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ECOLOGY

Prof. Dr.
Dr. Ir. Nastiti Siswi Indrasti

Introduction
¾ Ecologygy ((Greek,, oikos
oikos,, meaning
g house;; logy
logy,
gy,, the
gy
study of) Æ the study of the relationship between
organisms and their environment
¾ An ecosystem is a group of plants or animal,
together with part of the physical environmental with
theyy interact. An ecosystem
y is defined to be nearlyy
self--contained, so that the matter which flows into
self
and out of it is small compared to the quantities that
are internally recycled in a continuous exchange of
the essentials of life
¾ Biota are all the living elements of an ecosystem or
a given area

but play a significant role in the movement of mineral nutrient in the ecosystem . p . such as FeS and H2S. HCO3) and its energy from the sun (actually. Estimates of Primary y Production ¾ An autotrophp is an organism g that obtains its cell carbon from an inorganic source (CO2. which gets its energy from the oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds) ¾ A heterotroph is an organism that obtains both its cell carbon and its energy from organic matter ¾ A chemotroph is an organism that obtain its energy from the p inorganic oxidation of simple g compounds. Chemotrops p are relativelyy insignificant g in the energy gy relations of an ecosystems. a photoautotroph as distinct from a chemoautotroph. and its cell carbon from inorganic and/or organis matter.

t A given i organism i may obtain bt i nourishment from many different trophic levels. primary i consumers are eaten only by secondary consumers. thus giving rise to a complex. Estimates of Primary y Production ¾ The food chain is an idealized pattern of flow of energy in a natural ecosystem. plants are eaten t only l bby primary i consumers. ¾ The food web is the actual pattern of food consumption in a natural t l ecosystem. In the classical food chain. tissue Primary productivity is energy fixation by plants. interwoven series of energy transfer ¾ Productivity is the rate of fixation of energy into tissue. secondary productivity is at higher trophic levels . and so on.

Food Chain .

Food Web .

e b o e). Estimates of Primary y Production ¾ Trophic levels are levels of nourishment. nourishment A plant that obtains its energy directly from the sun occupies the first trophic level (autotroph). An organism that consumes the th ti tissue off an autrotroph t t h occupies i the th second seco d ttrophic op c level e e ((herbivore). aand daan o organism ga s which eats the organism that had eaten autrotrophs occupies the third trophic level (carnivore) ¾ T Tranpiration i ti is i th the controlled t ll d evaporation ti off water t vapor from the surface of leaf tissues .

Transfer of Energy gy .

Transfer Energy gy .

Carbon Cycle y .

Carbon Cycle y .

Nitrogen g Cycle y .

Phosphorus Cycle y .

stream or ocean ¾ The epilimnion is the upper layer of water in a lake ¾ The euphotic zone is that surface volume of water in the ocean or a deep lake that receives sufficient light to support photosynthesis ¾ The hypolimnion yp is the lower layer y of water in a lake or pond. which will remain at a constant temperature during the summer months . chemical and biological characteristic of river and lakes (i. p y .e. Elements of Limnology gy ¾ Limnology gy is the study y of the phisycal. river. fresh water) ¾ A benthic b thi organismi i a plant is l t or animal i l th thatt lilives att or near the bottom of a lake. p .

phytoplankton refers to the plant species (algae). h th the th thermocline li occurs (t (temperature t and oxygen content fall off rapidly with depth) . and zooplankton to the animal species (crustacean. Elements of Limnology gy ¾ Plankton are any small free free--floating organism living in a body of water. protozoa) feeding on other forms of plankton ¾ The metalimnion is the middle layer of water in a l k where lake. rotifers.

Light g in Lake Phytoplankton Zooplankton .

Communities of Freshwater lakes .

ti in i ab body d off l k Th lake. Eutrophication ¾ Eutropication E t i ti i th is the natural t l process off nutrient ti t enrichment i h t th thatt occurs. where it decays and depletes the oxygen from the water . l iin the h epilimnion ili i di dies and d settles l to the h hypolimnion. The resulting lti bibiological l i l growth. over time. th mainly i l algae.

Eutrophication .

Control of eutrophication ¾ Reduced the inflow of nutrients ¾ Quantitative survey: nitrogen. limn logical studies ¾ Alternative disposal on land land. diversion around the lake ¾ Nutrients from the waste water prior to di h discharge tto surface f waters t . phosphorus sources.

y habits and livelihoods . ¾ Political ecology is the study of the relationship between society and nature ¾ Political ecology holds that radical changes in human social habits and practices are required in order to counter environmental degradation and achieve sustainable development ¾ Political ecology Implies an interest in cause- cause-effect relationship. g . economic and political issues must be considered. study of the different interest groups involved in usingg the environment.. Political Ecology gy ¾ Scientific study y is not enough. social. of their economy.