Case(s):
 Phil. Fisheries Development Authority vs. NLRC, 213 SCRA 621
B. Wage – Art. 97 (f); Constitution, Art. III
Defined
Case(s):
 Chavez vs. NLRC, 448 SCRA 478
 Mayon Hotel and Restaurants vs. Adana, 458 SCRA 609
Fair Day Pay
Case(s):
 Aklan Electric Coop., Inc. vs. NLRC, 323 SCRA 258
Discrimination
Case(s):
 International School Alliance of Educators vs. Quisumbing, 335 SCRA 12
 Philex Gold Phils., Inc. vs. Philex, 468 SCRA 113
 Bankard Employers Union vs. NLRC, 423 SCRA 148
Facilities and Supplements – DOLE Order No. 4 (1988)
Case(s):
 States Marine Corporation vs. Cebu Seamen’s Association. Inc. 7 SCRA 294
Tips
Case(s):
 Ace Navigation Co., Inc. vs. CA, 338 SCRA 70
Cash Wage/Commissions
Case(s):
 Iran vs. NLRC, 289 SCRA 433
 Songco vs. NLRC, 183 SCRA 610
Wages and Salary
Case(s):
 Equitable Banking Corp. vs. Sadac, 490 SCRA 380
 Gaa vs. CA, 140 SCRA 304
Gratuity and Wages
Case(s):
 Plastic Town Center Corp. vs. NLRC, 172 SCRA 580
13th Month Pay
 Agabon vs. NLRC, 442 SCRA 573
B. Payment of Wages – Arts. 102-104, Sec. 7, RA 6727
1. Form – Art. 102, Labor Advisory- Payment of Salary Thru ATM (DOLE 1996)
Full Payment
Case(s):
 Lopez Sugar Corp. vs. Franco, 458 SCRA 515
 G&M Inc. vs. Batomalaque, 461 SCRA 111
 P.I. Manufacturing vs P.I. Mfg., Inc., 545 SCRA 613
Payroll Payment
Case(s):
 Phil. Global Communication, Inc. vs. De Vera, 459 SCRA 260
 Chavez vs. NLRC, 448 SCRA 478
Cash Wage
Case(s):
 Congson vs. NLRC, 243 SCRA 260
Payroll Entries
Case(s):
 Karasia, Inc. vs. Corono, 437 SCRA 184
2. Time of Payment – Art. 103, Labor Code
3. Place of Payment – Art. 104, Labor Code
4. Direct Payment – Art. 105
5. Contractor/Sub-contractor – Arts. 106-109, Labor Code C. Prohibition Regarding
Wages
1. Non-Interference – Art. 112
2. Wage Deduction – Art. 113, 117
Case(s):
 RCPI vs. Sec. Of Labor, 169 SCRA 38
 Apodaca vs. NLRC, 172 SCRA 442
 Manila Trading and Supply, Co. vs. Manila Trading Assoc., 93 Phil 288
3. Deposit
Case(s):
 Five J Taxi vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 111474, 22 August 1994
 Dentech Manufacturing Corp. vs. NLRC, 172 SCRA 588
4. Withholding of Wages – Arts. 116, 119
Case(s):
 Special Steel Corp. vs. Vilareal, 434 SCRA 19
 Pacific Customs Brokerage, Inc. vs. Inter-Island Dockmen, 89 Phil 722
 GAA vs. CA, 140 SCRA 304
D. Other Forms of Remuneration
1. Service Charges/Tips – Art. 96; Book III, Rule VI, Omnibus Rules Case(s):
 Maranaw Hotels vs. NLRC, 303 SCRA 540
2. 13th Month Pay – PD No. 851, see Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of
13th Month Pay Law (16 November 1987)
Case(s):
 Honda Phils. vs. Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Honda, 460 SCRA 186
 Framanlis Farms, Inc. vs. MOLE, 171 SCRA 87
 Kamaya Port Hotel vs. NLRC, 177 SCRA 160
 Davao Fruits Corp. vs. ALU, 225 SCRA 562
3. Bonus
Case(s):
 Kimberly Clark Phils., Inc. vs. Dimayuga, et al., G. R. No. 177705, 18 September 2009
 American Wire and Cable Daily Rated Employees Union v. American Wire and Cable
Co, Inc., 457 SCRA 684
 Lepanto Ceramics, Inc. vs. Lepanto Ceramics Employees Association, G. R. No. 180866,
2 March 2010
 Marcos, et al. vs. NLRC, 248 SCRA 146
4. Productivity Incentives Act of 1990 – RA 6971
5. Retirement Benefits – RA 7641
Case(s):
 Universal Robina Sugar Milling Corporation vs. Caballeda, et al., G. R. No. 15644, July
28, 2008
E. Wage recovery, liabilities, and worker preference
1. Liability of Employer and other Parties
Employer, Independent Contractor and Sub-Contractor and Labor-Only Contracting –
Arts. 106-109, Labor Code
2. Worker Preference – Bankruptcy - Art. 110 of the Labor Code; Arts. 1707, 2241,
2242, 2244 of the Civil Code
Cases:
 Phil. Export, etc. vs. CA, 251 SCRA 354
 Baranga vs. APT, 473 SCRA 690
 Republic vs. Peralta, 150 SCRA 37
 Rubberworld (Phils.) Inc. vs. NLRC, et al., G. R. No. 126773, 14 April 1999
3. Wage Recovery and Attorney’s Fees – Arts. 128, 129, 217, 111 of the Labor Code
Case(s):
 Placewell International, etc. vs. Camote, 492 SCRA 761
F. Minimum Wage – Arts. 126-127, Labor Code; Book III Rule IX Omnibus Rules; RA
6727; Art. XIII, Sec. 3
1. In general
Case(s):
 Atok Big Wedge Mining Co., Inc. vs. Atok Big Wedge Mutual Benefit Assoc., 92 Phil 755
 Pp vs. Gatchalian, 104 Phil 664
 Phil. Apparel Workers Union vs. NLRC, 106 SCRA 444
2. Agencies for Wage Fixing Machinery – Arts. 120, 121, 122, 126 of the Labor Code
Case(s):
 Nasipit Lumber Co. vs. NLRC, 289 SCRA 339
3. Area Minimum Wages and Criteria – Art. 124, Labor Code
4. Wage Order – Arts. 123-124, Labor Code
Case(s):
 Employers Confederation of the Phils. vs. NWPC, 201 SCRA 759
 Cagayan Sugar Milling Co. vs. Secretary, 284 SCRA 150
5. Effect on Benefits and Wage Distortion
Case(s):
 PI Manufacturing, Inc. vs. PI Manufacturing Supervisors and Foreman Assoc., et al.,
G.R. No. 167217, 4 February 2008
 Bankard Employees, Union, Inc. vs. NLRC, 423 SCRA 148
 Arco Metal, Products, etc. vs. Samahan, G.R. No. 170734, May 14, 2008.
VIII. WORKING CONDITIONS FOR SPECIAL GROUPS OF WORKERS – Arts. 130-155 of the
Labor Code
A. Employment of Women – see also Maternity Leave Benefits (RA 8282); Paternity
Leave Act of 1996 (RA 8187), and Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000 (RA 8972); Sexual
Harassment (RA 7877)
Case(s):
 Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Co. vs. NLRC, et al., G. R. No. 1189778, 23 May 1997
 Del Monte Philippines, Inc. v. Lolita Velasco, GR No. 153477, March 6, 2007
 Bacain vs. Wahiman, 553 SCRA 137
B. Employment of Children – see also RA 7610 as amended by RA 7658 and RA 9231;
Art. II, Sec. 13 of the Constitution
C. Employment of Househelpers
Case(s):
 Apex Mining Co., Inc. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 94951, 22 April 1991
C. Employment of Homeworkers and Field Personnel – See also RA 10361,
Kasambahay Law and its Implementing Rules and Regulations

IX. EMPLOYEE CLASSIFICATION


A. In general
1. Coverage – Article 278 of the Labor Code Case(s):
 Austria vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 124382, 16 August 1999
2. Recognition and Types of Employment – Arts. 280-281, Labor Code
Case(s):
 Philippine Federation of Credit Coop. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 121071, 11 December 1998
 Pangilinan vs. General Milling Corp., G.R. No. 149329, 12 July 2004
3. Employer Determination
Case(s):
 San Miguel Corp. vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 125606, 7 October 1998
 Tabas California Manufacturing vs. NLRC, G.R. No. L-80680, 26 January 1989

B. Regular Employment – Arts. 280, 281, 75, Labor Code


1. Rationale
Case(s):
 Philips Semiconductors [Phils.], Inc. vs. Fadriquela, G. R. No. 141717, 14 April 2004
2. Tests
Nature of Work Test
Case(s):
 De Leon vs. NLRC, G.R. No. 70705, 21 August 1989
 Magsalin, et al. vs. National Organization of Working Men, G.R. No. 148492, 9 May
2003
 Hacienda Fatima, et al. vs. National Federation of Sugarcane Workers-Food and
General Trade, G. R. No. 149440, 28 January 2003
 Millares, et al. vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 110524, read also same case and citation but SC
Resolution promulgated on 29 July 2002
Period of Service Test
Case(s):
 Conti vs. NLRC, 271 SCRA 114
 Beta Electric Corp. vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 86408, 15 February 1990
Probationary Employment Test
 Malicdem vs. Marulas Industrial Corp., G.R. No. 204406, February 26, 2014

3. Project Employees – Art. 280, Labor Code, see also Policy Instruction No. 20, (series
of 1977), entitled "Stabilizing Employer-Employee Relations in the Construction
Industry, and DOLE Department Order No. 19 (series of 1993, dated 1 April 1993)
Case(s):
 ALU-TUCP vs. NLRC, 234 SCRA 678
 Tucor Industries, Inc. vs. NLRC, G. R. Nos. 96608-09, 20 May 1991
 Maraguinot, Jr. vs. NLRC, 284 SCRA 539
 Magcalas, et al. vs. NLRC, et al., G. R. No. 10033, 13 March 1997
 Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., et al. vs. Ibanez, et al., G. R. No.
170181, 26 June 2008
 Palomares vs. NLRC, 277 SCRA 439
 Imbuido vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 114734, 31 March 2000
4. Casual Employees – Art. 281 (2nd par.), Labor Code
Case(s):
 A.M. Oreta & Co., Inc. vs. NLRC, 176 SCRA 218
 Kimberly vs. Drilon, 185 SCRA 190
 San Miguel Corp. vs. Abella, 461 SCRA 392
 Integrated Contractor & Plumbing Works, Inc. vs. CA, 464 SCRA 544
5. Contract-Fixed Period
Case(s):
 Brent School vs. Zamora, 181 SCRA 702
 PNOC Energy Development Corp. vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 169353, 13 April 2007
 Jamias et al. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 159350, March 9, 2016
Seasonal Employees
Case(s):
 Manila Hotel vs. CIR, 165 SCRA 562
 Hacienda Bino vs. Cuenca, 456 SCRA 300 Poseidon Shipping vs. NLRC. 482 SCRA 717

X. PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEES – Arts. 281, 61 Labor Code, Rule I, Sec. 6, Omnibus


Rules A. Definition
Case(s):
 International Catholic Migration Commission vs. NLRC, 169 SCRA 508
B. Purpose
Case(s):
 Philemploy Services and Resources, Inc. vs. Rodriguez, 486 SCRA 302
 Grand Motors Corp. vs. MOLE, 130 SCRA 436
C. Employer Right to Set Period
Case(s):
 Orient Express Placement Philippines vs. NLRC, 273 SCRA 256
 Mitsubishi Motors Corp. vs. Chrysler Phils. Labor Union, 433 SCRA 206
D. Duration/Exception
Case(s):
 Holiday Inn Manila vs. NLRC, 226 SCRA 417
 Buiser vs. Leogardo, 131 SCRA 151
E. Criteria Regularization
Case(s):
 Alcira vs. NLRC, 431 SCRA 508
F. Extension of Contract
Case(s):
 Mariwasa Manufacturing, Inc. vs. Leogardo, 169 SCRA 465
G. Absorbed Employees
Case(s):
 Cebu Stevedoring Co., Inc. vs. Regional Director, 168 SCRA 315
H. Double Probation
Case(s):
 A Prime Security Services, Inc. vs. NLRC, 322 SCRA 283
I. Termination and Salary
Case(s):
 International Catholic Migration Commission vs. NLRC., 169 SCRA 508
 Orient Express Placement Philippines vs. NLRC, 273 SCRA 256
 Dela Cruz vs. NLRC, 418 SCRA 226
J. Rule on Private School Teachers
Case(s):
 Chiang Kai Sheck College vs. CA, 437 SCRA 171
 La Consolacion College vs. NLRC, 366 SCRA 226
 Magis Young Achievers’ Learning Center, et al. vs. Manalo, G. R. No. 178835, 13
February 2009