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Reading For Results, 12th edition

Answer Key, Chapter 6

Exercise 1

1. A, b, d
2. C, d, e
3. B, c, e
4. A, d, e

Exercise 2

1. 1, 5
2. 1, 4
3. 3, 5
4. 2, 6

Main Idea
Exercise 3 Earth made up of several different layers.

1.

Major Supporting Detail Major Supporting Detail Major Supporting Detail
Outer crust layer closest to surface, consisting Mantle underneath crust, Earth’s core made of nickel
of lightweight rock that extends for 20 miles two thousand miles thick and iron, undergoes high
(4) temperatures (6)

Minor Supporting Detail Major Supporting Detail
Portions of mantle very hot. Metals won’t melt because 50
pounds of pressure borne by
each square inch. (7)

3. this phrase is not especially meaningful. Sentence 11 and 12. = 1. 4 5. = Sentence 4 is an essential detail because it clarifies the meaning of the phrase “simplest form of business ownership” from the previous major detail. those with themselves and completely in only food fared others. = 3 AND 8. . = Sentence 8 is an essential minot detail because it helps explain why the group bond was necessary for women. Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Detail Detail Detail 1959 experiment 1962. 11. 2. (10) poorly (6) Exercise 4 1.” (9) cloth figure and a (7) wire figure that dispensed blood. 1. = 6. Without the minor detail. are nonessential because they repeat what’s been said previously. 5 3. one with a cloth mother in steel chambers had physical figure and second called “pits of contact. =What exactly is a sole partnership? How does it work? 4. Harlow and By the 1970’s involved two his wife raised one Harlow was groups of group of monkeys isolating monkeys monkeys. shock. = How could evolutionary history affect speech behavior? How does the book Duels and Duets connect speech behavior to evolutionary history? 4. Main Idea Harry Harlow’s experiments with infant monkeys have been criticized for their cruelty to the animals 2. Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Major Supporting Detail Detail Detail Detail The other group had Those with physical Monkeys raised in Monkeys emerged only the wire figure contact were better isolation hurt from them that dispensed blood adjusted. = 3 2. = 2. with a group in isolation despair. in contrast. 10 3. 12 5. 1. = 3 2. 7.

study Exercise 7 1. M. In medical diagnosis. (2) listing possible tests that remain to be tried. technique 2. m. objectives. = 4 4. M. One approach to minimizing the limitations of both computers and humans is to have them work together in ways that create a better outcome than either could achieve alone. m. and (3) indicating either that certain tests have been left undone or that a new sequence of tests should be done. M. advantages. techniques. 1. M 2. The computer then combines this information in a completely unbiased way to identify the most likely diagnosis. m. M. for example. advantage 5. studies. = 2 3. This kind of human-machine teamwork can also help with the assessment of psychological problems.” M. laboratory technologists who examine blood samples for the causes of disease are assisted by computer programs that serve to reduce errors and memory lapses by (1) keeping track of findings from previous tests. 2. symptoms. symptom 3. M. Similarly. Topic Sentence = Parents typically discipline children in one of three ways.Exercise 5 1. = 0 . = The different ways humans and computers work together to create a better outcome. objective 4. Topic Sentence = Several factors account for the birth of what some have called the lottery or “better government. M Exercise 6 1. the human’s role is to establish the presence and nature of a patient’s symptoms. m.

holds. and blows that may one day permit them to participate in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). they have to follow regimented routines that do not allow for laziness or a careless attitude toward instructions. at the same time. teaching them. the sport was confined to grown men and women. Moreover. b . Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that. but it has gotten a toehold among kids. proponents insist that mixed martial arts will encourage children to work hard and compete to win. first. = 4 3. a 3. the physical activity demanded by MMA is a blessing rather than a curse. also 2. 2. as the name suggests. 1. how to learn from defeat. b 4. = 3 4. Supporters also argue that in the United States where childhood obesity is steadily growing. who are training to learn the various moves. 2. b 2. which is wildly popular on cable television. some parents argue that real benefits are derived from children training for this sport. = 1 Exercise 8 1. Supporters of MMA for children claim that the training teaches them discipline. Moreover. For a while. Finally Exercise 9 1. = The real benefits from mixed martial arts. combines a mix of martial arts. While many are horrified by the idea of children learning mixed martial arts. Second. To participate. ranging from jujitsu to kickboxing and wrestling.

Transitions that signal addition are clues to major details. b 5. 3. a 2. in addition. personal illustrations. statistics. depends on the relationship to the main idea 2. d. b. b. e 3. 10. d TEST 3 1. 4. studies. reasons. also. dates. Minor details are the more specific sentences that further explain major ones. a. symbols. TEST 2 1. c 4.TEST 1 1. 8. examples. c. (1) concluding sentences explain how an event or situation described in the reading turns out over the course of time. e 2. c . 5. first. Answers will vary for this one. Symptoms. Major details introduce the explanations or evidence topic sentences need to be clear and convincing. finally. The reader needs to evaluate them and consider how essential they are to understanding the major details they further explain. (2) they pave the way for the arrival of a new main idea in the next paragraph. a. in the same vein. factors (or other reasonable answers). e 3. Here are some possibilities: Reasons. 6. 7. Broad category words that can be divided into more specific sub-categories. The concluding sentences may add some crucial information about the topic and help you better understand what follows. facts. They can be essential of nonessential depending on the paragraph. d 4. They anticipate and start to answer questions readers might raise about the topic sentence. c. second 9. Moreover. d.

7 . 3 . 4 . 6 . .TEST 4 1. Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Detail Detail Detail 5 . 4 . 5 . 9 . Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Detail Detail Detail Detail 2 . 8 . 8 . Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Major Supporting Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail 2 . Main Idea 1 . 2. 7 . Main Idea 1 . Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Minor Supporting Detail Detail Detail 3 . 6 .

M. 4 e. m. M. 2 e. 1 e. concluding sentence 2. Maternal rules b. M. Topic Sentence = Most middle-class Americans generally maintain four principle zones of distance in their personal and professional relationships. a. 4 d. M. seems to be an especially fertile ground for superstitious beliefs. m. methods b. m. 4 c. Topic Sentence = But professional sports. and some of the most famous athletes have also been the most superstitious. a.TEST 5 1. a. c 4. supporting detail TEST 6 1. m. m. M. Topic Sentence = But even those of us who use recitation to remember don’t realize that there are two different methods: active and passive. 3 c. 4 d. Superstitious athletes b. Topic Sentence = The research by Gralinski and Kopp suggests that maternal rules vary with the child’s age. M. c . 2 d. 2 c. 4 c. M. M. The different zones of distance b. m 3. 3 e. fueled by the fear of failure in front of a crowd. a. m. M 2. supporting detail 4. supporting detail 3. 3 d.

B 10. A 6. B 8. B 3.TEST 7 1. C 2. C 9. C 7. C 5. B 4. A .