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Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology

In Memory of Elizabeth

Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Fourth edition John Bird. FIIE. CEng. MIEE. FIMA. FIET. FCollT AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier . CSci. CMath. BSc (Hons).

com/locate/permissions.sabre.bookaid. Kidlington. 2007.elsevierdirect. ISBN: 978-1-85617-770-2 For information on all Newnes publications visit our web site at www. instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. 2010. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford. No part of this publication may be ELSEVIER !?e?n~t~~~ Sabre Foundation . Typeset by: diacriTech. UK 30 Corporate I www. recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier The Boulevard. MA 01803. in particular. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of I www. USA First edition 1997 Second edition 2001 Reprinted 2002 Revised second edition 2003 Third edition 2007 Fourth edition 2010 Copyright © 1997. Suite 400. Designs and Patents Act 1988.elsevier. All rights reserved. fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333. independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made. UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830. Oxford OX5 1GB. and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material. India Printed and bound in China 10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Working together to grow libraries in developing countries www. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences. email: permissions@elsevier. The right of John Bird to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright. John Bird. photocopying. Burlington. negligence or otherwise. 2001. or from any use or operation of any methods. Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Langford Lane. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.

2 Magnetic fields 67 4 Batteries and alternative sources of energy 25 7.2 Electric current and quantity of electricity 9 6 Capacitors and capacitance 52 2. and internal resistance of a cell 27 4.10 Main effects of electric current 16 6.8 Electrical power and energy 6 5.4 Resistor colour coding and ohmic values 22 magnetic circuits 66 7.6 Reluctance 70 .3 Potential difference and resistance 10 6.9 Capacitors connected in parallel and series 58 2.3 Magnetic flux and flux density 67 4.7 Secondary cells 31 Part 1 Basic electrical engineering 4.1 Introduction to capacitors 52 2.4 Work 4 5 Series and parallel networks 36 1.6 Electrical potential and e.13 Discharging capacitors 65 3.9 Wiring lamps in series and in parallel 50 2.m.3 Parallel networks 39 1.6 Ohm’s law 11 6.3 Temperature coefficient of resistance 20 7.1 Series circuits 36 1.Contents Preface xi 4.f. units and their symbols 7 5.7 Multiples and sub-multiples 11 6.f.2 Resistance and resistivity 17 7 Magnetic circuits 66 3.10 Fuel cells 33 1 Units associated with basic electrical 4.9 Safe disposal of batteries 33 4.7 Permittivity 55 2.6 Electric flux density 55 2.5 Permeability and B–H curves 69 4.8 Earth potential and short circuits 50 components 9 5.3 Electric field strength 53 2.3 The simple cell 26 7.3 Force 4 1.5 Loading effect 45 5.9 Electrical power and energy 13 6.2 Charge 3 Revision Test 1 35 1.1 SI units 3 1.5 Capacitors 54 2.1 Resistor construction 17 3.4 Capacitance 54 2.11 Fuses 16 6.1 Standard symbols for electrical 5.1 Introduction to magnetism and 3.12 Insulation and the dangers of constant 6.7 Relative and absolute voltages 48 2.8 Cell capacity 33 principles 1 4.2 Electrostatic field 52 instruments 10 6.11 Alternative and renewable energy sources 34 quantities 3 1.4 Corrosion 27 7.6 Primary cells 30 4.8 The parallel plate capacitor 56 2.5 Power 4 5.9 Summary of terms.5 E.2 Some chemical effects of electricity 26 field strength 68 4.4 Current division 41 1.1 Introduction to batteries 25 7.m.4 Basic electrical measuring 6.4 Magnetomotive force and magnetic 4.2 Potential divider 37 1.11 Energy stored 62 high current flow 16 6. 5 5.10 Dielectric strength 62 2.5 Linear and non-linear devices 11 6.6 Potentiometers and rheostats 46 2 An introduction to electric circuits 8 5.7 Resistance and conductance 6 5.12 Practical types of capacitor 63 3 Resistance variation 17 6.8 Conductors and insulators 13 6.

9 Hysteresis and hysteresis loss 75 11.16 Logarithmic ratios 114 13.12 Varactor diodes 131 d.3 Transistor action 134 9 Electromagnetic induction 86 12.c.9 Multimeters 102 Part 2 Electrical principles and 10. bridges 118 13.8 Transistor parameters 138 9. circuit theory 162 10.6 Energy stored 93 12.6 Constant-current source 168 10.10 Silicon controlled rectifiers 130 8.11 Light emitting diodes 131 8.9 Zener diodes 129 8.13 Virtual test and measuring instruments 109 13.4 Leakage current 135 9.21 Measurement errors 118 13.3 Force on a current-carrying conductor 80 11.1 Introduction 155 10. circuit theory 155 10.20 A.5 Forward and reverse bias 125 11.5 Bias and current flow 136 9.13 Schottky diodes 131 8.9 Current gain 140 Contents 7. moving-iron and moving-coil rectifier instruments 99 10.6 Transistor operating configurations 137 9.4 Principle of operation of a simple 11.3 Moving-iron instrument 98 10.C.1 Transistor classification 133 12.1 Introduction to electromagnetic induction 86 12.C.12 The oscilloscope 105 13 D.2 Laws of electromagnetic induction 87 12.8 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networks 171 10.11 Field effect transistors 141 12.2 Kirchhoff’s laws 155 10.c.18 Wheatstone bridge 116 13.5 Thévenin’s theorem 164 10.2 Analogue instruments 98 12.14 Virtual digital storage oscilloscopes 110 13.c.19 D.6 Force on a charge 85 12.9 Maximum power transfer theorem 175 .4 The moving-coil rectifier instrument 99 Revision Test 3 150 10.7 Electronic instruments 101 10.15 Waveform harmonics 113 13.8 Comparison between electrical and 11.4 The p-n junction 123 Revision Test 2 76 11.5 Inductors 92 12.11 Instrument ‘loading’ effect 102 10.3 The superposition theorem 159 10.1 Introduction 98 12.6 Shunts and multipliers 100 Main formulae for Part 1 151 10. potentiometer 117 13.1 Magnetic field due to an electric current 77 11. motor 84 11.7 Inductance of a coil 93 ratings 140 9.10 Typical BJT characteristics and maximum 9.1 Types of material 121 magnetic quantities 74 11.15 Load lines 146 10.5 Comparison of moving-coil.13 Typical FET characteristics and maximum measurements 97 ratings 144 10.2 Bipolar junction transistors (BJT) 134 12.7 Characteristics and maximum ratings 128 8 Electromagnetism 77 11.3 Conduction in semiconductor materials 123 11.7 Composite series magnetic circuits 71 11 Semiconductor diodes 121 7.8 The ohmmeter 101 10.7 Norton’s theorem 169 10.7 Bipolar transistor characteristics 137 9.8 Mutual inductance 95 12.2 Semiconductor materials 122 7.12 Field effect transistor characteristics 142 10 Electrical measuring instruments and 12.14 Transistor amplifiers 144 10.4 Inductance 91 12.10 Wattmeters 102 technology 153 10.2 Electromagnets 79 11.5 Principle of operation of a moving coil-instrument 84 12 Transistors 133 8.17 Null method of measurement 116 13.8 Rectification 129 8.3 Rotation of a loop in a magnetic field 90 12.6 Semiconductor diodes 128 11.4 General d.

generated in an armature winding 294 18 Operational amplifiers 244 21. circuit 216 20.3 D.3 Op amp inverting amplifier 247 14.m.1 Purely resistive a. generator and their 18. circuit 212 20.1 Introduction 229 20.2 Some op amp parameters 246 characteristics 296 . circuits 208 20 Transformers 271 15.5 E. circuit 215 20.f.15 Voltage transformers 290 17.c.8 Q-factor 206 19. circuit 195 19.6 Camera flash 237 Revision Test 6 291 17.3 Waveforms 179 18.c.4 A.1 Introduction 271 20.5 LR–C parallel a.8 Advantages of three-phase systems 270 15.1 Introduction to operational amplifiers 244 21.c.c.2 The a.8 Op amp integrator 252 14.2 The action of a commutator 293 17.7 Series resonance 205 19.c.6 Parallel resonance and Q-factor 219 20. circuit 213 20. transients 229 20. equation of a transformer 275 16.7 Comparison of star and delta connections 269 15.6 Measurement of power in three-phase 15.4 L–C parallel a.7 Power factor improvement 223 20. machines 292 17.8 Time constant for an L– R circuit 237 17.4 R– L series a.4 Op amp non-inverting amplifier 249 14.6 Transformer construction 278 16.9 Op amp differential amplifier 253 14.9 Bandwidth and selectivity 208 15.7 Combination of waveforms 186 18.7 Op amp voltage comparator 251 14. machine construction 293 rectangular waveform 242 21.1 Introduction 292 17.9 Transformer losses and efficiency 281 16.2 R– L parallel a. series and compound windings 294 21.c.3 Time constant for a C– R circuit 230 20.13 Three-phase transformers 288 17. circuit 202 systems 265 15.5 Discharging a capacitor 234 17.c.6 D.c.9 Transient curves for an L– R circuit 238 21 D.3 Transformer no-load phasor diagram 274 16.5 R–C series a.5 Power in three-phase systems 263 15.7 Equivalent circuit of a transformer 279 16.4 E. circuit 197 19.6 Op amp summing amplifier 250 14. circuit 195 19. circuits 194 19.7 Types of d.4 Shunt.m.7 Current growth in an L– R circuit 237 17.5 Op amp voltage-follower 250 14.10 Digital to analogue (D/A) conversion 254 14.10 Resistance matching 284 17 D.2 Purely inductive a.11 Auto transformers 286 17. circuits 212 20.c.1 Introduction 212 20.11 Analogue to digital (A/D) conversion 255 14.11 Power triangle and power factor 209 20.c.11 Switching inductive circuits 242 21.c.6 The equation of a sinusoidal waveform 184 18.c.8 Regulation of a transformer 281 16. Contents vii 14 Alternating voltages and currents 178 18.8 Rectification 190 18.3 Star connection 259 15.c.c.14 Current transformers 289 17.c.9 Smoothing of the rectified output waveform 191 Revision Test 5 257 Revision Test 4 193 19 Three-phase systems 258 15 Single-phase series a. generators 296 18.4 Delta connection 262 15.10 Current decay in an L– R circuit 239 21.c. values 180 18.3 R–C parallel a.1 Introduction 258 15.c.c.12 The effect of time constant on a 21.4 Transient curves for a C– R circuit 231 20.12 Isolating transformers 288 17.5 Transformer on-load phasor diagram 277 16.2 Transformer principle of operation 272 16 Single-phase parallel a.1 Introduction 178 18.f.c. circuit 200 19. circuit 195 19.c.2 Charging a capacitor 229 20.6 R– L–C series a. generator 178 18.5 Electrical safety – insulation and fuses 183 18.3 Purely capacitive a.10 Power in a.2 Three-phase supply 258 15.

1 Introduction 367 22.2 Determination of power in a.2 Admittance.c.3 Dynamic resistance 406 23.13 The efficiency of a d.c.2 Production of a rotating magnetic field 315 25.11 Torque of a d.14 Advantages of squirrel-cage induction 27. motor and their a.2 Operations involving Cartesian complex 29.1 Introduction 356 22. bridge 381 22. bridge circuit 382 motor 328 27. motor 308 24.1 Introduction 314 25. networks 363 motor 317 22. circuits 344 21.c.4 The LR–CR parallel network 407 23.10 D.4 Further worked problems on parallel 22. bridges 381 22.15 Speed control of d.c.c. circuits 367 22.7 Small deviations from the resonant frequency 403 Part 3 Advanced circuit theory 29 Parallel resonance and Q-factor 405 and technology 333 29.c.1 Introduction 391 Revision Test 7 329 28.c.6 Slip 318 26.4 Voltage magnification 395 Main formulae for Part 2 330 28. machine losses 300 23.7 Rotor e. circuits 351 21.1 Introduction 344 21. machine 302 24 Application of complex numbers to series 21.f.4 The polar form of a complex number 339 23.2 Series a.17 Uses of three-phase induction motors 328 28 Series resonance and Q-factor 391 28. circuits 367 induction motor 318 26. bridges 387 22.16 Double cage induction motor 328 22.8 D.m. and frequency 320 26.1 Introduction 381 motors 328 27.viii Contents 21.3 Power triangle and power factor 369 22.3 Further worked problems on series a. networks 360 22.c.6 De Moivre’s theorem — powers and roots 21.4 Construction of a three-phase induction a.c.10 Induction motor losses and efficiency 321 26.8 Rotor impedance and current 320 26.3 Complex equations 338 resonance and Q-factor 412 23. motors 301 21.4 Use of complex numbers for 22.11 Torque equation for an induction motor 323 22.1 Introduction 335 29.c.12 Induction motor torque–speed Revision Test 8 380 characteristics 325 22.c.16 Motor cooling 313 25 Application of complex numbers to parallel a. networks 356 22 Three-phase induction motors 314 25.5 Q-factors in series 398 28.c.c. circuits 344 characteristics 304 24.12 Types of d.4 Worked problems on a.6 Further worked problems on parallel 23.14 D.1 Introduction 405 29.c.c. conductance and susceptance 356 22.3 Types of a.c. motors 310 21.c.c.5 Principle of operation of a three-phase 26 Power in a.2 The LR–C parallel network 406 23 Revision of complex numbers 335 29.9 Efficiency of a d.5 Q-factor in a parallel network 407 numbers 336 29.c.3 Parallel a.3 Synchronous speed 316 25.5 Power factor improvement 375 22.2 Balance conditions for an a.2 Series resonance 391 28.6 Bandwidth 399 28.c.5 Multiplication and division using complex Revision Test 9 415 numbers in polar form 340 .3 Q-factor 394 28. generator 301 of complex numbers 342 21.13 Starting methods for induction motors 326 27 A.9 Rotor copper loss 321 determination of power 370 22. motor starter 310 24.15 Advantages of wound rotor induction 27.

11 Sources of harmonics 525 30.5 Even and odd functions and Fourier series over any range 505 41 Attenuators 579 36.5 Thévenin and Norton equivalent networks 462 Revision Test 12 550 Revision Test 10 468 39 Dielectrics and dielectric loss 551 34 Delta-star and star-delta transformations 469 39.7 Power associated with complex waves 513 41.6 Types of practical capacitor 553 35 Maximum power transfer theorems and 39.3 Logarithmic ratios 581 36.3 Delta-star transformation 469 39.2 The general equation for a complex 40.3 Complex waveform considerations 532 32 The superposition theorem 436 32.10 Resonance due to harmonics 523 30.8 Dielectric loss and loss angle 554 35.6 Rms value.1 Maximum power transfer theorems 481 35.5 Mechanical properties 553 39.3 Harmonic synthesis 493 40.4 Eddy current loss 542 33.2 Impedance matching 487 40 Field theory 557 Revision Test 11 490 40.and π-sections 592 .3 Capacitance of an isolated twin line 566 36 Complex waveforms 491 40.1 Introduction 469 39.8 Energy stored in an electromagnetic field 576 functions 500 36.1 Introduction 436 38 Magnetic materials 536 32.2 Characteristic impedance 580 36.7 Inductance of an isolated twin line 574 36.3 Hysteresis and hysteresis loss 539 33 Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems 445 38.4 Thermal effects 553 34.7 Liquid dielectrics and gas insulation 553 impedance matching 481 39.5 Insertion loss 589 in single-phase circuits 519 41.2 Nodal analysis 429 37.4 Symmetrical T.2 Magnetic properties of materials 537 38.and π-attenuators 583 36.6 Non-permanent magnetic materials 547 theorem 452 38. Contents ix 30 Introduction to network analysis 416 36.1 Introduction 579 factor of a complex wave 509 41.6 Inductance of a concentric cylinder (or waveform 492 coaxial cable) 571 36.9 Further worked problems on harmonics 41.4 Fourier series of periodic and non-periodic 40.2 Harmonic analysis on data given in tabular 31.1 Introduction 445 38.1 Introduction 491 40. mean value and the form 41.2 Using the superposition theorem 436 38.2 Capacitance between concentric cylinders 561 40.5 Separation of hysteresis and eddy current 33.2 Polarization 551 34.1 Electric fields.1 Revision of terms and units used with 32.4 Norton’s theorem 456 33.2 Solution of simultaneous equations using determinants 417 37 A numerical method of harmonic analysis 529 30.1 Introduction 416 36.8 Harmonics in single-phase circuits 515 41.4 Energy stored in an electric field 569 36.7 Permanent magnetic materials 549 33. and inductance 571 36.1 Field plotting by curvilinear squares 557 40.3 Network analysis using Kirchhoff’s laws 418 37. capacitance and permittivity 551 34.4 Star-delta transformation 478 39.1 Introduction 529 31 Mesh-current and nodal analysis 425 37.2 Thévenin’s theorem 445 losses 545 33.3 Further worked problems on the magnetic circuits 536 superposition theorem 441 38.3 Dielectric strength 552 34.f.5 Induced e.3 Further worked problems on Thévenin’s 38.1 Mesh-current analysis 425 or graphical form 529 31.2 Delta and star connections 469 39.6 Asymmetrical T.m.

7 Propagation coefficient and time delay in filter sections 628 Part 4 General reference 723 42. 44.2 Self-inductance 673 Common prefixes 729 43.c.5 Coils connected in series 646 43. circuit and resonance 13 10 Charging and discharging a capacitor 15 45 Transients and Laplace transforms 680 45.3 The characteristic impedance and the Revision Test 14 716 attenuation of filter sections 614 42.8 Two-port networks in cascade 597 input 683 41.9 Initial conditions 712 42.1 Introduction 680 To download and edit go to: 45.1 Introduction 612 45.7 Laplace transform analysis directly from Revision Test 13 611 the circuit diagram 699 45.11 Characteristic impedance in terms of 45.6 Coupled circuits 649 43.7 Wave reflection and the reflection 6 Use of a CRO with a bridge rectifier circuit 9 coefficient 672 7 Measurement of the inductance of a coil 10 44.5 Characteristic impedance and 3 Superposition theorem 4 propagation coefficient in terms of the 4 Thévenin’s theorem 6 primary constants 666 5 Use of a CRO to measure voltage.c.9 ABCD parameters 600 45.booksite.4 L– R–C series circuit response 686 41.6 Distortion on transmission lines 670 frequency and phase 8 44.3 Mutual inductance 643 Resistor colour coding and ohmic values 730 43.4 Ladder networks 616 Main formulae for Part 3: Advanced circuit input 680 .3 Phase delay.10 ABCD parameters for networks 603 45.6 High-pass filter sections 623 42.8 L–R–C series circuit using Laplace 42 Filter networks 612 transforms 709 42.5 Low-pass filter sections 617 theory and technology 717 42. circuit 3 44.9 Practical composite filters 639 Standard electrical quantities — their symbols and units 725 43 Magnetically coupled circuits 643 Greek alphabet 728 43.2 Transmission line primary constants 661 Some practical laboratory experiments 44.c.4 Current and voltage relationships 664 2 Series-parallel d.4 Coupling coefficient 645 Index 731 43.5 Introduction to Laplace transforms 689 41.6 Inverse Laplace transforms and the ABCD parameters 609 solution of differential equations 693 45.7 The L-section attenuator 595 45.8 Standing waves and the standing 8 Series a.1 Introduction 661 On the Website 44.elsevier. wavelength and velocity of propagation 663 1 Ohm’s law 2 44.8 ‘m-derived’ filter sections 634 42.1 Introduction 643 43. circuit and resonance 11 wave ratio 675 9 Parallel a.2 Basic types of filter sections 612 42.7 Dot rule for coupled circuits 654 44 Transmission lines 661 44.3 Response of R–L series circuit to a step 41.2 Response of R–C series circuit to a step www.x Contents 41.

inter- ational amplifiers. semiconductor diodes and transis. for Degree. magnetically 1000 further problems contained in the book is available coupled circuits. a free Internet download of a PowerPoint pre- sentation of all 1100 illustrations contained in the text Part 4 provides a short. Higher National Cer- tion’ provides coverage for a wide range of courses tificate/Diploma and City & Guilds courses in electrical that contain electrical principles. d.c. Part 1. It is for this reason that Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 4th Edition contains some 800 Part 2. transmission line theory and tran- to tutors – see next page. involving Chapters 23 to 45. National Diploma and City and Guilds exercises that appear every few pages throughout the courses in electrical and electronic engineering. transformers.c. ‘Advanced Circuit Theory and Technology’ suitable and so on. Complex numbers and their application to series and parallel New topics included in this edition include resistor networks. These Revision Tests do not have answers . transients. d. more information on bat. electromagnetism. contains ‘Basic At the beginning of each of the 45 chapters learning Electrical Engineering Principles’ which any student objectives are listed. involving Kirchhoff’s laws. are 10 straightforward laboratory experiments which complex waveforms. earth point and causes of the superposition theorem. the Greek alphabet. capacitors and capacitance. It is not possible to acquire a thorough understanding tromagnetic induction. Also. dard electrical quantities – their symbols and units. from introductory to two earlier sections of the book will provide a valuable degree level. included in this section. involving Chapters 1 to 12. dangers of constant high current with insulation. filter networks. three-phase systems. D. power in a. contains ‘Electri. A free Internet download of a sample (over 700) of the field theory. network analysis teries. without working through a large number of numerical tors are all included in this section. spersed within the text every few chapters. and parallel resonance and Q-factor. magnetic materials. phase series and parallel circuits.c. maxi- smoothing. Over 1100 line diagrams further enhance the circuit theory. For example. elec. Revision Test 2 tests understanding of Chapters 5 to 7. dielectrics and dielectric loss. detailed worked problems. of energy.c. harmonic analy- may be downloaded and edited. potentiometers and rheostats.Preface ‘Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 4th Edi. At the end of each of the first three parts of the text is a resistance variation. together with over 1000 cal Principles and Technology’ suitable for National further problems (with answers). mesh and nodal analysis. series construction and colour code. Foundation Degree. The technology in their syllabuses. reference/revision for students at this level. oper- Fourteen Revision Tests have been included. An introduction to units.c. magnetic circuits. electrical circuits. circuit theory and and electronic/telecommunications engineering. text. machines and three-phase induction motors are all Revision Test 1 tests understanding of Chapters 1 to 4. Thévenin’s and Norton’s short circuits. arranged within 177 Certificate. circuit theory and technology and measurements. problems. ‘General Reference’ for stan- is available – see next page. understanding of the theory. loading effect of instruments. single. sients and Laplace transforms are all included in this section. electrical measuring instruments of electrical principles. wishing to progress in electrical engineering would need to know. In addition. sis. Part 3. Fourier series. freely available on the website mum power transfer theorems and impedance matching. alternating voltages and currents. bridges. batteries and alternative sources handy reference of the main formulae used. attenuators. common prefixes and resistor colour The text is set out in four parts as follows: coding and ohmic values. contains Revision Test 3 tests understanding of Chapters 8 to 12. and rectifier theorems. a. delta-star and star-delta transforms. involving Chapters 13 to 22. series and parallel circuits. circuits.

booksite. Instructor’s manual HMS Sultan. part of their course structure. The material lems arranged within 177 exercises.booksite.elsevier. It may be that tutors will want to edit these ‘Learning by Example’ is at the heart of Electrical experiments to suit their own equipment/com- Circuit Theory and Technology 4th Edition. ponent availability.booksite. Portsmouth The material is available to lecturers only and is available at http://www. Lecturers/ instructors may booksite. Ten practical laboratory experiments are JOHN BIRD Royal Naval School of Marine Engineering. A sample is available to lecturers only and is available at of over 700 worked solutions has been prepared http://www.elsevier. This provides full worked solutions and mark formerly University of Portsmouth scheme for all 14 Revision Tests in this book. illustrations in this fourth edition. Go to http://www. obtain a complementary set of solutions of the .com/ newnes/bird Free web downloads Illustrations Sample of worked solutions to exercises Lecturers can download electronic files for all 1100 Within the text are some 1000 further prob. Laboratory experiments sion Tests in an Instructor’s Manual available from the publishers via the Internet – see below. and Highbury College.xii Preface given since it is envisaged that lecturers/instructors could set the Revision Tests for students to attempt as and is available to lecturers only at http://www.

Part 1 Basic electrical engineering principles 1 Units associated with basic electrical quantities 3 2 An introduction to electric circuits 8 3 Resistance variation 17 4 Batteries and alternative sources of energy 25 Revision Test 1 35 5 Series and parallel networks 36 6 Capacitors and capacitance 52 7 Magnetic circuits 66 Revision Test 2 76 8 Electromagnetism 77 9 Electromagnetic induction 86 10 Electrical measuring instruments and measurements 97 11 Semiconductor diodes 121 12 Transistors 133 Revision Test 3 150 Main formulae for Part 1 151 .

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force. resistance.00001-X . see page 4. The unit of charge is the coulomb (C) where lar amount. Derived SI units use combinations of basic units and luminous intensity candela.2.1. with their one coulomb is one ampere second. power and energy and perform simple calculations involving these units Table 1. work and power and perform simple calculations involving these units • state the units of electrical potential.1 Basic SI Units 1.2 Charge SI units may be made larger or smaller by using prefixes which denote multiplication or division by a particu.24 ×1018 electrons). Chapter 1 Units associated with basic electrical quantities At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • state the basic SI units • recognize derived SI units • understand prefixes denoting multiplication and division • state the units of charge. kg based on the metric system. e. usually abbreviated to SI units. quantity of electricity which flows past a given point DOI: 10. For a more complete 6. m the Système Internationale d’Unités (International sys- tem of units). conductance. mol • Velocity — metres per second (m/s) • Acceleration — metres per second squared (m/s2 ) 1. (1 coulomb = meaning. A The basic units in the SI system are listed with their thermodynamic temperature kelvin.1016/B978-1-85617-770-2. s and is now adopted by the majority of countries as the official system of measurement. The six most common multiples. The coulomb is defined as the list of prefixes. and is mass kilogram. K symbols. This was introduced in 1960 time second.. in Table 1.m. are listed in Table 1. cd there are many of them.1 SI units Quantity Unit The system of units used in engineering and science is length metre. electric current ampere.f. Two examples are: amount of substance mole.

in newtons F = ma 1. Power is defined as the rate of doing work or transferring energy. Determine the force needed.2 Part 1 Prefix Name Meaning M mega multiply by 1 000 000 (i.81 m/s2 minutes.962 N Quantity of electricity Q = It coulombs 1.e.4 Work I = 5 A.2 kg and acceleration due to gravity. in coulombs Q = It Mass = 200 g =0. force. P= t Force = mass × acceleration where W is the work done or energy transferred in joules kg m and t is the time in seconds. Energy is the capacity for doing work. where I is the current in amperes and t is the time in g =9. W power in watts. A mass of 5000 g is accelerated at 2 m/s2 by a force. ×10−6) n nano divide by 1 000 000 000 (i. Thus. is mg. The joule is defined as the work done or energy transferred when a force of one newton is exerted through a distance of one metre in the 1. Thus The unit of force is the newton (N) where one newton work done on a body.e. second squared. in joules W = Fs is one kilogram metre per second squared. ×10−9) p pico divide by 1 000 000 000 000 (i. gives it an acceleration of one metre per metres moved by the body in the direction of the force. charge.3 Force direction of the force. in joules.e. ×10−3) µ micro divide by 1 000 000 (i. find the quantity of electricity transferred.81 m/s2 . The unit of power is the watt (W) where one watt is one or weight. where g = 9. t = 2 × 60 =120 s Hence Q = 5 × 120 =600 C The unit of work or energy is the joule (J) where one joule is one newton metre. Thus = 5 kg ×2 m/s2 = 10 2 = 10 N s energy. = 1.2 kg ×9. Thus. downwards on a mass of 200 g attached to a wire. The newton is defined as the force which.5 Power where m is the mass in kilograms and a is the accelera- tion in metres per second squared. ×10−12) in an electric circuit when a current of one ampere is Problem 3. Force acting downwards=weight = mass × acceleration Problem 1. Problem 2. ×103) m milli divide by 1000 (i. ×106) k kilo multiply by 1000 (i. Thus.e. when applied to a mass of where F is the force in newtons and s is the distance in one kilogram.e. Find the force acting vertically maintained for one second.81 m/s2 seconds. Gravitational force. joule per second. W = Pt .e. 4 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Table 1. If a current of 5 A flows for 2 = 0.

What is (a) the work done 6. Find the power = 4000 Nm or 4 kJ consumed. How much work is done if the How much work is done if the load is lifted machine is moved 20 m and what average power is through 500 cm? [12. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points in a conductor 2.81 m/s2 where appropriate) 1.81 m/s2 ) × (10 m) = 98 100 Nm 12. MHz (d) 47 k = . 1. Find the accelerating force when a car having which. constant acceleration of 3 m/s2 [5.7 Mg increases its speed with a a power of one watt. . The 5. [8 kg] amperes amperes joules joules 4. . . Rewrite the following as indicated: (b) Power = = = 4905 J/s (a) 1000 pF = . nF time taken 20 s = 4905 W or 4. Determine the force acting downwards = = on a mass of 1500 g suspended on a ampere seconds coulombs string.) provided by a source of direction of the force. A mass of 1000 kg is raised through a 9. . What quantity of electricity is carried by height of 10 m in 20 s. work done = (1000 kg ×9. . What charge is transferred? [900 C] Hence. (Take g = 9. .047 M (e) 320 µA] Exercise 1 Further problems on units associated with basic electrical quantities. .. . . A force of 4 N moves an object 200 cm in the electromotive force (e. . .e. .32 mA = . i. . volts = = Determine the mass.02 µF = . A force of 2.1 kJ work done 98 100 J 13. How long must a current of 0.5 kN is required to lift a load.5 cm in 40 ms. Part 1 of 200 N to move it. . . .m. . dissipates a mass of 1. . A portable machine requires a force 6.905 kW (b) 0. [4. when carrying a current of one ampere. What amount of work energy such as a battery or a generator is measured in is done? [8 J] volts. . . .5 W] 8. . A current of 3 A flows for 5 minutes.1 kN] watts joules/second 3. An electromagnet exerts a force of 12 N and moves a soft iron armature through a dis- Work done = force × distance = 200 N × 20 m tance of 1. Units associated with basic electrical quantities 5 Problem 4. . M Now try the following exercise (e) 0. . .43 kNm (b) 981 W] Problem 5. .24 ×1021 electrons? [1000 C] and (b) the power developed? 10. ..m. A mass of 500 kg is raised to a height of 6 m work done 4000 J in 30 s.1 A flow so as to transfer a charge of 30 C? [5 minutes] = 98. . A force of 40 N accelerates a mass at 5 m/s2 . What force is required to give a mass of 20 kg The unit of electric potential is the volt (V) where one an acceleration of 30 m/s2 ? [600 N] volt is one joule per coulomb.72 N] A change in electric potential between two points in an electric circuit is called a potential difference. In what time would a current of 1 A transfer a charge of 30 C? [30 s] (a) Work done =force × distance and force = mass × acceleration 11.f. . [(a) 29. .f. Find (a) the work done and (b) the Power = = = 160 J/s = 160 W time taken 25 s power developed. . .6 Electrical potential and e.5 kJ] utilized if the movement takes 25 s? 7. [14. . µA [(a) 1 nF (b) 20 000 pF (c) 5 MHz (d) 0. . . . pF (c) 5000 kHz = . .1 kNm or 98.

m. Thus. How much energy is The unit of electric resistance is the ohm () where provided in this time? one ohm is one volt per ampere. constant electric potential of one volt applied at the two Hence points produces a current flow of one ampere in the Energy =VIt = 5 ×3 × (10 ×60) = 9000 Ws or J conductor. of 250 V is connected across a Electrical energy = Power × time resistance and the current flowing through the = VIt Joules resistance is 4 A. of 5 V supplies a Part 1 current of 3 A for 10 minutes.8 Electrical power and energy 1. An electric heater consumes 1.2 mS R 5 ×103 Now try the following exercise 1 1 103 (c) G= = S = S =10 S R 100 ×10−3 100 Exercise 2 Further problems on units associated with basic electrical quantities 1.8 × 106 J where R is the resistance in ohms. in watts P = VI 3. 1 1 (b) G = = S = 0.f. An e. (b) 5 k and (c) 100 m.f. the unit used is the 4. 450 J of energy are converted into heat in kilowatt hour (kWh) where 1 minute. The reciprocal of resistance is called conductance and is measured in siemens (S). 6 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 1.5 mS (c) 500 S] tric circuit and the voltage across the circuit is V volts.8 MJ I when connected to a 250 V supply for 30 minutes. in ohms R= Problem 8. when deal- ing with large amounts of energy. points in amperes. A current of 10 A flows through a conductor and 10 W is dissipated.e. where V is the potential difference across the two points Find the power rating of the heater and the current in volts and I is the current flowing between the two taken from the supply. Energy = power × time.5 W] 1 kWh = 1000 watt hour 5. Thus. It is defined as the resistance between two points in a conductor when a Energy =power × time and power = voltage ×current.1 S R 10 Hence the current taken from the supply is 4 A.7 Resistance and conductance Problem 7. = 9 kJ V resistance.1 S (b) 0.m. Power rating of heater = 1 kW of resistance (a) 10 . Find the conductance of a resistor of resistance (a) 10  (b) 2 k (c) 2 m When a direct current of I amperes is flowing in an elec- [(a) 0. A source e. A conductor has a conductance of 50 µS. Find the conductance of a conductor i. exists across = 1000 × 3600 watt seconds or joules the ends of the conductor? [1 V] = 3 600 000 J . thus I = = =4A 1 1 V 250 (a) Conductance G = = siemen = 0. What is the power developed? [1 kW] Although the unit of energy is the joule. hence energy 1 power = conductance. in siemens G= time R 1. What p. What power is dissipated? [7. = = 1000 J/s =1000 W 30 × 60 s Problem 6. What is its resistance? [20 k] power.d. then 2. P 1000 Power P = VI.2 × 10−3 S = 0.

How much energy is Electrical Q coulomb C supplied in this time? [7.f. 40 A] Resistance R ohm  Conductance G siemen S 1. A battery of e. Units associated with basic electrical quantities 7 6. units and Electromotive E volt V their symbols force Potential V volt V Quantity Quantity Unit Unit difference Symbol Symbol Work W joule J Length l metre m Energy E (or W) joule J Mass m kilogram kg Power P watt W Time t second s As progress is made through Electrical Circuit Theory Velocity v metres per m/s or and Technology many more terms will be met. A dc electric motor consumes 36 MJ when con. page 725.9 Summary of terms. [10 kW.m. Find the power rating of the motor and the current taken Electric current I ampere A from the supply. 12 V supplies a current Force F newton N Part 1 of 5 A for 2 minutes. together with their symbols and units are given in Part 4. A full second m s−1 list of electrical quantities. Acceleration a metres per m/s2 or second m s−2 squared .2 kJ] charge or 7. quantity nected to a 250 V supply for 1 hour.

including multiples and sub-multiples of units • describe a conductor and an insulator.00002-1 . an ohmmeter. giving examples of each • appreciate that electrical power P is given by V2 P = VI = I 2R = watts R • calculate electrical power • define electrical energy and state its unit • calculate electrical energy • state the three main effects of an electric current. a tachometer and stroboscope measure • distinguish between linear and non-linear devices V V • state Ohm’s law as V = IR or I = or R = R I • use Ohm’s law in calculations. a bridge megger. giving practical examples of each • explain the importance of fuses in electrical circuits • appreciate the dangers of constant high current flow with insulation materials DOI: 10. a voltmeter. an oscilloscope.d. Chapter 2 An introduction to electric circuits At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • recognize common electrical circuit diagram symbols • understand that electric current is the rate of movement of charge and is measured in amperes • appreciate that the unit of charge is the coulomb • calculate charge or quantity of electricity Q from Q = It • understand that a potential difference between two points in a circuit is required for current to flow • appreciate that the unit of p. a multimeter. is the volt • understand that resistance opposes current flow and is measured in ohms • appreciate what an ammeter. a wattmeter.1016/B978-1-85617-770-2.

However. If the drift of electrons in a conductor takes place at Switch Filament lamp Fuse the rate of one coulomb per second the resulting current is said to be a current of one ampere. Thus current is the rate of movement of charge.24 The protons. are con- tained within the nucleus. if an electric pressure or voltage is Conductor Two conductors Two conductors applied across any material there is a tendency for elec- crossing but not joined together trons to move in a particular direction. however. Power supply Fixed resistor Variable resistor Conductors are materials that contain electrons that are loosely connected to the nucleus and can easily move through the material from one atom to another. Electrons in the outer shell of an atom. Cell Battery of 3 cells Alternative symbol The unit used to measure the quantity of elec- for battery trical charge Q is called the coulomb C (where 1 coulomb =6.2 Electric current and quantity of electricity Q = I × t coulombs All atoms consist of protons. and coulombs is to be transferred in 15 ms? the neutrons. Q = It. then Figure 2. are attracted to their nucleus less powerfully than are Symbols are used for components in electrical circuit electrons whose shells are nearer the nucleus. Removed from the nucleus Since the quantity of electricity. Insulators are materials whose electrons are held firmly to their nucleus. When there are more than two electrons in an atom Problem 2. quantity of electrical charge transferred. but is positively charged and is thus able to attract an electron to itself from another atom.1 Standard symbols for electrical attraction existing between the nucleus and its elec- Part 1 components trons. the in Figure 2.1.1 I × t represents the quantity of electrical charge in coulombs. then are minute negatively charged particles called electrons. is not now electri- cally balanced.24 0. constitutes an electric current flow. i. . from the nucleus. which is now called an ion. neutrons and elec. neutrons and electrons. An introduction to electric circuits 9 All atoms are bound together by powerful forces of 2.e. 1 coulomb =1 ampere second or 1 C = 1 As Ammeter Voltmeter Indicator lamp Generally. diagrams and some of the more common ones are shown It is possible for an atom to lose an electron. Thus. Problem 1. known as drift. This movement joined of free electrons. find the quantity of electricity transferred. 2. if I is the current in amperes and t the time in seconds during which the current flows. which have positive electrical charges. An equal number of protons and electrons exist I= = −3 = = = 16 A t 15 × 10 15 15 within an atom and it is said to be electrically balanced. Q 0.24 × 103 240 trons. If a current of 10 A flows for four the electrons are arranged into shells at various distances minutes. Elec- trons that move from one atom to another are called free electrons and such random motion can continue indef- initely. as the positive and negative charges cancel each other out.24 ×1018 electrons). What current must flow if 0. Atoms of different materials differ from one another by having different numbers of protons. 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second or 1 A =1 C/s A V Hence. which have no electrical charge. atom.

This An insulation resistance in excess of 1 M is normally friction. For 1 example. around the a screen. is 3 cm × 10 V/cm. The amount by which the spot is deflected circuit to the negative terminal. if the spot is deflected 3 cm and the volts/cm switch is on 10 V/cm then the magnitude of the p.e. V. t = 4 × 60 =240 s potential difference resistance R = Hence Q = 10 ×240 =2400 C current Now try the following exercise 2. What the lamp to measure the current flowing through it. Since charge is transferred? [3600 C] all the current in the circuit passes through the ammeter 3.2 joints. and ‘fluke’ are typical examples.e. to transfer a charge of 80 C? [13 min 20 s] A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure p. a complete conducting path is measure voltage. The unit of A tachometer is an instrument that indicates the speed.d. or universal instrument. current and resistance. 30 V. Part 1 I = 10 A. Current flow. applied to the terminals of the oscilloscope and the range selected. V. and so on. that it has no breaks or high resistance Figure 2.e. Insulation resistance testing is the measurement of resistance of the insulation between cables. The display of lamp. from its initial position depends on the p. The flow of electric current is subject to friction. is considered as flow. is A multimeter.2 shows a cell connected across a filament and to measure voltages and currents. A BM80 or a 420 MIT megger or a bridge megger may be used to measure both continuity and insula- tion resistance. . may be used to required between them. property of a conductor that limits current. The oscilloscope may be used to observe waveforms Figure 2. Q = It coulombs it when 1 volt is connected across it. A current of 6 A flows for 10 minutes. Continuity testing is the measurement V of the resistance of a cable to discover if the cable is continuous. an oscilloscope involves a spot of light moving across ing from the positive terminal of the cell. is required.2.d. In Figure 2. is called resistance R and is the acceptable. by convention. 2. To avoid a significant current flowing through resistance it a voltmeter must have a very high resistance. i. The displacement is calibrated in ‘volts per cm’.d. i. a voltmeter is connected in parallel with the lamp to measure the p. An ‘Avometer’ necessary to and from the source of electrical energy.4 Basic electrical measuring Exercise 3 Further problems on electric instruments current and quantity of charge 1. An ohmmeter is an instrument for measuring resis- For a continuous current to flow between two points in tance. a circuit a potential difference (p.d. In what time would a current of 10 A transfer An ammeter is an instrument used to measure cur- a charge of 50 C? [5 s] rent and must be connected in series with the circuit. A Current A wattmeter is an instrument for the measurement of flow power in an electrical circuit.) or voltage. How long must a current of 100 mA flow so as it must have a very low resistance. or opposition. i.3 Potential difference and across it. 1 ohm is defined as the resistance usually in revolutions per minute. 10 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Quantity of electricity. individ- ual cables to earth or metal plugs and sockets.2 shows an ammeter connected in series with 2. The unit of p. resistance is the ohm. and must be connected in parallel with the part of the cir- cuit whose p. Figure 2.d. at which an engine which will have a current of 1 ampere flowing through shaft is rotating.d.d. is the volt.

5 Linear and non-linear devices V V I= or V = IR or R = Figure 2.d. against current./current) is constant. 2.d. p. across R1 . displayed on see the website. are listed in Table 2. and the duration of the 2. For various settings For a practical laboratory experiment on Ohm’s law.d.d. and the p.6 Ohm’s law view very short.3 A more extensive list of common prefixes are given on page 729.1. device. An introduction to electric circuits 11 A stroboscope is a device for viewing a rotating object Figure 2. The most R2 common ones.e.01) (2000) =20 V component such as a lamp then the graph shown in .01 A From Ohm’s law.d.4(b) results when values of p.3 shows a circuit in which current I can be R I varied by the variable resistor R2 . V 20 200 resistance R= = = = 25  I 0. or (b) a suitably designed the lamp is an example of a non-linear device. (See Chapter 10 for more detail about electrical mea. Thus multiples and sub-multiples of units are often used. Problem 4. lamp which flashes periodically.7 Multiples and sub-multiples l Currents. If the period between successive views is exactly the same as the time of one revolution of the revolving object.d. The current flowing through a resistor straight line graph passing through the origin indicates is 0. p.d. voltages and resistances can often be very large or very small. which must be applied to a 2 k resistor in order that a current of 10 mA may flow. potential difference. Since the gradient is changing. with an example of each.4(a) where the Problem 3. the ammeter. Determine the p. Ohm’s law states that the current I flowing in a circuit suring instruments and measurements. are noted for at regularly recurring intervals. Resistance R = 2 k =2 × 103 = 2000  Current I = 10 mA 0 l 0 l 10 10 (a) (b) = 10 ×10−3 A or 3 or A 10 1000 Figure 2. The result is shown in Figure 2. A resistor is thus an example of a linear From Ohm’s law. as stated in Chapter 1. Determine that current is directly proportional to the p.d.4 = 0.3 is replaced by a V = IR = (0. the current flowing in resistor R1 . If the resistor R1 in Figure 2.d. Since the value of the resistance. resistance R1 is constant. by means of either (a) a various current readings. Figure 2. are noted and a graph is plotted of p.8 A when a p. the gradient i. the object will appear to be stationary. provided the temperature remains constant.8 8 V A R1 2. (p. displayed on the voltmeter. of R2 . of 20 V is applied. Thus. Part 1 rotating or vibrating shutter.) is directly proportional to the applied voltage V and inversely proportional to the resistance R.

1 Part 1 Prefix Name Meaning Example M mega multiply by 1 000 000 2 M = 2 000 000 ohms (i. resistor and causes a current of 5 mA to flow. V 25 25 I= = = × 10−3 = 1. 12 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Table 2. A coil has a current of 50 mA flowing (a) Resistance R = = I 50 × 10−3 through it when the applied voltage is 12 V.000 05 volts 1 000 000 (i. R = = −3 = I 50 × 10 50 1 200 000 = = 600 000  or 600 k 2 12 000 or 0.6 M = = 240  50 Problem 8.0002 Resistance.25 mA V 20 A 20 2000 R 20 × 10 3 20 R= = = = = 1000  or 1 k I 20 mA 0.e.02 2 For resistor B. What is the resistance of a coil which draws a current of (a) 50 mA and (b) 200 µA from a V 16 V 16 16 000 R= = = = = 3200 or 3.2 k 120 V supply? I 5 mA 0.4 k 0.05 5 120 120 (b) Resistance R = = V 12 12 × 103 200 × 10−6 0.e. What is 120 12 000 the resistance of the coil? = = = 2400  or 2. ×10−3) 50 µ micro divide by 1 000 000 50 µV = V = 0. voltage is now reduced to 25 V. ×10−6) V 120 Problem 5. If the resistor. what will be the new value of the current flowing? V 100 100 × 103 Resistance R = = = I 5 × 10−3 5 = 20 × 103 = 20 k Current when voltage is reduced to 25 V. ×103 ) 25 m milli divide by 1000 25 mA = A = 0. The current/voltage relationship for Problem 6.e.005 5 .025 amperes 1000 (i.e.5. ×106 ) k kilo multiply by 1000 10 kV = 10 000 volts (i. Figure 2.5 For resistor A. A 100 V battery is connected across a two resistors A and B is as shown in Figure 2. Determine the value of the resistance of each Determine the resistance of the resistor. Problem 7.

and (b) the resistance of 5. porcelain. Calculate the current flowing. paper. which must be applied to a 5 k resistor such that a current of 6 mA may Problem 9.08 W or 80 mW . a current of 4 mA flows through a resistance of An insulator is a material having a high resistance 5 k. [7 ] Chapter 1. P = V × I watts (1) ing in the bulb and (b) the resistance of the bulb. [50 mA] P Power P = V × I . W. silver. ceramics and certain oils. 4. P = I 2 R watts V Also.9 Electrical power and energy Part 1 Exercise 4 Further problems on Ohm’s law Electrical power 1.m. [30 V] connected to a 250 V supply. aluminium. which does not allow electric current to flow in it.e. A 100 W electric light bulb is flow. [2 m. uct of potential difference V and current I . rubber. V = IR Substituting for V in equation (1) gives: 3.d. I = R Substituting for I in equation (1) gives: V P=V× R V2 i. air. from Ohm’s law. Some examples of insulators include plastic. mica. platinum.e. cork. = 16 ×10−6 × 5 ×103 = 80 × 10−3 = 0. P = (IR) × I Determine the value of each resistor. A 60 W electric light bulb is connected to a 240 V supply. An introduction to electric circuits 13 Now try the following exercise 2. Power P = I 2 R = (4 ×10−3)2 (5 ×103 ) glass. [(a) 0.f. circuit having a resistance of 400 .25 A (b) 960 ] From Ohm’s law. Calculate the power dissipated when brass. current I = V 100 10 2 (a) Current I = = = = 0. A 20 V source of e. The current flowing through a heating element Power P in an electrical circuit is given by the prod- is 5 A when a p. 5 m] i.6. gold and carbon.8 Conductors and insulators 250 25 5 V 250 2500 A conductor is a material having a low resistance which (b) Resistance R = = = = 625  allows electric current to flow in it. I 0. as stated in Find the resistance of the element. of 35 V is applied across it. The unit of power is the watt. is connected across a the bulb. Problem 10. Determine the p.d. P= watts R Figure 2. Graphs of current against voltage for two resistors P and Q are shown in Figure 2.4 A 2. All metals are con. from which. Hence 2. Determine (a) the current flow. Determine (a) the current flowing in the bulb.6 There are thus three possible formulae which may be used for calculating power.4 4 ductors and some examples include copper.

An electric heater consumes 3. Power rating of heater = 1.8 kJ V = IR = 5 ×100 =500 V Problem 16. Electrical equipment in an office (b) Power dissipated by coil. across the winding.56 p (Alternatively.216 p From Ohm’s law. thus I = = =6A power is measured in kilowatts and the time in hours V 250 then the unit of energy is kilowatt-hours. A 12 V battery is connected across a load having a resistance of 40 . A source of e.6 × 13.6 × 106 J Power = = (or W) = 1500 W Electrical energy = power × time time 40 × 60 s i.6 W R 30 Energy dissipated Power. How much energy is winding of an electric motor.92 kW = (3.d. A current of 5 A flows in the current of 2 A for six minutes. Power rating P = VI = (240) = 60 W Find the power rating of the heater and the current 4 taken from the supply. Estimate the cost per week of electricity if the = 2500 W or 2. power P = V × I = 20 ×4 × 10−3 = 80 mW Problem 14.25 A R 960 96 4 Problem 17. Hence energy = VIt =15 × 2 ×(6 ×60) (a) Potential difference across winding. The hot resistance of a 240 V Energy used per week filament lamp is 960 .e. since I = 4 ×10−3 and R = 5 × 103 home records the number of kilowatt-hours used and is then from Ohm’s law. P = VI = (12)(0. V 12 Current I = = = 0. the power consumed 30 .6 MJ   1 when connected to a 250 V supply for 40 minutes. P = V × I = 500 × 5 =2500 W or 2.3) =3.56 p per kWh =93. of 15 V supplies a Problem 12. = (3. Find the current taken by = power ×time the lamp and its power rating. Determine (a) the p.6 kWh Cost at 13.5 kW) Power = VI watts =240 ×13 =3120 W = 3. often called Hence the current taken from the supply is 6 A the ‘unit of electricity’. An electric kettle has a resistance of current flowing in the load. What current will flow when it is connected and the energy dissipated in 2 minutes. If the P 1500 Power P = VI. to a 240 V supply? Find also the power rating of the kettle. The ‘electricity meter’ in the .m.69 V 240 24 1 current I = = = = A or 0. I = = =8A Power consumed. P = VI = 240 ×8 = 1920 W = power ×time = 1.3 A R 40 V 240 Current. Determine the Problem 11. thus an energy meter.5 kW equipment is used for 30 hours each week and 1 kWh of energy costs 13.56 =1269. = 10 800 Ws or J = 10.12 kW Problem 13. P = I 2 R = 52 × 100 takes a current of 13 A from a 240 V supply. 14 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Alternatively.6 W)(2 ×60 s) = 432 J (since 1 J = 1 Ws) = power rating of kettle Problem 15. Electrical energy energy 3. the resistance of the provided in this time? winding being 100 . Hence weekly cost of electricity = £12. and (b) the power dissipated by the Energy =power × time.12 kW) ×(30 h) =93.f. and power =voltage ×current coil. Part 1 voltage V = IR = 4 ×10−3 × 5 × 10−3 = 20 V Hence.5 kW If the power is measured in watts and the time in seconds then the unit of energy is watt-seconds or joules.

95 35 h each.6 kWh] Energy used in 6 hours = power ×time 4.56 seconds. supply. 90 kWh.m.33 W (c) 40 W] = 4500 Wh =4. Determine the power dissipated when a cur- = 2 kW × 6 h =12 kWh rent of 10 mA flows through an appliance having a resistance of 8 k.88 kW. 15 V supplies a current of = 6 × 4. A current of 4 A flows through a conductor and 150 W lights for 30 hours each per week. and six 6. Calculate the power dissipated by the element of an electric fire of resistance 30  when a Exercise 5 Further problems on power and current of 10 A flows in it. 57. = 150 W × 30 h [(a) 0.50 p per unit. Determine the resistance of a coil connected Part 1 the element of an electric fire of resistance 20  to a 150 V supply when a current of (a) 75 mA when a current of 10 A flows through it.25 p per kWh = 14.25] . [0.82 p. Determine the cost of electricity for the week if 1 unit of electricity costs 12. A battery of e. 7.5 M] cost if 1 unit of electricity costs 13 p. exists across the of electricity is 14.5 J of energy are converted into heat in nine Cost of energy = 12 ×13 = £1.4 A. on for 6 hours determine the energy used and the [(a) 2 k (b) 0.5 kWh Hence weekly energy used by six 150 W lamps 8. What p.5 = 27 kWh 2 A for 5 min.5 V] weekly cost of electricity to the business. hence and the energy used in 20 h. How much energy is supplied in this time? [9 kJ] Total energy used per week = 120 +27 =147 kWh 1 unit of electricity =1 kWh of energy 9. 3. If the cost 10 W is dissipated. 2.f. Find the power dissipated when: Energy = power ×time (a) a current of 5 mA flows through a resis- Energy used by one 3 kW fire in 20 hours tance of 20 k = 3 kW × 20 h =60 kWh (b) a voltage of 400 V is applied across a Hence weekly energy used by two 3 kW fires 120 k resistor = 2 × 60 =120 kWh (c) a voltage applied to a resistor is 10 kV and Energy used by one 150 W light for 30 hours the current flow is 4 mA. 85. Determine the power dissipated by 2. [£22. Find also the power rating of the fire V = IR = 10× 20 = 200 V. 1.5 W (b) 1.5 W] Problem 19. The hot resistance of a 250 V filament lamp Determine also the weekly cost of energy if is 625 . determine the ends of the conductor? [2.d. lamp and its power rating.25 × 147 =2094. from Ohm’s law. 100 W] [3 kW. [0. power P = V × I = 200 × 10 = 2000 W = 2 kW) [20 .25 p per unit.82] Now try the following exercise 10. If the fire is (b) 300 µA flows through it. If the fire is on for energy 30 hours in a week determine the energy used. A business uses two 3 kW fires for an average of 20 hours each per week. In a household during a particular week three Thus weekly cost of energy at 2 kW fires are used on average 25 h each and 14.75 p eight 100 W light bulbs are used on average = £20. Determine the current taken by the electricity costs 12. Determine the resistance of an electric fire Power P = I 2 R = 102 × 20 = 100 × 20 = 2000 W which takes a current of 12 A from a 240 V or 2 kW (Alternatively. What power is dissipated? [9. An introduction to electric circuits 15 Problem 18.8 W] 1 unit of electricity =1 kWh Hence the number of units used is 12 5. £11.

state which is most appropriate for the The three main effects of an electric current are: following appliances which are both connected to a 240 V supply (a) magnetic effect (a) Electric toaster having a power rating of 1 kW (b) chemical effect (b) Electric fire having a power rating of 3 kW. thus large current there would be no protection against faults creating possible danger of fire.10 Main effects of electric current Problem 20.12 Insulation and the dangers of The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the constant high current flow normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. the insulat- which cause the current to rise slightly above the nor. . car-ignition V 240 24 and lifting magnets (see Chapter 8) Hence a 5 A fuse is most appropriate Chemical effect: primary and secondary cells and (b) For the fire. the maximum voltage present A circuit diagram symbol for a fuse is shown in needs to be considered when choosing insulation. P 1000 100 current I = = = = 4. With some equip. Magnetic effect: bells. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this ing heat loss. electroplating (see Chapter 4) P 3000 300 current I = = = = 12. bly a fire. This will cause overheating and possi- are both connected to a 240 V supply.1 on page 9. current I = Some practical applications of the effects of an electric V current include: (a) For the toaster. 5 A] rent. motors. Therefore special anti-surge fuses are fitted. The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated cur- [3 A. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will is therefore limited to keep the heat generated within blow.5 A V 240 24 Heating effect: cookers. If 3 A. heat it can withstand without being damaged. if the current rises above this value it will melt. generators. ing material has a maximum temperature rating – this is mal value. If 5 A. In addition. also has the effect of prevent- time at switch on. the most appropriate for each appliance. electric fires. i. Current 5 A and 10 A fuses are available state which is from the supply to the equipment flows through the fuse. In addition. kettles and soldering irons Now try the following exercise 2. 10 A and 13 A fuses are Part 1 available. ment there is a very large surge of current for a short whilst being necessary.11 Fuses Exercise 6 Further problem on fuses 1. relays. The use of insulation materials on electrical equipment. The cur- These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milli. 16 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 2. A television set having a power rating of 120 W If there is a fault in a piece of equipment then excessive and electric lawn-mower of power rating 1 kW current may flow. rent rating for all equipment and electrical components seconds. 2. water heaters. safe limits. the heat is not able to dissipate. (c) heating effect P Power P = VI.17 A transformers. telephones. Figure 2. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow — thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. fuses protect against this happening. Hence a 13 A fuse is most appropriate irons. furnaces. from which.e.

accuracy and a low power rating.1016/B978-1-85617-770-2. which is a disadvantage. Wire wound resistors are used in power circuits and motor starters. It is then totally enclosed in an outer (b) the cross-sectional area of the conductor. and can have a high power rating. they can be made with a high degree of accuracy. it has limited ever. The resistive value is resistive value per unit length is known. where ρ is the resistivity a • recognize typical values of resistivity and its unit ρl • perform calculations using R = a • define the temperature coefficient of resistance.00003-3 . This type of resistor ing points for electrical circuitry. This type of resistor has a large physical size. DOI: 10. α • recognize typical values for α • perform calculations using Rθ = R0 (1 +αθ) • determine the resistance and tolerance of a fixed resistor from its colour code • determine the resistance and tolerance of a fixed resistor from its letter and digit code Metal oxide resistors are used in electronic equip- 3. track etched out. Chapter 3 Resistance variation At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • recognise three common methods of resistor construction • appreciate that electrical resistance depends on four factors ρl • appreciate that resistance R = . 3. it is then fired and a thin 4 factors. these being: (a) the length of the conductor.2 Resistance and resistivity (ii) Metal oxide resistors With a metal oxide resistor a thin coating of platinum The resistance of an electrical conductor depends on is deposited on a glass plate.1 Resistor construction ment. Metal end desired value and wound around a ceramic former prior connections are crimped onto the rod to act as connect- to being lacquered for protection. Carbon resistors are used in electronic equipment. There is a wide range of resistor types. whose of standard length and width. of material and (d) the temperature of the material. Three of the most (iii) Carbon resistors common methods of construction are: This type of resistor is made from a mixture of carbon (i) Wire wound resistors black resin binder and a refractory powder that is pressed into shape and heated in a kiln to form a solid rod A length of wire such as nichrome or manganin. how. (c) the type tube. is cut to the predetermined by the ratio of the mixture. is small and mass-produced cheaply.

420 420 length l = = = 3. A wire of length 8 m and is 600 . l = 8 and a = 3. then 0. Determine (a) the resistance of an 8 m cross-sectional area 3 mm2 has a resistance of length of the same wire. R ∝ a ρ is measured in ohm metres (m). i. if the length of which.8 mm2 resistivity. Problem 2. Find (a) the a constant of proportionality into this relationship the resistance of a wire of the same length and material type of material used may be taken into account.e. i. i. l. R ∝ or R = k .06 R = kl =(120)(8) =960  8 . and material of resistance 750 .e.) Glass 1 × 1010 m (or 104 µm) (b) When the resistance is 750  then 750 =(k)(1/a). Mica 1 × 1013 m (or 107 µm) from which cross-sectional area. Thus. If the wire is drawn out until its same wire when the resistance is 420 . of a conductor. (a) Resistance. The if the cross-sectional area is 5 mm2 . for example. The resistance of a 5 m length of wire Problem 3.e.5 m sectional area. Hence. Part 1 a piece of wire is doubled. determine the resistance of the wire. where k is the l l coefficient of proportionality. R ∝ l Resistance R is directly proportional to length l. is directly proportional to length. Thus. where k is the coefficient of a a proportionality. a. Resistivity varies with temperature and some typ- k = 300 ×2 = 600 ical values of resistivities measured at about room temperature are given below: (a) When the cross-sectional area a = 5 mm2     Copper 1. and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. l. the coefficient of proportionality. and (b) the length of the 0. R. from a conductor.   Hence. R ∝ 1/a.6 × 10−8 m (or 0.e.7 × 10−8 m (or 0.16 . Resistance.16 × = 0. a. By inserting area 2 mm2 has a resistance of 300 . of (b) When the resistance is 420 . is directly proportional to length.16 =(k) . from which. a.16. R. is inversely proportional to cross. i. 600   k= = 120 8 5 Since R = 0. Thus. ρl Resistance R is inversely proportional to cross-sectional resistance R= ohms 1 a area. 750 750 Problem 1.026 µm) 5 5 Carbon (graphite) 10 × 10−8 m (or 0. 600  ∝ 5 m or 600 =(k)(5). i.017 µm) 1 1 then R = (k) = (600) = 120  Aluminium 2.   The value of the resistivity is that resistance of a unit 1 1 Hence 300  ∝ or 300 = (k) . 18 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Resistance.10 µm) (Note that resistance has decreased as the cross- sectional area is increased. R. 3 When the length l is 8 m. Note that good conductors of electricity have a low value of resistivity and good insulators have a high value of k 600 a= = = 0. cross-sectional area is 1 mm2 . R ∝ l. if the cross-sectional area of a piece of wire is doubled then the resistance is halved.e. A piece of wire of cross-sectional Since R ∝ l and R ∝ 1/a then R ∝ l/a. then the resistance is doubled. cube of the material measured between opposite faces 2 mm2 2 of the cube. 420 = kl. (b) the constant of proportionality is known as the resistivity cross-sectional area of a wire of the same length of the material and is given the symbol ρ (Greek rho). then resistance from which 3 k = 0. for k 120 example.

resistivity ρ = 0.7 × 10−8 m.180  1 0 −6 m2 . of a piece of copper wire. Take 1.625 mm2 ] = 3. 24 m Part 1     = 36π mm 2 l 24 New resistance R = k = 0. i. (a) What does the resistivity of a material = 0. Determine of copper cable having a diameter of 12 mm if the the resistivity of the wire in µm. = =  108 × 36π 36π Length l = 2 km = 2000 m. resistivity ρ = = aluminium as 0.25 . Take the resistivity of wire when the resistance is 6.017 µm mean? (b) The resistance of 500 m of wire of cross- Problem 7.2 mm2 wire is drawn out until its cross-sectional area is 1 mm2 . [0. The resistance of 1.6  1. in mm2 .7 × 10−8 m)(1200 m) Resistance R = = length of aluminium overhead power cable if the a (36π × 10−6 m2 ) cross-sectional area of the cable is 100 mm2 .32 ] cross-sectional area 0.03 × 10−6 m)(2000 m) Now try the following exercise Resistance R = = a (100 × 10−6 m2 ) 0. [0. Some wire of cross-sectional area 1 mm2 has ρl ρl a resistance of 20 .5 .e.44  = 36π × 10−6 m2 a 1 Problem 4. Calculate the resistance of a 2 km ρl (1. [1. [(a) 8.6 mm2 is 5 . Some wire of length 5 m and cross-sectional area 2 mm2 has a resistance of 0.75  (b) 5 m] 2. Determine (a) the resistance of a 7 m length of Problem 5. Determine 4.25 .03 × 2000 Exercise 7 Further problems on resistance =  and resistivity 100 = 0. of a piece of aluminium wire 100 m long and hav- ing a resistance of 2 .7 × 12 the resistivity of aluminium to be 0. Take the resistivity of Ra (150 )(0.25  32 . and (0. Calculate the cross-sectional area. Determine the resistance of 1200 m sectional area 2.02 × 10−6 m)(40 m) (b) the cross-sectional area of a wire of the = same length and material if the resistance is 0.8 ] ρl Resistance. determine the resistance of the wire.03 ×10−6 m. Calculate the cross-sectional area.06 = 1.03 ×10−6 m ρl (0.2 × 10−6) × 106 mm 2 = 3. resistivity of copper is 1.5 km of wire of [0.2 × 10−6 m2 3.03 ×10−6 m. Take the resis- tivity of copper as 0.08 . If the = (3. of cross-sectional area 20 mm2 . a = πr 2 = π 2 area then the length must be tripled to 3 ×8. The resistance of a 2 m length of cable is 2. Find the resistance of 800 m of copper cable the resistivity of the wire. Determine (a) the resis- Resistance R = hence cross-sectional area a = tance of a wire of the same length and mate- a R rial if the cross-sectional area is 4 mm2 .02 × 10−6 m. [(a) 5  (b) 0.17 × 10−6 m2 ) hence.02 µm. area.5 mm2 ] l (1500 m) 6. Resistance variation 19  12 2 If the cross-sectional area is reduced to 13 of its original Cross-sectional area of cable. copper as 0. in the same cable and (b) the length of the same mm2 . R = a 5.7 × 1200 × 106 1. Problem 6.17 mm2 is 150 .017×10−6 m or 0. a = 100 mm2 = 100 × = 0. 40 m in length and having a resistance of 0.026 µm] .

α = 0. . Thus. The units are usu.040] = 1000(0. An aluminium cable has a resistance of 27  at a temperature of 35◦C. the temperature rises to 100◦C. The symbol used for the temperature coefficient of resistance is α (Greek alpha). are known then the where R0 = resistance at 0◦ C resistance Rθ at temperature θ ◦ C is given by: Rθ = resistance at temperature θ ◦ C Rθ = R20 [1 + α 20(θ − 20)] α0 = temperature coefficient of resistance at 0◦ C Problem 11. Copper 0. Problem 10. R70 = 100[1 +(0. R20 . whilst the resistance of some special alloys remain almost constant. resistance measured at 0◦C are given below: Assume that the temperature coefficient of resistance for carbon at 0◦ C is −0. If the temperature of 100  when its temperature is 0◦C.301) = 130.0038/◦C Nickel 0.0043)(70)] of copper is 0. If the 1  resistor of copper is heated = 23.0062/◦C Carbon −0.133 ally expressed only as ‘per ◦ C’. [0.96) (Note that the negative sign for carbon indicates that its resistance falls with increase of temperature. α20.0005)(80)] = 1000[1 − 0.3 Temperature coefficient of resistance Problem 9. A coil of copper wire has a resistance resistance of 10  at 20◦C. Determine its resistance at 80◦ C. Hence resistance at 0◦ C. A coil of copper wire has a Problem 8. 20 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Resistance Rθ = R0 (1 +α0 θ) 7. = = 1 + 0.0043/◦C for copper.e.43 . Rθ = R0 (1 + α0 θ) Constantan 0 Eureka 0.0038/◦C.0043 /◦ C for copper.000 01/◦C i.) = 960  If the resistance of a material at 0◦C is known the resistance at any other temperature can be determined from: If the resistance of a material at room temperature (approximately 20◦ C). decrease in resistance.301] = 100(1. if 27 = some copper wire of resistance 1  is heated through [1 + (0. as the temperature of a material increases.e. Determine its In general. insulators of resistance at 0◦ C to be 0. Rθ = R0 (1 + α0θ) The temperature coefficient of resistance of a material is the increase in the resistance of a 1  resistor Rθ of that material when it is subjected to a rise of tem.216 ] = 100[1 + 0.133 1.000 48/◦C Resistance at temperature θ ◦ C. Rθ = 1000[1 + (−0.0043/◦C Aluminium 0. Resistance at θ ◦ C. Take the temperature coefficient most conductors increase in resistance. resistance at 0◦ C.0038)(35)] 1◦C and its resistance is then measured as 1. and the temperature coef- Rθ = R0(1 + α 0 θ) ficient of resistance at 20◦C. Find the resistance of 1 km of copper cable Part 1 having a diameter of 10 mm if the resistivity Hence resistance at 70◦ C.0005/◦C.1  3. i.83  through 100◦C then the resistance at 100◦C would be 1 +100 ×0.017 ×10−6 m. R0 = (1 + α0 θ) perature of 1◦ C.0043  27 27 then α = 0.004/◦C determine the resistance of the coil when resistance of copper at 0◦ C is 0.0043 =1.0043/◦C. Determine its coefficient of resistance of copper at 20◦C is resistance at 70◦C if the temperature coefficient of 0. A carbon resistor has a resistance of Some typical values of temperature coefficient of 1 k at 0◦ C.

004)(100 − 20)] R90 [1 + α0 (90)] = 10[1 +(0.004)(80)] R20 [1 + 90α0 ] Hence R90 = [1 + 20α0] = 10[1 +0. A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 20  at 18◦C.28◦C.08) 240 .0039)(θ − 18) 240 − 200 =0. The temperature coefficient of resistance for If the resistance at 0◦C is not known.00048/◦C. Resistance variation 21 Resistance at θ ◦ C.004)] = 10(1. 69.004/◦ C Hence resistance at 100◦C. determine = R2 1 + α 0 θ 2 the resistance of the coil when the temperature where R2 = resistance at temperature θ2 . 240 = 200[1 +(0. rises to 98◦C. wire and the temperature rises to 90◦ C. A copper cable has a resistance of 30  at θ = 51. Rθ = R18 [1 +α18(θ − 18)] Exercise 8 Further problems on temperature coefficient of i.004/◦C. Determine 40 = 0. [24.004/◦C at 0◦C.85 of the wire is increased and the resistance rises to (1. [70◦C] .e. Determine If the temperature coefficient of resistance the resistance of the wire at 90◦C.28◦ C a temperature of 50◦C.78(θ − 18) 1.0043/◦C.36) = = 251.0039/◦C at 18◦ C determine the temperature to which the coil has risen. 2.78(θ − 18) its resistance at 100◦C if the temperature coef- 40 ficient of resistance of aluminium at 0◦ C is = θ − 18 0.78 0. A coil of aluminium wire has a resistance of 50  when its temperature is 0◦ C. then the resistance at any nificance of the minus sign? A carbon resistor temperature can be found as follows: has a resistance of 500  at 0◦ C. aluminium is 0.2  200[1 + 0. Now try the following exercise Let the temperature rise to θ ◦ Resistance at θ ◦ C. R20 [1 + α0 (20)] Part 1 = R100 = 10[1 +(0. correct to the of nickel is 0. The temperature of the wire of 200  at 20◦ C. Some copper wire has a resistance 20◦C is 100 . Determine its resis- tance at 0◦C.006/◦C at 20◦C. R = R20 [1 +α20 (θ − 20)] R20 = 200 . coefficient of resistance is 0. Take the temperature coefficient Hence the temperature of the coil increases to of resistance of copper at 0◦ C as 0. α0 = 0. If the temperature coefficient of resis- R1 1 + α 0 θ 1 tance of copper at 18◦C is 0.36] = Problem 12.4 ] 5. [69 ] 51. [488 ] Dividing one equation by the other gives: 4. The resistance of a coil of nickel wire at Problem 13.69 ] 3. The resistance of a coil of [1 + 0.32] 200[1 + 90(0.004)] = 13.08] aluminium wire at 18◦C is 200 . determine the nearest ohm. Determine its R1 = R0 (1 + α0 θ1 ) and R2 = R0 (1 + α0 θ2 ) resistance at 50◦ C. A current is passed through the is increased and the resistance rises to 130 .28 = θ − 18. the resistance of the wire at 90◦ C is 252 . assuming that the temperature temperature to which the coil has risen. [26.0038/◦C.32) = [1 + 20(0. If the temperature coefficient of resistance of i.28 +18 =69.0039)(θ − 18)] resistance 240 = 200 +(200)(0. from which.e. but is known at carbon at 0◦C is −0. The temperature 200(1. What is the sig- some other temperature θ1 .

silver. from Table 3. which means that the value of the resistor is 33 ×10−2 = 0.25% Violet 7 107 ±0. Some aluminium wire has a resistance of 50  values with two significant figures): Part 1 at 20◦C.1% Problem 16.1. the other bands) [5. resistance 7.1 from Table 3.e. resistance 6. indicates a multiplier of 10 Orange 3 103 – from Table 3. give 33 from (a) Colour code for fixed resistors Table 3. Hence a colour Green 5 105 ±0.8 ] (ii) For a five-band fixed resistor (i. i. brown-black.1. Hence a colour coding of Colour Significant Multiplier Tolerance orange-orange-silver-brown represents a resistor of Figures value 0. the tolerance is ±20%.1. 100 . hence.1. Determine the value and tolerance of a resistor having a colour coding of: orange-orange-silver-brown 3. brown-black-brown-silver indicates None – – ±20% 10 ×10.33  with a tolerance of ±1% Silver – 10−2 ±10% Problem 15.e. indicates a tolerance of ±1% from Table 3.e. The third band.004/◦C. orange-orange.1.1 The fourth band.e.4 Resistor colour coding and ohmic values The first two bands. i. Determine the resistance of the tolerance of ±2% wire at 100◦C.5% coding of brown-black-brown represents a resistor of value 100  with a tolerance of ±20% Blue 6 106 ±0. 22 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology (i) For a four-band fixed resistor (i. with a tolerance of ±10% . white-orange-brown indicates 249 k with a toler- tance at 80◦C if at 20◦ C the resistivity of ance of ±1% copper is 0.2 km long and has a values with three significant figures): red-yellow- cross-sectional area of 5 mm2 . Find its resis.e. indicates a multiplier of 102 The colour code for fixed resistors is given in Table 3. which means that the value of the resistor is 10 ×10 = 100  Yellow 4 104 – There is no fourth band colour in this case. Determine the value and tolerance Gold – 10−1 ±5% of a resistor having a colour coding of: brown-black-brown. Black 0 1 – Brown 1 10 ±1% The first two bands.1. brown.5 to 2 times wider than coefficient of resistance is 0.1. The wire is heated to a tempera.004/◦C.33  Table 3. i. i. A copper cable is 1.952 ] Problem 14. assuming that the temperature (Note that the first band is the one nearest the end coefficient of resistance at 0◦C is 0. of the resistor) [64. yellow-violet-orange-red indicates 47 k with a ture of 100◦ C.e.02 ×10−6 m and its temperature (Note that the fifth band is 1. Between what two values should a resistor with colour coding Grey 8 108 – brown-black-brown-silver lie? White 9 109 – From Table 3. Red 2 102 ±2% The third band. give 10 from Table 3. brown.

J = ±5%.e.47  R47 i. colour coding and ohmic values Tolerance is indicated as follows: F = ±1%. Determine the value of a resistor orange-green-red-yellow-brown marked as 4M7M. Determine the value and tolerance of a resistor G = ±2%. Determine the letter and digit code for a resistor having a value of 68 k ±10%.52 M ± 1% Now try the following exercises (b) Letter and digit code for resistors Another way of indicating the value of resistors is the Exercise 9 Further problems on resistor letter and digit code shown in Table 3. Determine the value and tolerance of a resistor having a colour coding of: Problem 20. red [68 k ± 2%] 2. Resistance variation 23 This means that the value could lie between Table 3. brown-black-brown-silver indicates any value 1 1R0 between 90  and 110  4. Determine the colour coding for a 51 k four- band resistor having a tolerance of ±2% [green-brown-orange-red] From Table 3. K = ±10% and M = ±20% having a colour coding of: blue-grey-orange- Thus. With a tolerance of ±5%. Determine the colour coding for a 47  47R 47 k having a tolerance of ±5%.33  ± 20% having a colour coding of: yellow-violet-gold 4R7K = 4.2 Part 1 (100 − 10% of 100)  Resistance Marked as: Value and (100 + 10% of 100)  0. 4. 352 × 104  = M From Table 3. 47 k = 47 × 103 has a colour coding 1 k 1K0 of yellow-violet-orange.7  ± 10% [4. 68 k ± 10% has a letter and digit code Hence orange-green-red-yellow-brown indicates of: 68 KK 3. the fourth band will be gold.8 k ± 1% . 6K8F is equivalent to: 6.2. Determine the value and tolerance of a resistor having a colour coding of: blue-white-black- black-gold [690  ±5%] Problem 19. for example. i. 3. 4M7M is equivalent to: 4. 100  100R From Table 3.2. 10 k 10 K Hence 47 k ± 5% has a colour coding of: yellow-violet-orange-gold 10 M 10 M Problem 18.7  4R7 Problem 17.52 × 106 . orange-green-red-yellow-brown is a five-band fixed From Table 3. Determine the value and tolerance of a resistor R33M = 0.7  ± 20%] 390RJ = 390  ± 5% 3.1. Determine the value of a resistor marked as 6K8F. 1. indicates: 352 × 104  with a tolerance of ±1% Problem 21.1.e.7 M ± 20% resistor and from Table 3.

24 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology

5. Determine the colour coding for a 1 M four-
Part 1

8. Determine the value of a resistor marked as
band resistor having a tolerance of ±10%
(a) R22G (b) 4K7F
[(a) 0.22  ± 2% (b) 4.7 k ± 1%]
6. Determine the range of values expected for a 9. Determine the letter and digit code for a
resistor with colour coding: red-black-green- resistor having a value of 100 k ±5%
silver [1.8 M to 2.2 M] [100 KJ]
7. Determine the range of values expected for 10. Determine the letter and digit code for a
a resistor with colour coding: yellow-black- resistor having a value of 6.8 M ± 20%
orange-brown [39.6 k to 40.4 k] [6 M8 M]

Chapter 4
Batteries and alternative
sources of energy
At the end of this chapter you should be able to:
• list practical applications of batteries
• understand electrolysis and its applications, including electroplating
• appreciate the purpose and construction of a simple cell
• explain polarization and local action
• explain corrosion and its effects
• define the terms e.m.f., E, and internal resistance, r, of a cell
• perform calculations using V = E − Ir
• determine the total e.m.f. and total internal resistance for cells connected in series and in parallel
• distinguish between primary and secondary cells
• explain the construction and practical applications of the Leclanché, mercury, lead–acid and alkaline cells
• list the advantages and disadvantages of alkaline cells over lead–acid cells
• understand the term ‘cell capacity’ and state its unit
• understand the importance of safe battery disposal
• appreciate advantages of fuel cells and their likely future applications
• understand the implications of alternative energy sources and state five examples

products. Some practical examples where batteries are
4.1 Introduction to batteries used include:
in laptops, in cameras, in mobile phones, in
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy
cars, in watches and clocks, for security equip-
to electricity. If an appliance is placed between its
ment, in electronic meters, for smoke alarms, for
terminals the current generated will power the device.
meters used to read gas, water and electricity
Batteries are an indispensable item for many electronic
consumption at home, to power a camera for an
devices and are essential for devices that require power
endoscope looking internally at the body, and for
when no mains power is available. For example, without
transponders used for toll collection on highways
the battery, there would be no mobile phones or laptop
throughout the world
The battery is now over 200 years old and batteries Batteries tend to be split into two categories – primary,
are found almost everywhere in consumer and industrial which are not designed to be electrically re-charged,

DOI: 10.1016/B978-1-85617-770-2.00004-5

26 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology

i.e. are disposable (see Section 4.6), and secondary R
batteries, which are designed to be re-charged, such
Part 1

as those used in mobile phones (see Section 4.7).
1 2
In more recent years it has been necessary to design
batteries with reduced size, but with increased lifespan Copper Zinc electrode
electrode (cathode)
and capacity.
If an application requires small size and high power
then the 1.5 V battery is used. If longer lifetime is
required then the 3 to 3.6 V battery is used. In the 1970s Dilute
the 1.5 V manganese battery was gradually replaced by sulphuric acid
the alkaline battery. Silver oxide batteries were grad-
ually introduced in the 1960s and are still the preferred
technology for watch batteries today.
Lithium-ion batteries were introduced in the 1970s Figure 4.1
because of the need for longer lifetime applications.
Indeed, some such batteries have been known to last is called the anode and the negative-connected electrode
well over 10 years before replacement, a characteris- the cathode.
tic that means that these batteries are still very much When two copper wires connected to a battery are
in demand today for digital cameras, and sometimes placed in a beaker containing a salt water solution, cur-
for watches and computer clocks. Lithium batteries rent will flow through the solution. Air bubbles appear
are capable of delivering high currents but tend to be around the wires as the water is changed into hydrogen
expensive. and oxygen by electrolysis.
More types of batteries and their uses are listed in Electroplating uses the principle of electrolysis to
Table 4.2 on page 32. apply a thin coat of one metal to another metal. Some
practical applications include the tin-plating of steel,
silver-plating of nickel alloys and chromium-plating of
steel. If two copper electrodes connected to a battery
4.2 Some chemical effects of are placed in a beaker containing copper sulphate as the
electricity electrolyte it is found that the cathode (i.e. the electrode
connected to the negative terminal of the battery) gains
A material must contain charged particles to be able to copper whilst the anode loses copper.
conduct electric current. In solids, the current is carried
by electrons. Copper, lead, aluminium, iron and carbon
are some examples of solid conductors. In liquids and 4.3 The simple cell
gases, the current is carried by the part of a molecule
which has acquired an electric charge, called ions. The purpose of an electric cell is to convert chemical
These can possess a positive or negative charge, and energy into electrical energy.
examples include hydrogen ion H+ , copper ion Cu++ A simple cell comprises two dissimilar conductors
and hydroxyl ion OH− . Distilled water contains no (electrodes) in an electrolyte. Such a cell is shown in
ions and is a poor conductor of electricity, whereas salt Figure 4.1, comprising copper and zinc electrodes. An
water contains ions and is a fairly good conductor of electric current is found to flow between the electrodes.
electricity. Other possible electrode pairs exist, including zinc–lead
Electrolysis is the decomposition of a liquid com- and zinc–iron. The electrode potential (i.e. the p.d. mea-
pound by the passage of electric current through it. sured between the electrodes) varies for each pair of
Practical applications of electrolysis include the elec- metals. By knowing the e.m.f. of each metal with respect
troplating of metals (see below), the refining of copper to some standard electrode, the e.m.f. of any pair of met-
and the extraction of aluminium from its ore. als may be determined. The standard used is the hydro-
An electrolyte is a compound which will undergo gen electrode. The electrochemical series is a way
electrolysis. Examples include salt water, copper sul- of listing elements in order of electrical potential, and
phate and sulphuric acid. Table 4.1 shows a number of elements in such a series.
The electrodes are the two conductors carrying cur- In a simple cell two faults exist – those due to
rent to the electrolyte. The positive-connected electrode polarization and local action.

aluminium The electrochemical series is representative of the order of reactivity of the metals and their compounds: zinc (i) The higher metals in the series react more readily iron with oxygen and vice-versa.e. the layer of zinc helping to prevent the Local action iron from corroding. or by plating with tin or chromium. iron may be galvanized. contact between the copper electrode and the electrolyte The effects of corrosion include the weakening of and this increases the internal resistance of the cell. an anode and a cathode are If the simple cell shown in Figure 4. This effect is known as will occur. For example.1 is left connected required for corrosion. copper silver 4. corrosion bubbles on the copper anode.e. . and internal resistance The reason for this is that impurities. In addition to the presence of moisture and air required Polarization for rusting. materials.f. the current I decreases fairly rapidly.d. This Corrosion may be prevented by coating with paint. an electrolyte. approximately 1 M.m. For example. if the resistance of a cell is 1  and that of of the cell: a voltmeter 1 M then the equivalent resistance of the (i) The metal that is higher in the series acts as the circuit is 1 M + 1 . are present in the zinc which set up small primary cells with the zinc.5 E. hydrogen gas is liberated from it and the zinc dissolves. The structures. voltmeter must have a high resistance otherwise it will When two metals are used in a simple cell the elec- pass current and the cell will not be on ‘no-load’. This action is known as local (i. i. which removes the hydrogen bubbles as they form.1 chemical series is negative and the copper electrode is positive.m.m.f. which tance voltmeter connected in parallel with the cell. if metals widely spaced for some time. no current flows and the cell is not loaded. i. For trochemical series may be used to predict the behaviour example. if a brass valve is fitted to a the polarization of the cell. The forms a protective layer on the surface of the electrode. of a cell is the p. Also. the zinc electrode in the cell shown in Figure 4. Batteries and alternative sources of energy 27 Table 4. corrosion will occur.1 Part of the electro. with the result that localized currents between its terminals when it is not connected to a load flow causing corrosion. lead (ii) When two metal electrodes are used in a simple cell the one that is higher in the series tends to hydrogen dissolve in the electrolyte. in the electrochemical series. are used in contact with This is because of the formation of a film of hydrogen each other in the presence of an electrolyte.m. the wastage of materials and the expense of ing agent or depolarizer. Part 1 Potassium (ii) The greater the separation in the series between the two metals the greater is the e. When commercial zinc is placed in dilute sulphuric acid.f.). plastic coatings and enamels. These small cells are short-circuited The electromotive force (e. such as traces of of a cell iron. action of the cell. 4. E. Thus. the reduction of the life of components and effect can be overcome by using a chemical depolariz. such as potassium dichromate replacement. grease.. the cell is on ‘no load’).4 Corrosion carbon Corrosion is the gradual destruction of a metal in a damp atmosphere by means of simple cell action. hence negative electrode. allows the cell to deliver a steady current. and vice-versa. produced sodium by the cell. The hydrogen prevents full heating system made of steel. by the electrolyte. This may be prevented by rubbing The e.f. of a cell is measured by using a high resis- a small amount of mercury on the zinc surface.e. plated with zinc.

E of the cell or power Total internal resistance supply is the p. = sum of cell’s e. V X Y (i) For cells connected in series: I Total e.2 the cell is said to be discharging (E > V ). = e.f. of the cell and is given by: = × internal resistance of one cell n V = E − Ir Problem 1.025  8 Figure 4.s Total internal resistance = sum of cell’s internal R resistances Figure 4. Figure 4.2 = 0.m.d. (b) in parallel. total e.f.01  delivers a current of 100 A.d. V = e.d.e.m.f.2 × 8 = 17.m. r A battery is a combination of more than one cell. r. each with an internal Thus if a battery of e. then E is as shown by the broken line. V = 12 − (100)(0.m.f..01) = 12 − 1 = 11 V (a) When connected in series.d.m. I 1 = × 0.2 V are resistance 0.m. When R is Total e. across its terminals on no load (i.m. Since the e. The p. E volts and Figure 4. a graph may be plotted as shown in Figure 4. the ter. that shown in Figure 4.f. V = E.3.f. The cells in a battery may be connected in series or in parallel. and internal When a load (shown as resistance R) is not connected.m. When different values of potential difference V = sum of cell’s e. of one cell = 2. 28 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology The voltage available at the terminals of a cell falls Since V = E − Ir then the internal resistance may be when a load is connected.3 . The internal r= I resistance acts in series with other resistances in the When a current is flowing in the direction shown in circuit.6  (b) When connected in parallel. internal resistance. and XY represents the terminals When a current flows in the opposite direction to of the cell.f.2 the cell is said to be charging E (V > E).6 V values of current I . and the internal resistance of the batteries so formed. resistance: no current flows and the terminal p.m.m. of one cell connected a current I flows which causes a voltage drop Total internal resistance of n cells in the cell. This is caused by the internal calculated from Part 1 resistance of the cell which is the opposition of the E −V material of the cell to the flow of current.f. given by Ir.f.m. Determine minal p.2 V V Total internal resistance of 8 cells 1 = × internal resistance of one cell 8 0 Current.m.m.f. = 0. connected (a) in series..m. Eight cells.f.2 (ii) For cells connected in parallel: If each cell has the same e. available at the cell ter- 1 minals is less than the e. the e.d.m.. E Ir Terminal p.f.f.2  and an e. of 2.2 ×8 =1.f. total e. 12 volts and internal resistance of 0.2 shows a cell of e. across a cell or power supply are measured for different = 2. = sum of cell’s internal resistance when I = 0).f.

V = E − I r drawn increases. Determine (a) the current flowing 4.0 − 0.m. resistance of the load.f. Deter- mine the p. i. Ten 1. V = E − I r where E = e.d.2 V.f.0 = 1. A battery of e. 20 V and internal resis- in the circuit and (b) the p.d.m.e. V = E − I r = 2. of 15 cell.d.0 − 1.m. tance 0.e. The p.0 V. Determine the internal resistance of the battery.m. if 10r = 25 − 24 = 1 it delivers and the internal resistance.m. of the battery.02  and an e.5 V are connected When current I = 10 A and terminal p.02) i.f. E =25 V of 0. 1. I = 5 A and r = 0.f.4 Thus the terminal p. each having an load taking 8 A is connected.88  (b) 1.d. terminal p.0 V.0 V Figure 4. i. Exercise 10 Further problems on e. Determine the V = 24 V.d. A cell has an internal resistance of 0.5 V Problem 3. i.7 V] 1 r= = 0. Calculate its terminal p. then V = E − I r e. decreases as the current (b) P. Batteries and alternative sources of energy 29 When connected to a 58  load the circuit is as Problem 2. = 58 + 2 tance of cell 15 = = 0.02 ] Hence.f. E =10 × 1.m. A cell has an internal resistance of shown in Figure 4.0 − (5)(0. at the terminals of a battery is 16 V 10 when no load is connected and 14 V when a Problem 4. 1. at battery terminals. each with an internal resistance is equal to the terminal p. (a) 1 A (b) 20 A (c) 50 A [(a) 2.25 A E = 2. of 2. if it delivers (a) 5 A (b) 50 A.02  60 I Hence terminal p.2 . Calculate its terminal p. . of 2. are connected in series internal resistance of the battery. E.8 ] and the total internal resistance.1  3.6 V (c) 0. V = 15 − (0.m.d.m. I = current flowing and r = internal resis. and internal resistance of the batteries so formed. rearranging. at the terminals of a battery Now try the following exercise is 25 V when no load is connected and 24 V when a load taking 10 A is connected.5 V.d.e.m.5 V cells. (b) in parallel. Twelve cells. r=10 × 0.2  supplies a load taking 10 A.4 Part 1 0. at the battery terminals and the (a) For ten cells. The p. [0.e.24  and an e.02) = 2.9 V E 5 15 V Load r 52V V R 5 58 V (b) When the current is 50 A. battery e. Current I = total resistance (a) Terminal p.5 =15 V.0 − 50(0.f. [18 V.d. Determine the internal resistance of 0.d. 0. (a) in series. V = 2.2 = 2 . and internal resistance of a cell When no load is connected the e.03  and an e. gives 2.d. V = 2.17 V (b) 1. 24 = 25 − (10)r [(a) 18 V.1 = 1. 2.25)(2) = 14..f. e.d.d.f.d. V .f.. of 1.. at the battery terminals.f.25 ] to a load of 58 .m.

gas lighters. water) 2V 1V ZINC CASE CATHODE (negative terminal) 2V DRY LECHLANCHÉ CELL 1V Figure 4.f.6 Primary cells Insulation MERCURY CELL Primary cells cannot be recharged. Find. in each case: Lechlanché cell is suitable only for intermittent use.d. of the batteries. of about 1. Such a cell has an e.m. Lechlanché cell ing in the circuit. bells. What would be the Insulating gasket terminal voltage when a load taking 20 A is Steel case anode connected? [0. that is. zinc chloride.5 ing aids. The batteries. 51. is cheap. Examples of primary cells include the 5. manganese dioxide and powdered carbon) 2V 1V ELECTROLYTE (sal ammoniac. plaster of paris. Determine (a) the current flow. at the battery A typical dry Lechlanché cell is shown in Figure 4. Its main advantages (b) over the Lechlanché cell is its smaller size and its long shelf life.7. transistor radios.25 ] mary cells. across PQ applications including torches.8 V when a Steel cap cathode (negative terminal) load taking 80 A is connected. terminals [(a) 1 A (b) 21 V] Such a cell has an e. (i) the total e. 4V 5V 3V 1V 2V 1V Metal cap CARBON ROD ANODE (positive terminal) Pitch seal DEPOLARIZER to remove hydrogen produced P Q on rod surface. Part 1 tance of 0. but this falls rapidly if in continuous use due to polariza- 6.3 V which remains con- P Q stant for a relatively long time. Typical practical applications include hear- Figure 4. The hydrogen film on the carbon electrode forms tors represent the internal resistance of the faster than can be dissipated by the depolarizer.5 V when new. For the circuits shown in Figure 4.2 V cells. (ii) the total equivalent internal resistances indicator circuits.2 V] (positive terminal) Zinc cylinder Electrolyte (potassium hydroxide) Mercuric oxide 4. The cell is the most commonly used of pri- [(i) (a) 6 V (b) 2 V (ii) (a) 4  (b) 0.m.m.7 versible and the cell cannot be used once the chemicals . the con- version of chemical energy to electrical energy is irre.04 . 30 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology are exhausted. Ten 2.5 the resis- tion.f. controlling switch-gear. each having an internal resis.f. Figure 4.1  are connected in series to a load of 21 .6 2V 1V Mercury cell A typical mercury cell is shown in Figure 4. The voltage at the terminals of a battery is 52 V missiles. and so on. Leclanché cell and the mercury cell. (a) (ammonium chloride. requires little maintenance and has a shelf life of about 2 years. when no load is connected and 48.6. medical electronics. cameras and for guided 7. Find the internal resistance of the battery. of about 1. and (b) the p.

dark brown and when discharged is light brown. Practical appli. change and thus the quantity can be reduced to a min- The relative density (or specific gravity) of a lead–acid imum. The colour of the positive plate when fully charged is ing lead peroxide into the lead grid.7 Secondary cells hydrogen in the electrolyte to form water. (ii) Capable of withstanding heavy charging and phate. the whole being enclosed in perforated steel tubes and assembled in steel plates. that is. of a lead–acid cell when fully dis- ples of secondary cells include the lead–acid cell and the charged is about 1. cadmium cell the negative plate is made of cadmium. When a cell supplies current to a load it is said to be Advantages of a nickel cadmium cell or a nickel– discharging.26 when the cell is fully charged to in a non-metallic crate to insulate the cells from one about 1.8 to increase their effective cross-sectional area and to minimize internal resistance. telephone the cell being connected to the positive terminal of the circuits and for traction purposes – such as milk delivery supply. The Part 1 electrolyte is therefore weakened and the relative Secondary cells can be recharged after use. The plates are separated by insulating rods and cell. view of Figure 4.2 V. The charging current flows in the reverse direc- vans and fork lift trucks. A cell is charged by connecting nickel cadmium and nickel–metal cells. tion to the discharge current and the chemical action is reversed. celluloid or wood. and (i) A container made of glass. Nickel cadmium and nickel–metal cells Container In both types the positive plate is made of nickel Separators hydroxide enclosed in finely perforated steel tubes. In the nickel– (iii) Separators made of glass. ebonite or plastic. Exam. the density falls. conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy is reversible and the cell may be used many times. During charging: Lead–acid cell (i) the lead sulphate on the positive and negative plates is converted back to lead peroxide and lead A typical lead–acid cell is constructed of: respectively. supply to its terminals. spongy lead (b) the positive plate (anode) is formed by press. which may be measured using a hydrometer. The terminal p. varies assembled in steel containers which are then enclosed between about 1. about 1. the negative plate is made of PLAN VIEW OF LEAD–ACID CELL iron oxide. During discharge: metal cell over a lead–acid cell include: (i) More robust construction (i) the lead peroxide (positive plate) and the spongy lead (negative plate) are converted into lead sul. of an alkaline cell is acid cell is about 2 V. The average discharge p.d.19 when discharged. Batteries and alternative sources of energy 31 (ii) the oxygen in the lead peroxide combines with 4. with the resistance being reduced by a little Figure 4. The relative (a) the negative plate (cathode) consists of density of the electrolyte thus increases. the Negative plate resistance being reduced by the addition of pure nickel Positive plate (cathode) (anode) or graphite. The tubes are assembled into nickel–steel plates. In the nickel–metal cell (sometimes called the Edi- son cell or nife cell).d.c.8 mercuric oxide. a d. The colour of the negative plate when fully charged is grey The plates are interleaved as shown in the plan and when discharged is light grey.d. (ii) the water content of the electrolyte decreases as (ii) Lead plates the oxygen released from the electrolyte combines with the lead of the positive plate. and discharging currents without damage . of a lead– another. The electrolyte in each type of cell is a solution of potas- (iv) An electrolyte which is a mixture of sulphuric sium hydroxide which does not undergo any chemical acid and distilled water. the positive terminal of cations of such cells include car batteries. The terminal p.8 V.

Nickel Recycle at council waste hydride (NiMH) but longer life facility. laptop computers. AAA. watches and cameras Lithium Recycle at council waste (explosive and facility. shavers. D. personal stereos Nickel-metal Alternative to NiCd batteries. a small flat battery shaped like a ‘button’ used in small electronic devices) Mercuric oxide Hearing aids. if available Silver oxide Calculators. facility. Zinc Not classed as hazardous toys and smoke alarms waste – can be disposed with household waste Zinc chloride Torches. pagers and cameras Zinc Recycle at council waste facility. Zinc Not classed as hazardous toys and smoke alarms waste – can be disposed with household waste Alkaline manganese Personal stereos and Manganese Not classed as hazardous radio/cassette players waste – can be disposed with household waste Primary button cells (i. if available Lithium-ion Alternative to NiCd and NiMH Lithium Recycle at council (Li-ion) batteries. cordless power Cadmium Recycle at council waste (NiCd) tools.e. trucks.e. if available Lithium Computers. if available Zinc air Hearing aids. Small sealed accept old car batteries. 32 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Table 4. if available storage capacity . shavers. tractors and lead stations and garages and motorcycles.2 Part 1 Type of battery Common uses Hazardous Disposal recycling component options Wet cell (i. AA. watches and cameras Silver Recycle at council waste facility. but greater energy waste facility. radios. a primary cell that has a liquid electrolyte) Lead acid batteries Electrical energy supply for vehicles Sulphuric acid Recycle – most petrol including cars. shavers. boats. clocks. clocks. lead acid batteries are used for and council waste facilities emergency lighting and have collection points uninterruptible power supplies for lead acid batteries Dry cell: Non-chargeable – single use (for example. if available flammable) Dry cell rechargeable – secondary batteries Nickel cadmium Mobile phones. if available motorized toys. radios. C. lantern and miniature watch sizes) Zinc carbon Torches. pacemakers Mercury Recycle at council waste and cameras facility.

Mercury can cause damage to the duties require long idle periods or heavy discharge cur. correctly dispose of all types of batteries. lead and cadmium. kidneys and liver. Table 4. military portable or irritation upon contact.0 in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed.e.m. charge current. (volts) 2. wildlife and the environment.10 Fuel cells A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion Terminal p. Typical discharge characteristics for a lead–acid cell are shown in Figure 4. See also Table 4. spinal system. (i. July 2007 all producers (manufacturers and importers) charge can be discharged at a steady current of 5 A for of electrical and electronic equipment will be responsi- 10 h.8 Discharge at Discharge at an external source of fuel and oxygen.e.8 Cell capacity Landfill Regulations 2002 and Hazardous Waste Regu- lations 2005. it produces electricity from 1. reactants flow in and . human brain.d. as well (i) Is relatively more expensive as posing a fire risk.2. i. a substance producing cancerous growth). Long- (v) Has a lower efficiency term exposure to cadmium.e. the lower is the effective capacity of the battery.9 4.2 device. their hazardous components and disposal recycling options. can cause in conditions where vibration is experienced or where liver and lung disease. page 32. Sulphuric rents. lighting in railway carriages. not permanently changed) Discharge time (hours) and relatively stable.2 lists types of batteries.e. but differing from the latter 2. since the higher the dis. obligated WEEE generated in the UK. as opposed to twice 10 h rate 10 h rate the limited energy storage capacity of a battery. the metals can leach out and pollute the soil and groundwater. Also. but if the load current is increased to 10 A then the ble for the cost of collection.9 on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side (i.9 Safe disposal of batteries Part 1 (iv) For a given capacity is lighter in weight (v) Can be left indefinitely in any state of charge or Battery disposal has become a topical subject in the UK discharge without damage because of greater awareness of the dangers and impli- cations of depositing up to 300 million batteries per (vi) Is not self-discharging annum – a waste stream of over 20 000 tonnes – into Disadvantages of a nickel cadmium and nickel-metal landfill sites. (ii) Requires more cells for a given e. the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged. cells over a lead–acid cell include: Certain batteries contain substances which can be a hazard to humans. Other batteries can be recycled for their metal content. If batteries containing heavy metals are disposed of incor- (iv) Must be kept sealed rectly. whereas a fuel cells’ 0 2 4 6 8 10 electrodes are catalytic (i. a hydrogen cell). commencing (Ah). Typical reactants used in a fuel cell are hydrogen Figure 4. endangering humans and wildlife. Waste batteries are a concentrated source of toxic (iii) Has a higher internal resistance heavy metals such as mercury. their common uses. A fully charged 50 Ah battery rated for 10 h dis. a known human carcinogen Nickel cells may be used in extremes of temperature. From the Waste Electrical and Electronic The capacity of a cell is measured in ampere-hours Equipment (WEEE) Regulations 2006. Usually. similar to a battery. Practical examples include traction and marine acid in lead acid batteries can cause severe skin burns work.f. Battery disposal has become more regulated since the 4. It is increasingly important to radios and for starting diesel and petrol engines. Batteries and alternative sources of energy 33 (iii) Has a longer life 4. treatment and recycling of battery is discharged in 3–4 h.

a temperature of 100◦C is encountered. Drilling 3 miles from the surface of include the following: the Earth. 3. The average wind vehicles available at market prices within a few years. The reason for this is that powered electric power plant. Virtually continuous long. These are absorbed by the outer atmosphere or reflected back areas which transmit excess internal heat from the into space. gas and oil are not renewable because. around 4. harnessing the wind is highly depen- research and development is likely to make fuel cell dent upon weather and location. . blades of the windmill it is forced to rotate and can Currently. however. their time span is to run a steam turbine which. Solar energy could be used to run cars. 5. when suitably positioned.p. Wind power is another alternative energy source for their high efficiency and ideally emission-free use. lightweight and has no moving parts. Photovoltaic term operation is feasible as long as these flows are cells. fuel cells are a very expensive alterna- be used to generate electricity (see Chapter 9). continued solar power. generates elec- finite and will eventually run out. As the water stored behind a dam is released 4. capture heat in water storage systems.e. The fins of a windmill rotate or natural gas that generate carbon dioxide. interior of the Earth to the outer crust which can power plants and space ships. a wind of 10 m. about one third of this energy is either hotspots are found all around the world. 4. its kinetic energy is transferred onto turbine blades and used to generate electricity. Solar panels on roofs be used to generate electricity. Fuel cells are very attractive in modern applications 2. A fuel cell running 50 watts. Like tive to internal combustion engines. convert sunlight to Part 1 maintained.11 Alternative and renewable at high pressure. such as spacecraft. remote weather stations. The radius of the Earth is about 4000 miles There are many means of harnessing energy which with an internal core temperature of around 4000◦C have less damaging impacts on our environment and at the centre. Hydroelectricity is achieved by the damming of rivers and utilizing the potential energy in the water. traditional gas and oil. around 35 000 times the total energy used by man. it is not easy. all of which increase the atmospheric carbon when burned as fuel. although heat of the planet and can be used to generate steam the fields may last for generations. velocity of Earth is around 9 m/s. Geothermal energy is obtained from the internal Coal.5 m/s) is around and in certain military applications. in turn. volcanic features called geothermal However. electricity. energy sources The system has enormous initial costs but has relatively low maintenance costs and provides Alternative energy refers to energy sources which power quite cheaply. 1.h. Tidal power utilizes the natural motion of the tides Renewable energy implies that it is derived from a to fill reservoirs which are then slowly discharged source which is automatically replenished or one that is through electricity-producing turbines. However. tricity. (i. The only in a vertical plane which is kept vertical to the wind by-product of a fuel cell operating on pure hydrogen is by means of a tail fin and as wind flow crosses the water vapour. effectively infinite so that it is not depleted as it is used. on hydrogen can be compact. and the power Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote that could be produced when a windmill is facing locations. Fortunately. 34 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology reaction products flow out. could replace coal. in that can be used without producing by-products that contrast to currently more modern fuels such as methane are harmful to nature. Solar energy is one of the most resourceful sources this is sufficient to boil water to run a steam- of energy for the future. Although drilling 3 the total energy received each year from the sun is miles down is possible.

5 p per unit. (5) (b) What is the value of a resistor marked as 3. If the fire is on for 5 hours every day.0038/◦C. renewable energy sources. of 2. a resistance of 25 . (5) applications.40  and an e. An electromagnet exerts a force of 15 N and moves of resistance at 0◦C is 0. A d. (15) . Determine the charge transferred when a current series to a load of 38. (a) Determine the values of the resistors with the 2. (4) 0. At a temperature of 40◦ C. (b) If the cells are connected in parallel 5. an aluminium cable has 11. Calculate the resistance of 1200 m of copper (c) State the advantages of a fuel cell over a cable of cross-sectional area 15 mm2 . (a) Determine the cur- of 5 mA flows for 10 minutes. If the temperature coefficient and give a brief description of each. and (b) the resistance of the bulb. Determine the power consumed. (5) in 50 ms.c.d.40 . Revision Test 1 Part 1 This revision test covers the material contained in Chapters 1 to 4. (12) 7. calculate it’s a soft iron armature through a distance of 12 mm resistance at 0◦ C.d. Four cells. The marks for each question are shown in brackets at the end of each question. Take the conventional battery and state three practical resistivity of copper as 0. Determine (i) red-red-orange-silver the power rating of the motor and the current taken (ii) orange-orange-black-blue-green from the supply. determine the current flowing tric fire of resistance 25 . calculate for a one week period 10. Name five alternative.02 µm. 6. (2) rent flowing in the circuit and the p. at the battery terminals. at the battery terminals. A current of 12 A flows in the element of an elec- instead of in series. each with an internal resistance of bulb.25 MJ when connected following colour coding: to a 250 V supply for 1 hour 45 minutes. (a) the energy used. (10) dissipated by the element. Calculate (a) the current flowing in the 9. motor consumes 47. 1.f. (a) State six typical applications of primary cells. Determine the power and the p. (5) 8. (6) cells.m. A 100 W electric light bulb is connected to a 200 V 47KK? (6) supply.5 V are connected in 4. and (b) cost of using the fire (b) State six typical applications of secondary if electricity cost 13.

currents and resistances in a parallel network • calculate unknown voltages. from the voltmeter readings V1. across each resistor may be determined the total applied voltage. Chapter 5 Series and parallel networks At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • calculate unknown voltages. with a battery source the two ammeters shown.1 then IR = IR1 +IR2 +IR3 DOI: 10. V3 = IR3 and V = IR I where R is the total circuit resistance. i.1 Series circuits (a) the current I is the same in all parts of the circuit Figure 5. V Since V = V1 + V2 + V3 Figure 5. V2 = IR2 . currents and resistances in series-parallel networks • understand current division in a two-branch parallel network • appreciate the loading effect of a voltmeter • understand the difference between potentiometers and rheostats • perform calculations to determine load currents and voltages in potentiometers and rheostats • understand and perform calculations on relative and absolute voltages • state three causes of short circuits in electrical circuits • describe the advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel connection of lamps In a series circuit 5. Since the circuit is closed a current I will (b) the sum of the voltages V1.00005-7 . V . i. in series. R2 and R3 con. and of V volts.e.e.1 shows three resistors R1 .1016/B978-1-85617-770-2. currents and resistances in a series circuit • understand voltage division in a series circuit • calculate unknown voltages. V2 and V3 V = V 1 +V 2 + V 3 R1 R2 R3 From Ohm’s law: V1 V2 V3 A A V1 = IR1 .d. and hence the same reading is found on each of nected end to end. V2 and V3 is equal to flow and the p.

3.2 Potential divider value of resistor R2 .4 V 13 (b) Total circuit resistance R = = = 3. across the respectively.5 = 3. V2 4 Resistance R2 = = = 16  I 0.d. R2 and R3 .25(11) Problem 2.25  Current I = = = 0. Series and parallel networks 37 Dividing throughout by I gives P. 9  resistor.d. V1 = I × 9 = 0.3 V2 = V R1 + R1 . the total resistance is obtained flowing in each resistor by adding together the values of the separate resistances. 2 V and 6 V the current flowing through. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. determine (a) the battery voltage V . The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 5.5 A. If the total resistance of the circuit is 100 .25 + 0. (b) the total Problem 3. which is the current in the I 4 R 24 9  resistor. = 2.25 Problem 1. determine the current flowing through resistor R1 . A 12 V battery is connected in a resistance of the circuit. given that the having resistances of 4 .25  = R) P = I 2 R =0.5 × 9 V3 6 = 4. Find also the 5. Find also the power dissipated in the R1 R2 R3 11  resistor. across R3 . Determine p.25 A.5  I 4 Power dissipated in the 11  resistor. and the p.75 W determine the p. 9  and 11 .4. R2 and R3 are 5 V. V1 V2 V3 4A 4V 9V 11 V V Figure 5.5 + 1. R1 R2 R3 The voltage distribution for the circuit shown in Figure 5.2 I V1 12 V (a) Battery voltage V = V1 + V2 + V3 = 5 + 2 + 6 = 13 V Figure 5. across the 9  resistor.d.52 (11) = 0.25  Total resistance R = 4 + 9 + 11 =24  I 4 V1 5 V 12 (c) Resistance R1 = = = 1.5(a) is given by:   10 V 4V V3 R1 I V1 = V R1 + R2 25 V   R2 Figure 5. V2 2 Resistance R2 = = = 0. For the circuit shown in Figure 5.2. and (c) the values of circuit having three series-connected resistors resistance of resistors R1 . which is the current R 100 Thus for a series circuit. V3 = 25 − 10 − 4 = 11 V Part 1 R = R1 + R2 + R3 V 25 Current I = = = 0.d.’s across R1 .d.5 V Resistance R3 = = = 1. across resistor R3 .5  I 4 P. (Check: R1 + R2 + R3 = 1.

7.6 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 5. If one of the resistors has a resistance of 2  determine (a) the value of the other resistor. Value of unknown resistance. from a source of higher e.8 R1 + R2 A potential divider is the simplest way of producing a V 24 (a) Total circuit resistance R = = =8 source of lower e.m. across the 2  resistor. Problem 4. Such a circuit can con- R1 5 2 V Rx sist of a number of similar elements in series connected across a voltage source. (b) P.5(b) is often referred to as a potential divider circuit.6 .5 The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 5.8 The circuit shown in Figure 5. If the circuit is (b) connected for 50 hours. R1 2 V1 = V= (24) = 6 V R1 + Rx 2+6 4V Energy used = power × time = V × I ×t 50 V 6V V = (24 × 3 W) (50 h) = 3600 Wh = 3. across 2  resistor. Two resistors are connected in series R2 across a 24 V supply and a current of 3 A flows in the circuit.5(b). and voltage Part 1   V1 V2 6 V= (50) = 30 V 6+4 V (a) 4V 50 V R1 6V V Figure 5.m.d.7 VIN VOUT Problem 5. 38 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology R1 R2 Figure 5..d.6. Rx = 8 − 2 = 6  a measuring device for accurately measuring potential differences (see page 117). Frequently the divider V1 consists of two resistors as shown in Figure 5. and I 3 is the basic operating mechanism of the potentiometer.f. voltages being taken from con- nections between the elements. how much energy is used? Figure 5. and (b) the p.6 kWh Figure 5.f. V1 = IR1 = 3 × 2 =6 V Alternatively. Determine the value of voltage V     shown in Figure 5. from above. where I53A   24 V R2 V OUT = V IN Figure 5.

R2 and R3 con- 2.77 ] 1 1 1 1 = + + R R1 R2 R3 .. The p. across the 2. i. and (b) the voltage across the resistor. (b) the total circuit resistance and (c) the values of the three resistors.e. When the switch in the circuit in Figure 5. and the supply current is 2 A.6 A at 55 V. 6 ] I2 R2 R1 R2 R3 A2 V1 5V 3V I3 R3 I A3 I 18 V A Figure 5.10 V V V V 4.5 .9 3.5 ] 5V Rx In a parallel circuit: (a) the sum of the currents I1 . Series and parallel networks 39 Now try the following exercise 6. Two resistors are connected in series across an I1 = . is 36  determine the supply current and the value of resistors R1 . I3 = and I = R1 R2 R3 R 18 V supply and a current of 5 A flows. I . An arc lamp takes 9.11 resistor Rx .4  determine where R is the total circuit resistance.2  (b) 12 V] V V V V then = + + 5. I2 = . (a) the value of the other resistor and (b) the p. It is oper. R1 . 7 V and 10 V. From Ohm’s law: Figure 5. 0.d. 10 . If the total circuit resistance source of V volts. An oven takes 15 A at 240 V. Determine (a) the supply voltage.4  resistor. i. 5. 20 . 5 ] Figure 5. is the same across each of V1 the resistors. Determine the reading on the ammeter and the value of Figure 5.11 shows three resistors.e. I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 . Since I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 [(a) 1. 2. If one of the resistors has a value of 2. It is required to Part 1 Exercise 11 Further problems on series reduce the current to 12 A. R2 and R3 .d. in parallel.5 A.3 Parallel networks [(a) 22 V (b) 11  (c) 2. determine nected across each other. Find the value of the Dividing throughout by V gives: stabilizing resistor to be connected in series. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. [(a) 4  (b) 48 V] 1.5 . R R1 R2 R3 ated from a 120 V supply.9. V volts. [4 A.d. 3.’s measured across three resistors con- nected in series are 5 V. I2 and I3 is equal to the V2 A total circuit current. and (b) the source p. across a battery the value of V1.10 is closed the reading on voltmeter 1 is 30 V V and that on voltmeter 2 is 10 V. Find (a) the resistor circuits which must be connected in series. I1 R1 A1 [10 V. [6.

12 P. Hence. R2 = = = 40  I2 1 V 60 (b) Current I1 = = = 6 A.14.   R1 R2 3 × 6 18 Alternatively.14 V 40 (a) Reading on ammeter.12. are connected in parallel across a battery I3 = = = 1A having a voltage of 12 V. across 20  resistor = I2 R2 = 3 × 20 = 60 V. Hence supply voltage. R = = = =2 R1 + R2 3 + 6 9 V 12 (b) Current in the 3  resistance. 1 1 1 1 1 + 3 + 6 10 (a) The total circuit resistance R is given by = + + = = R 60 20 10 60 60 1 1 1 1 1 60 = + = + Hence total resistance R = =6 R R1 R2 3 6 10 . find (a) the value of the supply voltage V and (b) the value of current I . I = = =2A R3 20 (a) P. R = = 2  3 the value of resistor R2 . 6 determine (a) the reading on the ammeter. Two resistors. (b) Current flowing through R2 = 11 −8 − 2 =1 A hence supply voltage V = 60 V since the circuit is V 40 connected in parallel. of resistance 3  and V 60 6 . 40 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology This equation must be used when finding the total resist- ance R of a parallel circuit.d. V = 8 × 5 =40 V Figure 5. For the circuit shown in Figure 5.e. = 10 A Alternatively.13. Determine (a) the total R3 60 circuit resistance and (b) the current flowing in the Current I = I1 + I2 + I3 and hence I = 6 + 3 + 1 3  resistor.13 Hence R= i. R1 + R2 sum 1 2+1 3 = = R 6 6 Problem 6. I2 = 3 A R1 10 Problem 7. and (b) Hence. For the special case of two Part 1 resistors in parallel 1 1 1 R2 + R1 = + = R R1 R2 R1 R2   R1 R2 product Figure 5. The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 5. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.d. I1 = = = 4A R1 3 Problem 8. across R1 is the same as the supply voltage V .

17 R1 + R2     (d) Two in parallel. Figure 5. i.2 + 1. all four resistors being connected in each case. Find the equivalent resistance for the circuit shown in Figure 5.18). i.e.8 + 4 =9  Figure 5.18 of (a) 14  (b) 1  (c) 1 13  (d) 2 12 .8  10 The circuit is now equivalent to four resistors in series Figure 5. 1  and 1  in series 1 +1 2 2 (a) All four in parallel (see Figure 5. since for the two in parallel R1 R1 R1 + R2 R1 + R2 . in series with two in series (see V I R1 R2 R2 Current I1 = = = (I) Figure 5. in parallel with another two in series (see Figure 5.20. R =  R 1 1 1 1 1 4 Problem 10.15 Figure 5.16 and the equivalent circuit resistance (c) Three in parallel. and . R4 and R5 are connected in parallel and their equi- series gives 2 . 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 = + + = .15). since for the three in parallel. Series and parallel networks 41 V 60 Current I = = = 10 A R 6 Part 1 Problem 9. 1 ×1 1 1 R= = .17).19.4 Current division R 1 1 1 1 3 3 series with 1  gives 1 13  For the circuit shown in Figure 5. 1 gives 2  1 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 since = + + + = . since 1  and 1  in R3 . and 2  in parallel with 2  gives: valent resistance R is given by: 2×2 4 1 1 1 1 6 + 3 + 1 10 = =1 = + + = = 2+2 4 R 3 6 18 18 18 18 Hence R = = 1. Given four 1  resistors. state how they must be connected to give an overall resistance Figure 5.16). R =  and  in 5.e.19 (b) Two in series. in series with one (see = 1 +2. RT is given by: R1 R2 RT = R1 + R2   R1 R2 and V = IRT = I Figure 5. the total circuit resistance.

5 + 1.21 is shown in R2 R2 R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Figure 5. across R2 = p. i. Rx and R4 in Figure 5. across R1 . V4 = IR4 = (25)(4) = 100 V R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Hence the p. .e. Summarizing.23 series is: RT = 2. 25 A) V I R1 R2 R1 current I2 = = = (I) (c) The equivalent circuit of Figure 5. Figure 5. hence Supply current I = = = 25 A 2500 = (250)(I ) RT 8 (b) The current flowing through R1 and R4 is 25 A 2500 i.22.e.d.20 p.21 (a) The equivalent resistance Rx of R2 and R3 in parallel is: 6 × 2 12 Rx = = = 1.23 calculate (a) the value of resistor Rx such that the total power dissipated in the circuit is 2.e. V1 = IR1 = (25)(2.5 V Problem 11.5 + 4 = 8  V 200 (a) Power dissipated P = VI watts.5  6+2 8 The equivalent resistance RT of R1 .20 (Note that the currents flowing through R2 and R3 Similarly.21.d. across R3 = 37.d. 42 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology The current flowing through R3 Part 1     R2 6 = I= 25 R2 + R3 6+2 = 18.d. For the series-parallel arrangement shown in Figure 5. across R4 . For the circuit shown in Figure 5. (b) the current flowing through each resistor and (c) the p. Vx = IR x = (25)(1. i. I = = 10 A The current flowing through R2 250     R3 2 = I= 25 V 250 R2 + R3 6+2 From Ohm’s law. with reference to Figure 5. RT = = = 25 . where I 10 = 6. and (b) the current flowing in each of the four resistors. across each resistor.25 A RT is the equivalent circuit resistance. i.5) = 62. i.d. find (a) the supply current.5) = 37.5 V R2 R1 I1 = (I) and I 2 = (I) p.75 A Figure 5.5 kW. across Rx . Figure 5.e.22 Problem 12.5 V     p. must add up to the total current flowing into the     parallel arrangement.d.e.

i.24 V2 190 I3 = = = 5 A.e. i.24. Method 1 The voltage V1 = IR. Figure 5.d. then Rx = 38  could have been deduced on sight. Series and parallel networks 43     The equivalent resistance of R1 and R2 in R1 15 Current I2 = I= (10) parallel is R1 + R2 15 + 10 Part 1   15 × 10 150 3 = = 6 = (10) = 6 A 15 + 10 25 5 From part (a). since RT = 19  and R3 = 38 . 38 + Rx sum Hence 19(38 + Rx ) = 38Rx 722 + 19Rx = 38Rx 722 = 38Rx − 19Rx = 19Rx 722 Thus Rx = = 38  19 Method 3 When two resistors having the same value are connected in parallel the equivalent resistance is always half the value of one of the resistors. the circuit is gradually reduced in since I = 10 A stages as shown in Figure 5.     R2 10 (b) Current I1 = I= (10) R1 + R2 15 + 10   2 = (10) = 4 A 5 Figure 5. There are three methods whereby Rx can be Problem 13.d. 19 . from above. R3 38 Commencing at the right-hand side of the arrangement shown in Figure 5.24.25(a)–(d). Thus. I 3 = I 4 = 5 A The equivalent resistance of resistors R3 and Rx in parallel is equal to 25  − 6 . find the current Ix . V1 = (10)(6) = 60 V Hence V2 = 250 V − 60 V =190 V =p. For the arrangement shown in determined.25 .e. V2 190 Thus Rx = = = 38  I4 5 Method 2 Since the equivalent resistance of R3 and Rx in parallel is 19 .e. method 1.   38Rx product 19 = i. across Rx Figure 5. where R is 6 . in this case. across R3 = p. Thus I4 = 5 A also.

33 k (iii) 2. Determine (a) the equivalent circuit resistance. V1 = 20 V. 6 A] value of resistor R. What resistance must be [(a) 3  (b) 3 A (c) 2. 2.75 A] added in series with the combination to obtain a total resistance of 10 . Find the equivalent resistance between ter- minals C and D of the circuit shown in 1.6 A 2+8 10 For a practical laboratory experiment on series- parallel dc circuits.25 A. Ix = (I1 ) = (3) = 0.25(d). and (c) the current in each resistor. 4. Determine the currents and voltages indicated (b) (i) 1.27(a). 20  and 30  are con- current.24.27 Exercise 12 Further problems on parallel networks 5. V2 = 5 V.28 3.2  (ii) 13. If the complete cir- 2. I6 = 2 A.36 kW.5 . I4 = 56 A.5 ] 7. 8  and 16  remaining constant.5 ] parallel across a 9 V battery. I2 = 2.3 k 8. would have to be placed in parallel with (b) in parallel. (b) the supply 6. Figure 5.5 ] [I1 = 5 A. (iv) 461. (a) Calculate the current flowing in the 30  resistor shown in Figure 5. see the website.29  in the circuit shown in Figure 5. Resistors of 20 . [8 ] V3 = 6 V] . 4 k and 1500  [(a) 1. (iv) 800 .26 determine cuit expends a power of 0.5 A. [2. 0. I3 = 1 23 A. and (b) the current flowing. I5 = 3 A. Resistances of 4  and 12  are connected in Figure 5.6 A (b) 6 ] [(a) (i) 5  (ii) 60 k (iii) 28  (iv) 6. find the total (a) the reading on the ammeter.29. 44 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 17 From Figure 5. Now try the following exercise Figure 5. For the circuit shown in Figure 5.26 Figure 5. nected in parallel. I = =4A 4.28.25 Part 1     9 9 From Figure 5.27(b). [27. the supply voltage (iii) 4 .5 A. (b) What additional value of resistance lowing resistances are connected (a) in series. the 20  and 30  resistors to change the (i) 3  and 2  (ii) 20 k and 40 k supply current to 8 A. Find the equivalent resistance when the fol. [2. Find the total resistance between terminals A and B of the circuit shown in Figure 5.25(b). I1 = (I ) = (4) = 3 A 9+3 12     2 2 From Figure 5.

(1 × 106 + 375 × 103) [7.5 Loading effect Resistance of parallel section = (1 × 106 + 10 × 106 ) Loading effect is the terminology used when a measur. produces a much better result and the loading effect is minimal.d. A resistor of 2. the voltage across 1MV V V 10 M V each of the resistors can be calculated using voltage division.91 V (by voltage division) 11.30. The best way of demonstrating loading effect is by a numerical 1MV example.32. or by inspection.91 V. as shown below. A p.4  is connected in series with another of 3. of 10 V is rent for its operation. 1 × 106 × 10 × 106 5. [30 V] nal resistance of. say.8 A] 1MV 40 V 1MV V V 600 k V Figure 5. = 0. What resistance must be 375 × 103 placed across the one of 2.30 (1 × 106 + 600 × 103) = 375 k(using product/sum) 10. 40 V In the simple circuit of Figure 5.33 . Find the p. as Figure 5.2 . say.31 Using a voltmeter having a resistance of. the voltage shown as V should be 20 V. Figure 5. A resistor of 8  is connected in parallel with one of 12  and the combination is connected The voltmeter has loaded the circuit by drawing cur- in series with one of 4 . The 8  resistor is now voltage across the 1 M resistor from the correct value placed across the 4  resistor. of 20 V to 10. [1.32 1 × 106 × 600 × 103 Resistance of parallel section = Figure 5.31. 600 k places 600 k in parallel with the 1 M resistor.2 ] = 10.29 shown in Figure 5.91M ing instrument such as an oscilloscope or voltmeter is connected across a component and the current drawn by the instrument upsets the circuit under test. In this case.33.4  so that the total The voltage V now equals × 40 resistance of the circuit shall be 5 . Find the current I in Figure 5. required to send the same current through the Using a Fluke (or multimeter) which has a set inter- 8  resistor.d. as shown in Figure 5. 10 M. Series and parallel networks 45 1MV Part 1 40 V 1 M V V 5 20 V Figure 5. 9. and by so doing. reduces the applied to the circuit.

and the lamp will be fully off. volume control of a radio or television set. 100 ⍀ S 100 ⍀ B Potentiometers A Load When a variable resistor uses three terminals. A simple example of this is the shown in Figure 5. Total circuit resistance.34.37 tiometer. Method 1 the lamp is short-circuited. 46 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 0. When taking measurements. and as the drop VSB: slider is moved towards point B the lamp brightness will reduce. 60 V 5. the equivalent circuit is a resistor in a circuit.35 It is frequently desirable to be able to vary the value of With the slider halfway. it is vital that the load- 30 V ing effect is understood and kept in mind at all times. when = 19.37.06 V the slider S is at the halfway point of the 200  potentiometer. 1 2 An incorrect voltage reading may be due to this load- ing effect rather than the equipment under investigation 200 V being defective.5  resistor in Figure 5.36. no current will flow through it. RT = 100 + 37.5 V Figure 5.34 B A 100 V 37.91 × 106 + 1 × 106) 60  load in the circuit shown in Figure 5. which is useful Figure 5. Ideally. When S is at the far right of the potentiometer.91 × 106 Problem 14. the input voltage is applied across points A and B at the ends of the poten- The volt drop across the 37.6 Potentiometers and rheostats Figure 5. total resistance. There are two methods for determining the volt the full voltage will appear across the lamp. The potentiometer provides 60 ⍀ an adjustable voltage divider circuit. B A S 30 V 1 2 Lamp I S Figure 5.34 incorporating a lamp and supply voltage V . it is known as a potentiometer. while the output is tapped off between the is the same as the volt drop across both of the parallel sliding contact S and the fixed end B.5 = 137.37 In the circuit of Figure 5. 100 × 60 100 × 60 RP = = = 37. the resistance of a voltmeter B A S should be infinite. Consider the potentiometer circuit For the parallel resistors.35.36 as a means of obtaining various voltages from a fixed potential difference. Calculate the volt drop across the The voltage V now equals × 40 Part 1 (0. It will be seen that resistors in Figure 5.5  . shown in Figure 5. with the slider at the far left-hand end of the resistor.5  100 + 60 160 V 1 1 1 1 2 (or use = + to determine Rp ) RP 100 60 Potentiometer The equivalent circuit is now as shown in Figure 5. Voltages and currents may be varied in electrical 30 V ⫹ ⫺ circuits by using potentiometers and rheostats.36.

18 V. supply current.18 V Figure 5.5 Hence. Is this a potentiometer or a rheostat left-hand end. Series and parallel networks 47 30 Hence. one fixed and one sliding.44 V. shown in Figure 5.5 1 2 Thus. I T = RAS + RL 400 V Calculations involved with the rheostat circuit are simpler than those for the potentiometer circuit. RT = RAS + RL = 240 + 100 = 340  A variable resistor where only two terminals are used. In the circuit of Figure 5. but is more effective at controlling current. and (b) is used be greater than that of the load.5 VSB = (30) = 8. otherwise it will for voltage control. AS is amount of resistance (i.2182 A 50 V Part 1 137.5 = 0. RT = RAS + RL ). RL . Current flowing in load. Summary For this reason the resistance of the rheostat should A potentiometer (a) has three terminals. similar in con. A S B Problem 15. Another practical example is in varying current control.38. rheostat resistance 1 2 IT must be higher than the load resistance to be able to influence current flow. The current flowing can be calculated by finding 200 V the total resistance of the circuit (i. is used to control current RT 340 flow. have little or no effect. 3/5 of AB. Typical uses are in a train set A rheostat (a) has two terminals. cal. the brilliance of the panel lighting controls in a car. Determine the voltage across the vide the current flow required. Rheostat B A S Load Now try the following exercise RL Exercise 13 Further problems on Figure 5. reduc- ing the voltage across the load.18 V 360 V Method 2 A S B 100 V By the  principle of voltage  division. 120 V culate the current flowing in the 100  load. V 50 I= = = 0.147 A or 147 mA struction to the potentiometer.e. With the slider at the far 120  load. The rheostat circuit.e. Resistance. the volt drop across the 60  load of 2 Figure 5. 1 2 V then by applying Ohm’s law.5 = 8. I = = 0.40 the sliding point S is 2/3 of the way from A to B. 37.39.39 100 + 37. . with the slider arm tapping off an 1. the load receives maximum current. VSB = I × 37. that between A and S) to pro.2182 × 37. RAS = × 360 = 240  3 Rheostats Total circuit resistance. volt drop.35 is 8. (b) is used for or Scalextric.40. The rheostat also acts as a dropping resistor.38 potentiometers and rheostats The rheostat resistance is connected in series with the load circuit. with circuit? [44. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. when Figure 5. potentiometer] the slider at the far right-hand end. is known as a rheostat. minimum current flows. A rheostat is not suitable if the load resistance is V higher than the rheostat resistance.

45.45. I = = 2A 250 V 100 2 I = 2A 30 Ω A 50 Ω B 600 V 200 V 5Ω Figure 5. B is I × 50. Point A is nearer to the 100 V positive terminal than B so is written as VAB = 100 V or 1 2 VAB = +100 V or VAB = 100 V +ve.e. 48 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 2. AS is 60% of AB. 7.40 V] (a) AS is half of AB. [136.4 V] In an electrical circuit. i. B is closer to the positive terminal or the negative terminal of the supply source.r. 2 kV 2 × 50 =100 V and is written as VAB = 100 V.286 A.42 C 15 Ω 4.41.2 kV RT = 30 + 50 + 5 + 15 = 100  S 1 B 200 and current. the voltage at any point can be quoted as being ‘with reference to’ (w.r. the slider Figure 5. The total resistance. Figure 5.t. For the potentiometer circuit shown in Part 1 culate the current flowing in the 25  load Figure 5. Calculate the voltage drop across the 120  load.42. Calculate the and the voltage drop across the load when voltage across the 70  load. the voltage at A w.t. 5. 13.43 If no positive or negative is included.44.43.68 V] If a voltage at point A is quoted with reference to point B then the voltage is written as VAB.41 3.64 V (b) 0.44 Figure 5.) any other point in the circuit. then the voltage is always taken to be positive. Is this a potentiometer or a 240 V rheostat? 1 2 [(a) 0. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. This is 120 V known as a ‘relative voltage’. [63. calculate the voltage across the 600  load when point 5.14 V. 1.t. Consider the circuit shown A in Figure 5. . (b) point S coincides with point B.r. It must also be indicated whether the voltage at A w.45 S is set at halfway.545 A. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. cal. [9. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. In the circuit shown in S B A Figure 5. rheostat] 150 V 150 V 1 2 A S B 500 V 70 V A S B 25 V Figure 5.7 Relative and absolute voltages S splits AB in the ratio 1:3.

5 k Ω 24 V 6Ω D C Figure 5. The volt point then any voltage taken w.r. and absolute voltages calculate (a) the voltage drop across the 4 k 1. and 5  resistors. earth. (b) the current through the 5 k resistor.r.5 = 4 k the power developed in the 8  resistor. [(a) +40 V. for example. (c) Power in the 1. earth is −12 V. i.t. Since known as an ‘absolute potential’. this must be indicated. For the circuit of Figure 5. (d) the voltage at A relative to B and C.t. earth. then VBA is neg. the voltage at point X w. +24 V (b) +10. current in top branch   5 8Ω 7Ω 5Ω = × 6 =3 mA X 5+1+4 18 Ω Hence. and is written as VC = −30 V or Now try the following exercise VC = 30 V −ve.t.88 V] By current division.5 × 103) = 54 mW Part 1 If the reference point is changed to the earth (d) The voltage at the earth point is 0 volts. VC = 30 V neg- ative w. = I2T R = (6 × 10−3)2 (1.r.47.46 Figure 5. calcu- lel with 5 k] in series with 1. and (e) the voltage at D relative to B and A.5 k late (a) the voltage drop across the 7  resistor. Exercise 14 Further problems on relative Problem 16. the earth is drop across the 4 k is 12 V.r. +29. calculate (a) resistor.t.e.e. earth then (e) mean the same thing. +16 V (c) −5. Questions (d) and source.6 V.6 V. earth’.r. 100 +10 = 110 V and is writ- ten as VA = 110 V or VA = +110 V or VA = 110 V +ve.t.47 (a) Total circuit resistance.68 V (b) 0.48.5 k resistor ative and written as VBA = −100 V or VBA = 100 V −ve. hence the absolute A is moving towards the positive terminal of the voltage at point X is −12 V.r. RT = + 1.r.46. Series and parallel networks 49 If the voltage at B w.31 is required. −16 V] 1 kΩ 4 kΩ 5 kΩ 15 Ω A 13 Ω B X 100 V 5Ω 7Ω 1. (b) (c) the power developed in the 1. the absolute voltage at points A. For the circuit shown in Figure 5.8 mW (d) +2. For the circuit shown in Figure 5. and (e) the V 24 absolute voltage at point X. A is required. (d) 5+5 the voltage at point X w. and (c) the the voltage at point X w.4 V. B and C. absolute voltage at point X.48 5+1+4 . IT = = = 6 mA RT 4 × 103 [(a) 1.5 k resistor. earth. then this ing towards the negative terminal of the voltage will be the sum of the voltages across the 50  source.88 V (e) +2. (e) The ‘absolute voltage at point X’ means the ‘volt- positive since moving from the earth point to point age at point X w. volt drop across 4 k resistor 30 Ω = 3 × 10−3 × 4 × 103 = 12 V (b) Current through the 5 k resistor 12 V   1+4 = × 6 =3 mA Figure 5. If the absolute moving from the earth point to point X is mov- voltage of A in Figure 5. (c) i.r. If the voltage is negative w.t. Total circuit current. 5×5 (b) the current through the 30  resistor. 2. RT = [(1 + 4)k in paral.t.t.16 A (c) 460. from part (a).

and hence the sea. and (b) the voltage at A relative to B. each rated at ship’s hull. i. and the remaining lamps will not light up.51 shows three similar lamps.51 Series connection Figure 5.49 rent flows. 60 V across it and each now glows even 16 Ω 8Ω 4 more dimly. 5. i. are said to be earthed or at earth potential. 50 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 3. no cur- Figure 5. are caused by low resistance between the current carrying conductor and earth. is at earth poten.49 calculate Part 1 (a) the absolute voltages at points A and B. 240 (ii) If any lamp is removed from the circuit (i) Each lamp has only V. (ii) If another lamp of similar rating is added in series (iii) The addition of further similar lamps in parallel with the other three lamps then each lamp now has does not affect the brightness of the other lamps.e. (i) Each lamp has 240 V across it and thus each will connected in series across a 240 V supply. each rated at 240 V. an open circuit) or if the switch is opened then the circuit is broken. cir- cuit wiring and electrical components. Dampness.e. opened. or short circuits. volts. This means that there is no Parallel connection difference of potential between the item and earth.e. This occurs when the insulation resistance of the circuit wiring decreases. 10 V (b) 0 V] A Figure 5. 3.9 Wiring lamps in series and in parallel Figure 5. Accidental damage. 2. i. the remaining lamps are unaffected.8 Earth potential and short circuits The series connection of lamps is usually limited to The earth. Items connected to the earth (or sea). tial and therefore at zero volts. being immersed in the sea.50 shows three lamps. and is normally caused by: 1. 80 V across it and or develops a fault (open circuit) or a switch is 3 thus each lamp glows dimly. Insulation becoming hard or brittle with age or heat. Earth faults. B (iii) If a lamp is removed from the circuit or if a lamp 30 V develops a fault (i. . glow brilliantly at their rated voltage. 5. (iv) Less cable is required for a series connection than for a parallel one. is at a potential of zero decorative lighting such as for Christmas tree lights. [(a) 10 V.e.50 2 kΩ 1 kΩ 240 V. connected in parallel across a 240 V supply. A Figure 5. In the bridge circuit of Figure 5. 240 V.

lamps in series and parallel 1 1 1 1 3 = + + = . open circuits. Exercise 15 Further problems on wiring Let the resistance of one lamp be R. Three identical filament lamps are connected are connected in series across a 150 V supply. 50 V across each. i. B and C 2. i. find the resistance of one lamp. each lamp. If four identical lamps are connected in parallel = 450  and the combined resistance is 100 . R = 3 × 150 150 R R R R 1. across of lamp C failing. State for each connection the p. from which. [400 ] Problem 18. Three identical lamps A. 3 The parallel connection of lamps is the most widely used in electrical installations. (b) in parallel across a 210 V sup- (a) the voltage across each lamp. no current will flow and lamps A and B will not operate. Problem 17.d.e. find the resistance of one lamp. 150 Part 1 in series there is V. then.e. [(a) 70 V (b) 210 V] . and (b) the effect ply. Series and parallel networks 51 (iv) More cable is required for parallel connection (a) Since each lamp is identical and they are connected than for a series one. State (a) in series. If three identical lamps are connected in parallel and the combined resistance is Now try the following exercise 150 . (b) If lamp C fails.

to name but a few practical applications. a force cal circuits. E = and = ε0εr A D E ε0εr A(n − 1) • understand that for a parallel plate capacitor. they are used in time delay circuits. C = d • perform calculations involving capacitors connected in parallel and in series • define dielectric strength and state its unit • state that the energy stored in a capacitor is given by W = 12 CV2 joules • describe practical types of capacitor • understand the precautions needed when discharging capacitors 6.1 Electrostatic field DOI: 10.c. Chapter 6 Capacitors and capacitance At the end of this chapter you should be able to: • appreciate some applications of capacitors • describe an electrostatic field • define electric field strength E and state its unit • define capacitance and state its unit • describe a capacitor and draw the circuit diagram symbol Q • perform simple calculations involving C = and Q = It V • define electric flux density D and state its unit • define permittivity. outputs. negative charge is placed between the plates. and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medical B 22222222222222222 body scanners. in oscillator circuits. Next to the resistor. For example.00006-9 . capacitors are used to smooth rectified a. electrical energy.1016/B978-1-85617-770-2. Figure 6. εr and ε Q V D • perform simple calculations involving D = . A 1111111111111 1111 munication equipment — such as radio receivers — for tuning to the required frequency.1 represents two parallel metal plates. distinguishing between ε0 . A and B. the capacitor is charged to different potentials.1 Introduction to capacitors 6.2 Electrostatic field A capacitor is an electrical device that is used to store Figure 6. Capacitors are used extensively in electrical and electronic circuits. If an electron that has a the most commonly encountered component in electri. they are used in telecom. in electrical filters.

6 µC is given by: Figure 6. trostatic field. Any region such electrically charged bodies is proportional to the mag- as that shown between the plates in Figure 6. When a charged body is placed close to an uncharged body. d2 (16 × 10−3)2 ous and start and finish on point charges. However. In Figure 6.2 (a) Isolated point charge. an electric field will always exist. the lines = 90 newtons cannot cross each other. opposite polarity . V Electric field strength. imagination.1.3 There is therefore an electric field in the space (a) between the plates. except near the edge where fringing will occur (see Figure 6. d 1 V Figure 6. Also.e.2(a) shows a typical field pattern for an isolated point charge. opposite terminals of a battery of voltage V volts. Figure 6.1. 6. charge of +1. They are connected to to illustrate the properties of an electric field. charged surfaces. Such a field may be represented in magnitude and where constant k ≈ 9 × 109 in air direction by lines of electric force drawn between the This is known as Coulomb’s law. the electric lines of force will be straight and parallel and equally spaced.2(b) shows the field pattern −6 2 for adjacent charges of opposite polarity. Whenever a p.d. Electric lines force =k q1 q2 ≈ (9 × 10 9 ) (1. A. The direction of the field is defined as that of the force acting on a positive charge placed in q1 q2 q1 q2 the field. Similarly. The closeness of the lines is an indica- Hence the force between two charged spheres in air tion of the field strength. in which nitude of their charges and inversely proportional to the an electric charge experiences a force. E = volts/metre d (b) where d is the distance between the plates.3 Electric field strength This is because lines of force from the charged body terminate on its surface. square of the distance separating them. is established with their centres 16 mm apart and each carrying a between two points. Capacitors and capacitance 53 will act on the electron tending to push it away from the it should be remembered that they are only aids to the negative plate B towards the positive plate. the direction of the force is from i.1). an induced charge of oppo- site sign appears on the surface of the uncharged body. Over the area in which there is 1 2 negligible fringing.6 × 10 ) of force (often called electric flux lines) are continu. and Figure 6. force ∝ or force = k d2 d2 the positive plate to the negative plate. is called an elec. (b) adjacent charges of strength is also called potential gradient.3 shows two parallel conducting plates sep- The concept of field lines or lines of force is used arated from each other by air. Electric field Figure 6. Part 1 a positive charge would be acted on by a force tending The force of attraction or repulsion between two to move it toward the negative plate. If the plates are close together.

For example.d. C = 5 µF = 5 × 10−6 F. across a 4 µF Part 1 capacitor when charged with 5 mC.d. as they used to be called). elec. minimized or compensated for. In these exam- ples the capacitance is undesirable but has to be accep. where I is the current in amperes and t the time in seconds. (a) Determine the p. Static electric fields arise from electric charges.4. between its plates is 800 V. Q = 5 mC = 5 ×10−3 C plates of Figure 6. conductors of overhead transmission lines and also Determine the p. between the plates is 600 V The symbols for a fixed capacitor and a variable capacitor used in electrical circuit diagrams are shown Problem 3. of one volt appears across the Q = CV = 50 × 10−12 × 2000 = plates when charged with one coulomb.5 Capacitors Hence charge = 0.1 × 10−6 6. V = 800V.3. Let the charge be + Q coulombs on one plate and −Q coulombs on the other. Calculate how The charge Q stored in a capacitor is given by: long the capacitor can provide an average discharge Q = I × t coulombs current of 2 mA. t = 3 ms = 3 × 10−3 s Devices specially constructed to possess capacitance Q = It = 4 × 3 × 10−3 C are called capacitors (or condensers. there is capacitance between the previously uncharged 20 µF capacitor for 3 ms. Thus. the p. 108 = 0.4 . A direct current of 4 A flows into a itance. There are other situations where capacitance is a desirable property. V = 2 kV = 2000 V µF = 10−6 F or pF = 10−12 F).d.1 µC Every system of electrical conductors possesses capac. 54 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 6. Hence. A 5 µF capacitor is charged so that in Figure 6. between the plates. Figure 6. A capacitor has the ability to store = 600 V a quantity of static electricity. Q = It. ted.d. C = 20 µF = 20 × 10−6 F.6 × 103 two plates which are separated by an insulating material C 20 × 10−6 20 × 103 known as a dielectric. which is defined as the 5×2 capacitance when a p. Problem 2. between the wires of a telephone cable. t = = =2s I 2 × 10−3 Variable capacitor Hence the capacitor can provide an average discharge current of 2 mA for 2 s. voltage applied to it is 2 kV.d.d.25 kV The unit of capacitance is the farad F (or more usually (b) C = 50 pF = 50 ×10−12 F. I = 4 A. between the plates is called V C 4 × 10−6 4 × 103 their capacitance: 5000 = Q 4 capacitance C = V Hence p. the p. Thus the presence of the field indicates the presence of equal positive and negative electric charges on the two (a) C = 4 µF = 4 × 10−6F. (b) Find the charge on a 50 pF capacitor when the tric field lines beginning and ending on electric charges.d. In its simplest form a capacitor consists of Q 4 × 3 × 10−3 12 × 106 V= = = = 0.4 Capacitance Problem 1. I = 2 mA = 2 × 10−3 A Q = CV = 5 × 10−6 × 800 = 4 × 10−3 C Fixed capacitor Q 4 × 10−3 Also. = 1250 V or 1. The property Q Q 5 ×10−3 5 × 106 of this pair of plates which determines how much charge Since C = then V = = = corresponds to a given p.

the relative permittivity of the insulating 2. plates are spaced 5 mm apart and the voltage Electric flux density D is the amount of flux passing between them is 0.7 Permittivity = × 10−6 = 2. between The product ε0 εr is called the absolute permittivity. Q electric flux density. dielec- tric materials have very high resistivities.2 × 104 Electric flux density D= = = A 800 ×10−4 800 ×106 2000 6. plastic or ceramic.5 mC] where εr . d = 5 mm E maintains the electric flux and produces a particular = 5 ×10−3 m value of electric flux density D at that point. is introduced into the region of an Part 1 Exercise 16 Further problems on charge and electric field the ratio of D/E is modified: capacitance D = ε0 εr 1. 6–1000. σ Q 0. glass. Capacitors and capacitance 55 Now try the following exercise When an insulating medium.2 × 10−6 0. D Problem 5. For a field V 250 Electric field strength E = = = 50 kV/m established in vacuum (or for practical purposes in air). such as mica. ceramics. 3–7. the flux of 0. The charge on the plates of a capacitor is 6 mC flux density in material relative permittivity εr = when the potential between them is 2. 4. 5–10. 1.d. flux density in vacuum Determine the capacitance of the capacitor. 6. and for a charge of Q coulombs. A steady current of 10 A flows into a previously ε = ε0 εr uncharged capacitor for 1.2 µC = 0. fed to a 5 µF capacitor to raise the p.5 µC/m2 800 At any point in an electric field. D = coulombs/metre2 Area A = 20 cm × 40 cm = 800 cm2 = 800 × 10−4 m2 A Electric flux density is also called charge density. 5. Compared with conductors. .2 µC. free space constant.5 ms when the p. material. i. polythene.00.d. 2. d 5 × 10−3 the ratio D/E is a constant ε0 . Two parallel rectangular plates of 1 coulomb. The flux density between two plates = ε0 separated by mica of relative permittivity 5 is E 2 µC/m2. [2. [1.2 × 10−6 C.5 µF] εr has no unit. [7.25 kV= 250 V. Thus electric flux  is measured in measuring 20 cm by 40 cm carry an electric charge coulombs.4 kV.3. Calculate the electric flux density.5 µF] called a dielectric. They are there- fore used to separate conductors at different potentials. indicates its insulating power compared with citor to charge it with 2 µC. direction of the flux: Charge Q = 0. Find the capacitance The insulating medium separating charged surfaces is of the capacitor. Typical values of εr include: air. mica. Plate spacing. 80.e. such as capacitor plates or electric power lines.85 ×10−12 F/m. The value of ε0 is 8. between the plates is 2 kV.25 kV determine the electric field through a defined area A that is perpendicular to the strength. [2. its plates by 500 V. Determine the voltage across a 1000 pF capa.e. [2 kV] that of vacuum: 3. paper.6 Electric flux density Unit flux is defined as emanating from a positive charge Problem 4. Find the voltage gradient between the where ε0 is called the permittivity of free space or the plates. If the  = Q coulombs. the electric field strength Voltage V = 0. For how long must a charging current of 2 A be water. Find the charge on a 10 µF capacitor when the E applied voltage is 250 V. i.25 ms] ε.

Hence E electric flux density D = Eε0 εr 6.213 µC/m2 experiments show that capacitance C is proportional to (b) For polythene. Find the voltage gradient is the electric field strength? Find also the flux between the plates.3 5. electric flux density and permittivity (Where appropriate take ε0 as 8.85 × 10−12 F/m) 1 2 1. The electric flux density between two plates Problem 6.089 µC/m2 Area A Now try the following exercise Dielectric between the plate (a) of relative permittivity ´r Exercise 17 Further problems on electric field strength. Two parallel plates having a p.3) C/m2 d = 5.85 × 10−12 × 5 between them is 0. Calculate the electric flux density.d. εr = 2. A two-plate capacitor has a charge of 25 C. [312. What is the electric field strength across the dielectric at this voltage? (b) [750 kV/m] Figure 6. E [50 kC/m2] D hence voltage gradient E = 3.d. inversely proportional to the plate Electric flux density D = Eε0 εr = (250 × 103 × 8.8×10−3 between the plates is (a) air and (b) mica of = 250 kV/m relative permittivity 5.5 µC is carried on two parallel ε0 εr rectangular plates each measuring 60 mm by 2 × 10−6 80 mm. If Part 1 the effective area of each plate is 5 cm2 find the D = ε0 εr .5(a).85 × 10−12 F/m. A charge of 1.5 .3 the area A of a plate. electric flux density of the electric field. εr = 5. What ity 2.85 × 10−12 × 1) C/m2 For a parallel plate capacitor.5 µC/m2. of 250 V between them are spaced 1 mm apart.063 µC/m2 ] D = ε0 εr . A capacitor uses a dielectric 0. Find also Electric field strength E = = the electric flux density when the dielectric D 0. ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 × 2.8 The parallel plate capacitor = (250 × 103 × 8. 2.213 µC/m2 (b) 11.8 mm apart. 50 kV/m] 4. Two parallel plates having a p.2 kV/m field strength. as shown in Figure 6. Deter- V 200 mine the electric field strength. 56 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Flux density D = 2 µC/m2 = 2 × 10−6 C/m2 . (a) For air: εr = 1 [250 kV/m (a) 2. and (b) polythene of relative permittivity 2. If the = V/m plates are spaced 10 mm apart and the voltage 8. of separated by polystyrene of relative permittiv- 200 V between them are spaced 0.04 mm thick and operates at 30 V. = 2.5 kV determine the electric = 45.5 is 5 µC/m2 . [226 kV/m] density when the dielectric between the plates is (a) air.

01 m2 .2 ×10−6 of area 0.885 mm] .1 × 10−3 m. ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 × 5 × 5625 × 10−6 × 18 ε0 = 8. d d = 0. the nature of the dielectric: Part 1 ε0 εr A C = 4425 pF = 4425 × 10−12 F.08 Hence.85 × 10−12 × 2.0004 m d = thickness of dielectric in m 4425 ×10−12 Another method used to increase the capacitance is Hence the thickness of the paper is 0.2 mm thick. n − 1 = 18. Capacitors and capacitance 57 spacing d (i. forming nine capacitors with a Problem 9.1 mm A = 75 × 75 = 5625 mm2 = 5625 × 10−6 m2 .1 × 10−3 8. Problem 7.2 mm = 0. εr = 100 = F 0.2 m2 . between the plates? d = 0.4 mm to interleave several plates as shown in Figure 6. calculate ε0 εr A(n− 1) the capacitance of the capacitor. (a) A ceramic capacitor has an effective plate area of 4 cm2 separated by 0. each of effective area 0.08 m2 .0224 µF or 22. of ceramic of relative permittivity 100.85 × 10−12 F/m (constant) ε0 εr A ε0 εr A εr = relative permittivity Since C = then d = d C A = area of one of the plates. Capacitance.85 × 10−12 × 100 × 4 × 10−4 Now try the following exercise = F 0. A waxed paper capacitor has two parallel parallel plates.5 where ε0 = 8. (b) If εr = 5.e. C = farads d ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F/m.5(b). 8. the capacitor in part (a) is given a charge of 1. nineteen interleaved plates each 75 mm by 75 mm If such an arrangement has n plates then capacitance separated by mica sheets 0.85 × 4 8. If the capacitance of the capacitor is 4425 pF determine capacitance is 4000 pF determine the effective the effective thickness of the paper if its relative thickness of the paper if its relative permittivity permittivity is 2. d = = 0. the dielectric thickness) and depends on A = 800 cm2 = 800 × 10−4 m2 = 0. Thus capacitance C= farads d n = 19. and 8.85 × 4 × 1012 Exercise 18 Further problems on parallel = F = pF plate capacitors 1010 1010 (Where appropriate take ε0 as 8.85 × 10−12 F/m. the relative permittivity of the mica is 5.2 µC what will be the p.5 is 2.85 ×10−12 F/m) = 3540 pF 1. Ten plates are shown.4 nF Capacitance C = farads d 8. in m2 . Calculate (b) Q = CV thus V = = V = 339 V C 3540 × 10−12 the capacitance in picofarads. A parallel plate capacitor has capacitance nine times that of one pair of plates.1 mm in air. [0.2 × 10−3 ε0 εr A = 0. Assuming C ∝ (n − 1). Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor in picofarads. spaced 0.1 mm = 0. If the plates. A waxed paper capacitor has two 2.d. εr = 2. each of effective area 800 cm2 .85 × 10−12 F/m. A capacitor consists of two parallel plates each Q 1.2 × 10−3 m ε0 εr A(n − 1) Capacitance C = (a) Area A =4 cm 2 = 4 × 10−4 m2 . [885 pF] Problem 8.5 × 0.

6 plates. How many plates has a parallel plate capaci.44 cm2 ] p.67] i. con- nected in parallel with a supply voltage V applied across C1 C2 C3 the arrangement. some flowing into C1 .e. each 70 mm by 120 mm interleaved with mica of relative permittivity 5. 30 mm separated by a dielectric of thickness 0. 58 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Q1 C1 3.6 shows three capacitors. Determine the relative permittivity of C = C1 + C2 + C3 + · · · + C n the dielectric.005 mm (b) 10. equivalent circuit capacitance.102 mm thick with a relative permittivity of 6.97 mm] i.d. l l tor having a capacitance of 5 nF. of the individual capacitors. each 50 mm by It follows that for n parallel-connected capacitors. has a dielectric strength (b) Capacitors connected in series of 20 MV/m. [1. Hence Charge on each capacitor 5 Q Q T = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 Figure 6. Q 2 = C2 V and Q 3 = C3 V tance of the capacitor is 3000 pF determine the Therefore CV = C1 V + C2 V + C3 V where C is the total thickness of the mica sheet. Hence the total charge Q T (= I × t ) V1 V2 V3 is divided between the three capacitors. C2 and C3 . the equivalent capacitance of a group of parallel- 7.3. If the capaci- But Q T = CV .40 mm.e. each 30 mm by A Q2 C2 20 mm and separated by a dielectric 0. V2 and V3 respectively as shown. C = C1 + C2 + C3 6. some flowing into C2 and some into C3 .75 mm thick having a relative permittivity of 2. [2.7 . Figure 6.) to be polythene (εr = 2. 1Q 2Q 1Q 2Q 1Q 2Q When the charging current I reaches point A it a b c d e f divides. This induces an equal but opposite 6. which. It has 19 plates. A parallel plate capacitor is made from 25 Figure 6.9 Capacitors connected in parallel charge of −Q coulombs on plate ‘b’. if each plate is 40 mm by 40 mm and each dielectric is 0. Q 1 = C1 V . C1 . Q T 5 Q1 1 Q2 1 Q3 5. (Note that this formula is of 100 V across its terminals. The dielectric is similar to that used for resistors connected in series. after allow- ing a safety factor. and (b) the area of a plate. nected in series across a supply voltage V . Find (a) the thickness of the Figure 6.d. Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate Part 1 capacitor having 5 plates. across the individual capacitors be V1. Let the [(a) 0.14 pF] Q3 C3 4. C2 and C3 . The capacitors l l each store a charge and these are shown as Q 1 . con- polythene needed. A capacitor is to be constructed so that its connected capacitors is the sum of the capacitances capacitance is 4250 pF and to operate at a p. Q 2 and V Q 3 respectively.7 shows three capacitors.3) which. [65. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is 1000 pF. V [7] Total charge. Let the charge on plate ‘a’ of capacitor C1 be +Q coulombs. C1 . The conductor and series between plates ‘b’ and ‘c’ is electrically isolated from the rest of the circuit so that an equal but opposite (a) Capacitors connected in parallel charge of +Q coulombs must appear on plate ‘c’.

Determine (a) the 1 1 1 1 1 equivalent circuit capacitance.5 mC = Q T ] . the reciprocal of the equivalent capacitance is equal to the sum of the recip. 3 µF.3 + 0.3 mC 6 µF + 4 µF = 10 µF The charge on the 5 µF capacitor (b) In series. and so on.5 mC C C1 C2 C1 C2   (c) The charge on the 1 µF capacitor C1 C 2 product Hence C= i. and C2 be the unknown capacitance. equivalent capacitance C is given by: Q3 = C3 V = 5 × 10−6 × 100 C1 C2 = 0. (b) the total charge = + + +···+ C C1 C 2 C3 Cn and (c) the charge on each capacitor. Capacitors and capacitance 59 in turn.5 mC C= C1 + C2 The charge on the 6 µF capacitor This formula is used for the special case of two capacitors in series. C C1 C2 1 1 1 C1 − C In a series circuit: V = V1 + V2 + V3 Hence = − = C2 C C1 CC1 Q Q Q Q Q CC1 12 × 30 Since V = then = + + and C 2 = = C C C1 C2 C3 C1 − C 30 − 12 where C is the total equivalent circuit capacitance. 5 µF It follows that for n series-connected capacitors: and 6 µF are connected in parallel to a direct voltage supply of 100 V. Capacitances of 1 µF.) i. (a) The equivalent capacitance C for four capacitors rocals of the individual capacitances. C1 + C 2 sum Q1 = C1 V = 1 × 10−6 × 100 = 0. Calculate the equivalent capacitance of two capacitors of 6 µF and 4 µF connected (a) in The charge on the 3 µF capacitor parallel and (b) in series. i.e. Part 1 Hence when capacitors are connected in series the 1 1 1 For two capacitors in series = + charge on each is the same.1 + 0.5×10−3 C = 1. What capacitance must be Q T = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 connected in series with a 30 µF capacitor for the Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 + Q 4 = 0.1 mC Problem 10.6 mC Thus C = = = 2. = + + C C1 C2 C3 Problem 12. C1 = 30 µF coulombs on plate ‘d’. induces an equal and opposite charge of −Q Let C = 12 µF (the equivalent capacitance). for series-connected capacitors.5 + 0. Q4 = C4 V = 6 × 10−6 × 100 6 ×4 24 = 0. 360 = = 20 µF 1 1 1 1 18 i.6 equivalent capacitance to be 12 µF? = 1. Q2 = C2 V = 3 × 10−6 × 100 (a) In parallel.e. QT = 15 × 10−6×100 =1. equivalent capacitance C = C1 + C2 = = 0.e. C = 1 +3 +5 + 6 =15µF For the special case of two capacitors in series: (b) Total charge QT = CV where C is the equivalent 1 1 1 C2 + C1 circuit capacitance = + = i.e.e.4 µF 6 +4 10 [Check: In a parallel circuit Problem 11. (Note that this in parallel is given by: formula is similar to that used for resistors connected C = C 1 + C2 + C3 + C4 in parallel.

Since the capacitors are connected in series 0. 200 V) which means that if all the capacitors have an identical construction they must all be rated at the highest voltage. V = V1 + V2 + V3 V1 + V2 + V3 = 200 +100 +50 = 350 V = supply voltage.6 × 10−3 Part 1 12 µF are connected in series across a 350 V supply.e. C3 12×10−6 (b) the charge on each capacitor and (c) the p. 3 µF) has the highest p.9 hence 12 (a) 2 µF in parallel with 3 µF gives an equivalent QT = × 10−6 × 350 = 600 µC or 0. (b) the voltage across QR. = 50 V across each capacitor. (c) The voltage across the 3 µF capacitor. and (c) the charge (a) The equivalent circuit capacitance C for three on each capacitor.6 mC capacitance of 2 µF + 3 µF= 5 µF.6 mC is the charge on each of them.] In practice. capacitors are rarely connected in series unless they are of the same capacitance. Figure 6.8 Problem 14. 60 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology The voltage across the 12 µF capacitor.9 find (a) the equivalent capacitance of the circuit.10 The equivalent capacitance of 5 µF in series with Q 0. Problem 13.10. = + + = = C 3 6 12 12 12 Hence the equivalent circuit capacitance 12 5 C = = 1 µF 7 7 (b) Total charge Q T = CV . The circuit is 7 now as shown in Figure 6. across it (i. capacitors in series is given by: 1 1 1 1 = + + C C1 C2 C3 1 1 1 1 4 +2 + 1 7 i. [Check: In a series circuit The circuit diagram is shown in Figure 6.6 × 10−3 15 µF is given by V2 = = C2 6×10−6 5 × 15 75 = 100 V µF = µF = 3.d.75 µF 5 + 15 20 . Q 0.6 × 10−3 V1 = = C1 3×10−6 = 200 V The voltage across the 6 µF capacitor.e. Figure 6. Figure 6.d. For the arrangement shown in Figure 6. 6 µF and 0. Q V3 = = Calculate (a) the equivalent circuit capacitance.8. Capacitances of 3 µF. The reason for this can be seen from the above problem where the low- est valued capacitor (i.e.

05 µF and 0.10 µF (iii) 50 pF and 450 pF Then Q = C1 V1 = C2 V2 (iv) 0.4 µF.36 mC 6.13.1 pF] Also V1 + V2 = 240 V 5.2 µF (b) 100 V] Hence the voltage across QR is 60 V (c) The charge on the 15 µF capacitor is C2 V2 = 15 ×10−6 × 60 = 0. (ii) 0. 4 µF and 8 µF Part 1 nected in series. If two capacitors having capacitances of 3 µF Now try the following exercise and 5 µF respectively are connected in series across a 240 V supply.01 µF and 200 pF i.2 µF? [2. (b) the charge on each capac- 3 × 10−6 × 180 =0. Calculate (a) the equiva- The charge on the 3 µF capacitor is lent capacitance. Capacitors and capacitance 61 (b) The charge on each of the capacitors shown in Figure 6.17 µF (iii) 500 pF (iv) 0. What capacitance must be added in series to obtain a capacitance of 1. determine (a) the p. (b) the total .11 find (a) the equivalent circuit capacitance and Hence 3V2 + V2 = 240 V from equation (1) (b) the voltage across a 4. Determine the equivalent capacitance when Figure 6. determine parallel and (b) in series: (a) the total circuit capacitance.10 will be the same since they are con.d. circuit is 3 µF.5 µF capacitor. For the circuit shown in Figure 6.54 mC itor and (c) the p.e. Q and R are iden- in parallel and (b) in series. 0. Let this charge be Q coulombs.12 capacitors P.143 µF V1 = 3V2 (1) (ii) 0. In Figure 6. 90 V (b) 0. Capacitors of 2 µF and 6 µF are connected (a) 8. Find the capacitance to be connected in series with a 10 µF capacitor for the equivalent capac- itance to be 6 µF. Two 6 µF capacitors are connected in series with one having a capacitance of 12 µF.d.45 mC on each] 1. across each capacitor and (b) the charge on each Exercise 19 Further problems on capacitors capacitor. Determine the tical and the total equivalent capacitance of the equivalent capacitance in each case. For the arrangement shown in Figure 6.02 µF. Thus V2 = 60 V and V1 = 180 V [(a) 1.12 the following capacitors are connected (a) in 9. 5V1 = 15V2 [(a) (i) 14 µF (ii) 0. in parallel and series [(a) 150 V. across each capacitor. 2.0125 µF (iii) 45 pF (iv) 196. [4. (i) 2 µF. Q [(a) 8 µF (b) 1.9 mC The charge on the 2 µF capacitor is Figure 6.5 µF] and R. Three 12 µF capacitors are connected in series across a 750 V supply. Find the total equivalent circuit capacitance. Determine the values of P.4 µF] 4. [15 µF] 3.11 2 × 10−6 × 180 =0. [(a) 4 µF (b) 3 mC (c) 250 V] 7.0102 µF (b) (i) 1.2 µF each] 2.

d. Find (a) the thickness of the mica needed.24 (b) Power = = W = 24 kW time 10 × 10−6 The maximum amount of field strength that a dielec- tric can withstand is called the dielectric strength of the material.2 = 0. (Assume εr for mica to be 6.e.) Problem 18.5 V plate assuming a two-plate construction.6 cm2 (a) Voltage V = = = 0.d.24 kV or 240 V Q 10 ×10−3 . [(a) 0.2 µF and to take a p.85 × 10−12 × 6 2W 2 ×1.2 × 10−6 × 0.2 J 0. E m = d 1 2W Energy stored W = CV 2 hence V 2 = Problem 15. E = . A 12 µF capacitor is required to store 4 J of energy.071 mJ (c) 42. and (b) the area of a = 816.025 mm 1 Q 1 Hence W= V 2 = QV ε0εr A 2 V 2 (b) Capacitance.857 µF (b) 1. and (c) the charges in the 6.2 J find (a) the voltage and V V (b) the capacitance. A capacitor is charged with 10 mC. (b) Find also 2 mF the average power developed if this energy is C1 C2 dissipated in a time of 10 µs.85 µC on The energy.25 kV across its terminals.24 J 6. of  2W   2 × 4   2 × 106  1. Dielectric strength. 2 mF 2 mF (a) Energy stored W = 12 CV 2 joules 50 V = 1 2 × 3 × 10−6 × 4002 Figure 6.25 × 103 Energy stored W = CV 2 and C = = m 2 V 50 × 106   = 0.09416 m2 = 941. If the energy stored is 1. d = d E 1 Q 1. 62 Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology energy in the circuit.13 = 3 2 × 16 × 10−2 = 0. A capacitor is to be constructed so 2 C that its capacitance is 0.11 Energy stored Part 1 capacitors shown as C1 and C2 . has C 12 × 10−6 3 a dielectric strength of 50 MV/m. i. Problem 17. to which the Vm capacitor must be charged. (a) Dielectric strength.10 Dielectric strength Energy 0. The dielectric is to be and V = = = mica which. (a) Determine the energy stored in a 2 mF 2 mF 3 µF capacitor when charged to 400 V. C = d 2W Cd from which V = hence area A= Q ε0 εr Q = 10 mC = 10 × 10−3C and W = 1.025 × 10−3 2 = m 8. Find the p. W. stored by a capacitor is given by each] W = 12 CV 2 joules 2 mF 2 mF 2 mF Problem 16. after allowing a safety factor of 2.

Capacitors and capacitance 63 Q 10 ×10−3 1.d. A capacitor.15. When a capacitor is connected across a 200 V supply the charge is 4 µC. Mica is easily oped if this energy is dissipated in a time of obtained in thin sheets and is a good insulator. a high working voltage rating and a long service life and are used in high frequency circuits with fixed values Practical types of capacitor are characterized by the of capacitance up to about 1000 pF.14 1. consisting of two metal plates each is shown in Figure 6. material used for their dielectric.67 µF 240 ×103 Figure 6.593 µJ (b) 5. A 3300 pF capacitor is required to store 0. ever.5 mJ mum value of such capacitors is between 500 pF of energy. [550 V] 2. Such capacitors have a constant 6.2 mm apart in air. wax and placed in a bakelite case. Capacitance is stable and less likely to change with age. Variable air capacitors. How- 20 µs.2 µF.04 µF and to have a steady working potential of 1 kV maximum.31 µC/m2 (c) 600 kV/m] 5.04 mm (b) 361. the meshing. shown in Figure 6. (b) the electric flux density and (c) the potential gradient. is Mica sheets connected across a 120 V supply. The main types include: variable air. to which the capacitor and 1000 pF. A bakelite capacitor is to be constructed to have a capacitance of 0. the other variable.12 Practical types of capacitor capacitance with change of temperature. The mica is coated on both sides with a thin layer of silver which forms the plates. mica is expensive and is not used in capacitors [(a) 0.16 where the length of the roll . revolution. A modified form of mica capac- (c) 0. Spindle Moving plate Now try the following exercise Exercise 20 Further problems on energy Fixed stored plate (Where appropriate take ε0 as 8. (c) the maximum energy stored by Usually the whole capacitor is impregnated with the capacitor and (d) the average power devel. of area 50 cm 2 and spaced 0.02 J (d) 1 kW] itor is the silvered mica type. The maxi- 3. A typical older type construction 4. must be charged. Find (a) the capaci. varies from a minimum to a maximum value. Paper capacitors.14. or when charged to 2 kV. Variable air capacitors are used in radio and elec- 2. Find the energy stored in a 10 µF capacitor tronic circuits where very low losses are required. plastic. Calculate (a) the energy stored.15 of plate required if the relative permittivity of bakelite is 5. As the moving plates are rotated through half a tance and (b) the energy stored. The set of moving plates 10 × 106 rotate on a spindle as shown by the end view of = µF = 41. titanium oxide 3. Allowing Metal foil a safe value of field stress of 25 MV/m find (a) (lead or aluminium) the thickness of bakelite required.02 µF (b) 0. (b) the area Figure 6.6 cm2 above about 0. These usually consist of (b) Capacitance C = = F V 240 two sets of metal plates (such as aluminium) one Part 1 fixed. and therefore the capaci- [(a) 0. mica. [(a) 1. A typical paper capacitor is and electrolytic. Mica capacitors. [20 J] where a variable capacitance is needed. Find the p. paper.85 ×10−12 F/m) Figure 6.4 mJ] tance. ceramic.