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# The Concept of Mass

GOZE
Jefford
Angeles
March 18, 2018
“The greatest enemy of knowledge
is not ignorance, it is the illusion of
knowledge.”- Stephen Hawking
demanded by Einstein's equivalence
Mass, in physics, the quantity of matter  principle of ​relativity​; so that at the
in a body regardless of its volume or of  same location equal (inertial) masses
any forces acting on it. The term should  have equal weights. Because the
not be confused with ​weight​, which is  numerical value for the mass of a body
the measure of the force of gravity  is the same anywhere in the world, it is
acting on a body. Under ordinary  used as a basis of reference for many
conditions the mass of a body can be  physical measurements, such as
considered to be constant; its weight,  density and heat capacity. According to
however, is not constant, since the  the special theory of relativity, mass is
force of gravity varies from place to  not strictly constant but increases with
place. There are two ways of referring  the speed according to the
to mass, depending on the law of  formula m=m​0​/1-v​2​/c​2​, where m​0​ is the
physics defining it: gravitational mass  rest mass of the body, v is its speed,
and inertial mass. The gravitational  and c is the speed of light in vacuum.
mass of a body may be determined by  This increase in mass, however, does
comparing the body on a beam balance  not become appreciable until very great
with a set of standard masses; in this  speeds are reached. The rest mass of a
way the gravitational factor is  body is its mass at zero velocity. The
eliminated. The inertial mass of a body  special theory of relativity also leads to
is a measure of the body's resistance to  the Einstein mass-energy
acceleration by some external force.  relation, E=mc​2​, where E is the energy,
One body has twice as much inertial  and m and c are the (relativistic) mass
mass as another body if it offers twice  and the speed of light, respectively.
as much force in opposition to the same  Because of this equivalence of mass
acceleration. All evidence seems to  and ​energy​, the law of conservation of
indicate that the gravitational and  energy was extended to include mass as a
form of energy.
inertial masses of a body are equal, as

.