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MILLER/SPOOLMAN

LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH

Chapter 5
Biodiversity, Species
Interactions, and Population
Control
Southern Sea Otter

Fig. 5-1a, p. 104
5-1 How Do Species Interact?
• Concept 5-1 Five types of species interactions—
competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and
commensalism—affect the resource use and
population sizes of the species in an ecosystem.
Species Interact in Five Major Ways
• Interspecific Competition

• Predation

• Parasitism

• Mutualism

• Commensalism
Most Species Compete with One
Another for Certain Resources
• For limited resources

• Ecological niche for exploiting resources

• Some niches overlap
Some Species Evolve Ways to Share
Resources
• Resource partitioning
• Using only parts of resource

• Using at different times

• Using in different ways
Resource Partitioning Among Warblers

Fig. 5-2, p. 106
Blackburnian Black-throated Cape May Bay-breasted Yellow-rumped
Warbler Green Warbler Warbler Warbler Warbler

Fig. 5-2, p. 106
Blackburnian Black-throated Cape May Bay-breasted Yellow-rumped
Warbler Green Warbler Warbler Warbler Warbler

Stepped Art
Fig. 5-2, p. 106
Specialist Species of Honeycreepers

Fig. 5-3, p. 107
Fruit and seed eaters Insect and nectar eaters
Greater Koa-finch

Kuai Akialaoa

Amakihi
Kona Grosbeak

Crested
Honeycreeper
Akiapolaau

Maui Parrotbill Apapane

Unknown finch ancestor Fig. 5-3, p. 107
Most Consumer Species Feed on Live
Organisms of Other Species (1)
• Predators may capture prey by
1. Walking
2. Swimming
3. Flying
4. Pursuit and ambush
5. Camouflage
6. Chemical warfare
Predator-Prey Relationships

Fig. 5-4, p. 107
Most Consumer Species Feed on Live
Organisms of Other Species (2)
• Prey may avoid capture by
1. Run, swim, fly
2. Protection: shells, bark, thorns
3. Camouflage
4. Chemical warfare
5. Warning coloration
6. Mimicry
7. Deceptive looks
8. Deceptive behavior
Some Ways Prey Species Avoid
Their Predators

Fig. 5-5, p. 109
(a) Span worm
Fig. 5-5a, p. 109
(b) Wandering leaf insect
Fig. 5-5b, p. 109
(c) Bombardier beetle
Fig. 5-5c, p. 109
(d) Foul-tasting monarch butterfly
Fig. 5-5d, p. 109
(e) Poison dart frog
Fig. 5-5e, p. 109
(f) Viceroy butterfly mimics monarch
butterfly
Fig. 5-5f, p. 109
(g) Hind wings of Io moth resemble
eyes of a much larger animal.

Fig. 5-5g, p. 109
(h) When touched, snake
caterpillar changes shape to look
like head of snake.
Fig. 5-5h, p. 109
(a) Span worm (b) Wandering leaf insect

(c) Bombardier beetle (d) Foul-tasting monarch butterfly

(f) Viceroy butterfly mimics
(e) Poison dart frog monarch butterfly

(g) Hind wings of Io moth (h) When touched,
resemble eyes of a much snake caterpillar changes
larger animal. shape to look like head of snake.
Stepped Art
Fig. 5-5, p. 109
Science Focus: Threats to Kelp Forests
• Kelp forests: biologically diverse marine habitat

• Major threats to kelp forests
1. Sea urchins
2. Pollution from water run-off
3. Global warming
Purple Sea Urchin

Fig. 5-A, p. 108
Some Species Feed off Other Species
by Living on or in Them
• Parasitism

• Parasite is usually much smaller than the host

• Parasite rarely kills the host

• Parasite-host interaction may lead to coevolution
Parasitism: Trout with Blood-Sucking Sea Lamprey

Fig. 5-7, p. 110
In Some Interactions, Both Species
Benefit
• Mutualism

• Nutrition and protection relationship

• Gut inhabitant mutualism

• Not cooperation: it’s mutual exploitation
Mutualism: Hummingbird and Flower

Fig. 5-8, p. 110
Mutualism: Oxpeckers Clean Rhinoceros; Anemones
Protect and Feed Clownfish

Fig. 5-9, p. 111
(a) Oxpeckers and black rhinoceros Fig. 5-9a, p. 111
(b) Clownfish and sea anemone
Fig. 5-9b, p. 111
In Some Interactions, One Species Benefits
and the Other Is Not Harmed
• Commensalism

• Epiphytes

• Birds nesting in trees
Commensalism: Bromiliad Roots on Tree Trunk Without
Harming Tree

Fig. 5-10, p. 111