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International Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science IJPBCS

Vol. 5(1), pp. 352-360, March, 2018. © www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: XXXX-XXXX

Research Article

Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and
yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill)
varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
*Deresse Hunde Desissa1, Hirpa Legesse Gemechu2
1
Ethiopian Institutes of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Pawe Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box: 25, Pawe,
Ethiopia
2
Wollega University Department of plant science P.O. Box: 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia

The16 Soybean genotypes were evaluated for Association of characters and path coefficient
analysis on eleven important yield and grain yield contributing characters at Bako Tibe during the
main cropping season of 2015/16. The experiment was designed as RCBD with three- replication.
Generally, the magnitudes of genotypic correlation coefficients for most of the characters were
higher than their corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients that indicate the presence of
inherent association among various characters. In this study yield was positively correlated with
hundred seed weight, number of seed/pod and number of pod per plant so, increasing these traits
ultimately increases in grain yield and days to maturity can be exploited through improvement
and selection program. Based on findings it can be concluded that pod length, number of pod
/plant, biological yield, grain yield and days to maturity can be exploited through selection and
improvement program to develop high yielding soybean genotypes.

Keywords: Genotypic correlation, Phenotypic correlation, Path coefficient, Characters, Soybean, Genotypes

INTRODUCTION

Many developing countries in the tropics show interests in (Gebremedhine and Hoekstra, 2008). Development of
the production of soybean due to raised demands for use high yielding varieties with desired plant characters and
in animal feed, regulating soil fertility and reducing the cost duration of maturity are paramount importance for any
of nitrogen fertilizer and increasing demands of protein and crop improvement program. So that, genotypes with
vegetable oil (Rashed et al., 2012). Soybean production in suitable plant types are to be selected from a diverse pool
Ethiopia is very important to overcome malnutrition and for their future utilization as parents in the hybridization
substitutes domestic animal products. The area production program.
of soybean in the country is increased due to increasing
demands of soy cooking oil, soy fortified food, animal feed
and improving human nutrition (CIAT, 2010). However its
cultivation is still now not spread much and its average *Corresponding Author: Deresse Hunde Desissa,
yield is very low as compared to other crop grown at the Ethiopian Institutes of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Pawe
same season (CSA, 2014).This low productivity of this Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box: 25, Pawe,
crop is due to various reasons, but, the major reason is Ethiopia. Email: deressehunde20@gmail.com, Tel: +251-
lack of improved varieties, limited knowledge on its 912-349-587, Fax: +251-585-500-325 Co-Author Email:
potential as food, difficulty in processing (knowledge and hirpalegese@gmail.com, Tel: +251-930-419-622 Fax:
technology) and difficulty in marketing the crop +251 576617980
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Deresse and Hirpa 353

Yield is a complex character influenced by yield influencing Experimental Design and Field Management
traits controlled by many gene and influenced by env’t
(Aravind et al., 2006). Therefore, variability for these The experiment was laid out in RCBD design with three
characters is the result of genetic effect and environmental replications. At planting, 80kg DAP per hectare were
effect. Hence it is necessary to predict the relationships applied and Planting was done manually by placing two
between yield and its contributing characters that affecting seeds per hill, which were later thinned to one plant per
through direct or in direct path and measures the hill. Each plot consisted of four rows of 4 m length with
magnitudes and directions of characters in relations with spacing of 2 m between block, 1m between plot, 0.6 m
yields, Many farmers still know unable to distinguish between rows and 5 cm between plants. Necessary
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] from common bean agronomic packages such as 80kgDAP, thinning to one
(Phaseolus vulgaris) in Bako-Tibe district and there was plant per hill, proper weeding after two weak of emergence
no any genetic correlation, association of characters and were applied and data were collected on 13 yield
path coefficient analysis studies conducted in western contributing traits on the two middle harvestable rows for
Ethiopia Bako-Tibe district. Therefore, there is a scarcity of Days to 50% flowering: number of days after planting when
information regarding genetic correlation, association of 50% of plants in the plot give the first flower. Days to 50%
characters and path analysis of traits on yield and its pod setting: Number of days after planting when 50% of
components in Ethiopia in general and at Bako Tibe in plants in the plot give the first pod formation. Days to 50%
particular. Hence the present studies were conducted to maturity: Number of days after planting when 95% of
attain the following objectives: To estimate genotypic plants in the plot is matured. Plant height(cm): The
correlation and characters associated with seed yield and average height of five random sampled plants in each plot
yield contributing traits in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) measured in centimeter from the ground surface to the top
Merrill] genotypes; To masseur the natures and of the main stem at maturity (sum of five randomly selected
magnitudes of characters at phenotypic and genotypic plants divided by five). Leaf area index(cm): Measured by
levels of characters among 16 Soybean genotypes using centimeter and its index is the ratio of leaf area to
evaluated To estimates and identify the most influential ground covered. Number of branch per plant: The average
traits which have direct and indirect path coefficient effects number of branch of five random sampled plants in each
on Soybean yield and plot (total number of branch of five randomly selected
plants divided by five. Number of nodule per plant: The
To identify the most important traits that influencing yield average number of nodule of five random sampled plants
and to be used as character for parental selection that in each plot (total number of nodules of five randomly
breeder used in future crossing program selected plants divided by five.

Effective nodules: The average number of effective
MATERIALS AND METHODS nodules of five random sampled plants in each plot (total
number of effective nodule of five randomly selected plants
Description of the study area divided by five. None-effective nodules: The average
number of none-effective nodules of five random sampled
The study was conducted at Bako Tibe district on Farmers plants in each plot (total number of None-effective nodule
Training Center during the main cropping season of of five randomly selected plants divided by five. Number
2015/16. The site is located in West Showa zone Oromia of pods/plant: The average number of pods of five random
regional states western Ethiopia, at 223km west of Addis sampled plants in each plot (total number of pods of five
Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The site lies at906’North randomly selected plants divided by five. Pods length (cm):
latitude and 3709’East longitude and at an altitude of about The average number of pods length of five random
1650 meter above sea level (m.a.s.l).The area receives an sampled plants in each plot (total number of pods length
annual rainfall of 1237 mm. The annual average minimum of five randomly selected plants divided by five. Biological
and maximum temperatures of Bako Tibe are ranges from yield ton/hectares (g), Seed yield ton/hectare (g): Seed
13.5-29.7 0c with average annual rain fall of 1237 mm. yield (in gram) from the harvestable plot area. It will be
The specific soil type of the site is reddish-brown in color adjusted to 10% moisture level to give adjusted yield.
well drained Niti soil with the Ph value ranges from 5.5-5.6. Hundred seed weight (g): The average weight in gram of
random sample of 100 seeds of each plot. Number of seed
EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS / pod: The average number of seeds of five randomly
sampled plants in each plot divided by the average number
The experimental materials used for the current of pods of those five randomly selected plant and harvest
experiment consisted of a total of 16 entries (Table1). index as the ratios of biomass yield to seed yield (g): The
Genetic materials were obtained from Bako Agricultural ratio of biological yield to seed yield. Data obtained from13
Research Center (BARC) in 2015/16, which comprised of selected characters were statistically analyzed using GLM
eight released and eight pipelines and two standard procedure of SAS software version (9.0) and the treatment
checks namely, Belessa-95 and Jalele. mean that exhibited significance difference were
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 354

separated using student Neumankeullstest (SNK) at 5% 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑥. 𝑦 = phenotypic co-variance between variable
level of significance (SAS,2004). 𝑥 and𝑦,
2
𝜎𝑝𝑥 𝑖𝑠 = phenotypic variance for variable
RCBD ANOVA was computed using the following model 2
x,𝜎𝑝𝑦 is phenotypic variance for variable y.

Yij = µ +rj + gi+ µ ij Path coefficient analysis
Where, Yij= the response of trait y in the ith genotype and Path analysis has been used by plant breeders to identify
the jth replication, µ= the grand mean of trait y, rj= the traits that are useful as selection criteria to improve crop
effects of the jth replication, gi=effect of the ith genotype yield (Dewey and Lu, 1959, Samonte et al., 1998). Yield,
and µ ij = experimental error effect being a complex trait, has been observed to be associated
with a number of yield influencing traits. For full
Table 1: List of the study materials understanding of the complex relationships between yield
S/No Genotypes Seed Pedigree Genotypes and other characters, the computation of direct and
sources (released/ indirect effects of these traits on yield is essential.
pipline) Therefore, Path coefficient analysis is a statistical tool
1 BOSHE BARI/OARI IAC-13-1 RELEASED developed by Wright (1921) and is a useful technique
2 AWASSA-95 BARI/OARI AG-2261 RELEASED designed to ascertain the path along which relationships
3 NVT-P41 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE among variables are oriented and facilitated the
4 NVT-P11 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE understanding of the causal relationship between the
5 NVT-P28 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE interrelated variables. Path coefficient analysis was
6 CHARI BARI/OARI IPB-81-EP-7 RELEASED conducted as suggested by Wright (1921) and worked out
7 BELESSA95 BARI/OARI PR-149 RELEASED by Dewey and Lu (1959) using the phenotypic as well as
standard
genotypic correlation coefficients to determine the direct
check)
8 ETHIO BARI/OARI YUGOSLAVIA RELEASED
and indirect effects of yield components on seed yield
based on the following relationship. rij = Pij + ∑ rik Pkj
9 DIDESSA BARI/OARI PR-149-81- RELEASED Where, rij = Mutual association between the independent
EP-7-2
character (i) and dependent character, grain yield (j) as
10 JALALE BARI/OARI - RELEASED
(Local check) measured by the correlation coefficients. P= Components
11 NVT-P32 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE of direct effects of the independent character (i) as
12 AWASSA- BARI/OARI - RELEASED measured by the path coefficients and rij, ∑ rikp =
O4 summation of components of indirect of a given
13 NVT-P36 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE independent character (i) on a given dependent character
14 NVT-P23 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE (j) via all other independent characters (k). The
15 NVT-P22 BARI/OARI - PIPLINE contribution of the remaining unknown factor was
16 NVT-P42 BARI/OARI PIPLINE measured as the residual factor (PR), which is calculated
as: PR=√( 1 − ∑𝑟𝑖𝑗𝑝𝑖𝑗) the magnitude of PR indicates how
Source: Ethiopian Institutes of Agricultural Research (EIAR),
Bako Agricultural Research Center (BARC) best the causal factors account for the variability of the
dependent factor (Singh and Chaudhary, 1999). That is, if
Correlation Coefficient among quantitative traits PR value is small (for instance, nearly zero) the dependent
characters considered (seed yield) is fully explained by the
Both genotypic and environmental effects of variation and variability in the independent characters, whereas higher
genotypic correlation coefficient are the inherent PR value indicates that some other factors which have not
association between two variables, where estimated by been considered, need to be included in the analysis to
using the formula of (Gibouri et al., 1958) as (rgxy) account fully the variation in the dependent character(seed
𝑟𝑔 = 𝐺𝐶𝑂𝑉.𝑋𝑌 yield).
√ (2 𝑔𝑥−2
𝑔𝑦 )

Where, 𝑟𝑔 genotypic correlation coefficient RESULTS AND DISCATION 𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑥
. 𝑦 = Genotypic co-variance between variable ‘x’ and
’y’ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 𝜎𝑔
2𝑥 = Genotypic variance for variable ‘x’,
2 The analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due 𝜎𝑔𝑦
= is genotypic variance for variable ’y’
to genotypes were significant (P< 0.05) for days to 50%
Phenotypic correlation coefficient (rpxy) flowering, days to 50% maturity and number of branch per
𝑟𝑝 = 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑣. 𝑥𝑦
plant and highly significant (P<0.01) for grain yield,
√(𝜎2 𝑝𝑥) (𝜎2
𝑝𝑦 ) biomass yield, plant height, hundred seed weight pod
Where, 𝑟𝑝 = phenotypic correlation coefficient, length, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Deresse and Hirpa 355

pods and effective nodules (Table 2). The significant mean NSPP = NO. Seed/pod,
squares due to genotypes indicated the existence of LAI = Leaf area index,
variability among the studed genotypes, which could be HI = Harvest index,
exploited for the improvement of selected traits. Significant CV= coefficient of variation
differences (P<0.01 or P<0.05) were observed between
Estimates of Phenotypic correlation coefficient
genotypes for the studied traits.

Table 2: Mean Value, Coefficient of variation, Range and Estimates of phenotypic correlation coefficient between
Mean squares of some yield contributing traits of 16 each pair of characters are presented in (Table3). The
Soybean genotypes. magnitudes of phenotypic correlation coefficient for most
of the characters were lower than their corresponding
Characters Mean CV Range Mean squares
(%) Minimum Maximum Genotypes Error
genotypic correlation coefficient except few cases which
df=15 df=30 indicates the influence of the environment effects among
DF 50% 68.1 2.84 61.3 72.3 19.72** 3.74 themselves and with grain yields and it is not essential to
DP 50% 76.5 1.81 70.0 80.0 16.93** 1.92 establish selection criteria for such traits. However, seed
DM 50% 136.5 4.80 122.0 145.0 79.33** 2.39 yield is positive and significantly associated with number
PH 57.5 4.81 49.9 71.91 0.079** 0.022 of pod per plant, number of seed/pod, hundred seed
NBPP 3.8 6.17 2.5 4.5 134.0** 7.67 weight and number of branch/plant (Table 3). Fikiru (2004)
NPPP 61.3 3.21 46.2 68.2 0.66** 0.55 reported positive phenotypic correlation of seed yield with
PODL 2.6 6.35 2.0 3.2 107.13** 3.89
number of seeds per pod and hundred seed weight in
Gytha 4.4 3.69 3.7 5.0 0.72** 0.028
Bytha 10.3 2.06 8.9 12.3 14.49** 0.278
soybean. Therefore, any improvement of these characters
HSW 11.2 2.97 10.1 12.4 0.47** 0.026 would result a substantial increment on seed yield. In
NSPP 3.1 6.01 2.5 3.4 1.61** 0.278 addition, seed yield showed positive and significant
LAI 3.5 4.24 3.3 3.92 0.32** 0.034 phenotypic association with number of pods per plant,
HI 0.42 2.66 0.4 0.43 0.0003** 0.00012 number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight and
** Significant at P < 0.01 or p<0.05 indicated that mean squares number of branch per plant (Table 3). Therefore, any
due to genotypes were either highly significant (P< 0.01) or improvement of these Characters would result a
significant (P<0.05) for most traits studied. substantial increment on seed yield. Fikru (2004) reported
number of pods per plant followed by number of branch
Where, DF = Days to 50% flowering, per plant and 100 seed weight were positively associated
DP = Days to 50% initiates pod setting, with seed yield in soybean genotypes. Seed yield had
DM = Days to 50% maturity,
significant negative phenotypic correlation with days to
PH = Plant height,
NBPP = NO. Of branch/plant, maturity and days to 50% flowering, this may be related to
NPPP = NO. Of pods p/ plant, the fact that when days to maturity increase the phenology
PDL = Pod length, of the crop enters in to the dry spell, which leads to yield
Grain yield tone/ha = G. yield/ tone / hectare, loss.
Bytha = Bio.yield/tone/ hectare,
HSW = Hundred seed weight,

Table 3: Phenotypic correlation coefficient of 16 Soybean Genotypes Evaluated at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia in 2015/16
Traits DF DM PH NBPP LAI EFNO NPPP PL NSPP HSW GYTHA BYTHA HI
DF 1 0.36 0.13 -0.21 -0.69 -0.2 -0.22 -0.52 -0.49 -0.43 -0.32 -0.28 -0.16
DM 1 -0.46 -0.27 -0.61 -0.29 -0.11 -0.19 -0.17 -0.47 -0.31 -0.43 -0.35
PH 1 -0.12 0.25 -0.1 -0.37 -0.24 -0.21 0.27 0.04 0.22 -0.58*
NBPP 1 0.14 0.66** 0.49* 0.67* 0.67** 0.39* 0.58* 0.61** -0.12
LAI 1 -0.03 -0.11 0.01 0.11 0.21 0.22 0.29 -0.21
EFNO 1 0.76** 0.79** 0.81*** 0.48* 0.66** 0.63** 0.1
NPPP 1 0.76** 0.61** 0.14 0.46 0.39 0.19
PL 1 0.92*** 0.62* 0.79** 0.72** 0.25
NSPP 1 0.59* 0.81** 0.70** 0.39
HSW 1 0.83** 0.82** 0.14
GYTHA 1 0.97** 0.28
BYTHA 1 -0.03
HI 1
Where DF = Days to 50% flowering, DP = Days to 50% initiates pod setting, DM = Days to 50% maturity, PH = Plant height, NBPP =
NO. Of branch/plant, NPPP = NO. Of pods p/ plant, PDL = Pod length, G ytha = Grain yield/ tone / hectare, Bytha = B.yield/tone/
hectare, HSW = Hundred seed weight, NSPP = NO. Seed/pod, LAI = Leaf area index, HI = Harvest index, *, **, *** = indicants strongly,
highly and positively association of seed yield contributing traits at genotypic level respectively at 5% and1% probability level.

Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 356

Table 4: Genotypic correlation of 16 Soybean Genotypes Evaluated using 13 traits at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia in 2015/16
Traits DF DM PH NBPP LAI EFNO NPPP PL NSPP HSW GYtha BYtha HI
DF 1
DM 0.33 1
PH 0.16 -0.39 1
NBPP -0.18 -0.24 -0.11 1
LAI -0.49 -0.49 0.17 0.03 1
EFNO -0.14 -0.27 -0.09 0.58* -0.1 1
NPPP -0.16 -0.09 -0.34 0.39* -0.22 0.71** 1
PL -0.42 -0.17 -0.17 0.63** 0.11 0.73** 0.68** 1
NSPP -0.3 -0.3 -0.15 0.58* 0.14 0.71 0.51 0.82** 1
HSW -0.3 -0.39 -0.25 0.39 0.41* 0.43 0.13** 0.57* 0.63** 1
Gyth -0.27 -0.27 0.05 0.51* 0.17 0.62** 0.43 0.74** 0.71** 0.72** 1
BythA -0.26 -0.26 0.2 0.557* 0.23 0.59* 0.37 0.69** 0.64** 0.73** 0.95*** 1
HI -0.08 -0.08 -0.32 -0.09 -0.11 0.12 0.17 0.2 0.26 0.12 0.17 -0.09 1
Where DF = Days to 50% flowering, DP = Days to 50% initiates pod setting, DM = Days to 50% maturity, PH = Plant height, NBPP =
NO. Of branch/plant, NPPP = NO. Of pods p/ plant, PDL = Pod length, G ytha = G.yield/ tone / hectare, Bytha = B.yield/tone/ hectare,
HSW = Hundred seed weight, NSPP = NO. Seed/pod, LAI = Leaf area index, HI = Harvest index, *, **, *** = indicants strongly, highly
and positively association of seed yield contributing traits at genotypic level respectively at 5% and1% probability level.

Estimates of Genotypic correlation coefficient correlation with days to 50% maturity but, negative
correlation with number of branch per plant, number of
Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficient between pods per plant, pod length, leaf area index, plant height,
each pair of characters are presented in (Table 4). The biological yield, Seed yield, number of seed per pods and
magnitudes of genotypic correlation coefficient for most of hundred seed weight (Table 3 and 4).Number of Seeds per
the characters were higher than their corresponding pod was strongly correlated with pod length, effective
phenotypic correlation coefficient except few cases which nodules, number of nodules per plant, number of branch
indicates the inherent association among themselves and per plant and harvest index, Adhikari and Pandey(1982)
with seed yields and it is essential to establish selection were reported high number of seed per pod for the same
criteria for such traits (sigh et al., 1990).Seed yield showed characters in soybean. Hundred seed weight was highly
positive and strong genotypic correlation with yield significant and positively associated with pod length, grain
contributing traits biological yield tone/hectare, number of yield, and biological yield, number of seed per pod, number
seed/pod, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of of branch per plant, number of nodules per plant, effective
pod per plant (Table 4), this result were in agreement with nodules, leaf area index and harvest index (Table 3 and
previous report by Agtarwal etal (2001),Kumar and Arora 4). This result was similar with Adhikari and Pandey (1982)
(1991). Therefore, any improvement of these characters who reported high and positive association of hundred
would result a substantial increment on seed yield. Seed seed weight with pod length, grain yield, and number of
yield showed positive and strong genotypic correlation with seed per pods. The genotypes studied showed wide range
yield contributing characters and is strongly correlated with of variability for most of the characters.
pod length, number of seed per pods, hundred seed weight
and number of pods per plant (Table 4). Similar results Moreover, the high positive relationships between
were reported by Fikru (2004) for the character pod length characters could be effectively exploited in soybean yield
and number of seed per pod. improvement program. For instance, the positive relation
of days to flowering with plant height would indicate that
Correlations among 13 soybeans yield contributing tall plants will ordinarily produce more flowers with a
Characters with each other’s consequent high pods production taking into consideration
the environmental factors prevalent during the
Seed yield had highly significant positive association with reproductive stage. Positive association of plant height
number of seed per pod, number of branch per plant, with hundred seed weight, leaf area index, and pod length,
hundred seed weight, and effective nodules (Table 3 and number of seed per pod, biological yield and Seed yield
4). While significant and positive association were was observed. Chand (1999) and Rajanna et al. (2000),
observed with harvest index ((Table 3 and 4). Days to 50% observed similar results and showed positive and
flowering was strongly and positively correlated with days significant correlations of plant height with number of pods
to 50% pod setting, days to 50% maturity and number of and number of branches in soybean. Whereas, highly
branch per plant, however; highly significant and negative significant and negative correlation were observed with
correlations were observed with leaf area index, pod number of branch per plant, number of pods/plant, days to
length, hundred seed weight, number of seed per pod, 50% maturity and days to 50% flowering, number of seed
biological yield, Seed yield, number of pod per plant, plant per plant, effective nodules were negatively correlated with
height, harvest index and effective nodules (Table 3 and plant height (Table 4). Rajanna et al. (2000) observed
4). Days to 50% pod setting showed significant positive similar results for characters Number of pods per plant,
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Deresse and Hirpa 357

Table 5: Phenotypic Path coefficient analyses of the direct (Bold Diagonal) and indirect path coefficient above and below the diagonal
matrix of ten yield contributing soybean characters Evaluated at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia in 2015/16
DF DM PH NBPP LAI EFNO NPPP PL NSPP HSW BYTHA HI Yield
DF 0.21 0.03 -0.01 -0.002 -0.058 0.12 -0.17 0.54 -0.53 -0.30 -0.16 0.003 -0.32
DM 0.08 0.08 0.04 -0.002 -0.051 0.18 -0.09 0.20 -0.18 -0.30 -0.24 0.006 -0.31
PH 0.03 -0.04 -0.09 -0.001 0.021 0.06 -0.29 0.25 -0.23 0.19 0.12 0.010 0.04
NBPP -0.04 -0.02 0.01 0.01 0.012 -0.40 0.38 -0.70 0.72 0.28 0.34 0.002 0.58
LAI -0.14 -0.05 -0.02 0.001 0.083 -0.40 -0.09 -0.01 0.12 0.71 0.16 0.004 0.22
EFNO -0.04 -0.02 0.01 0.006 -0.003 -0.61 0.59 -0.83 0.87 0.34 0.35 -0.002 0.66
NPPP -0.05 -0.01 0.03 0.004 -0.009 -0.46 0.77 -0.79 0.66 0.10 0.22 -0.003 0.46
PL -0.11 -0.02 0.02 0.006 0.001 -0.48 0.59 -1.05 0.99 0.44 0.40 -0.004 0.79
NSPP -0.10 -0.01 0.02 0.006 0.009 -0.49 0.47 -0.96 1.07 0.42 0.39 -0.007 0.81
HSW -0.09 -0.04 -0.02 0.003 0.018 -0.29 0.11 -0.65 0.63 0.71 0.46 -0.002 0.83
BYTHA -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0.005 0.024 -0.38 0.30 -0.75 0.75 0.58 0.56 0.001 0.97
HI -0.03 -0.03 0.05 -0.001 -0.018 -0.06 0.15 -0.26 0.42 0.10 -0.02 -0.018 0.28
Residual=0.99
Where DF = Days to 50% flowering, DP = Days to 50% initiates pod setting, DM = Days to 50% maturity, PH = Plant height, NBPP =
NO. Of branch/plant, NPPP = NO. Of pods p/ plant, PDL = Pod length, G ytha = Grain yield tone / hectare, HSW = Hundred seed
weight, NSPP = NO. Seed/pod, LAI = Leaf area index, HI = Harvest index

number of nodules per plant, effective nodules, grain yield, the most influential traits in crop improvement program.
hundred seed weight and harvest index were positively The characters number of branch per plant, days to 50%
and high significantly correlated with number of branch per flowering, and days to maturity had positive direct
plant. Similar results were previously reported by Lee et al. phenotypic effect on seed yield. Similar findings were
(2008). reported by Ramana et al. (2000), Gohil et al. (2003),
Mukhekar et al. (2004), Kumar et al. (2005), Gaikwad et al.
Harvest index were positively correlated with number of (2007), Malik et al. (2007), Kamwal et al. (2009), Shaikh
nodules per plant. This result was in agreement with Samal et al. (2010), Machikowa and Laosuwan (2011) and Patil
et al. (1995) work who reported positive relation with et al. (2011) for pods per plant. The effective nodules and
number of nodules per plant. There was a positive and pod length had negative phenotypic direct effect on seed
highly significant correlation between number of pod yield (Table 5). Similar result was reported for plant height
preplan with pod length, number of seed per plant, number by Shrivastava et al. (2001). The phenotypic path indirect
of nodules per plant and effective nodules. Whereas Seed effects of pod length and effective nodule were maximums
yield tone/ha, biological yield, harvest index and hundred through days to flowering 50%, days to maturity and plant
seed weight were positively and significantly correlated height. The highest phenotypic direct effect of number of
with number of pods per plant (Table 3 and 4). But, seed per pods accompanied by maximum indirect effects
numbers of pod per plant were negatively correlated with of other traits via Number of branch per plant, Leaf Area
leaf area index, plant height, days to maturity, days to Index, Effective nodules, number of pods per plant and pod
flowering and days to pod setting (Table 3 and 4). Pod length (Table 5), established this character to be the most
length is positively and high significantly correlated with important component trait of seed yield, Kumar et al.(2005)
number of seed per pod, Seed yield tone/ha, biological found that the number of branches per plant, number of
yield, hundred seed weight, effective nodules, number of pods per plant and days to flower had high positive
branch per plant, number of pod per plant and harvest phenotypic path direct effects on seed yield, whereas plant
index. The result observed in this study agreed with the height has negative phenotypic direct effect on seed yield.
finding of Oz et al. (2009). This suggests that selection The indirect contribution of number of pods per plant, pod
based on these characters will be worthwhile for length, number of seed per pod, hundred seed weight and
improvement. Positive and highly significant correlation biological yield were the highest among the phenotypic
was observed between biological yield with Seed yield, path indirect effects (Table 5). Singh et al. (1995) using
hundred seed weight, number of seed per pod, effective phenotypic path analysis reported that biomass per plant
nodules, pod length, number of nodules per plant, number was a potent contributor to seed yield either through direct
of branch per plant. Hundred seed weight were positive or indirect effects via pods per plant, plant height, and
and significantly correlated with number of seed per pod number of secondary branches per plant.
(Table 3 and 4). This result was similar with Malik et al.,
(2006) they found high number of seed per pod for the Genotypic Path coefficient
same characters.
In present study the Path analysis revealed that genotypic
Phenotypic path coefficient direct and indirect path values for number of seed per
pods, number of pods per plant, hundred seed weight and
Path analysis was done to know the direct and indirect biological yield had high direct and positive effect
effects of various characters on seed yield and to identify respectively on seed yield and followed by Days to50%
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 358

Table 6: Genotypic Path coefficient analysis the direct (Bold Diagonal) and indirect path coefficient above and below the diagonal matrix
for ten yield contributing Soybean characters evaluated at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia in 2015/16
Traits DF DM PH NBPP LAI EFNO NPPP PL NSPP HSW BYTHA HI Yield
DF 0.016 0.17 0.03 -0.02 -0.11 0.02 -0.09 0.31 -0.13 -0.20 -0.12 -0.02 -0.27
DM 0.005 0.52 -0.07 -0.03 -0.11 0.03 -0.05 0.12 -0.13 -0.27 -0.12 -0.02 -0.27
PH 0.002 -0.20 0.19 -0.01 0.04 0.01 -0.19 0.12 -0.06 -0.17 0.09 -0.09 0.05
NBPP -0.003 -0.12 -0.02 0.13 0.01 -0.06 0.22 -0.46 0.06 0.28 0.11 -0.03 0.17
LAI -0.008 -0.25 0.03 0.00 0.22 0.01 -0.12 -0.08 0.06 0.28 0.11 -0.03 0.17
EFNO -0.002 -0.14 -0.02 0.08 -0.02 -0.11 0.40 -0.53 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.03 0.62
NPPP -0.002 -0.05 -0.06 0.05 -0.05 -0.08 0.57 -0.50 0.21 0.09 0.17 0.05 0.43
PL -0.007 -0.09 -0.03 0.08 0.02 -0.08 0.38 -0.73 0.34 0.39 0.32 0.05 0.74
NSPP -0.005 -0.15 -0.03 0.08 0.03 -0.08 0.29 -0.60 0.42 0.43 0.30 0.07 0.71
HSW -0.005 -0.20 -0.05 0.05 0.09 -0.05 0.07 -0.60 0.26 0.68 0.34 -0.02 0.72
BYTHA -0.004 -0.13 0.04 0.07 0.05 -0.06 0.21 -0.51 0.27 0.50 0.47 -0.02 0.95
HI -0.001 -0.04 -0.06 -0.01 -0.02 -0.01 0.10 -0.15 0.11 0.08 -0.04 0.27 0.17
Residual =0.89
Where DF = Days to 50% flowering, DP = Days to 50% initiates pod setting, DM = Days to 50% maturity, PH = Plant height, NBPP =
NO. Of branch/plant, NPPP = NO. Of pods p/ plant, PDL = Pod length, G ytha = Grain yield/ tone / hectare, HSW = Hundred seed
weight, NSPP = NO. Seed/pod, LAI = Leaf area index, HI = Harvest index

maturity, plant height, number of branch per plant, leaf CONCLUSION
area index and harvest index (Table 5 and 6) were
confirming highly significant association of traits with seed The 16 soybean genotypes were planted in randomized
yield. Singh et al. (1990) reported 100 seed weight, plant complete block design with three replications and all
height, days to flowering and days to maturity contributed genotypes were showed direct and indirect association for
to seed yield mainly through indirect effect via biological 13 quantitative traits. In these studies, genotypic and
yield and harvest index. Yucel et al. (2006) found that plant phenotypic correlation of Seed yield was positive and
height and number of pods per plant had the highest direct significantly related with number of pod per plant, number
effect on biomass yield. Yucel et al. (2006) reported that of seed per pod, biological yield, hundred seed weight, and
number of seeds per plant and number of pods per plant number of branch per plant and leaf area index. This
had highest direct influence on seed yield. Fikru (2004) suggests that while selecting for improvement in Seed
reported that number of pods per plant, number of yield is performed, these traits can be kept in mind,
secondary branches per plant and 100 seed weight had provided that the character should show high variability,
exerted positive direct effect on seed yield. Conversely, which is the basis for selection. Plant height, days to 50%
effective nodules and pod length had a negative and small flowering and days to50% maturity were negative and not
direct effect on seed yield. significantly associated with grain yield, hence these traits
are not needed to be emphasized, while selection for
The highest genotypic direct effect on hundred seed improvement of Seed yields is performed. In these studies
weight, followed by number of pods per plant accompanied genotypic direct path and phenotypic direct path
by maximum indirect effects of other traits via pod length, correlation of Seed yield was positive and maximum for
seed per pod, leaf area index and biological yield (Table number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod,
6), established this character to be the most important biological yield and hundred seed weight, whereas
component trait of seed yield. Katiyar et al. (1977) found characters having high genotypic and phenotypic indirect
that the number of branches per plant, number of pods per path effects on seed yield were number of pod per plant,
plant and days to flower had high positive direct effects on number of seed per pod, hundred seed weight and
seed yield, whereas pod length has the negative direct biological yield. Therefore, in soybean yield improvement
effect on seed yield accompanied by maximum number of program it is essential to consider traits that are having
seed per pod, hundred seed weight, leaf area index, maximum direct or indirect effects on seed yield while
biological yield and harvest index. The indirect contribution selection is performed for further breeding program to
of number of pods per plant, number of seed per pod, improve seed yield in soybean
hundred seed weight and biological yield were the highest
among the genotypic path indirect effects (Table 6). Singh
et al (1995), using path analysis reported that biomass ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
yield per plant was a potent contributor to seed yield either I would like to express my sincere gratitude to those
through direct or indirect effects via pods per plant, plant individuals helping me during my study starting from
height, and number of secondary branches per plant. The writing proposal thought preparation and execution of
genotypic path indirect effects on number of seed per pod, thesis research work. Next my gratitude, special thanks
hundred seed weight and biological yield were also and appreciation goes to Dereje Terefe for his generously
maximums through number of branch per plant, leaf area shared with me his experience, knowledge and good
index, effective nodules and number of pod per plant. wishes at the experimental sight. I wish to extend my
Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia
Deresse and Hirpa 359

deepest and heartfelt gratitude to Bako Agricultural Gaikwad, S. R., Bangar, N. D. and Chavan, B.H., (2007).
Research Center (BARC) for giving me the soybean Correlation and path coefficient analysis in Soybean J.
varieties used for the studies. At the last but not the list my Maharastra agric. Univ. 32 (2): 276-277.
deepest gratitude goes to my brother Lemma Hunde and Gebremedhin, B. and Hoekstra, D., (2008). Market
my mother Gete Sagn for their endless support, helping, orientation of small holders in selected grains in
encouragement and dedication in shaping me at early Ethiopia
school age. Gibouri, C. R., Patil, P. A. and Mehetiere, S. S., (1958).
Genotypic and Phenotypic variability and heritability
of some quantitative characters in soybean (Glycin max
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Correlation and Path analysis studies among yield and yield related traits in Soybean (Glycinemax (L.) Merrill) varieties grown at Bako Tibe Western Ethiopia