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Library Torque 13

Magnitude of Maximum

➣ Intorduction Torque

➣ Rotating Magnetic Field ➣ Torque Slip Characteristics

(R.M.F.) 15

Production of R.M.F. Full Load Torque

Speed of R.M.F. Generating and Braking

Direction of R.M.F. Region 16

➣ Concept of Slip Rings and ➣ Torque Ratios 18

Brush Assembly Full Load and Maximum

➣ Construction Torque Ratio

Stator Starting Torque and

Rotor Maximum Torque Ratio

Squirrel Cage Rotor ➣ Speed - Torque

Slip Ring or Wound Characteristics 20

Rotor ➣ Effect of Change in Rotor

Comparison of Squirrel Resistance on Torque 20

Cage and Wound Rotor ➣ Losses in Induction Motor

➣ Working Principle3 22

Can N = Ns ? ➣ Power Flow in an Induction

➣ Slip of Induction Motor Motor 23

➣ Effect of Slip on Rotor ➣ Relation Between P2, Pc and

Parameters (Part1 - Part2 - Pm 25

Part3) Derivation of k in Torque

Effect on Rotor Frequency7 Equation

Effect on Magnitude of ➣ Efficiency of an Induction

Rotor Induced E.M.F. 8 Motor 27

Effect on Rotor Resistance ➣ Equivalent Circuit of

and Reactance 8 Induction Motor (Part1 26 -

Effect on Rotor Power Part2-32)

Factor 9

➣ Phasor Diagram of

Effect on Rotor Current 9

Induction Motor 37

➣ Induction Motor as a

➣ Effect of Harmonics on

Transformer 10

Performance of 3 Phase

➣ Torque Equation 11

Induction Motor 38

Starting Torque 12

1

**Crawling 41 ➣ Obtaining Data to Plot Circle
**

Cogging 41 Diagram 70

➣ Special Rotor Constructions ➣ No Load Test 71

43 Separating No Load Losses

Deep Bar Rotor ➣ Blocked Rotor Test 72

Construction ➣ Construction of the Circle

Double Cage Rotor Diagram 74

Construction Predicting Performance

Comparison of Single Cage From Circle Diagram

and Double Cage Motors 49 Maximum Quantities

➣ Application 49 Full Load Condition

➣ Induction Generator (Part1- ➣ Load Test on Three Phase

50 - Part2-55) Induction Motor 77

Circle Diagram of Induction ➣ Necessity of Starter 79

Generator Types of Starter

Comparison of Induction

➣ Stator Resistance Starter 80

Generator and Synchronous

Relation between Tst and

Generator

TF.L.

Advantages

Disadvantages ➣ Autotranformer Starter 81

Applications Relation between Tst and

➣ Induction Regulator TF.L.

Induction Regulator : ➣ Star - Delta Starter 84

Introduction Ratio of Tst and TF.L.

Single Phase Induction ➣ Rotor Resistance Starter

Regulator 56 85

Three Phase Induction ➣ Direct on Line Starter

Regulator 59 (D.O.L.) 88

➣ Induction Synchronous ➣ Soft Starters 89

Motor 62 ➣ Speed Control of Three

➣ Circle Diagram : Phase Induction Motor 91

Introduction 65 ➣ Supply Frequency Control

➣ Circle Diagram of a 3 Series or V/f Control 91

R - L Circuit 67 ➣ Voltage Supply Control 93

➣ Circle Diagram of a 3 Phase ➣ Controlling Number of Poles

Induction Motor 69 93

Consequent Pole Method

2

**Multiple Stator Winding Induction motor works on the
**

Method principle of electromagnetic

Pole Amplitude Modulation induction.

Method When a three phase supply

➣ Adding Rheostats in Stator is given to the three phase

Circuit 97 stator winding, a rotating

➣ Addnig External Resistance magnetic field of constant

in Rotor Circuit 98 magnitude is produced as

➣ Cascade Control 99 discussed earlier. The speed

of this rotation magnetic field

➣ Injecting Slip-Frequency

is synchronous speed Ns r.p.m.

E.M.F. into Rotor Circuit 101

Kramer System

Scherbius

➣ Electrical Braking of an

Induction Motor (Part1 - 102- Where f = supply

Part2-104) frequency.

Dynamic or Rheostat p = Number

Braking of poles for which stator

Plugging winding is wound.

D.C. Dynamic Braking This rotating field

Regenerative Braking produces an effect of rotating

➣ Protection for Induction poles around a rotor. Let

Motor 105 direction of rotation of this

Abnormal Conditions and rotating magnetic field is

failure in Case of Induction clockwise as shown in the Fig.

Motor 1(a).

Protection Circuit for

Induction Motor

Single Phasing Preventer

Earth Leakage Circuit

Breaker

Miniature Circuit Breaker

(MCB

Working Principle of 3-Phase

Induction Motor Fig. 1

3

So rotor Now the R. 1(b). 1(d). gets induced in it. e.M.F. So rotor produces its flux called rotor flux.m. the direction of force current as shown in the experienced is same as that of Fig.F.F.f.f. gets induced in the conductors experience a force. as shown in the Fig. Both the explained as : according to fluxes interact with each as Lenz's law the direction of shown in the Fig. So magnetic induction. As seen from the Fig. and Alternatively this can be other rotor flux. the direction of rotor flux is clockwise as shown in the Fig.M. one R. rotating magnetic field. through rotor called rotor 1(d). 1(c).F. 1(d). As rotor interaction of the two fluxes is forms closed circuit.M.f. and rotor conductors.f.M. As all the rotor So e.F.1(b). So its as stretched rubber band. This is electro. from left to right in this case. Let direction of this rotating magnetic field. gets cut by conductor experience a force rotor conductors as R. high obvious that there exists a flux density area exerts a push relative motion between the on rotor conductor towards R.m. low flux density area. For assumed direction of rotor current. This direction can be easily determined using right Fig 1 (d hand thumb rule. rotor conductors called rotor the overall rotor experiences a induced e. sweeps over rotor conductors. due Whenever conductors cuts the to interaction of the two fluxes.M. flux. two fluxes so as to oppose the cause 4 . Hence current is going into the paper rotor starts rotating in the denoted by a cross as shown same direction as that of in the Fig. torque and starts rotating. circulates current action. Now there are two fluxes. Now at this instant rotor is cancel each other to produce stationary and stator flux low flux area. induced very essential for a motoring e. Any current carrying conductor produces its own flux. On left induced current in the rotor is of rotor conductor.m.m. is rotating. As flux lines act R.

.m.e. with a speed slightly less than So. Eventually motor will conductors.M. N < Ns in same direction as that of So it can be said that rotor R.e.p. The torque cause for the induced e. slips behind the rotating magnetic field produced by Can N = Ns ? stator. to will exist a relative motion reduce the relative speed.F.. this R. The induction N = Speed of rotor motor never rotates at i. The Ns . The cause of the rotor. and tries to catch up the does not happen in practice speed of the rotating magnetic and motor continues to rotate field. the rotating magnetic field. will rotor current is the induced vanish and hence there can e.f. the This speed decides the relative motion between rotor magnitude of the induction and the rotating magnetic field e. In fact which in turn decides the the relative motion is the main torque produced. Ns .m. steady state.m. which is induced not be rotor current and the because of relative motion rotor flux which is essential to present between the rotating produce the torque on the magnetic field and the rotor rotor. the between rotor and rotating rotor experiences a torque in magnetic field and it will start. But immediately there the relative motion i. Hence to oppose stop.N = Relative speed at which it rotates is speed between the two. the two is called slip speed of it tries to catch the speed of the motor.N = 0).producing it.f. rotating magnetic field. called synchronous motor. and the rotor current.N = Slip If it catches the speed of speed of the motor in r. So induced e. will vanish ( Ns . the same direction as that of But due to inertia of rotor.F. synchronous speed.f. hence called subsynchronous rotating magnetic field and the speed and motor sometimes rotor conductors.m. in produced is as per the 5 .m.m. motor in r. The difference between When rotor starts rotating.p.m.f. Ns = Speed of the synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field in rotating magnetic field in the r.M.p. Thus rotor always rotates .

f The percentage slip is = 50 Hz . 6 .m.01 to 0. P = 4.e.p.requirements of overcoming In terms of slip.M. This is also called absolute Example 1 : A 4 pole. 3 phase slip or fractional slip and is induction motor is supplied denoted as 's'.F. This While s = 0 given us N = Ns slip speed is generally which is not possible for an expressed as the percentage induction motor. N = 1410 expressed as. load slip. r.e. (N) is called slip speed.F. synchronous speed slip s possible for induction of R.p. ( Ns ) and rotor speed motor which occurs at start. torque demanded by the load on the rotor. the actual the friction and iron losses of speed of motor (N) can be the motor along with the expressed as. The difference between the two This is maximum value of speeds i.p. Solution : Given values are. The slip actual speed of rotor i. as that of R.m. motor corresponding to full load (N) expressed as a friction of speed of th motor is called full the synchronous speed ( Ns ). Determine its Thus synchronous speed.e. So slip of of the synchronous speed.05 synchronous speed ( Ns) and i. When have seen that rotor At start. Ns = 120f / P = 120 x 50 / 4 = 1500 r. On full load. motor is at rest rotates in the same direction and hence its speed N is zero. its speed is observed to be 1410 r. induction motor can not be So slip of the induction zero under any circumstances. but in steady state attains a speed less than the synchronous speed. 1 % to 5 %.m. motor is defined as the Practically motor operates difference between the in the slip range of 0.M. calculate its full load slip. from Hz supply.

.m..f. 0. rotor parameters also get Solution : Given values are. induction motor has .06 speed.F... Rotor power factor and sfl = (Ns .f.N)/ stator. sfl = Full 1. 5.f.M. respect to R. %s = 0.f.. gets induced motor at start N = 0 and slip s in the rotor at start. the speed of rotating .p..m.m. and stationary rotor has in the secondary is same as maximum relative motion with the voltage applied to primary. in rotor is same given by. Rotor current Nfl ) / Ns = where = full load speed of motor 1. the frequency of 7 .. Rotor reactance P = 120 x 50 / 4 = 1500 r..m. f=50Hz.m. the frequency of induced e.f. load absolute slip = 0. Let us study the P = 4. 4. The = 1.06 x some slip corresponding to 100 = 6 % speed N.m. rotor is no longer same as that 50 Hz. as the voltage applied to the s = ( Ns . Full load absolute slip is induced e. In such case..04 Magnitude of rotor induced Ns = 120f / e. Due to this some other speed of the motor.f. 3 phase. % sfl = effect of slip on the following 4% rotor parameters..p. affected. Effect on rotor frequency . 3. Nfl = 1440 magnetic field is. star connected of stator voltage.... At start when N = 0. Calculate full load e.m..m. s = 1 frequency of the induced e. But as motor gathers V2 = (1500-1410 )/ 1500 = 0.(1) Effect of Slip on Rotor Where f = Frequency of Parameters supply in Hz In case of a transformer.04 = In case of induction (1500 . Hence Now in case of induction maximum e. in Example 2 : A 4 pole. Ns = (120 f )/P Sponsored links : . Rotor frequency 2. r.Nfl )/ 1500 motor.. Slip affects induction motor has a full load the frequency of rotor induced slip of 4 %. Under this condition as frequency of this induced long as s = 1.

equal to slip speed of Ns ..m.01 to 0..N. s = 1. At start we have s = 1 hence rotor frequency is same 8 .m.m. fr and P similar to Hz equation (1).N) = (120 fr)/P .f.m. 50 Hz induction motor runs at The induced e.N. e.p.m.m.N)/Ns = (1500- slip speed Ns .f. the induction motor is in the As motor actually rotates range 0. As slip of of supply frequency. in running relative speed is maximum and condition (fr) is slip times the maximum e.F.M.. be.. is very rotor poles = stator poles = P small.05. Sponsored links : (Ns . If fr is the Ns = (120 f )/ P = (120 x 50)/4 = frequency of rotor induced 1500 r.N then there 1470)/1500 = 0.e..m. frequency.f.N).f.M.p. Hence induced e.e. running condition.m. The rotor is wound P = 4. .m.f..N)/Ns = Parameters slip s 2. of rotor induced e. in running condition at s = (Ns . relative speed Ns .e.02 exists a fixed relation between fr = s f = 0.F fr = s f We have seen that when Thus frequency of rotor rotor is standstill.N)/Ns = (120 fr / Effect of Slip on Rotor P)/(120 f / P) but (Ns .(2) Dividing (2) by (1) we get. decreases and becomes Example : A 4 pole. Solution : The given values decreases so as to its are.f in the rotor in running condition under this condition. at start is same as that as supply frequency. in rotor a speed of 1470 r. speed. R.m.. f = 50 Hz.f.. Let this e.f. gets induced supply frequency (f).m. P. N for same number of poles as =1470 r. magnitude of induced e.m. 3 phase. depends on rate of cutting flux Find the frequency of the i. rotor with speed N. frequency (Ns . induced e. in the rotor. that of stator i. the relative frequency is very small in the speed of rotor with respect running condition.02 x 50 = 1 (Ns .. Effect of Slip on Magnitude s = fr/f of Rotor Induced E.f. So we can write It can be seen that in for rotor in running condition.p.

E2r = Rotor induced fr = f hence if L2 is the e. at remains same at standstill and standstill condition. In case of squirrel Z2 = Rotor cage rotor. in rotor also decreases as it is proportional to the X2 = Rotor reactance per phase relative speed Ns .f. fr = s f hence. While the rotor reactance decreases by 3. proportionality equations. As rotor gains speed.N. E2 = Rotor induced resistance which can be e. the In general let. in running condition. X2r = E2r/E2= ( Ns .N)/Ns 2πfr L2 =2πfsL2 but (Ns .m. Let this on standstill e. the rotor resistance impedance on standstill (N = 0) is very very small and condition generally neglected but slip = R2 + j ring rotor has its own X2 Ω/ph 9 . The rotor winding has its Hence we can write rotor own resistance and the impedance per phase as : inductance.m. X2r = Rotor The magnitude of the reactance in running condition induced e.(2πf L2) E2r/E2 = s X2r = s X2 E2r = s E2 Where.f.m.f. relative speed between rotor and rotating magnetic field R2 = Rotor resistance per decreases and hence induced phase onstandstill e. be.N resistance in Ω/ph Dividing the two Now in running condition.m. per phase on standstill controlled by adding external condition resistance through slip rings. condition X2 = 2πfr L2 = 2πf Now E2r α Ns while L2 Ω/ph While R2 = Rotor E2r α Ns .f.N)/N = slip s = s .f.m. Effect on Rotor Resistance slip times the rotor reactance and Reactance at standstill. Now at standstill.m. per phase in running inductance of rotor per phase.f in the rotor also Thus resistance as reduces by slip times the independent of frequency magnitude of induced e.

phase)/(Z2 per phase) A cos Φ2 = Rotor power Substituting expression of factor on standstill Z2 we get.2.. is While Z2r = Rotor always lagging in nature. 2 Fcator 5.f. in the Fig1.f. we Let I2 = Rotor can write the expression for current per phase on standstill the power factor of rotor at condition standstill and also in running The magnitude of condition. magnitude Sponsored links : Effect of Slip on Rotor Parameters 4. = R2/Z2 =R2/√(R22+ X22) I2 = E2 /√(R22+ The impedance in running X 22) A condition becomes Z2r and the The equivalent rotor circuit corresponding impedance on standstill is shown in the triangle is shown in the Fig. Effect on Rotor Power Fig.. on power factor in running standstill. The Φ2 is the angle From Fig. I2 depends on magnitude of The impedance triangle on E2 and impedance Z2 per standstill condition is shown phase. 2 we can write. impedance in running condition = R2 + j X2r = R2 + j (s X2) Ω/ph Z2r = √(R22+ (s X2)2) Fig. Z2 = √( R22+ X2)2) Ω/ph . Fig. From it we can I2 = (E2 per write. 1 Ω/ph…. the rotor p. between E2 and I2 which cos Φ2r = Rotor determines rotor p.3. Effect on Rotor Current From rotor impedance. Key point : As rotor winding is magnitude inductive. condition = R2/Z2r = R2/√(R2 + (s X2)2) 2 10 .

gets on standstill. In an alternating flux transformer the frequency of Fig.f.f. Sponsored links : Induction Motor as a Fig.c. and current in Key point : Putting s = 1 in the primary and secondary is expression obtained in always same. the equivalent circuit.m. The E2r and I2r which decides p.m. running condition.m. changes to E2r. We know that. supply of certain condition is also different than frequency. of supply given to the first I2r = Rotor winding.f. The equivalent induced in the second winding circuit on running condition is having same frequency as that shown in the Fig. The winding to which current per phase in running supply is given is called condition primary winding while winding The value of slip depends in which e. in normal transformer has no air running condition . 4. 3 Transformer In the running condition. gets induced is on speed which inturn called secondary winding. the values at standstill can be obtained. normal transformer is an I2r = E2r/Z2r = (s E2)/√(R22+ alternating flux transformer (s X2)2) while induction motor is Φ2r is the angle between rotating flux transformer. From the The difference is that the equivalent we can write. the e.m.f. The depends on load on motor induction motor can be hence X2r is shown variable in regarded as the transformer. 4 induced e. gap as against this an induction motor has distinct air gap between its stator and rotor. are magnetically coupled and Hence the magnitude of when one winding is excited current in the running by a. transformer is a Z2 changes to Z2r while the device in which two windings induced e.f. However in the induction motor frequency of 11 .

. So we have a shown in the Fig. in the rotor is same. The e. s =1 present in the secondary and we get.f. In this. is in the electrical form.f.m.m.f.e. in an induction motor part of its energy in the rotor circuit is in electrical form and the remaining part is Key Point : So if stator supply converted into mechanical voltage is known and ratio of form. 1. At start when N =0 . to the stator and of induced E2 = Rotor induced e.. Torque Equation The torque produced in the induction motor depends on the following factors : 1.m. and current on the stator transformer side remains same but frequency of rotor e.f. The part of rotating magnetic field which reacts Fig. discussed in the previous Then according to general section. As against this. = 1). 1 Induction motor as a with rotor and is responsible 12 . an induction current depends on the slip motor can be treated as a and slip depends on load on generalised transformer as the motor. on standstill can be obtained. the variable frequency on the rotor slip ring induction motor with side. stator to rotor turns per phase is known then the rotor induced e. circuit. then frequency of supply per phase in volts. = 0 the value of slip is unity (s So if E1 = Stator e. transformer there exists a And last difference is that fixed relation between E1 and in case of the alternating flux E2 called transformer ratio.m. and In general. But it is important to star connected stator and rotor remember that at start when N is shown.f. per phase in volts at effect of slip on the rotor start when motor is at parameters is already standstill. transformer the entire energy .f.m.m.

.. T = (k s E22 R2)/(R22 +(s X2)2) responsible to produce .f.... 1. of motor induction motor.(7) induced e....f.(8) stator voltage.(5) 2.e. (5). to each other through ratio of stator turns to rotor turns i... but the torque produced by an While I2r = E2r /Z2r induction motor as start.. = R2/√(R22 +(s X2)2) 3.1 Starting Torque Thus in equation (1)... relationship cab be expressed as..m. N= 0 and slip s = 1.(1) where Φ = Flux .s...e... = Ns/60 ... So torque developed at . At start... (6) in Mathematically the equation (1)...(3) known and all standstill rotor Using (3) in (2) we can parameters are known.... . So 13 . ....to produce induced e........ E2/E1 = K any load condition can be obtained if slip at that load is ...(6) circuit in running condition. write.p....m..f. k =3/(2 π ns) =3/w s stator is proportional to i..... The flux Φ produced by .. k.......... T α Φ I2r cos Φ2r . Φ can Starting torque is nothing be replaced by E2...... in = (sE2)/√(R22 +(sX2)2) rotor. where k = Constant of I2r = Rotor proportionality running condition The constant k is provided cos Φ2r = to be 3/2 for three phase Running p....... The power factor of the rotor .. Φ α E1 speed in r. Key Point : ns = synchronous .(2) Using (8) in (7) we get the while E1 and E2 are related torque equation as. The magnitude of rotor and cos Φ2r = R2/Z2r current in running condition..... Using (4)...

120x50 / 4 = 1500 r.. fixed ratio between E1 and E2..1 Ω and 1 = 87.s.04 slip induction motor to control ns = the starting torque Tst...s. f = 50 Hence E2 is also consatnt.. constants for the induction Stator turns/Rotor turns motor. R2 = 0.. P = 4.. K = E2 /E1 = condition for maximum torque. E1ph = E1line /√3 = (10). Hz. Similarly R2.94 = 115. This is Full load slip. 14 . =K The change in R2 at start is ..p. it is the torque developed on full clear that torque depends on load by the motor.p. E1line = 400 V . Calculate From the torque equation.Stator line voltage given Key Point : From the equation .5 expression for the starting Ns=120f/P = torque Tst as.. X2 and ns are N = 1440 r.81 N-m Ω respectively. = 2/1 Hence while finding the . 50 Hz.m.... The rotor resistance and reactance are 0. = Ns/60 = Example 1 : A 3 phase.5 x possible in case of slip ring 230...5 can be controlled..p.m. The full load Condition of Maximum Torque speed is 1440 r.47 V induction motor only.p. 4 pole induction motor has star connected stator winding. Assume stator to rotor ratio as The supply voltage to the 2 :1. it is clear that by 400/√3 = 230. motor is usually rated and Solution : The given values constant and there exists a are. slip at which motor is running. 400 V.p. Synchronous speed in r..putting s = 1 in the torque Rotor turns/Stator turns = 1/2 = equation we can write 0.94 V changing the starting torque But E2ph /E1ph = 0. E2ph = 0..m. 1500/60 = 25 r. s = (Ns-N)/Ns = the principle used in case of (1500-1400)/1500 = 0..1 Ω. X2 = 1 Ω..

k s E22 R2 (2s X22) - (R22 + s2 X22)(k E22 R2) = 0 . s2 X22 . This slip decides the maximum. .1 Magnitude of Maximum demand. s2 = R22/X22 Mathematically for the . From the expression of Tm. The per values values of resistance only variable is slip s.R22 k the rotor reactance..... its speed the torque produced by the changes and hence slip induction motor is at its changes.. k s2 X22 E22 R2 . s = R2/X2 maximum torque we can write. torque is slip s. torque produced corresponding to the load 1. It is denoted As both numerator and by Tm. X22 R2 = 0 15 . denominator contains s terms.... While carrying out .. Torque T = (k s E22 R2)/(R22 + This can be obtained by s2 X 2 2 ) . As load and reactance of rotor.Writing (s substituting sm = R2/X2 in the 2 2 X 2) = s X 2 2 torque equation.R22 = 0 parameter which controls the Taking k E22 R2 common. Tm = (k differential T with respect to s sm E22 R2)/(R22 +(sm X2)2) using the rule of differentiation for u/v..remember that the only .. It is inversely proportional to .. X2 and k are constants..k s2 X22 E22 R2 = it can be observed that 0 1. It is the ratio of standstill R2. ... when on motor changes... R22 k E22 R2 . Neglecting negative slip dT/ds = 0 This is the slip at which where T = (k s the torque is maximum and is E2 R2)/(R2 +(s X2)2) 2 2 denoted as sm. sm= R2/X2 differential remember that E2.. 2 s2 k X22 E22 R2 ...

P = 4.. N = Ns (1 .. .031 N-m resistance and reactance per ii) Slip at which maximum phase equal to 0.1) = 1350 r.04 voltage = 400 V as % sf = 4 % E1ph = E1line/√3 = . of stator to rotor turns as 4. It is directly proportional to .sm ) = Solution : The given values 1500 (1 ..m.04 x 57. Determine i) sm = R2/X2 = Starting torque ii) slip at which 0.s...7352)/(2 x 0.52 N-m Torque-Slip Characteristics 16 .p.p.. The most interesting 120x50 / 4 = 1500 r.. stator Tm = (k E22)/(2 turns/ rotor turns = 4.l.1)2) Rotor turns/ Stator turns = 1/4 = 219. X2 = 0.1) = 318.. s =1 torque is not dependent on the .01909 Example 1 : A 400 V.7352 x 0.f. Tf. = 3/(2 π ns) speed at which it occurs ns = Ns/60 = depends on the value of rotor 1500/60 = 25 r. Tst = ( 0.1 maximum torque will occur iii) %sm = 0.735 V e. E2 = (1/4) x E1ph = the square of the rotor induced 230.e..94 V sf E22 R2)/(R22 +(sf X2)2) = .01909 x phase.01)/( 0.7352 x K = E2ph/E1ph = 0. at standstill..04 x 0. = (k 400/√3 = 230.1 torque occurs is. iv) The maximum torque is.01/0.01 Ω and 0. Assume ratio corresponding to. sf = 0.01 Ω. Tst = (k rotor resistance R2.. 4 pole..16 N-m E1line = stator line v) Full load slip. . Ns = 120f/P = 3.1 Ω 0.012 + (0. Ω respectively.94/4 = 57. resistance R2. are.0.m.01 )/( 0.1 = 0.p. the maximum i) At start. f = 50 Hz.star connection (0..01909 x 57. R2 = X2) = (0. 50 Hz star connected 57.2. observation is.012 + 0.. 3 .1 x 100 speed at which maximum = 10% torque will occur iv) maximum iii) Speed at which maximum torque v) full load torque if full torque occurs is speed load slip is 4 %.12 ) = induction motor has a rotor 63...01909 x 0. But the E2 R2)/(R2 +( X2)2) 2 2 where k slip at which it occurs i.... k = 3/(2π x 25) = 0.m..

This increases the obtained by plotting torque torque which satisfies the load against slip from s = 1 (at start) demand. ii) High slip region : In this region. slip value is approaching to 1. torque produced against slip speed decreases. torque equations as. its speed decreases the term (s X2)2 is so small as hence slip increases. of low also constant.e. load. E2 is linearly in this region. Torque increases constant supply voltage. i) Low slip region : 17 . As no torque is generated at study the nature of torque-slip N = Ns. Hence torque-slip characteristics let neglecting from the us divide the slip range (s = 0 denominator. So as load increases. we get to s = 1) into two parts and analyse them independently. characteristics of the induction At N = Ns . As the induction motor is In low slip region. Due to this. motor stops if it tries to characteristics. Here it can be assumed that the term R22 is very very small Now to judge the nature of as compared to (s X2)2. The curve the slip. load. Due to compared to R22 that it can be the increased. slip is high i. It is very interesting to 0. The torque ultimately depends on slip as explained earlier. 's' is located from no load to full very very small. The behaviour of motor can be Hence in low slip region easily judged by sketching a torque is directly proportional curve obtained by plotting to slip. s = 0 hence T = motor. So we can write slip values. motor has neglected. achieve the synchronous We have seen that for a speed. to s = 0 (at synchronous Hence the graph is straight speed) is called torque-slip line in nature. increasing of induction motor. to produce more torque to satisfy load demand.

So range s = 0 to s = The motor can not continue to sm is called low slip region. torque decreases.e. slip increases and load demand increases but torque also increases linearly. maximum torque. due to extra If load is increased beyond loading effect. motor produces a torque 18 . increases is Tm which occurs But torque must increases at s = sm. which is rectangular 1. So linear behaviour to satisfy the load demand. And range s = sm to s = So torque . operation. start. Hence speed further can produce is also called drops. as load Now when load increases. motor slip acts decreases and slip further dominantly pushing motor into increases. Motor can 2. Straight line called stable hyperbola. called unstable region of operation region of operation. the motor torque decreases as slip can produces as load increases. increases. slip increases. speed decreases. Hence torque .e. Again torque high slip region. So in high slip region Now the obvious question torque is inversely is upto which value of slip. motor decreases as T α1/s hence comes to standstill condition same load acts as an extra at such a load. At s = 1.slip characteristics its nature is like rectangular represents stable operation ? hyperbola. speed further this limit. In to produce a torque. Due to unstable conditions. Eventually motor breakdown torque or pull out comes to standstill condition. Rectangular hyperbola not continue to rotate at any called unstable region of point in this region. rotate at any point in this high known as stable region of slip region. region. In low slip region. Hence this region operation. torque. Hence i. load due to reduction in torque maximum torque which motor produced. As speed Every motor has its own limit decreases. N = 0 i. proportional to the slip. Motor always is called unstable region of operates at a point in this operation. As continues till s = sm.slip 1 is called high slip region characteristics has two parts. The high slip region as T α1/s.

1 Full load torque short duration of time. the current drawn is also continuous operation of motor. load condition allow motor The increases torque demand operation continuously and is satisfied by drawing motor safely from the temperature current from the supply. 19 . But due to high current and hence high temperature rise Fig. which when drawn for The entire torque . 1. within safe limits is called full This is the difference between load condition of motor. if motor is operated for longer time duration in this region i. 1 Torque speed there is possibility of damage characteristics of winding insulation. While region CB The load which motor can is possible to achieve in drive safely while operating practice but only for short continuously and due to such duration of time and not for load. produced increases as speed So region OC upto full decreases and slip increases. But motor can be used to drive loads more than full load.slip continuous operation of motor. point pf view. When the load on the Generally full load torque is motor increases. characteristics is shown in the produces a temperature rise Fig. producing torque upto maximum torque for 1. The interesting thing is that the load on the motor can be increased beyond point C till maximum torque condition. the torque less than the maximum torque.L.called starting torque denoted The safe limit of current is that as Tst. Such a full load point is shown on the torque-slip characteristics torque as TF. When full load torque and the current increases.e. due to heat maximum or breakdown produced the temperature rise. from point C to B. well within the limits.

slip than 1.slip mechanical power output. its 1.e. The motor motoring. This method by which the motor comes to rest is known as plugging. In this region it Thus the negative slip. to that of rotating field. When motor which is the normal running as a generator it takes operation. when 0 ≤s running at a speed above the ≤1.torque. Region negative. 2 Regions of torque . the machine works in characteristics showing the braking mode. Only Fig. The motor comes to quick stop under the influence of counter torque which produces braking action. rotate in other direction To run the induction machine as a generator. stator currents.slip care is taken that the stator characteristics must be disconnected from the Sponsored links : 20 . The negative slip When the slip lies in the indicates that the rotor is region 0 and 1 i. The Fig.2 shows the When the slip is greater complete torque . The rotation of rotor mechanical energy and is in the direction of rotating supplies electrical energy from field which is developed by the stator. torque are in same direction. In practice two of the stator terminals are interchanged which changes the phase sequence which in turn reverses the direction of rotation of magnetic field. The characteristics reverses in this rotor speed and corresponding generating region. generating and the is rotated in opposite direction braking region. takes electrical power from generation action takes place supply lines and supplies and nature of torque . the machine runs as a synchronous speed. The breakdown torque supply to avoid the rotor to is also called stalling torque.2 Generating and Braking slip must be less than zero i.e.

/Tm = (2 terms of comparison of sf sm)/(sm2 + sf2) various torques such as full 1. Tα (s Tst α (E22 R2)/(R22 +( X2)2) E2 R2)/(R2 +(s X2)2) 2 2 While for Tm.L.L. Dividing both numerator Tm α (sm E2 R2)/(R2 +(sf X2 2 2 )2) and denominator by X22 we get..L. s = sm Let sf = Full load slip .1 Starting Torque and load torque. s =1 Torque Ratio In general. X2)2) 1.1 Full load and Maximum Now for Tst. TF.../Tm = (sf x 2 sm2)/(sm x The performance of the motor (sm2+ sf2)) is sometimes expressed in TF.. finding out ratios of these T α (s E22 R2)/(R22 +(s torques. starting torque Maximum Torque Ratio and maximum torque. ratio of any two 21 .Torque Ratios TF. Dividing both numerator and denominator by X22 we Substituting R2/X2 = get. α (sf E22 R2)/(R22 +(sf X2)2) and sm = Slip for maximum torque Tm . The Against starting with comparison is obtained by torque equation as. sm Infact using the same But R2/X2 = sm method.

m. the starting full load torque at a speed of condition. R2 = 0./Tm = (a compare the performance of 2 2 sf )/(a + sf ) induction motor with d.016/0.m.060372 + 0.016 Ω. P = 24. 0.p.L. The ii) Tst/Tm = (2 sm )/(1 + sm2) = characteristics is shown in the 22 . It is achieving its At N = 0. motor produces a 247 r. at standstill. To TF. X2 = 0. Example 1 : A 24 pole.p. an induction motor.torques at two different slip (2 x 0.e. i.060372) = values can be obtained.1203 Sometimes using the Speed Torque Characteristics relation.06037)/(1 + 0.c.265 = 0. Calculate the ratio torque called starting torque.016 Ω per phase and rotor not rotate at synchronous reactance of 0. we have seen ratios are expressed interms of torque .06037 x speed from no load to full load 0. it is 2 (1 + a ) possible to plot speed-torque where a = R2/X2 = sm curve of an induction motor.m. the motor stops star connected induction as it can not produce any motor has rotor resistance of torque.slip characteristics of constant a as. of i) Full load torque to maximum torque ii) starting torque to maximum torque Solution : Given values are. 1 Speed Torque (120x50)/24 = 250 r./Tm = (2 sm sf )/(sm2+ is straight in nature. 50 Hz.0122) is about 4 to 6 %. and Tst/Tm = 2 a/ shunt and series motors. sm = R2/X2 = speeds near the region is 0. Ns = 120f / P = Fig.265 Ω.N)/Ns = (250- 247)/250 = 0. f = 50 Hz. characteristics sf = (Ns . R2 = a X2 the torque Uptill now.012 = Full load slip For low slip region.L.06037 stable and the characteristics i) TF.265 Ω per phase motor.012)/(0. At N = Ts. as induction motor can 0. N = 247 r.p. Fall in sf2) = (2 x 0.

1.1. resistance on torque-slip Let R2' = New rotor characteristics shown in the resistance per phase Fig. Corresponding torque It can be seen that the T' α (s E22 R2' )/√(R2'2 +(s starting torque T'st for R2' is X2)2) more than Tst for R2. rotor resistance . It is shown that in slip ring sm = R2/X2 where induction motor. rotor. externally Tm occurs resistance can be added in the For R2'.c. shunt motor. Due to this. It can be seen from that and the figure that for the stable T'st α (E22 R'2 )/√(R'22 +(X2)2) region of operation. the slip sm' > Let R2 = Rotor resistance sm. but the slip and speed at which Effect of Change in Rotor it occurs depends on R2. As R2' > R2. is added in each phase of rotor The effect of change in rotor through slip rings. The rotor resistance. If now resistance is further Tst α (E22 R2 )/√(R22 +(X2)2) added to rotor to get 23 . Resistance on Torque For R2. we get a new per phase torque-slip characteristics for Corresponding torque. the Maximum characteristics is similar to torque that of d. Let us see the effect of sm' = R2'/X2' where change in rotor resistance on same Tm occurs the torque produced. Due to this. maximum unstable region of operation is torque produced never change shown dotted in the Fig.1. This new characteristics is parallel to T α (s E22 R2)/√(R22 +(s X2)2) the characteristics for with Now externally resistance same but Tm occurring at sm'. Thus by Similarly the starting changing rotor resistance the torque at s = 1 for R2 and starting torque can be R2' can be written as controlled. three phase induction Tm α (E22)/(2X2) motor is practically said to be Key Point : It can be observed 'constant speed' motor as drop that Tm is independent of in speed from no load to full R2 hence whatever may be the load is not significant.Fig.

Solution : It is represented by point A R2 = 0. R2' = X2 = 0. the 50% of maximum torque at maximum torque can be start. 1.04 Ω. So this method is used in practice to achieve higher starting torque hence resistance in rotor is added only at start. 1 Effect of rotor resistance induction motor as in squirrel on torque-slip curves cage due to short circuited rotor.04 Ω and 0..resistance as R2' and so on. Key Point : This is possible only in case of slip type of Fig. i) For Tm = Tst .2 Ω in the Fig. required at start then sm = 1 as Example : Rotor resistance at start slip is always unity. sm = R2'/X2 = If such high resistance is 1 kept permanently in the circuit. achieved at start. it losses (I2 R) and hence can be seen that Tm remains efficiency of the motor will be same but slip at which it very poor. extra rotor resistance If maximum torque Tm is can not be added.2 there will be large copper Let Rex = external 24 . running condition of the motor. . Thus good performance at start and in the running condition is ensured. so and standstill reactance per sm = phase of a 3 phase induction R2/X2 = 1 motor are 0. What should be X2 Condition for getting the external resistance Tst = Tm required at start in rotor circuit Key Point : Thus by adding to obtain.2 Ω R2 = respectively. external resistance to rotor till i) maximum torque at start ii) it becomes equal to X2. Similarly starting torque and finally removed from the also increases to T'st and so rotor circuit. in the normal on. Hence such added occurs increases to sm' and so resistance is cut-off gradually on.. X2 = 0.

frequency hence stator iron 0.22 = 0 steel as the material for stator . Hence rotor iron . Rex = 0. required in the rotor externally Now Tm= (k E22)/(2 X2) to obtain Tst = 0..16 Ω per phase This is much resistance is ii) For Tst = 0.5 Tm. As But R2' can not greater against this in rotor circuit. (k E22 R2')/(R2'2 + The eddy current losses are X22) = 0. Tst = (k classified as core losses and E2 R2')/(R2' + X22) with added 2 2 mechanical losses. frequency is very small which R2' = 0. .04)}/2 2 frequency is always supply ..04 = 0 The iron losses depends .04 = 0..R2 = 0. So i) Constant losses new value of rotor resistance ii) Variable losses is say R2'.5Tm required. .0535 = is slip times the supply R2 + Rex frequency. resistance Core losses occur in stator but Tst = core and rotor core.4 x 0.5 (k E22)/ (2X2) minimised by using laminated . we get losses and hysteresis losses.7464 Ω losses are dominate. the than X2 hence..0535 = 0.. Rex = R2' . and Losses in Induction Motor Tst = (k The various power losses in E22 R2)/(R22 + X22) an induction motor can be But at start.. R2' = 0.0. 0.0535 .0135 Ω . resistance Rex is added... (R2'2) . external classified as.5 Tm. also called iron losses. Rex R2' = R2 + Rex .4 x 0. R2' = {0. per phase 0.8 R2' + and rotor. 0. These Substituting expressions of losses include eddy current Tst and Tm..04 + losses are very small and 25 .. These are 0. (R2'2) .resistance required in rotor. i) Constant losses : R2' = R2 + Rex These can be further .2 .. 4 R2' X2= (R2'2 + construction while hysteresis X 22) losses are minimised by . The stator √(0..2 x selecting high grade silicon R2' + 0...8 ...8 + on the frequency.

. As current changes as load changes as load changes. supplied to the motor can be ii) Variable losses : calculated as. If The friction changes with motor power factor is cos Φ speed but practically the drop and VL. these losses are said to be variable losses. flow in an inductor motor. The rotor losses.hence generally neglected. particular load R2 = Rotor resistance per phase Power Flow in an Induction Motor The rotor is not able to Induction motor converts an convert its entire input to the electrical power supplies to it mechanical as it has to supply into mechanical power... This include the copper losses in stator and rotor winding due to current flowing in the winding. This is called current per phase at a rotor input denoted as P2. then net electrical be the part of constant losses... condition. The mechanical losses The three phase supply include frictional losses at the given to the stator is the net bearings and windings losses. in conversion is called power the running condition. This is nothing but the Generally stator iron stator input.Analysed separately gap with the help of rotating where I2r = Rotor magnetic field. The remaining power is Rotor copper loss = 3 delivered to the rotor 2 I2r R2 magnetically through the air . losses are combined with The part of this power is stator copper losses at a utilised to supply the losses in particular load to specify total the stator which are stator stator losses at particular load core as well as copper losses. electrical input to the motor. The rotor losses various stages in this are dominantly copper losses 26 . IL are line values of in speed is very small hence supply voltage and current these losses are assumed to drawn.

specified in terms of value of Pout when load condition is full load condition. After supplying these losses. And finally the power is = Pm / P2 available to the load at the shaft. motor diagram we can define. Fig. resistance per phase. So rotor losses are rotor copper losses denoted The rating of the motor is as Pc. tries to deliver to the load connected to the shaft. This is also called shaft power.as rotor iron losses are very small and hence generally neglected. But during this mechanical transmission. The above stages can be shown diagrammatically called where I2r = Rotor current power flow diagram of an per phase in running condition induction motor. 1 Power flow diagram From the power flow Now this power. This is called net output of the motor denoted as Pout. part of Pm is utilised to provide mechanical losses like friction and windage. R2 = Rotor This is shown in the Fig. the remaining part of P2 is converted into mechanical which is called gross mechanical power developed by the motor denoted as Pm.1. 27 .

...m...N) and ω = angular = rotor copper loss speed ... and Pm and torque T...p.p...s)P2 = Pm (2πNs)/60 where Ns is in Thus gross mechanical r.. ωs as.Pm = T P=Txω x (2πNs/60) ..sP2 = Pm P2 = T x (1 . Pc = P 2 .T x (2πN/60) where P = Power Pc = T x (2π/60)(Ns . N Dividing (3) by (1). s. Let us derive this Pm= T x ω relationship..N)/Ns = speed Ns...... where ω = (2πN)/60 Let T = Gross torque Pm = T x (2πN)/60 ....(3) = (2πN)/60 .s) The rotor tries to deliver times the rotor input this torque to the load. mechanical power developed 28 .(2) developed by motor in N-m. input.. = speed in r.. Now input to the rotor P2 is from stator side through rotating magnetic field which is rotating at synchronous Pc/P2 = s as (Ns .. .(1) power developed is (1 .. Pc.m.. P2 = T x ωs Now P2 . So from output side copper loss Pc and gross Pm and T can be related mechanical power developed through angular speed ω and Pm are related through the slip not ωs. rotor not Ns. slip s So torque developed by the Rotor copper loss Pc = s x rotor can be expressed Rotor input P2 interms of power input and Thus total rotor copper angular speed at which power loss is slip times the rotor is inputted i.Pc = P m where ωs = (2πNs)/60 rad/sec P2 ..e.. The difference between We know that the torque P2 and Pm is rotor copper loss and power are related by the P c.. But rotor Pm gives output at speed N and The rotor input P2. relation... So The relationship can be rotor output is gross expressed in the ratio from as.Relation between P2.

same as the ratio of Pc = 3 x I2r2 x R2 corresponding two sides on but I2r = (s E2)/√(R22 +(s the right hand side. The ratio of any two The rotor copper losses quantities on left hand side is can be expressed as.1 Derivation of k in Torque Equation We have seen earlier that T = (k s but Ns/60 = ns in 29 . The load torque is net output torque called shaft torque or useful torque and is denoted as Tsh. It is related to Poutas. X2)2). E22 R2)/(R22 +(s X2)2) and it mentioned that k = 3/(2π ns) . Now as per P2 : Pc : Key Point : The torque Pm is 1 : s : 1-s . Let us see its proof. and Tsh < T due to mechanical losses. hence substituting above This relationship is very important and very frequently required to solve the problems on the power flow diagram. Now N = Ns (1-s) from definition of slip. produced by rotor is gross Pc/Pm = s/(1-s) mechanical torque and due to Now Pm = T x ω mechanical losses entire = T x (2πN/60) torque can not be available to drive load. substituting in above. 1.

secondary when induction efficiency attains its maximum 30 . Thus increases. When such variable stator acts as a primary while losses achieve the same value the rotor acts as a rotating as that of constant losses. Comparing the two torque Hence the nature of the curve equations we can write. value. current increases entirely with the help of a flux so copper losses also mutually linking the two.m. Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor : Part 1 We have already seen that the induction motor can be treated as generalized transformer. The energy transfer motor is small. of efficiency against output power of the motor is shown in the Fig. becomes greater than constant losses hence deviating from condition for maximum. current drawn by the principle. variable losses above equation. 1. The induction motor losses.r. efficiency starts decreasing. As load induction motor takes place increases. 1 Efficiency curve for an overall efficiency of an induction motor induction motor. If load is increased So substituting in the further. When motor is on no also works on the same load.p. The maximum efficiency Transformer works on the occurs when variable losses principle of electromagnetic becomes equal to constant induction. Efficiency of an Induction Motor The ratio of net power available at the shaft (Pout) and the net electrical power input (Pin) to the motor is called as Fig. Hence from stator to rotor of the efficiency is low.

condition per phase Ro = Representing R2 = Rotor no load losses = V1 /Ic resistance per phase and Xo = Representing X2r = Rotor flux set up = V1/Im reactance per phase in running Thus.m. Ic = Active component which e.f. E2 = Rotor induced e.f.m. 1 Induction motor as a Thus if V1 is the supply transformer voltage per phase to stator. 1. 2. per phase on standstill k = Rotor turns / Stator turns then k = E 2/ E 1 Fig. in rotor becomes air gap E2r which is s E2. it draws a current with both stator and rotor. Īo = Ī c + Ī m condition The equivalent circuit of R1 = Stator induction motor thus can be resistance per phase represented as shown in the X1 = Stator Fig.m. in running branch as. reactance per phase So induction motor can be represented as a transformer as shown in the Fig. These two currents give us Now E2r = Rotor the elements of an exciting induced e. it When induction motor is produces the flux which links on no load. Due from the supply to produce the to self induction E1.m.f. in stator per iron losses. at standstill.f.motor is treated as a tranformer. is the flux in air gap and to supply induced e. Im = Magnetizing component running condition the induced which sets up flux in core and e. phase while E2 is the induced 1.m. in rotor due to mutual supplies no load losses induction. In 2. 31 .f. If E1 = Induced voltage in stator per phase.

So it is Reflected rotor resistance 32 . 3 Rotor equivalent circuit shown variable. = E2r /Z2r = (s So rotor equivalent circuit E2)/√(R2 +(s X2) ) 2 2 can be shown as. running condition has fixed Equivalent circuit referred reactance X2. It is important to note that as load on the motor changes. Hence X2r = sX2 is Fig. E2 )/√(R22 +(s X2)2) 1. mechanical load on the motor I2r = Rotor current is represented by the pure in running condition resistance of value R2(1 -s)/s.s)/s which represents R2' = R2/K2 = load resistance RL. Thus slip changes. Rotor resistance R2 itself X2' = X2/K2 = which represents copper loss. Fig. the motor speed changes. I2r = (sE2)/√(R2 +(s X2) ) = 2 2 E2 /√((R2/s)2 + X22) So it can be assumed that Now let us obtain equivalent equivalent rotor circuit in the circuit referred to stator side. As slip changes the reactance X2r changes. are shown separated by an air Key Point : Thus the gap. Representing of rotor impedance : It is shown that. as indicated in the above parameters to stator.R2 E 2' = E 2/ k The rotor current has its reflected component on the stator side which is I2r'. So the variable rotor I2r' = k I2r = (k s resistance R2/s has two parts. k = E2/E1 = Now R2/s = R2 + Transformation ratio (R2/s) . equation. fixed voltage to stator : E2 but a variable resistance Transfer all the rotor R2/s. 2 Basic equivalent circuit electrical equivalent of The stator and rotor sides mechanical load on the motor. Reflected rotor reactance 2. R2(1 .

4 R2' while reactance X1 and X2' can be combined.1 Approximate Equivalent . Hence Fig.5. reactance referred to stator = The resistance R2' (1 -s)/ s X 1 + X 2' = RL' is fictitious resistance R1e = R1 + (R2/K2) representing the mechanical and X1e = X1 + (X2/K2) load on the motor.. 5 Approximate equivalent So equivalent circuit circuit referred to stator can be Now the resistance R1 and shown as in the Fig. Fig. While Ī1 = Īo + Ī2r' 1. R1e = Equivalent resistance referred to stator = Fig.. 6. Due to this.. modified by shifting the exciting current (Ro and Xo) purely across the supply. The circuit is shown in the Power Equations from Fig. we can 33 ... 4 Equivalent circuit referred R1 + R2' to stator X1e = Equivalent . to the left of R1 and X1. So we get.. 6 the circuit is called approximate equivalent circuit. Equivalent Circuit With reference to approximate equivalent circuit shown in the Fig. we are neglecting the drop across R1 and X1 due to Io... RL' = RL/K2 = (R2/K2)(1-s / s) = R2' (1-s / s) Thus RL' is reflected mechanical load on stator.phasor diagram Circuit and Īo = Ī c + Ī m Similar to the transformer Thus the equivalent circuit the equivalent circuit can be can be shown in the Fig.6. which is very small.

write various power equations as.7 loss = 3 I2r'2 R2' In this circuit. Pout per phase is.. so substituting in above 34 .. ZT = (R1e + T = Torque RL')+ where RL' = R2' (1- developed s)/s I1 = V1 /√((R1e + RL')2 +(X1e)2) The power supplied to the load i. I1 Ro Equivalent Circuit of Induction where R1 = Stator Motor : Part 2 resistance per phase 1. Per phase where N = Speed of Pout = I12 RL' watts per phase motor . I1 = I2r' The total impedance is given by.3 Maximum Power Output P2 = Rotor input = 2 Consider the approximate (3 I2r' R2')/s equivalent circuit as shown in Pc = Rotor copper the Fig. .. the exciting Thus Pc = s P 2 current Io is neglected hence Pm = Gross the exciting no load branch is mechanical power developed not shown. Pin = input power = 3 V1 I1 cos Φ where V1 = Stator voltage and I2r' = V1 /(( R1e + per phase RL') + j X1e ) I1 = Current drawn where RL' = R2' (1-s)/s by stator per phase I2r' = V1/√(( R1e + cos Φ = Power RL')2 + X1e2 ) factor of stator Key Point : Remember that in Stator core loss = Im2 Ro all the above formula all the Stator copper loss = 3 2 values per phase values.. Total = 3 I12 RL' But N = Ns (1-s) =.e.

respect to variable RL' and .. This is slip at maximum output. Z1e2 = RL'2 Thus the mechanical load on the induction motor should 1.. 35 . Expression for maximum Pout : To obtain maximum output Using the condition obtained power. maximum torque. . In the RL' = Z1e = R2'(1-s)/s previous section we have seen where RL' = R2/K2 the condition for maximum . we equation of total Pout with can get maximum Pout.4 Maximum Torque be such that the equivalent In case of induction motor.sR2' power output. (Pout)max = 3 equal to zero.. load resistance referred to the speed of the motor stator is equal to the total decreases with increase in leakage impedance of motor load.. 2 I1 Z1e as RL' = Z1e But R1e2 + X1e2 = Z1e But Z1e = √(R1e2 +X1e2) = Leakage impedance referred to stator .. The expression for torque is given by... In this section . power output is not obtained Slip at maximum Pout : This at a slip which corresponds to can be obtained as. differentiate the in expression of total Pout . s(Z1e + R2') = R2' we will find the condition which gives maximum torque. Thus the maximum referred to stator. s Z1e = R2' .

The condition for maximum torque can be obtained from maximum power transfer theorem. 8 power transfer to the resistor R2'/s. The mechanical torque developed by rotor is maximum if there is maximum Fig. 8. 36 . reduced as shown below. This takes place when The value of Ro is R2'/s equals to impedance assumed to be negligible.10 across the terminals x and y. The circuit for the above network is maximum torque is given by. looking back into the supply Hence the circuit will be source. Fig. 10 shown in The Fig. When 2 I2r' R2'/s is maximum consider the approximate equivalent circuit of induction motor as Fig. shown in the Fig. 9 This is the slip corresponding to the The thevenin's equivalent maximum torque.

Key Point : Unit synchronous watt can be defined as the torque developed by the motor such that the power input to the rotor across the air gap is 1 W while running at synchronous speed. Thus torque is directly proportional to the rotor input. From the above See part 1 expression.5 Synchronous Watt Induction Regulator : The torque produced in the Introduction induction motor is given by. T= P2 synchronous-watts If torque is given in synchronous-watts then it can be obtained in N-m as. They are also used 37 . In generating station or substations. Induction Motor 1. a constant voltage under varying load conditions can be maintained with the help of induction regulators. By defining new unit of torque which is synchronous watt we can write. it can be seen that the maximum torque is Downloads independent of rotor Solved Examples on 3-ph resistance. Substituting.

The constructional flux links with both primary features of three phase and secondary. the supply voltage based on Still by finding electrical the relative angular positions equivalent of mechanical load of the primary and secondary on the motor. 38 .f. induction regulators are There is self induced e. The induction regulator is Phasor Diagram of Induction a special type of transformer in Motor which the axes of primary and The phasor diagram of loaded secondary windings can be induction motor is similar to rotated with respect to each the loaded transformer.m. Thus stationary and connected to the induced voltage in the load.f. supply while secondary of induction motor the secondary winding is is rotating and short circuited connected in series with the while transformer secondary is outgoing side of the line.for varying the voltage of an arranged vertically and a. required to be rotated X1 = Stator reactance continuously as in case of per phase motoring operation. the shaft is balance self induced e. diagram of induction motor The induction regulators can be developed. The primary winding is only difference is the excited by a.c. the phasor windings. similar to that of three phase E1 in the stator while a induction regulators are mutually induced e. For The stator voltage per convenience and simplicity in phase V1 has to counter operation.c. pitch.m. The load on induction secondary winding is either motor is mechanical while load added to or subtracted from on transformer is electrical. are either single phase or three Let Φ = Magnetic phase type.f.m. supply. The other. But the rotor is not per phase. It performs the brought out to a pinion or gear function of independent wheel engaging with a worm voltage regulation which which enables to adjustment compensates for various of rotor position over a pole drops in the line. E2r in similar to that of three phase the rotor. slip ring type induction Let R1 = Stator resistance motors.

total stator current drawn from The phasor diagram is supply is.m. The rotor current in the 7. From tip of . stator side we can write. The Φ1. Add Io and I2r' to get I1. The induced voltage E1 lags Φ by 90o. angle Φ2r. I1 R1 in phase with I1 and I2r' = K I2r I1X1 at 90o leading to I1 to V1 get The induction motor draws phasor.E1 phasor. I2r' on stator side is the effect 9. Takes Φ as reference phasor. 2. stator turns. 1. no load current Io which is 10.f. So on diagram are.E1 and has to supply voltage The steps to draw phasor drops I1 R1 and I1 X1. 6. The rotor induced e. Reverse I2r to get I2r'. 5.E1 by reversing the running condition has to voltage phasor. shown in the Fig. Add Im and Ic lags E2r by rotor p. Show I2r R2 in phase with I2r and I2r X2r leading the The value of E2r depends resistive drop by 90o. 1. Show . supply the drop across 4. E1 direction by Φ2r. E2r i. So I2r show lagging circuited. 39 . The phasor E2r is in phase impedances as rotor short with E1. to get Io.e. Angle between V1 and I1 is phasor sum of Ic and Im. Thus using all above relations the phasor diagram of induction motor on load can be obtained. The reflected rotor current 8. to get on the ratio of rotor turns to exact location of. add of load and is given by. Im is in phase with Φ while Ic running condition is I2r which is at leading with. Ī1 = Īo + Ī2r' The Φ1 is angle between V1 and I1 and cos Φ1 gives the power factor of the induction motor.f. in 3.

1 is obtained when the space distribution of flux wave along the air gap periphery is sinusoidal. the torque-slip characteristic is not smooth.m. If carry out analysis of stator m. Hence at low speeds.f. But the air gap flux is not purely sinusoidal as it contains odd harmonics (5th. But slot harmonics . unwanted torque are predominant hence it is not developed along with vibration considered here. The distribution of stator Fig. 1 On load phasor diagram winding and variation of air of induction motor gap reluctance due to stator Effect of harmonics on and rotor slots are main Performance of 3-ph Induction causes of air gap flux Motor harmonics. and noise. is not sinusoidal as stator winding has the number of slots not more than 3 to 4 per phase. Fig. 1 Torque speed characteristics The torque-slip characteristics as shown in Fig. with the help of Fourier series it can be seen that in addition to 40 .f.m. Now eventhough stator currents are sinusoidal. 7th. Due to these its effect on the performance harmonics produced in air gap of the motor is not flux. the stator m. 11th etc). The induction motor The harmonics caused due performance is affected by the to variation of air gap harmonics in the time variation reluctance are called tooth or of the impressed voltage.

The speed of rotor flux which rotates at 2f1/5P = field in space is thus given by ns/5 rps and in direction sum of these speeds opposite to the fundamental sns + n = mmf wave.1 where m is any direction opposite to direction integer. wave torque existing at any produces flux which rotates at mechanical speed n other than 1/K times the fundamental synchronous speed is called speed and in the direction of synchronous torque. zero relative speed between The third harmonic flux stator and rotor fields. wave.f.m. But there is f1 is supply frequency and P is mechanical rotation of rotor at number of poles. This waves produced by each of the fact can be explained as three phases neutralize each follows : other as it differs in time phase When rotor is revolving in by 120o.fundamental wave it contains induction motor is because of odd harmonics m. The frequency of rotor currents is fundamental mmf wave sf1 and the rotor field produced produces flux which rotates at will have speed of sns rpm with synchronous speed which respect to rotor in the forward given as ns = 2f1/P rps where direction.m. The seven sns + ns(1-s) = ns harmonic mmf produces flux The stator and rotor fields which rotates at ns/7 rps and in are thus stationary with the direction of fundamental respect to each other which m. waves. The most important of rotor.f. The electromagnetic torque that is developed in the 41 .f. Therefore slip of rotor and predominant harmonics with respect to fifth harmonic whose effects must be studied field speed is are 5th and 7th harmonics. the and its multiplies. Similarly fifth n rpm which is superimposed harmonic mmf wave produces on this. This harmonic m. fundamental wave if K = 6m + 1 The fifth harmonic field and in the reversed direction if rotates at ns/5 rps and in a K = 6m .m. produces a steady torque Thus it can be seen that maintaining the rotation. Thus air gap flux does the same direction of rotation not contain third harmonics as the stator field.

series having poles equal to 5s) x f1 number of harmonics Now speed of fifth multiplied by number of poles.1 Crawling equal and relative speed As fifth harmonic field between the two is zero. 2 Presence of harmonics that speed of fifth harmonic stator field and rotor field is 1. opposite to the rotor. The rotating field is induction motor can be f2 fifth harmonic = s5 x considered as equivalent to Stator frequency number of induction motors in = (6 . speed of fifth harmonic rotor field with respect to stator Negative sign is used before ns/5 (6 . Thus rotates opposite to the rotor it produces 5thharmonic rotation. The Thus each space harmonic can frequency of rotor currents be considered to produces its induced by fifth harmonic own asynchronous torque. harmonic rotor field with The torque produced by respect to rotor is given by fundamental component and the harmonic are shown in the Fig. the torque produced by fifth harmonic opposes 42 . Similar analysis can be made on 7th harmonic to show Here -ns/5 represents fifth 7th harmonic torque produced harmonic field rotating similar to fundamental one. induction motor torque similar to torque produced by fundamental component. Now.5s) which indicates 5th harmonic field rotates opposite to rotor movement. 2. Thus it can be seen Fig.

slot harmonics is called ns/5 rps while seventh synchronous crawling which is harmonic torque is zero at associated with vibration and +ns/7. of same order one because of The seventh harmonic field stator and the rotor because of rotates in the direction of rotor rotor interact with each other rotation. space will have pronounced This is called crawling or effect producing strong forces synchronous crawling. If speed. Thus stable slots S2 then variation of operation is obtained near reluctance as a function of sub-synchronous speed ns/7. The cogging. The load torque is number of stator slots S1 are shown in figure. The induction motor during slip near s =6/7 is more starting for certain important as torque here combinations of number of decreases with increase in stator and rotor slots. The fifth synchronous speed caused by harmonic torque is zero at . 43 . motor. 2 which shows the motor. the torque produced at one particular speed and by seventh harmonic aids the produces harmonic fundamental torque. Due to than the accelerating torque.2 shown by squirrel cage and other near slip 6/7. These torques are addition of fundamental. crawling there is much higher Due to this motor fails to start. Such combination of torque obtained from induction stator and rotor slots should motor here is called be avoided while designing the synchronous called. harmonic and seventh The stable operation at harmonic torque. noise.fundamental torque and it acts When two harmonic fluxes as braking torque on motor.2 Cogging can be seen in the resultant A special behaviour is torque. stator current accompanied by This phenomenon is called noise and vibration. The synchronous torque just like resultant torque is shown in that produced in synchronous the Fig. one is near the slip 1. fifth caused by tooth harmonics. The rotor will equal to number of rotor slots run at ns/7 with X as the S2 or integral multiple of rotor operating point. There are two dips which 1.

order 2S2/P ± 1 to develope the Similarly. 44 . produces forward rotating field. The harmonics of order 11 The torque speed produce backward rotating characteristic with harmonic field for both stator and rotor. 2 Cogging As the harmonic field due to 11th harmonic rotates The stator slot harmonics backward with respect to of order 2S1/P ±1 may interact stator hence negative sign is with rotor slot harmonics of used for ns/11. synchronous torque as ns/7 is The harmonics of order 13 shown in the Fig.(ns-nr / 11) = -ns/11 nr = 0 Fig. This is called cogging. The 11th and harmonic field rotation in the 13th harmonic fields produced direction of rotor. The stator-slotting respect to each other when produces its tooth harmonics = (ns-nr / 13) + nr = of order 2S1/P ±1 whereas the ns/13 rotor-slotting produces its nr = 0 tooth harmonics of order 2S1/P Hence it can be seen that ±1 where S1 and S2 are number harmonic synchronous torque of stator and rotor slots. by stator and rotor and Here S1 = S2 so stator and stationary with respect to each rotor slot harmonics are same other. for 13th harmonic harmonic synchronous produced by stator and rotor torques. The two harmonics fields of same order say th 11 harmonic would be stationary with respect to each other only when nr .3. The harmonic and given by. synchronous torque is Let P=4 produced at zero rotor speed (2x24/ 4) ± 1 = 11 and the motor will remain at or 23 rest. Let the slots of stator and would be stationary with rotor be 24. The is produced at zero rotor plus sign refers to the speed.

This is called cogging. And 2S1/P -1 = 2S2/P + 1 Hence it can be seen that S1-S1 = P harmonic synchronous torque It can be thus seen that if is produced at zero rotor S1 = S2 or S1-S2 = P then speed. resistance in rotor circuit.S2 = P then be avoided but can be reduced cogging will be definately by proper choice of coil span observed in the induction and by skewing the stator or motor.S 1= P conditions. crawling is observed then it The stator slot harmonics can be overcome by applying a of order 2S1/P ±1 may interact sudden external torque to the with rotor slot harmonics of driven load in the direction of order 2S1/P ±1 to develope the rotor. rotor slots.3. The cogging and crawling Key Point : The synchronous is not predominately in slip harmonics torques can be ring induction motor as these totally eliminated by proper motors are started with higher 45 . The harmonic is not predominately in slip synchronous torque is ring induction motor as these produced at zero rotor speed motors are started with higher and the motor will remain at starting torques with external rest. also decreases (Tα V12). The torque speed The crawling effect can be characteristics with harmonic reduced by taking proper car synchronous torque as ns/7 is during the design. 2S1/P + 1 = 2S2/P + 1 combination of stator and S1 = S 2 rotor slots. Still if shown in the Fig. stationary with respect to each The cogging and crawling other. If there is reduction in harmonic synchronous supply voltage then torque torques. Thus It can be thus seen that if asynchronous torques can not S1= S2 or S1 . Hence 2S1/P +1 = 2S2/P +1 asynchronous crawling may S1 = S 2 be observed which is absent And 2S1/p -1 = 2S2/P +1 under rated voltage S 1 .. The 11th and cogging will be definately 13th harmonic fields produced observed in the induction by stator and rotor and motor.

has high starting current and Key Point : The synchronous consequently low starting harmonics torques can be torque. less can be overcome by applying a losses and high efficiency. In case of slip ring induction Thus the designer had found motor an external resistance different ways of improving the can be added in the rotor starting performance of the circuit during starting which motor without affecting the gives higher starting torque running performance of the and lower starting line current motor. speed. With lower during the design. Hence resistance at normal operating asynchronous crawling may speed. observed which is absent In case of squirrel cage under rated voltage induction motor there is no conditions. at an improved power factor. In squirrel cage induction This resistance is then motor high starting torque can gradually cut from the rotor be obtained by the use of deep circuit which would otherwise bar or double cafe rotors. sudden external torque to the This is the major advantage of driven load in the direction of slip ring induction motor that it rotor. Still if rotor resistance it gives crawling is observed then it constant speed. Thus provision made for adding asynchronous torques can not external resistance. low slip.starting torques with external result in decrease of full load resistance in rotor circuit. poor speed regulation. This is major totally eliminated by proper disadvantage of squirrel cage combination of stator and induction motor although it is rotor slots. having the other qualities of Special Rotor Constructions low cost. If there is reduction of in gives high rotor resistance at supply voltage then torque starting and low rotor also decreases (Tα V12). ruggedness and and Applications maintenance free operation. Both 46 . If the be avoided but can be reduced resistance is designed in such by proper choice of coil span a way that it gives better and by skewing the stator or running performance then it rotor slots. The crawling effect can be more rotor losses and hence reduced by taking proper care reduced efficiency.

During distribution of current is not starting it gives high uniform but the alternating resistance whereas it gives current has the tendency to low resistance during running concentrate near the surface condition which is desirable. be considered to be make up 1. The strands in proximity of the rotor consists of deep bars. The inductance of difference between stator of each strand will vary deep bar motor and that of according to the position. 1(a). While bottom layers are shown in the under running condition the Fig. Due to this Thus the variation in rotor effect.these types of rotors make use the rotor resistance as it of skin effect in which depends on skin effect. The effects depends upon nature magnetic leakage flux lines are of material. The current flows near the surface other rotor bar shapes are of the conductor. The ordinary induction motor. use of skin effect The solid conductor can phenomenon. of the conductor. diameter of wire. the alternating shown in the Fig.1 Deep Bar Rotor of large number of strands Construction each carrying a small part of There is no constructional current. frequency of rotor current reduces to slip frequency. 1. The inductance than near the deep and narrow rotor bar of surface. consider that the bar consists Thus the current in the of many number of layers of rotor during starting is having different depths. This variation in frequency changes 47 . Both these when carrying alternating types of construction make current. Now shape of wire and frequency. The top and the frequency of supply. 1(b). shown by dotted lines. effective area of cross resistance can be achieved by section of the conductor is deep bar or double cage reduced and hence resistance construction of rotor and of the conductor is increased induction motor. The skin shown in the Fig. centre are surrounded greater short circuited by two end magnetic flux and has greater rings one on each side. Due to high reactance rectangular cross section is at the centre.

2 The leakage inductance of shows a curve indicating a. Thus there is non-uniform distribution of current which is shown in the Fig.c.c. reactance lower strip and the current will be forced towards the top of the slot and phase of current in upper strip will lead that of the current in lower one. 1. The top strip has low leakage reactance and current in it is large. and use to skin effect. the bottom strips is greater effective resistance to d. Due to this non-uniform distribution of current. effective are of cross section decreases. During starting the rotor frequency is equal to the stator frequency and hence leakage reactance of bottom strip is largest and current in it is least. Thus the current in low reactance top strip will be greater than that in high 48 . the non-uniform distribution of current depends upon the Fig. As leakage reactance is proportional to frequency. The skin effect is strips are in parallel maximum when rotor is at electrically. All the 2. than that of top strips as more resistance with change in flux links with bottom strip frequency for a copper bar of compared to top strip. The Fig.5 cm deep. 1 Deep bar rotor rotor frequency. The bottom strip standstill. has greater leakage inductance than the top strip. Hence rotor resistance increases resulting i high starting torque.

the breakdown or pull The stator of double cage out torque in deep bar rotor is rotor induction motor is same lower. During decreases. motor and normal induction motor is shown in the Fig. its running performance. 2 to deep bar rotor also wherein With the increase in rotor proper value of r2' and x2' must speed. design.2 Double Cage Rotor d. The reactances of starting their values should different strips at this low correspond to effective value frequency become almost at stator frequency.c.c. The torque-slip as that of ordinary induction characteristics of deep bar motor whereas its rotor 49 . the rotor frequency be determined for satisfactory decreases and skin effect also running performance. resistance is equal to 1. Thus with deep Construction bar rotor has a low starting This is another way of current with high starting obtaining improved starting torque without affecting performance without affecting running performance of motor. Fig. The net reactance of deep bar Though it is more expensive it rotor at standstill is higher gives better performance than than that in a normal bar deep bar rotor construction. resistance.3. During equal and the current density running their values should over the conductor cross correspond to their effective section becomes uniform so values at low rotor frequency. 3 Torque slip characteristics of deep bar rotor The equivalent circuit of induction motor is applicable Fig. its a.

The dimension of air sectional area than the lower construction controls the self cage. bronze etc. Similar to deep bar rotor having lower leakage construction the rotor bars in impedance. 4 for the double cage current flows in upper cage rotor. bars in the lower cages which and the lower cage is made up will not contribute to of low resistance material like production of torque in that copper. 4 Double cage rotor of lower cage is very high and construction consequently its leakage impedance is several times greater than that of upper cage The slot leakage flux whose leakage reactance is pattern is also shown in the small. the upper cage is having leakage flux linking upper and higher resistance than that of lower bars. The upper cage 50 . If air constriction lower cage. whereas the lower cage has low resistance and high reactance. Hence it can be seen that lower cage are separated by a the upper cage has high narrow slit or constriction. resistance and low reactance This is shown in the Fig. aluminium.consists of two cages or two the upper cage have less layers of bars short circuited leakage flux linkage and by end rings since the upper therefor has lower reactance. cage is having smaller cross. At the time of starting the leakage reactance Fig. 4. With equal cross would have been absent then sectional areas of two cages the main flux would return via the upper cage is made up of iron path between the two high resistance material like slots and thereby missing the brass. Hence most rotor Fig. The upper cage and case. During starting the rotor frequency is same as stator frequency or supply frequency. The division of rotor current in upper and lower cage is inversely proportional to their leakage impedances.

construction is also shown.having high resistance sharing the rotor current results in low starting current at improved power factor giving high starting torque. When rotor speeds up. Though The torque-slip the two cages are somewhat characteristics of double cage coupled magnetically. 7. At of double cage induction motor normal operating speed the reactance difference between Another type of double the two cages is negligibly cage rotor construction is also small. shown in the Fig. It can be noted that starting current is confined Fig. The two cages are assumed to be parallel while drawing the equivalent circuit. they can induction motor are shown in be treated as independent for the Fig. The slot-leakage flux mainly decided by the pattern for this type of resistances of the two cages. 51 . 5 Torque slip characteristics reactance of lower cage. the rotor frequency decreases which decreases the leakage Fig. Hence the division of possible which is shown in the rotor current in this case is Fig. 6 mainly with upper cage so if there is frequent starting of The approximate motor then it would cause equivalent circuit of double overheating and buring of cage rotor induction motor is upper cage. 5. 6. simplicity and it gives approximately same results. As resistance of upper cage is very high most of the current flows through the lower cage giving excellent operating characteristics under running condition.

lathe machines. hoists. The rotation of rotor 2. cage induction motor Hence they are preferred for lifts. blowers. 8 Equivalent circuit of double as high as maximum torque. 1. when 0 ≤ s ≤1. 1 When the slip lies in the region 0 and 1 i. I2ru' and I2r' are the compressor. driving fans. cranes. 1. In this region it torque and constant speed takes electrical power from characteristics preferred for supply lines and supplies 52 . printing machines. elevators. currents in the upper and lower cages respectively Induction Generator : Part1 referred to the stator R2u'and The torque-slip or the torque- R2e' are the resistance of upper speed characteristics of the and lower cages referred to the induction motor are shown in stator whereas and are leakage the Fig. Application is in the direction of rotating i) Squirrel cage type of motors field which is developed by having moderate starting stator currents. water pumps. drilling machines. grinders.e. the machines runs as a motor which is the normal See examples operation. ii) Slip ring induction motors can have high starting torque Fig. The operating mode reactances of the two cages of induction machine as a referred to the stator of the generator or motor or braking motor. depends on value of slip s.3 Comparison of Single Cage and Double Cage Motors Fig.

operating as a motor. The rotor negative.mechanical power output. As the speed of that of motor with the induction generator is not in difference that the direction of synchronism with the line rotation of the motor and a 53 . running at a speed above the currents are induced in the synchronous speed. In runs as a generator called practice two of the stator induction generator.e. than 1. The magnetic field revolving at motor comes to quick stop synchronous speed. the induction motor that of rotating field. care is taken that the stator When rotor of induction must be disconnected from the machine is driven above supply to avoid the rotor in synchronous speed. mechanical energy and The construction of supplies electrical energy from induction generator is same as the stator. The frequency. This method by stator is disconnected from which the motor comes to rest the supply. it is often called rotor speed and corresponding asynchronous generator. Only action will not take place. the machines works in when the induction motor runs braking mode. the generating is known as plugging. When stator and the induction motor running as a generator it takes can be runs as a generator. indicates that the rotor is Due to the transformer action. the rotor other direction. Thus when the slip of the When the slip is greater induction motor is negative i.e. The motor is faster than synchronous rotated in opposite direction to speed. its direction to that when it is slip must be less than zero i. conductors cut the flux of To run the induction rotating field in opposite machines as a generator. The negative slip currents are also reversed. When under the influence of counter rotor is rotated above torque which produces synchronous speed and the braking action. torque are in same direction. terminals are interchanged The stator of induction which changes the phase generator must be connected sequence which in turn to a voltage source to produce reverses the direction of the necessary rotating rotation of magnetic field.

The core losses are supplied into two components. Thus so that machine takes current I2r decreases. phasor sum of no load current Hence its opposite current Io and I2r' which is opposite of I2r' also vanished and the I2r and referred as reflected resultant stator current is rotor current in stator. rotor of induction motor slip Let us consider the speed goes om reducing and hence of the induction machine is the rotor current also as it less than synchronous speed depends on it. The nothing but the no load current rotor current can be resolved . of on load. Let the real part of above current be denoted by A while the imaginary part of the current be denoted by B. At synchronous I1 from supply.jB. component.e. The action of induction The rotor current I2r is machine as a generator can be given by. Thus the total rotor current I2r be assumed as A. Fig. This current I1 is speed.generator is opposite for the other one is quadrature same current direction. explained from the phasor diagram. 2 Now let the speed of the induction machine is Consider the phasor increased. Rationalizing the denominator we get. With increase in diagram of the induction motor speed of prime mover i. one in from line whereas friction and phase with rotor emf and the 54 . it completely vanishes.

windage losses are supplied mechanically. 2. The current supplied by the generator will be then vector sum of Io and I2r' which Fig.E2r which is opposite given by of E2r. At zero power factor no power is interchanged between machine and supply lines. it It can be seen that the in is supplying the power. But the machine generates power to meet its core losses. The machine is said to be operating in generating mode. Thus phase component reverses when the rotor is rotated while the quadrature above synchronous speed component remains in the with the rotating field same direction. direction which results in reversal of rotor emf. 55 .e. remaining in the same The phasor diagram of direction. I2r = .. 2 is reversed in phase as indicated in the phasor diagram. The current I2r leads the The rotor current is now voltage . current and torque. When the speed is increased further the machines enters in generating region. then the direction of induction machine as cutting of rotor is in opposite generator is shown in Fig. the current I2rincreases in magnitude but it changes the phase.A . The angle between V1 and I1 is more than which shows that electrical power of .jB the machine is negative i.. When the speed is increased.

3.c. current Is is subtracted vectorially from IL (subtracting vectorially means reversing Is and adding it with IL ). but vector sum of Ic and Im. supply. Fig. The speed of the Consider an example of a induction generator is load which requires a lagging adjusted in such a way that it current which can not be supplies current Ic which is supplied by induction leading one. For this generator. But this current The synchronous requirement is fulfilled with the generator which is in parallel help of synchronous with the induction generator generators operating in must supply the remaining parallel with induction part of load current. The induction generator alone as it supplies generator current Is is nothing leading current. 3 the other quadrature component Ie. Thus it must be always connected to an a. The synchronous generator supplies no power. The total current supplied by 56 . This current is nothing but algebraic sum of currents Ic and Ie. Consider the the induction generator following phasor diagram. Generally it is operated in parallel with synchronous machines. 4 The load current IL can be resolved into two components one in phase component Im and Fig. It is shown in the Fig. The induction generator is not self excited as it can not generates its own exciting current.

The speed varies as follows : with load as the load is proportional to slip. induction The distinct features of generators are not rotating at a induction generator compared definite speed at a given to synchronous generators are frequency. source is not required in this 1. generator is same as the If the load requires a frequency of the line to which leading current then it is connected. The 57 . But for be analysed. direction of current induction generator then the also changes. 5 The induction generator in this case is said to be isolated Similarly other required induction generator supplying quantities can be obtained a load. E is induction generator is met by the operating point. the supplied entirely by the induction generators can also induction generator. BC = Stator Cu loss CD = Constant losses. The external voltage from the circle diagram. This arrangements from circle diagram. AB = Rotor Cu loss. The slip is given by. 1 synchronous generator. satisfactory operation it should be run in parallel with Fig. is shown in Fig.synchronous generator is frequency of the induction lagging quadrature current.2 Comparison of Induction case. DE = Generator output. As seen capacitors. It will be below reactive power requirement of horizontal shown by OE. Generator and Synchronous Unlike in synchronous Generator generators. theoretically the quadrature Induction Generator : Part2 component of current can be Using circle diagram. 5. If the bank of delta As the antiphase connected capacitors is component of current operated in parallel with reverses. BE = Rotor input. Fig.

i) It will not require d. When the train is moving down iii) Unlike in synchronous a gradient. induction generator is One application of required. it has generator is decided by the following advanatges. the apparatus is required. generators are rarely used to i) Synchronization for supply commercial power. induction generator is in ii) The construction is rugged railway for braking purposes. the generators. controlled. so that the load on main v) Induction generators are generating station is more suitable for high speeds. voltage and frequency of 58 . braking action is achieved in iv) When it short circuited.5 Applications 1. for rotating parts. there is no danger of generators runs above hunting or drop out of synchronism. 1. generators are having above iii) The frequency of induction mentioned advantages. frequency of the excitation i) It must be run in parallel with voltage which is supplying the synchronous machine. the induction machine. supply of fixed Although induction frequency is required.4 Disadvantages external a.c. it the train. In this vi) With the help of excitation case no complicated control supply and frequency. induction generator. As the torque in synchronism for induction this region is negative. In addition to this the delivers small power as the energy generated by induction excitation quickly reduces to generator is given to the line zero.3 Advantages Because of distinct The following are the superiority of the synchronous advantages of induction generator. current to it. ii) The load is not deciding the iv) Synchronization of power factor of induction generator is not required as no generator but the power factor emf is generated until it is depends on slip.c. induction generator are excitation. ii) It is not self excited but 1. connected to the line. somewhat relieved.

Single Phase Induction can be varied by changing the Regulator relative positions of stator and The single phase bipolar rotor axes. 1. placed on movable member When the rotor moved excited by a. Fig. 1 With the introduction of induction regulators initially. the 2(b). The relative position of stator and rotor axes and emf induced is shown in the Fig. the axes of two windings coincide. it can be cylindrical core. the primary winding was placed in the slots on the inner Fig.c. But nowadays. the emf induced in primary winding is placed on secondary is zero as the the movable core while the mutual inductance between secondary winding on the primary and secondary stationary core as shown in winding reduces to zero.2. The the Fig. This emf in the regulator is diagramatically secondary is maximum when represented in the Fig. winding. This emf direction so as to reduce the 59 . axes are displaced from each large current secondary other by as shown in the Fig. When core. The seen that emf induced in concentrically inside stator secondary is maximum. secondary winding in this case The primary winding has to carry the load current. 2 periphery of a stationary From Fig. again there is produces alternating flux maximum emf E2 in the which induces emf in the secondary winding but with a secondary (stator). 2(a).1. supply further by 90o. But this arrangement the rotor is moved in such a requires large slip rings to be way that the stator and rotor connected on the low voltage.

the compensating load current which has winding provides maximum magnetizing and core loss mutual inductance with the component respectively . In the absence of this gradually changes from zero to compensating winding.supply voltage as shown in the The compensating winding Fig. 3(a). displacement of rotor as The leakage reactance of shown in the Fig. called compensating to 180o the mutual inductance winding. the stator would be equivalent Due to compensating to a high resistance choke coil winding. 3(a). a large voltage would some effective resistance and be required to overcome the I2R2 loss fairly remains reactance drop and the core constant for variation in rotor would then be saturated. The voltage V2 is decided by the compensating winding will not load connected on the output carry any current when side. the current in the is placed in such a way that its primary winding I1 is phasor axis is perpendicular to sum of I2' and Io where Io is no primary. the variable losses in series with the supply line. primary and secondary The single phase windings are co-axial and regulators are always provided displaced by 180o. on an axis in between secondary and quadrature with the primary compensating winding winding. 2(c). The ampere turns for primary winding but no primary and compensating secondary winding so as to windings varies with angular reduce its exciting impedance. (I2R2 losses) remain constant The secondary winding under for a given load current and for this condition will be like a various angular positions of transformer which has a rotor. the maximum and back to zero secondary winding wound on again. In with short circuited tertiary intermediate positions from 0 winding. angle. The variation of ampere 60 . This is shown in the Fig. The secondary winding would be primary and short circuited large so that for a given line compensating winding has current. I2 is secondary winding which the load current and its phase consequently reduces the angle with respect to load effective reactance.

buck) is proportional to the Three Phase Induction sine of the angle of Regulators displacement. 3 (b) such a way that it With uniformly distributed compensates for drop in windings and sinusoidal flux. The series coil provided with the voltage relay is adjusted in Fig. 3(a) the shaft of the regulator is automatically controlled with the help of a voltage relay which can start. The motor driving Fig. stop or reverse the motor as per change in line voltage. 3(b). The primary is connected across 61 . phase slip ring induction 4. motors with wound primary and secondary windings. secondary and compensating winding with angular displacement of rotor is shown in the Fig. voltage which maintains the degree of increase or constant voltage at the centre decrease in voltage (boost or of distribution of load. Fig.turns of primary. The regulation The polyphase (especially versus the angular three phase) induction displacement of rotor for a regulators are similarly in single phase induction construction to that of three regulator is shown in the Fig. 4 The angular displacement of rotor can also be achieved with the help of a small motor geared to the vertical shaft of the rotor of the induction regulator.

Fig. angular position of the rotor which results in phase shift but no change in magnitude of secondary induced emfs. The connection voltage diagram is as shown in the Fig. on rotor which acts as primary Let V1 be the supply winding. V2 be the load side 1. Also slip rings are The phase of secondary not used as there is limited voltage changes with respect movement of rotor. required. 3. The emfs induced 62 . voltage E2 be the induced emf in the regulator The induced emf in the induction regulator can be uniformly changed from V1+V2 to V1-V2 by changing the rotor position through 180 electrical degrees. Here angular positions of stator and compensating coils are not rotor. This is shown in the Fig. 1 The electric and magnetic Fig. The to that of primary with the flexible connections are used movement of rotor. 2 circuits are almost similar to that of slip ring induction The above phasor diagram motor. 2. The output voltage can for the three phases is shown be varied by changing the in the Fig. The currents in the primary windings produce rotating magnetic field revolving at synchronous speed around the air gap.the lines while the secondary in the secondary winding are is connected on the load side constant irrespective of in series with the lines.

For all intermediate positions. The supply voltage and output voltage are in phase when stator and rotor axes are same and are displaced from each other by 180o. This torque is dependent The current taken by primary on the rotor position. as shown in the Fig. 4. This arrangement primary and secondary opposes the torques produced windings then. 4. the winding changes as per the power factor of the load and 63 . angle δ exist between these two voltages (viz V1 and V2 ). Such phase displacement may give rise to large circulating Fig. rotating magnetic field A twin regulator consists produced by primary. field as shown in the Fig. The secondary angle Φ2. Fig. The phasor The limiting voltage diagram for all the three regulation which can be phases can be drawn in the obtained from the regulator is similar manner. If N1 and always moved in opposite N2 are number of turns on directions. due to induction motor action I2'/I2 = N2/N1 = E2/V1 and neutralizes to each other The total supply current considerably which would I1 remains same even after otherwise required to be taken rotating the rotor in the up by the control devices in a direction or against the single unit of three phase dierction of rotating magnetic induction regulator. Io is no load current windings are connected in while I2' is current carried by series and rotors of each are primary winding. 3 rotor movement. 4 currents in certain cases The rotor can be turned which can be avoided by using either in the direction of or either a twin regulator or a against the direction of bank of single phase units. The of two coupled three phase output current I2 is displaced regulators each of rating equal from output voltage V2 by to half the total boost KVA phase angle or power factor required.

Φ2).52 unity power factor load.e. In and rotor axes separated by such case suitable transformer either 180o or 0o) while the is used to supply the regulator torque is zero for rotor primary and inject secondary displacement of 90o at unity emf in main circuit. Thus for x 10-3 = 190. a twin regulator. voltage boost and number of T = k V1 I2' cos (θ phases. the torque is 11 kV or more. direct maximum for maximum buck connection of line with primary or boost position (i. 11000 ± Φ2) V system with full load line When two induction current of 100 A. induction regulator Consider a normal slip ring induction motor having 64 . The rating of regulator is The expression for torque product of its full load current. To get ±10% regulators are coupled to form variation. the effective Rating of regulator in KVA torque is proportional to cos(θ = √3x 11 x 10+3 x (10/100) x 100 + Φ2)-cos(θ . the The regulators are torque always cancel each normally immersed in oil tanks other compeletely. provided with cooling tubes The twin regulator is closely resembling that of diagramatically represented in transformer. is given by. If power Whenever line voltage is factor is unity. It has the advantage of both synchronous and induction motors. the Fig.the load current. stator winding is not possible. 5 Twin type three phase torque. power factor.5. Induction Synchronous Motor In the application where high starting torque and constant speed are desired then synchronous induction motors can be used. regulator rating is. The synchronous motor gives constant speed whereas induction motors can be started against full load Fig. Consider a 3 ph.

winding is put on the rotor the resistance is cut out the and the d. excitations. 1 induction motor with the help It may be possible that the of starting resistance. be satisfactory started as an low starting current and power induction motor. permanently. When the machine is running as an induction motor there are induced alternating currents in the rotor and it 65 .f.c. winding must be induction motor initially high designed in such a way as to starting torque (upto twice full give high m. should be nearly sinusoidal. It Thus synchronous induction should also provide damping motor provides constant against hunting and it should speed.c. Initially it is run as slip ring Fig. Due to this d.m. The When d.c.c. Now the provided on the stator. current while the other two carries half of the full load d. excitation is excitation loss must be provided it is pulled into distributed evenly over the synchronism and starts winding.c.c.c. excitation power. d. This connections are changed and simplifies control gear. supply to the rotor through slip rings. The mmf distribution running at constant speed.c.1 The motor is connected to the exciter which gives d. When a. excitation is motor runs with a slip. large starting torque.. current as they are in parallel. One phase carries full d. It also the exciter is connected in gives better facilities for series with the rotor windings insulation which permits which will remain in the circuit higher voltages and lower d.c. with moderate load value) can be developed.c. factor correction. permanent poles (N and S) are formed on the rotor. excitation.three phase winding on the rotor as shown in the Fig. As the motor is running as The d.

set up. When the rotor carries in conjuction with load torque d. There may also induction motor torque and the be constant load torque if it is synchronizing torque work in started on load and finally it conjuction and the torque will requires torque J (d2 θ/dt2) to be have pulsating value.e.c.c. This the motor fails to synchronize. The rotor is power factor. accelerate the rotor. the motor is any departure from this speed subjected to mechanical during normal operation then strains. The When direct current angle obtained at the instant of excitation is provided a switching d. When π< θ <2π 66 . opposite of load torque. In addition to this various values of θ. excitation also synchronous torque is quickly affects pulling into step. Also there may be again induced currents are oscillations in current and there in the rotor. means that slip must be As the slip motion is reduced to zero. nothing hence the rotor must run at but angular vlocity dθ/dt and synchronous speed. It can be seen that as long as θ <π the synchronous torque acts in opposite direction to that of load torque which tends to reduce the angular velocity dθ/dtof the slip motion. Hence no separate be sufficiently larger than load damping windings are torque and it should be required. Hence it is of low resistance so its desired that the motor should windings acts as damping be synchronize torque should winding. When the induction motor torque is also excitation is delayed beyond present which is proportional 60o it is seen that the rotor fails to the slip (dθ/dt). The magnitude of this Following figures show torque is Tm sinθ where is the oscillograms of rotor current angle between stator and rotor on application of excitation for field. currents the rotor field and increase the slip i. so long as to synchronize as the slip is small. But if there is irregular.runs below synchronous then synchronizing torque acts speed.

f. excitation.c. 1. 3. 3 While studying the When the load exceeds the performance characteristics of synchronous pull out torque. and at 0. the starting torque fluctuation in torque and slip which indicates capacity of due to d.2 Advantages of change over from induction Synchronous Induction Motor motor to synchronous motor. pull out torque which represents the running of motor synchronously at peak load.f. leading is shown in Fig. the machine losses three different types of torques synchronism and runs as an are to be considered.1 Performance Characteristics of synchronous Induction Motors Fig. The pull out torque is characteristics when it is running synchronously. reduction in load torque the pull in torque which indicates motor is automatically the ability of the motor to resynchronized. Thus the motor can be pulled into the synchronism if excitation is applied at a position that the rotor will be occupy when both stator and rotor fields are synchronized. These induction motor which are viz. 67 .8 p. maintain operation during 1. synchronous induction motor. With motor to start against load. The first two torques are closely related with each other and are the characteristics of the machine running as induction motor. The characteristics curves for synchronous induction motor operating at full load unity p.

the capacity. synchronous induction motor then depending upon its value. also change. power control equipments are losses etc. induction motor over salient 1. As the value of the damping. pole synchronous motor it will From the equivalent circuit not give large overload of an induction motor. Synchronous Induction Motor i) The synchronous induction The application where motor can start and mechanical load is to be driven synchronize against more than alongwith phase advancing full load torque which is not properties of synchronous possible with salient pole motors are to be used then use synchronous motor which of synchronous induction must be started against light motor is better option. if one of iii) The rotor winding in the circuit elements is variable. Following are the induction motor as it runs at advantages of synchronous constant motor. application where in load ii) The exciter required for torque is remaining nearly synchronous induction motor constant. iii) The speed variation is not Thus for variable load possible for synchronous conditions. this motor can be is of a smaller capacity as the used. the resistance 68 . locus of the extremity of the 1. Also the load. motor can be treated as series ii) The variation of power R-L circuit where the element factor is large as compared to resistance of the circuit is normal synchronous motor. In a particular circuit. gap is not long as compared to Circle Diagram : Introduction normal salient pole motor. So no separate variable element is changed. power factor. damper winding is required.4 Application of pole synchronous motor. The required. the circuit parameters like iv) No separate starting and current. obtained for Synchronous Induction Motor various values of a variable i) As the gap is small as element is called a locus compared to normal salient diagram. variable which varies as slip s.3 Disadvantages of current phasor. can function as providing the circuit characteristics excitation and required varies.

Using this diagram. sin Φ = XL/Z Substituting in the expression for I. maximum Z = R + j XL output. From the impedance The frequency of the source is triangle we can write. Thus. approach of predetermining the operation characteristics of an induction motor. Circle Diagram of a 3 Phase 2(b). stator the circuit losses. The as variable. It is excited by an alternating source of V volts. for a series The phasor diagram is R-L circuit with an element R shown in the Fig. maximum torque etc. Let us prove that the locus diagram obtained for a current phasor is a circle.changes and hence the current drawn by the motor also changes. The impedance Circuit triangle is shown in the Fig. 2 the Fig. efficiency. current I lags voltage V by Related articles : angle as the circuit is Circle Diagram for a Series R-L inductive. where XL = 2 fL can be predicted. all the Let I = Current performance characteristics of flowing through the circuit an induction motor like power Z = Impedance of factor. 69 . Induction Motor Circle Diagram for a Series R-L Circuit Consider a series R-L circuit with a variable R as shown in Fig. a Now R is variable while circle diagram is a graphical XL is fixed. 1. 2(a). 1 phase induction motor. rotor losses. The locus diagram of such a current phasor is circular in nature and hence called circle diagram of a three Fig. f Hz.

The voltage across the parallel exciting branch is V1.. 1 Equivalent circuit of a 3 voltage axis is taken as phase induction motor vertical axis as a reference. I = (V/XL) sinΦ cosΦ2 etc. When the resistance R =0.. All the values shown are with respect to which the per phase values. Hence we can write the expression for the rotor current referred to stator as. Fig... 70 . 3 Circle diagram I2r' = V1/√((R1e + RL ) + X1e ) 2 2 The power factors at various conditions are cosΦ1. of current. circuit can be easily extended .. the phase Induction Motor angle decreases thus The equivalent circuit of a 3 decreasing sin. As Φ varies only . known as circle diagram.(1) from 0oto 90o.. The circuit is various current phasors are similar to series R-L circuit.. The reactance X1e is fixed while the total resistance R1e + (R2'(1-s)/s) is variable.. I = Im = (V/XL) to a three phase induction This is the maximum value motor. The Fig. When shown in the Fig.. Effectively phase induction motor is current I also decrease. infact it is a half circle in polar co-ordinates part of a circle hence it is with a diameter equal to (V/XL). The semicircle is shown in the Fig. 3.. R→ ∞ the Φ→0o and current becomes zero. Circle Diagram of a 3 Phase As R resistance. plotted..1.. The locus obtained of extremities of a current phasor plotted for various values of R is a semicircle. This is because the slip s varies as load varies. This theory of series R-L then Φ = 90o hence sin Φ = 1.. the diagram is This is the equation of a semicircle.

...(1) I2r' is also a circle with a where sinΦ = X/Z = diameter still as V1/X1e... current maximum when R1e + RL' = 0 axis but will get shifted at the i..e....... Where RL' = R2' (1... The X1e/√((R1e + RL' ) + X1e2) 2 only charge will be that the and Imax = V1/X1e diameter V1/X1ewill no longer The I2r' will be at its be along X-axis i. 2 Circle diagram of I2r' s)/s = Variable equivalent load But the total stator current resistance I1 per phase is a vector R1e = R1 + R2' = addition of current Io and I2r'.. as shown in the Fig.. 71 .. Īo = Ī c + Ī m As Io has fixed magnitude . 3. All the circuit. represents equation of a circle Key Point : Thus the current with as its diameter. Equivalent resistance of motor I1 = Io + I2r' referred to stator ..2.. Fig... The circle diagram is shown in the Fig.. This diagram once obtained can be used to predict the performance of an induction motor under variable load conditions. Hence current Imax is I2r' phasors are to be drawn called ideal short circuit from Io phasor to get I1. I2r' = and phase. called circle diagram of a three phase induction motor. Vector addition X1e = X1 + X2' = For and induction motor. which is Io + . the locus of Imax sin extremities of I1.. magnetising component Im. Equivalent reactance of motor Io has a fixed value and phase referred to stator angle Φo which is decided by Dividing and multiplying its active component and by. fixed magnitude and phase The equation (1) angle Φo. there exists an ideal short tip of the Io phasor.e..... as has current of an induction motor.. Thus locus for a stator current is locus of extremely of I2r' is a also a semicircle which is truly circle.

... This is because the slip s varies as load varies.1. No load test or open circuit Equivalent reactance of motor test referred to stator 2.. The voltage across the parallel exciting branch is V1.. Where RL' = R2' (1- Obtaining Data to Plot Circle s)/s = Variable equivalent load Diagram resistance The data required to draw the R1e = R1 + R2' = circle diagram is obtained by Equivalent resistance of motor conducting two testes which referred to stator are... Hence we can write the Fig. Blocked rotor test or short Dividing and multiplying circuit test by. 3 Circle diagram of a three expression for the rotor phase induction motor current referred to stator as.. Thus 72 . how to obtain I2r' = the data for plotting the circle V1/√((R1e + RL ) + X1e ) 2 2 diagram... Circle Diagram of a 3 Phase Induction Motor The equivalent circuit of a 3 . represents equation of a circle The reactance X1e is fixed with as its diameter... per phase values. while the total resistance R1e + (R2'(1-s)/s) is variable..e. there exists an ideal short Fig. Hence current Imax is phase induction motor called ideal short circuit All the values shown are current of an induction motor..(1) where sinΦ = X/Z = X1e/√((R1e + RL' ) + X1e2) 2 and Imax = V1/X1e The I2r' will be at its maximum when R1e + RL' = 0 i. X1e = X1 + X2' = 1.... Let us see. The circuit is The equation (1) similar to series R-L circuit. I2r' = phase induction motor is Imax sin shown in the Fig.. . 1 Equivalent circuit of a 3 circuit.....

as has No Load Test fixed magnitude and phase In this test. as shown in the Fig. current 2. which is Io + circle diagram is obtained by I2r' is also a circle with a conducting two testes which diameter still as V1/X1e.. The circle diagram is shown in the Fig. phase induction motor... I1 = Io + I2r' . No load test or open circuit diameter V1/X1ewill no longer test be along X-axis i. Blocked rotor test or short axis but will get shifted at the circuit test tip of the Io phasor. 3.. Vector addition For and induction motor. Īo = Ī c + Ī m Obtaining Data to Plot Circle As Io has fixed magnitude Diagram and phase. the locus of The data required to draw the extremities of I1.e.2.e. the motor is made angle Φo.. The are. 2 Circle diagram of I2r' But the total stator current I1 per phase is a vector addition of current Io and I2r'. All the I2r' phasors are to be drawn from Io phasor to get I1. to run without any load i. Fig.locus of extremely of I2r' is a called circle diagram of a three circle. This diagram once obtained can be used to predict the performance of an induction motor under variable load conditions. diagram. no Key Point : Thus the current load condition.. how to obtain its active component and the data for plotting the circle magnetising component Im. 3 Circle diagram of a three Io has a fixed value and phase phase induction motor angle Φo which is decided by Let us see. The speed of locus for a stator current is the motor is very close to the also a semicircle which is truly synchronous speed but less 73 . only charge will be that the 1. Fig.

3 must be taken negative for the Io2 R12where Io is no load per further calculations. 3. wattmeter method is used to From the knowledge of measure the total input power. obtained as. the algebraic sum of the two 2.e.than the synchronous speed. The no load rotor current is very small and hence rotor copper loss is negligibly small. Rotor iron losses are proportional to this This is no load power factor.5 and one resistance of the two wattmeters reads Xo = Vo (per phase)/ negative. Ic = Io cosΦo = Active component of no load current Im = Io sinΦo = Fig. The input line and phase angle of no load current and total in put power current Io. the parameters of the The circuit diagram for the test equivalent circuit can be is shown in the Fig. 1. 74 . The loss. Ro = Vo (per phase) / the power factor is very low Ic (per phase) = No load branch which is less than 0. phase current and R1 is stator The total power input Wo is resistance per phase. Friction and windage loss. observation table is. which is required for is measured. Stator core loss i. 1 No load test Magnetising component of no load current As the motor is on no load. This reading 1. Thus we are now in a The rated voltage is applied to position to obtain magnitude the stator. Io and Φo. The calculations are.e. The rotor frequency is s times Wo = √3Vo Io cosΦo supply frequency and on no load it is very small. positive reading. The two the circle diagram. It is necessary to Im (per phase) = No load branch reverse the current coil or resistance pressure coil connections of The power input Wo consists of such a wattmeter to get the following losses. iron wattmeter readings. frequency and hence are negligibly small. Stator copper loss i.

rated frequency is slip ring induction motor supply. Io is also very small reduced voltage.. versus as shown in Thus Wo consists of stator iron the Fig. . is extrapolated to V = 0 loss and friction and windage which gives friction and loss which are consists for all windage loss as iron or core load condictions. a windage loss almost remains large shot circuit current can constant. losses PN. then the windings are short When the voltage is circuited at the slip rings. So continuously decreased till the similar to the transformer machine slip suddenly begins short circuit test. The core loss reduces similar to the short circuit test as nearly square of voltage. on transformer. this rated voltage) just enough 75 . At no load. said to give fixed losses of the motor. The graph and in many practical cases it showing no load is also neglected. The separation In this test. out by the no load test Thus the slip s = 1 and RL'= conducted from variable R2' (1-s)/s is zero. if primary is significantly the friction and excited with rated voltage. Hence Wo is loss is zero at zero voltage. decreased below the rated The situation is exactly value. If under short The slip does not increase circuit condition. 3 constant losses which include Related articles : core loss and friction and Blocked Rotor Tests windage loss. Wo = No load power input 1. If the motor voltage.Key Point : Under no load takes place at a sufficiently condition.L.1 Separation No Load Losses The no load losses are the Fig. the reduced to increase and the motor voltage (about 10 to 15 % of tends to stall. the rotor is locked between the two can be carried and it is not allowed to rotate.. flow which is dangerous from The voltage is the windings point of view.

Now the value applied voltage Vsc. Hence we can write. This is equivalent As RL' = 0. voltage is negligibly small.e. This is practically not possible. the input power Wsc and a short circuit current Isc are measured. the stator Now Wsc = carries rated current hence the √3Vsc Isc cosΦsc stator copper loss is also dominant. As the voltage is reduced. 1 Wsc = Stator copper loss + Rotor copper Now the equivalent circuit loss is as shown in the Fig. Fig.such that stator carries rated where Isc = Per phase current is applied. the equivalent resistance referred to stator. But it is necessary to obtain short circuit current when normal voltage is applied to the motor. circuit is exactly similar to that Z1e = Vsc (per of a transformer and hence the phase)/ Isc (per phase) = calculations are similar to that Equivalent impedance referred of short circuit test on a to stator. Vsc = Short circuit reduced voltage (line value) Isc = Short circuit current (line value) Wsc = Short circuit input power During this test. the iron This gives us short circuit loss which is proportional to power factor of a motor. transformer. But the reduced 76 .Line values also carries short circuit current to produce dominant rotor copper loss. Similarly the rotor …. The motor is at standstill hence mechanical loss i. friction and windage loss is absent. 1.

the circle horizontal axis at D. This is proportional to square of the phasor OA as shown in the current. Step 7 : Draw a perpendicular bisector of O'A. 1. So WSN = Short circuit Step 6 : Join O'A is called input power at normal voltage output line. from the origin O. line drawn from O' at B as WSN = Core loss + Stator shown in the Fig. with C But at normal voltage core as a center and radius equal to loss can not be negligible O'C. lagging V by angle Now power input is Φsc. diagram can be drawn using Step 10 : Torque line. This meets the horizontal hence. 77 . Vsc = Reduced Io and are Φo obtained. is short circuit current if Step 2 : Select suitable current normal voltage is applied. Fig. and rotor copper loss Step 9: Draw the Construction of Circle Diagram perpendicular from point A on By using the data obtained the horizontal axis. 1. This cab be obtained as. the following steps : The torque line separates stator and rotor copper losses. Step 8 : Draw the circle. voltage (line value) Step3 : From no load test. This is the centre of the circle. Draw short circuit voltage (line vector Io. Extend it to meet line O'B at point C. lagging V by angle voltage) Φo.e. Thus. Step 4 : Draw horizontal line where Isc = Short circuit through extremity of Io i. This is the line OO' as shown in the Fig. O'.voltage test results can be Step 1 : Take reference phasor used to find current ISN which V as vertical (Y-axis). 1. scale such that diameter of If VL = Normal rated circle is about 20 to 30 cm. ISN = Short Step 5 : Draw the current circuit current at normal ISN calculated from Isc with the voltage same scale. current at reduced voltage parallel to horizontal axis. to meet from the no load test and the O'B line at F and meet blocked rotor test.

Note that as voltage axis is vertical. the power scale can AE/EF = Rotor copper loss / be obtained as. This represents power input on no load i. the stator resistance per phase R1 and rotor resistance per phase R2 can be easily measured. Now FD = O'G = Fixed loss Where O'G is drawn perpendicular from O' on horizontal axis. where l(AD) = Distance AD in cm Location of Point E : In a slip ring induction motor. rotor copper losses. voltage. all the vertical distances are proportional to active components of currents or power inputs. now which consists of core loss and stator. Stator copper loss Power scale = WSN/l(AD) The line O'E under this W/cm condition is called torque line. 78 .e. power input Then point E can be on short circuit at normal located as. Fig. Thus the vertical distance AD represents power input at short circuit i.e. fixed loss. 1 Hence AF α Sum of Power scale : As AD stator and rotor copper losses represents WSN i. the currents I1 and I2 also can be measured.e. WSN. Similarly by introducing ammeters in stator and rotor circuit. if measured at appropriate scale.

the Power scale stator resistance can be Fixed loss = ST x power measured by conducting scale resistance tset.... the ratio R2' to R1.(1/K2) We know the power scale But R2'= R2/K2 = Rotor as obtained earlier. the values Thus point E can be of the performance parameters obtained by dividing line AF in can be obtained as... K = I1/I2 = Draw perpendicular from Transformation ratio point P to meet output line at Now AF/EF = Rotor copper Q. Stator copper loss = power scale 2 3ISN R1 where ISN is phase Rotor copper loss = QR x value. resistance referred to stator Using the power scale and . the base loss / Stator copper loss = line at S and horizontal axis at (I22R2)/(I12R1) = (R2/R2)(I22/I12) = T. scale 3ISN2 R1 Rotor input = PQ + QR = PR . AE/EF = R2'/R1 various distances. AE/EF = (WSN . the point E can be Power factor cos = PT/OP obtained and hence O'E Motor efficiency = Output / represents torque line. Rotor copper loss = WSN . Stator copper loss = SR x .2 Maximum Quantities diagram at that load condition. be obtained from the circle 1... The various The torque is the rotor performance parameters can input in synchronous watts.. (R2/R2).. 79 .1 Predicting Performance Rotor efficiency = Rotor Form Circle Diagram output / Rotor input = PQ/PR Let motor is running by Rotor output / Rotor input = taking a current OP as shown 1 . Input = PQ/PT 1.. Total loss = QT x power WSN = Stator Cu loss + Rotor scale Cu loss Rotor output = PQ x power .s = N/Ns = PQ/PR in the Fig. torque line at R. power scale Neglecting core loss. Total motor input = PT x In a squirrel cage motor. x power scale 3ISN R1)/(3ISN2 R1) 2 Slip s = Rotor Cu loss = Dividing line AF in this QR/PR ratio.. 1.

Starting Torque : The torque obtained by extending the is proportional to the rotor perpendicular drawn from C on input.p.. 4. distance corresponding to the 3. equal to rotor copper loss Then the maximum output is i. as shown in the Fig. scale 1.. and is also tangent to the Then extend AD upwards circle at point J. Maximum p. Tstart = l(AE) x Power scale.e. meeting circle at point H. from A' to meet the circle at The l(JK) represents maximum point P'. Draw 80 . l(AE).f. also called stalling torque or 2. This is the point torque in synchronous watts at corresponding to the full load the power scale. At this point. given by l(MN) at the power . The maximum values of a perpendicular from H on various parameters can also horizontal axis till it meets it at be obtained by using circle point I. This is shown in the Fig. angle corresponding to 1. equal to the can also be obtained by distance corresponding to full drawing perpendicular from C load output. at point L. = cos ∟{OHI} tangent to the circle at point M. Maximum Input : It occurs at synchronous watts the highest point on the circle 1.. = HI/OH The point M can also be 5. line parallel to O'A and is also . The maximum input watts or h. rotor input is O'A to meet the circle at M.3 Full load Condition i.. Then angle OHI gives diagram.. Maximum Torque : Draw a full load output using the line parallel to the torque line power scale. say A'.e.. At s = 1. Draw on torque line and extending it parallel to the output line O'A to meet circle at point J. . The full load motor output tangent to the circle is is given on the name plates in horizontal.. Maximum Power Factor : Draw a line tangent to the circle from the origin O. pull out torque. Calculates the given l(LL') at the power scale. The point J from A onwards. Maximum Output : Draw a maximum power factor angle. This torque is condition.in 2.

e. 1 shows the experimental set up for conducting load test 81 . the efficiency etc. ring type. The speed readings the induction motor is are taken using tachometer. power factor. By connecting a d. The observation table is prepared. Fig. three phase induction motor.c. 2. located by any of the following By varying the lamp bank. Brake test induction motor can be varied. The following induction motor is loaded. at various loads ammeter reads load current can be studied. 2 Locating full load point Fig. Pin = Power input = the performance of the motor W1 + W 2 viz. 1 Load test on three phase Once point P' is known. generator. parameters can be obtained ammeter reads line current easily as discussed above. connected to a d.c.c. generator. The induction motor can be generator star or delta connected and In case of loading by can be squirrel cage or slip connecting a d. methods : load on generator i. and voltmeter reads line Load Test on Three Phase voltage VL.c. generator. Thus inturn an line current. The load is increased till The generator is loaded by a induction motor carries rated lamp bank. input. induction motor the other performance On induction motor side. on three phase induction motor using a d. slip. load on 1. Fig. and voltmeter reads terminal The induction motor is voltage Vt. The two wattmeters Induction Motor are connected as per the two By conducting the load test on wattmeter method hence. On generator side.

. The rotor current increases. The speed decreases marginally. The input current increases. The slip increases. generator = Pout of d.m. d. the induction motor. generator / ηgen = (Vt IL )/ηgen W Fig. .f. The various performance characteristics can be Calculations : The output obtained as shown in the Fig. given by. in the rotor For various loads above circuit depends on the slip of parameters are obtained.c. of induction motor is input to a 2. 4. 2 Pin of induction motor = W1 + W 2 W The graphs indicate the cos Φ = Pin/(√3VL IL )= (W1 + behaviour of various W2)/(√3VL IL) = power factor performance parameters against output of the induction motor and not shown to the scale. the magnitude of an for a given motor induced e.m. decides the magnitude of the 1. in the running condition is 2.c. Necessity of Starter In a three phase induction where Ns = 120f / P motor.f. Pout of induction motor = Pin of d. 6.c. This As the load on the induced e. Output of d. 5.c. generator = Vt x IL W Assume ηgen = 80 % . The efficiency increase upto certain load and then decreases. 3. generator. effectively induction motor increases. 82 . The output of motor rotor current. The power factor increases.

single phasing and Due to such heavy inrush low voltage protection which is current at start there is provided by a starter. overload. This currents hence such motors current can be of the order of 5 can be started directly on line. starting. supplying reduced voltage to Such a transformer when the motor at the limit of excited by a rated voltage.f. The induction current is high. also draws very high current Not only the starter limits from the supply. it is necessary to limit e. unity. is very large at start. As spikes which may affect their rotor conductors are short working. when rotor induction motor against current is high. sudden inrush of current But at start. consequently overloading loading and low the stator draws a very high voltage situations. Similarly such 83 .m. at start. So connected to the same line magnitude of rotor induced may be subjected to voltage e. consequently motor having rating below 5 the stator draws a very high h. the starting current but also Similarly in a three phase provides the protection to the induction motor. possibility of damage of the motor winding. The current from the supply. the motor is zero and slip is at Thus other appliances its maximum i.p.e. As secondary gets accelerated. But such motors also need at start. can withstand starting current from the supply. To avoid such circuited.m. full normal current is large. the large induced effects. circulates very high the current drawn by the motor current through rotor at start. Such a reduced circulates very high current voltage is applied only for through short circuited short period and once rotor secondary. The starter is a device The condition is exactly which is basically used to limit similar to a transformer with high starting current by short circuited secondary. when rotor the starter. protection against single Similarly in a three phase phasing is also provided by induction motor.f. the primary rated voltage is applied. the speed of causes large line voltage drop. to 8 times the full load current.

the resistances are induction motors. 1. Hence a where T is torque reduced voltage gets applied produced and P2 is the rotor to the stator which reduces the input at Ns.1.L. Motor runs with 3. i.1 Relation between Tst and in the circuit. the Fig. Rotor resistance starter The starter is simple in 5.. Autotransfomer starter to the stator. Initially the to the stator. three resistances. 1 Stator Resistance starter resistance R2 at start. Also the starting resistances are are added in torque of the motor reduces series with each phase of the due to reduced voltage applied stator winding. Direct on line starter construction and cheap. resistances are kept maximum 1. high starting current. But there are voltage to the stator of the large power losses due to induction motor. The second method is possible When the motor starts only on case of slip ring running. Due to its large TF. Thus all the three phase schematic diagram showing induction motors need some stator resistances is shown in or the other type of starter. rheostats in RUN position 1. The various gradually cut-off from the types of starters based on the stator circuit. When the above two methods of resistances are entirely reducing the starting current removed from the stator circuit are. 4. The 84 . voltage gets dropped across We know. P2 = T x ωs the resistances.e. It can Stator Resistance Starter be used for both star and delta In order to apply the reduced connected stator.1 Types of Starters From the expression of rotor current it can be seen that the current at start can be controlled by reducing E2 which is possible by supplying reduced voltage at start or by increasing the rotor Fig. Stator resistance starter then rated voltage gets applied 2. Star-delta starter normal speed.

s = 1...(2) . the factory by shown in the Fig. 1 Autotransformer starter (xIsc)2 . Tst α Fig... T α I2r2/s seen that the starting torque But rotor current I2r and reduces by the fraction x2 due stator current are related to to the stator resistance starter....... Ist = x Isc . So if Isc is the normal current drawn under full rated voltage condition at start then.. it can be . The . T α I12 /s to reduce the voltage applied where I1 = Stator current to the stator.. The schematic diagram .. Tst α Ist2 of autotransformer starter.. winding is supplied with reduced voltage.L. T = called an autotransformer Tst and I1 = Ist starter....(1) schematic diagram of When stator resistance autotransformer starter is starter is used.L..... A three phase star connected autotransformer can be used ..(3) It consists of a suitable But TF.(4) start position... T α P2 But P2 = Pc/s where Pc = Total copper loss = (3I2r2R2)/s Note : As x < 1.. (IF....)2/sf where sf = Full load When the switch is in the slip .1....... This can be 85 .. α change over switch...... each other through Autotransformer Starter transformer action..... which stator voltage reduces is say x < 1. Such a starter is At start... The starting current is proportional to to this factor x. the stator Taking ratio of (3) and (4).

percentage tappings x.... Fig. Fig. as shown in the Fig.... 86 .... Isc = Starting for an autotransformer is motor current at rated voltage shown in the Fig. 2......3.(1) But there is exists a fixed ratio between starting current drawn from supply Ist (supply) and starting moor current Ist (motor) due to autotransformer...... used So if.. x Isc = both star and delta connected x2 Isc motors. of starting.(3) than stator resistance starter. the change over switch is thrown into run position..L. Ist (supply) = x . Now 1...1 Relation between Tst and Tst α Ist2 (motor) α x2 Isc2 TF. Changing of Ist (motor) switch is done automatically ... and Ist = Starting motor current with starter then Ist = x Isc .. But it is expensive .....2 Use of auotransformer to reduce voltage at start When motor gathers 80% of the normal speed. It can be used for .....(2) by using relays. percentage tappings used for The reduction in applied an autotransformer to apply voltage by the fractional reduced voltage to the stator. rated voltage Autotransformer ratio x = gets applied to stator winding..... Ist (supply)/ Ist (motor) The motor starts rotating with Ist (supply) = x normal speed.Motor side .. The power Substituting Ist (motor) loss is much less in this type from equation (1). 3 Due to this.controlled by tappings Let x be the fractional provided with autotransformer..

The motor starting double throw (TPDT) switch.. 1. across the .L. The windings are Let x = Tapping on connected in delta when motor autotransformer gathers sufficient speed. the start.L.and TF.33 IF. 1 = x2 (6/1)2 x 0..33 times the full load current. supply starting current ? When the switch is thrown Solution : Starting current at on other side. Thus supply starting 87 .L. So it gets normal rated = 0.L.7453 Thus 74. the winding gets rated voltage = Isc connected in delta. α (IF. Find winding in star at start.Delta Starter torque reduces by x2 where x This is the cheapest starter of is the transformer ratio. current at rated voltage is 6 The switch connects the stator times its full load current. Due would give full load torque at to this reduced voltage. all and hence used very Example : A squirrel cage commonly for the induction induction motor has a full load motors. Whet would then be the starting current is limited. It uses tripple pole slip of 5%. Note : Thus starting Star .05 x = 0.)2/sf current is 3. = Tst The arrangement of star- delta starter is shown in the Fig.53% tapping is required Now Ist (supply) = x Ist (motor) = x (xIsc) = x2 Isc = x2 x 6 = 3. Hence the tapping on the per phase voltage gets autotransformer starter which reduced by the factor 1/√3. Isc = 6 IF.05 voltage. and sf = 5% supply.L. TF.

**where Isc = Starting phase
**

current when delta connection

with rated voltage

IF.L. = Full load phase

current when delta connection

Example : A three phase

induction motor has a ratio of

maximum torque to full load

Fig. 1 Star-delta starter torque as 2.5 : 1. Determine the

ratio of starting torque to full

The operation of the load torque if star-delta starter

switch can be automatic by is used. The rotor resistance

using relays which ensures and standstill reactance per

that motor will not start with phase are 0.4 and 4

the switch in Run position. The respectively.

cheapest of all and Solution : The given ratio is,

maintenance free operation are Tm /TF.L. = 2.5

the two important advantages The rotor values are,

of this starter. While its R2 = 0.4Ω X2 = 4Ω

limitations are, it is suitable for Now

normal delta connected Tm = (kE22)/(2X2)

motors and the factor by which ... TF.L. = Tm/2.5 = (kE22)/(5X2)

voltage changes is 1/√3 which = (kE22)/20

can not be changed. ...........(1)

1.1 Ratio of Tst to TF.L. Now Tst = (k E22 R2)/(R22 +

We have seen in case of X 22)

autotransformer that if x is the With star-delta starter

factor by which the voltage is E2 = E2/√3

reduced then,

**Now the factor x in this
**

type of starter is 1/√3.

88

**Taking ratio of (2) and (1), Note : The only limitation
**

of the starter that it can be

used only for slip ring

induction motors as in squirrel

Rotor Resistance Starter cage motors, the rotor is

To limit the rotor current which permanently short circuited.

consequently reduces the 1.1 Calculation of Steps of

current drawn by the motor Rotor Resistance Starter

from the supply, the resistance The calculation of steps of

can be inserted in the rotor rotor resistance starter is

circuit at start. This addition of based on the assumptions

the resistance in rotor in the that,

form of 3 phase star connected 1. The motor starts against a

rheostat. The arrangement is constant torque

shown in the Fig. 1. 2. The rotor current fluctuates

between two fixed values, a

maximum and a minimum,

denoted as I2max and I2min.

The Fig. 2, shows a single

Fig. 1 Rotor resistance starter phase of a three phase of a

three phase rheostat to be

The external resistance is inserted in the rotor. The

inserted in each phase of the starter has n steps, equally

rotor winding through slip ring divided into the section AB.

and brush assembly. Initially The contact point after each

maximum resistance is in the step is called stud. The total

circuit. As motor gather speed, resistances upto each stud

the resistance is gradually cut- from the star point of star

off. The operation may be connected rotor as denoted as

manual or automatic. R1, R2, ....Rn-1.

We have seen that the

starting torque is proportional

to the rotor resistance. Hence

important advantage of this

method is not only the starting

current is limited but starting

torque of the motor also gets

improved.

89

**where s1 = Slip at start = 1
**

while moving to stud 2, the

current reduces to I2min given

by,

**Just reaching to stud 2,
**

the current again increases to

Fig. 2 Steps of rotor resistance I2min as the part of external

starter resistance Rx1 gets cut-off.

It consists of rotor

resistance r2 and the external

resistances Rx1, Rx2...etc. At

the time of reaching to the next While leaving stud 2, the

step, current is maximum . slip changes to s3 and current

Then motor gathers speed, slip again reduces to,

reduces and hence while

leaving a stud, the current is

I2min.

While just reaching to stud

3, Rx2 gets cut off completely

and current again increases to,

**Hence at the last nth stud,
**

the maximum current is,

**Let E2 = Standstill rotor
**

e.m.f. per phase

When handle is moved to where sn = Slip under

stud 1, the current is maximum normal running condition

given by, At nth stud no external

resistance is in series with

rotor.

90

Direct on Load Line Starter (D. 2 shows the Thus the resistances of arrangement of various various sections can be components in direct on line obtained as.O. current without any starter. R3 = K R2 = starter is known as direct on 2 KKR1 = K R1 line starter. to where K = Constant control the starting current. Hence the R2 = KR1. .. 91 .... starter. r2 = Kn. Thus there is no need to reduce applied voltage. where n = Number of single phasing etc. R4 = K3 R1.p. From (1). low voltage.) In case of small capacity motors having rating less than 5 h.. starter studs The Fig.. Though this starter does 1 R 1 not reduce the applied voltage. the starting current is not very high and such motors From (1) and (2) we can can withstand such starting write. it is used because it protects the motor motor from various severe abnormal conditions like over loading. From last expression of r2. .L. reduction in voltage. other supply lines without any resistances can be calculated. In this way the various steps of rotor resistance starter can be calculated.. R1 = s1r2/sn but Such motors use a type of s1 = 1 at start starter which is used to connect stator directly to the Once R1 is known.

the coil gets supply and keeps contactor in ON position. Two thyristors which increases temperature are connected in antiparallel in beyond limit. smoothly. The thyristor voltage The NO contact is controller method is normally open and NC is commonly used in the soft normally closed. So stator directly gets supply. The Fig. contactor.1 D.e. 1 shows such pushed for fraction of second a thyristor voltage controller due to which coil gets scheme used to obtain the soft energized and attracts the starter. Such a starting arrangement is called soft Fig. starter starter. In textile machines such type of control is necessary to avoid breaking of threads. Under over load condition. To control the temperature. the coil circuit gets opened due to which coil gets de-energized and motor gets switched OFF from the supply. T2' and T3. T2. NO is starter. When NC is pressed. Soft Starters In some applications it is necessary to control starting torque and speed steplessly i. At start. T1'. the thyristors. T3' are excessive heat produced. 1 Thyristors voltage current drawn by the motor controller used for soft start increases due to which is an T1. 92 . Fig. motor from overload the firing angle of the triac is conditions. The thyristors are get opened due to high the triacs.L. protecting the voltage applied to the stator. The additional contact provided. Thermal relays each line. ensures that as long as supply is ON.O.

The reactance shown. T1'. control winding. the d. Absence of torque pulsation on E22. shunt motor.c. almost zero. torque can be controlled 3. 1. size and cost is low. and T3' and T2 conduct for next When the reactance is very 60o. T1 and reactance of saturable reactor T3' conduct for. T2. the firing sequence is of the saturable reactor T1. high at start. The depends on the current interval between the through the d. T3'. Thus by controlling hence no jerks while starting. shunt The saturable reactor has d. voltage while torque depends 1. Then T2 is fired can be controlled smoothly. But the speed of d.f. starting torque is Each triac conducts for 120o. it conducts reactance decreases and the and correspondingly voltage is torque increases. the When T3' is fired. Due to use of electronic smoothly while speed also devices like thyristors the gets controlled smoothly from weight. control o successive firing is 60 while winding. the thyristors is fired. eliminated. As long as control winding current. motor can be varied smoothly 93 .c. The simpler control is speed. Thus by smoothly the firing frequency is six controlling the current through times the input frequency.m.1 Advantage of soft start The rotor induced e. For the scheme control winding. zero to the synchronous 4. A three phase induction motor A three phase saturable is practically a constant speed reactor in series with a stator motor like a d. Motor accelerates smoothly. Thus the variable to the stator. T3 and T2'. also can be used for soft start. he efficient operation is small and need of the starter is possible. Due to reduced voltage possible.c.c.c. the and soft stepless starting of voltage applied to the motor motor is achieved. Increasing the once fired. the 2. The various advantages of E2 depends on the stator soft start are. stator voltage smoothly. Thus by motor starts without any jerk controlling the firing angle. Hence the Speed Control of Three Phase arrangement is called soft Induction Motor starter. applied the starting current is 5.controlled. The cycle is repeated. can be controlled steplessly.

f. it includes we know that.m. efficiency etc. keep the torque constant for But the expression for the constant load condition. So as the parameters like This gives smooth speed R2. reacts by change in its slip. factor. induction motor can be Supply Frequency Control or V changed either by changing its / f Control synchronous speed or by The synchronous speed is changing the slip s. supply frequency smoothly. shunt motor. E2 are changed then to control of an induction motor. Similarly torque produced Ns = 120f / P in case of three phase Thus by controlling the induction motor is given by. the b. From rotor side of three phase induction From stator side. For the induction motor From rotor side. Supply frequency control to And if the speed control is control Ns. From stator side and d. Injecting slip frequency can be seen that the speed of voltage into the rotor circuit. From this expression it c. equation of a transformer where. Effectively its speed changes. gets d. a. called V / f control.c. given by. achieved by some means. Thus speed of the This is according to the induction motor can be e. b.just by using simple rheostats. But in case 2. motor air gap flux is given by. it motors it is very difficult to includes following methods : achieve smooth speed control. Adding external resistance in the rotor circuit. controlled by basically two This maintains the speed methods : regulation and efficiency of 1. Cascade control. the synchronous speed can be s) controlled over a wide range. performance of the induction c. Adding rheostats in stator adversely affected. circuit. N = Ns (1 . following methods : a. Supply voltage control. 94 . Controlling number of stator motor in terms of its power poles to control Ns.

c. 2 keep (V/f) ratio constant. The scheme is shown V = Supply voltage in the Fig. This may result into This d. Fig. 1 Electronic scheme for V/f control Hence in this method. Hence this method the normal frequency. affected.c. Such a saturation leads a device which converts d. supply current of the motor. 1. to variable voltage (magnetisation) no load variable frequency a. The inverter is cores. it can be smooth speed control of the seen from the above induction motor is possible. By selecting the gap flux constant when supply proper frequency and frequency f is changed. maintaining V / f constant. the supply to the induction motor required is variable voltage variable frequency supply and Fig. K1 = Stator winding can be achieved by an constant electronic scheme using Tph1 = Stator turns per converter and inverter phase circuitry. supply. To achieve this. to the sharp increase in the supply. frequency f is changed. Hence it which is required to keep V / f is necessary to maintain air ratio constant. V If f is the normal working also must be changed so as to frequency then the Fig. expression that along with f. This shows the torque-slip ensures constant air gap flux characteristics for the giving speed control without frequency f1 > f and f2 < f i. 2 Torque-slip 95 . f = Supply frequency The normal supply It can be seen from this available is constant voltage expression that if the supply constant frequency a. the supply. is called V / f control. for affecting the performance of frequencies above and below the motor.c.c.c. The converter converts value of air gap flux also gets this supply into a d. supply is then given saturation of stator and rotor to the inverter.e.

using supply voltage control Hence an individual scheme are shown in the Fig... reduction in voltage. Supply Voltage Control We know that. at standstill depends on Fig.1 Speed-torque curves for the supply voltage V. Additional constant R2 voltage changing equipment is Now if supply voltage is necessary. (s Large change in voltage for 2 X2) <<R2and hence can be small change in speed is neglected. Due to . required is the biggest disadvantage. as is rarely used in practice. the induction motor. But loads use this method of to supply the same load it is speed control. characteristics with variable f by running at lower speed. motor with voltage control . per above equation torque Motors driving fan type of produced also decreases. the rotor induced e. So Another disadvantages of motor produces the required this method is that the supply load torque at a lower speed. E2 decreases.f.. Due to reduced necessary to develope same voltage. 1. to and constant (V/f) decrease in supply voltage. obtained can not be used to The speed-torque supply other devices which characteristics for the motor require constant voltage. the motor E22 R2)/R22) α sV2 for may get overheated. T α ( s increased current. torque hence value of slip decreasing the value of increases so that torque maximum torque too.. produced remains same. T α (k s E22 R2)/(R22 +(s X2)2) Now E2. for a separate motor is required which makes it costly. due to Also for low slip region.m. Hence this method reduced below rated value. Slip Controlling Number of Poles increases means motor reacts 96 . current which is operating region of drawn by the motor increases. E2 α V But in this method.

Hz frequency is Ns = 750 r. So method synchronous speed possible 3. A three tapping points to the continuous smooth speed stator winding. The stator poles can be It can be seen that current changed by following methods in all the parts of stator coil is : flowing in one direction only. In this Consider the pole method.p.m. Consequent poles method Due to this. two or four speeds in of a three phase winding. 2. Due to this. by the changing the shown in the Fig. 1. Hence either of the two It can be seen that the direction of current through 97 . 8 poles get formed 2. controlling the speed. as steps. In this method. 1.1 Consequent Poles Method Fig. is kept open.1 Pole winding If now the two terminals to which supply was given either are joined together and supply is given between this common point and the open third terminal. The supply is control is not possible by this given to two of them and third method. Pole amplitude modulation with this arrangement with 50 method. The method is called pole synchronous speed can be changing method of selected. the number of stator 4 pole winding poles get changed in the ratio 2 : 1. Multiple stator winding as shown in the Fig. connections of the stator winding are changes with the help of simple switching. it is possible to have formation due to single phase one.1. 1. the poles are formed as shown in the Fig. There are number of stator poles.

m. the squirrel cage type motors Typical speed-torque as squirrel rotor adjusts itself characteristics of pole to same number of poles as changing induction motor are stator which is not the case in shown in the Fig. slip ring induction motor. arrangements of coils can 3. he windings are placed in the stator slots Fig. is true for other stator winding.remaining two. 3. The ratio of two switching arrangement. 4 poles are formed. is eliminated by of the two windings and using this method. Thus upward So in all four different speeds direction is forming say S pole can be obtained.2 Pole Amplitude Modulation winding is divided into coils to Method which. 98 . need speeds can be achieved. But the speed change is in wound which increases the step and smooth speed control cost of the motor. is 1500 r. So the 1. is not possible. it can be The various limitations of observed that in this case only this method are.p. two separate stator winding are placed in the stator core. Similarly the 4. possible. facility is other methods which is provided. Two different stator produce the poles in the ratio 2 windings are required to be : 1. nonavailability of smooth Thus giving supply to one speed control. 1. Only step changes in Thus series/parallel speed are possible. Same not be necessarily 2 : 1. Can be applied to only synchronous speed possible squirrel cage motor.1 Multiple Stator Winding Method In this method instead of one winding. and downward say N. two speeds in this method. for 50 Hz 2. Smooth speed control is not frequency. 3 only but are electrically isolated from each other. Each 1. pole changing with The basic disadvantage of consequent poles. Complicated from the method can be used only for design point of view.

another sinusoidal m.f. waves so as to satisfy one of the having two separate number of above relations. then either poles as.m. the angle between its phases axes must The resultant m.m. after modulation is. Now if the three stator windings are placed such that angle between their phase where P = Number of axes is (2π/3)r radians where r poles is an integer which is not and θ = Mechanical divisible by 3 then the phase angle axes angle for modulated This wave is modulated by poles is given by. wave having PM number of poles. Now to suppress one of the two poles.m. Thus the resultant wave is So if r and n are selected equivalent to two m. without modulation and If we succeed in corresponding to either P1 or suppressing one of the two P2 with modulation. can be poles then there exists rotating achieved. The negative sign in 99 .f. the method can waves. suppressing.m. So speeds This is called suppressed corresponding to P poles carrier modulation. with different number be used such that the resultant of poles.f. The basic principle of this magnetic field with number of method is the modulation of poles as P1 or P2. expressed as. And while two sinusoidally varying m.PM field corresponding to other and P2 = P + PM pole exists. phase of the stator as. wave one of view. P1 or P2 get suppressed and P1 = P .f. wave be multiple of 2π.f.m. number of poles retained is as Consider sinusoidally required from the speed point distributed m.

voltage gets applied across Similarly if the poles of the stator. The limitation that it can gives suppression P2 of and be used only for squirrel cage existence of P1 = P .equation (1). The and we get poles P2 = P + PM = arrangement is shown in the 10. are selected as 1 and 4 This is achieved by dividing respectively. stator has 8 Practically the rectangular poles while values of n and r wave is used for modulation. Adding Rheostats in Stator Circuit We have seen that the reduced voltage can be applied to the stator by adding the rheostats Thus P1 gets suppressed in the stator circuit. Fig. then by dropping alternate Let poles of modulation group. 1. positive sign in equation (1). The rheostats can be varied as per the required change in speed. see that. voltage causes reduction in the speed.PM poles. r is not divisible stator coil into groups and by 3. connected in series From equation (1) we can opposition. The part of the voltage So two speeds gets dropped across the corresponding to P and P2 can resistances and reduced be obtained. speed control point of view This method is advantages hence used as a starter rather 100 . The suppressed and we get poles method is not efficient from P1 = P . gives as it reduced the size to a suppression of P2 and great extent and hence cost of existence of P2 = P + PM while the machine. For example. motors still continues.PM = 4. modulation function PM are 4 and n and r are selected as 1 The reduction in stator and 2 then. other groups are function PM are 2. But the entire line current flows through the rheostats and hence there are In this case gets large power losses.

the torque 4. the speed of the method. The large speed changes are Rotor Circuit not possible. . large E22 R2)/(R22 +(s X2)2) resistance is required to be For low slip region (s introduced in rotor which 2 X2) << R2 and can be causes large rotor copper loss neglected and for constant due to reduce the efficiency. Sufficient cooling motor has to supply same arrangements are required torque as load demands. for the squirrel cage induction motors. motor decreases. in T due to R2 and maintains efficiency is low. motor slip 101 . resistance R2. speeds below normal value can be achieved. The method can not be used constant. the load torque constant. T α ( s R2)/R22 α 3. 5. Another advantage of this method is that the starting torque of the motor increases proportional to rotor resistance. So Thus the method is rarely due tot additional rotor used in the practice. supply voltage is also 2. the load on the motor is same. The speeds above the s/R22 normal values can not be Thus if the rotor resistance obtained. 1 shows the torque-speed curves for rotor resistance control. 1 Stator resistance control following disadvantages : Adding External Resistance in 1. Thus by increasing the rotor resistance R2. slip to compensate decreases 6.. The Fig. T α (s for large speed change.e. This is because We know. But when due to large loss. Due to large power losses. is increased. Large power losses occur produced decreases.than as a speed control increases i. So which make the external motor reacts by increasing its rheostats bulky be expensive. But this method has Fig..

two f = Supply induction motors are mounted frequency on the same shaft.e. as fr = s f The supply to motor B is at frequency fA. 1 is called differential cascading.. N is almost three phase supply. While the equal to its synchronous supply of the auxiliary motor is speed NSB. cascading Fig. The auxiliary motor can sA = ( NSA - be slip ring type or squirrel N)/NSA cage type. cascading is called cumulative cascading. poles of auxiliary motor In this method. Fig. The both the motors as motors are arrangement is shown in the mounted on the same shaft. 1 Cascade control pf two induction motor The stator of the main Now on no load.m. If torques produced are in opposite direction. derived at a slip frequency from the slip rings of the main motor.e. Now fA = Frequency of rotor induced e. 102 . One of the NSA = 120f / PA two motors must be of slip N = Speed of the ring type which is called main set motor. This is called cascading of the motors... If the torque produced by both act in the same direction. the speed motor is connected to the of the rotor B i. of motor A fA = sA f . i. 1. fB = fA Fig.f. The second motor is The speed N is same for called auxiliary motor. Cacade Control This method is also called Now let. PA = Number of concatenation or tandom poles of main motor operation of the induction PB = Number of motors.

the voltage to be injected must Thus in cascade control. c..m. two terminals of motor B. Operation is complicated. 5. This is possible for sufficient to start the set. If it is in the phase opposition. Thus by controlling directly connected to supply.f.f. a voltage is then the set runs as injected in the rotor circuit. The frequency of rotor circuit And in such a case effective is a slip frequency and hence number of poles are PA. Smooth speed control is not Key Point : Thus the speed possible. Running set as differentially cascaded with.m. 2. differentially cascaded set. Set can not be operated if If by interchanging any P A = P B. Running set as cumulatively cascaded with.F.f.M. N = 120f / (PA + PB) d. N of the set is decided by the 3. N = 120f / (PA . four different speeds are It is possible that the possible as. injected voltage may oppose a. With respect to the rotor induced e. be at a slip frequency.m. rotor resistance and 103 .PB ) This method is also rarely used due to following disadvantages : 1. With respect to increases. total number of poles equal to 4.. the magnitude of the injected Ns = 120f/PB e. cumulatively cascaded motors. If it is in the phase synchronous speed of B of rotor induced e.PB. The starting torque is not PA. the Injecting Slip-Frequency reversal of direction of rotating E. independently.PB. independently with main motor effective rotor resistance is disconnected and B is decreases.m. or may synchronous speed of A assist the rotor induced e. It requires two motors which makes the set expensive. into Rotor Circuit magnetic field of B is achieved In this method. Ns = 120f/PA effective rotor resistance b.f.

This principle.c. The d.c. motor that the design of a rotary which acts as s field regulator. side and d.c.c. voltage is given to the slip of which is to be controlled. side of a rotary Scherbius system converter. Practically two methods Thus the d. back e. shunt motor commutator.c. voltage on 1.c.c. Another resistance is introduced in the advantage of the system is field circuit of a d. Now rotary 1. motor and speed control is possible. the controlled.f.c. Kramer system 2. A mills use such type of speed separate d.2 Scherbius System rheostat R.c. the speed a. of the d.m. Very large motors above which is directly connected to 4000 kW such as steel rolling the shaft of the main motor. When the field 104 . rings of the main motor. This induction motor M.1 shows the between its a. motor with the 1. So the The two additional equipments voltage injected in the rotor of are.c. motor and rotary main motor changes which converter.c. the d. Similarly if rotary converter is overexcited.c. Thus voltage on It consists of main its a. The variable control is possible.c. The main advantage of required to excite the field this method is that a smooth winding of d. of motor changes. scheme of a kramer system. These methods are. exciting winding of a rotary Similarly wide range of speed converter. voltage at the are available which use this commutator changes. side voltages. side also changes. d. changes the d.c.effectively speed can be resistance is changed. side of produces the required speed rotary converter feeds a d. it draws leading current and thus power factor Fig. control.1 Kramer system improvement is also possible The speed of the set is alongwith the necessary speed controlled by varying the field control. converter is practically independent of the speed control required.1 Kramer System converter has a fixed ratio The Fig. supply is control.

levers and other regulating transformer can be mechanical arrangements are varied. Similarly transformer. this changes the necessary to apply mechanical voltage developed in the rotor brakes. 2 shows the deviates from a fixed value scheme of a Scherbius only to the extent of the slip of system. motor. commutator machine The only disadvantage is which is called Scherbius that these methods can be machine. Similar to the Kramer Fig. is excited at a slip frequency quickly.c. Mechanical brakes Scherbius machine. which is also depends on the skill of injected into the rotor of main the operator. the speed of the main motor remains substantially constant irrespective of the load variations. This control the speed an electric braking is easy and of the main motor. electric brakes can be used to The Scherbius machine is bring an electric motor to rest. The difference used only for slip ring between Kramer system and induction motors. 2 Scherbius system system. this method is also This method requires an used to control speed of large auxiliary 3 phase or 6 phase induction motors. this system is that the Scherbius machine is not Electrical Braking of an directly connected to the main Induction Motor : (Part1) motor. whose speed is to be The mechanical brakes or controlled. the auxiliary induction motor. For any given setting of regulating transformer. The taps on the the linings. Though the motor is induction motor supplied from brought to rest electrically. As against this. smooth through a regulation stop is not possible. But with the from the rotor of a main motor mechanical brakes. reliable hence it is used to The scherbius machine is stop the induction motors very connected directly to the quickly. to main line so that its speed 105 . a. The Fig.

In rheostatic braking. The braking resistance is inserted in the torque is high at high speeds. the net torque mechanical brake is must. 1(b). one supply line out of R.1 Dynamic or Rheostatic and the braking operation is Braking obtained. while in three lead In both cases. phase motor. preferred over three lead maximum toque decreases to connections. 2. the disconnected line is kept open. two types of rheostatic braking can be achieved. Y or B is disconnected from the supply. there is possibility of Note : Thus this method is inequality between the contact effective only for slip ring or resistances in connections of wound rotor induction motors.e.maintain its state of rest a rotor resistance. This is shown in the Fig. And due to high 106 . the braking torque is small This is shown in the Fig. the other line of the machine. Three lead connections : In Fig. the disconnected induction motor line is connected directly to In two lead connections. Depending upon the condition of this disconnected line.1 Dynamic braking of this method. 1(a) and is called two lead connections. two paralleled lines. This might As one of the motor reduce the braking torque and terminal is not connected to even may produce the the supply. In this case the two lead connections is breakdown torque i. Two lead connections : In this method. Hence continues to run as single inspite of low braking torque. produced becomes negative 1. 1. a high connections. rotor circuit. 40% of its original value and The torque-slip motor develops no starting characteristics for motoring torque at all. with the help of But in three lead connections rheostat. the motor motoring torque again.

This is shown in the Fig. melt the rotor bars and even One important aspect may over heat the stator as about plugging is production well. While plugging. The corresponding gross mechanical power is entirely dissipated as heat in the rotor. the motor acts as a rotor is locked. brake. rotor Fig. The plugging should not be Note : The method can be done frequently as due to high applied to both squirrel cage heat produced rotor may attain as well as wound rotor high temperature which can induction motors. 2. Similarly as stator is connected to supply.2 Plugging The reversal of direction of rotation of motor is the main principle in plugging of motor. mainly in crane hoist. Due to this. 2 Torque-slip characteristics continues to receive power Note : Such a dynamic or from stator which also gets rheostat braking is used dissipated as heat in the rotor.and braking operation is of very high heat in the rotor. the load keeps on revolving and rotor absorbs kinetic energy from the revolving load. 3(a) High rotor losses in produces a torque in the plugging reverse direction and the motor tries to rotate in Note : The plugging opposite direction. shown in the Fig. it can be quickly stopped by interchanging any two stator leads. In case of an induction motor. the direction of rotating magnetic field gets reversed suddenly. 3(a) 1. Thus during the than those produced when plugging. causing speed to reduce. This Fig. Effectively produces very high I2R losses the brakes are applied to the in the rotor which are more motor. 107 .

dynamic braking.c. d. The heat produced is less compared to the plugging. is supplied to terminals can be connected to the stator. Any two stator When d. dynamic braking a d. 3(b) D.c. The may be kept open or may be number of stationary poles is connected directly to other P for which stator winding is stator terminal. the kinetic energy gets dissipated as heat in the rotor. dynamic braking are. This voltage produces with other stator terminal it is an a. Electrical Braking of an Induction Motor : (Part2) 1. Thus dynamic dynamic breaking of an braking is achieved. supply. current in the rotor. Dynamic Braking A quick stopping of an induction motor and its high inertia load can be achieved by connecting stator terminals to Fig. If third rotor cuts the flux produced by terminal is kept open it is the stationary poles.c. supply. Note : In some industrial applications where quick stop of motor and its load is necessary. D. 1.c.c.c. the plugging method is used.C. Thus the called two lead connections a. a d.C. The called three lead connections. This is called wound. 108 .3. supply and third terminal S are produced in stator.c. When all induction motor.c. 3(b) dissipated at the expenditure shows two lead connections of kinetic energy stored in the with a diode bridge for a d. As rotor is rotating. The Fig. rotating parts. voltage gets induced in the while if it is shorted directly rotor. The advantages of d. motor works as a generator A diode bridge can be used to and the R losses are get d. the induction motor comes to rest. stationary poles N.c.

c. current. The 3. The torque-slip If the rotor speed is characteristics for motoring increased greater than the and generating action is synchronous speed with the shown in the Fig. it is called magnitude of the d. 4. Regenerative Braking The input power to a three phase induction motor is given by. 1. and rotor current also reverse.2. It delivers active power to the 3 phase line. the power flow reverses hence rotor induced e. it acts as an induction generator. 4. 4 Regenerative braking Pin = 3 Vph Iph cos Note : The active power where Φ = Angle delivered back is proportional between stator phase voltage to the slip above the and phase current synchronous speed.f. Fig. 5.m. The Φ becomes greater than 90o. The braking torque is arrangement for regenerative proportional to the square of braking is shown in the Fig. help of external device. So rotor produces torque in opposite direction to achieve the braking. It converts the input mechanical energy which is given back to supply. motoring action. The slip This Φ is less than 90o for the is negative for such operation. Quick stopping of the motor is possible. The method can be used for wound rotor or squirrel cage rotor induction motors. The energy dissipated in the energy is given back to the rotor is not dependent on the lines while braking. the d. current. regenerative braking. 5.c.4. As the electrical 109 .

60 A etc) at While the disadvantage is that voltage ratings of 240 V / 415 V for fixed frequency supply it are commercially available. commercial powders. ON or OFF. 40. During overload or any other type of fault. In case of induction motor it will be used to give 3 phase supply to the motor. high miniature circuit breakers are dielectric strength and virtually widely used. The breaker has unit Under normal operation construction from which conditions. Thus two separate elements are not The main advantage is that required. and the terminal contacts are Induction Motor Protection assembled in a moulded case. 1. can be used only for speeds The tripping mechanism above synchronous speed. 15. breaker. 50. In case of induction motor protection circuit the functions Fig. 5 Torque-slip of thermal overload relay and characteristics for contactors are done solely regenerative braking with the help of MCB. it can be operated multiple pole breakers can be as a switch to make the circuit 110 . They ensure high and industrial applications mechanical strength. The current fuses are replaced by these carrying parts are made out of circuit breakers. 30. 10. The tripping mechanism is actuated by magnetic and thermal sensing devices provided within the MCB. It combines electrolytic copper or silver the features of good HRC fuse alloy depending upon rating of and a good switch. used for useful purposes. Various current the generated power can be ratings (Typically include 5. it is operated automatically and isolate the faulty circuit from the supply.1 Miniature Circuit Breaker moulded out of thermosetting In all the domestic. it is operated. 20. Conventional no ageing.

made by assembly of single pole breakers. THE END 111 .

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